Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Employment, Education and Training Act - Australian Research Council - Report - Grants and fellowships awarded in - 1990


Download PDF Download PDF

A ustralian Researck Council Awards 1990

G rants and Fellowships Awarded in 1990

d e p a r t m e n t o f e m p l o y m e n t , e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g

z

D e p a r t m e n t of E m p l o y m e n t , E d u c a t i o n a n d Training

R e s e a r c h Pol icy a n d G r a n t s B r a n c h

esearch o u n c A w a r d s y

GRANTS AND FELLOWSHIPS AWARDED IN 1 9 9 0

Australian G overn m en t P u b lish in g S ervice

Canberra

© Commonwealth of Australia 1990 ISBN 0 644 13303 1

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission from the Australian Government Publishing Service Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Manager, AGPS Press, GPO Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601

Printed in Australia by Craft Printing Industries Pty. Ltd. Enfield. NSW 2136

AUSTRALIAN R E S E A R C H C O U N C IL 5P0 box aaao >NBERRA SCT 2601

iUSTRALIA

N A T I O N A L B O A R D O F E M P L O Y M E N T , E D U C A T I O N A N D T R A I N I N G

telephone: [ 0 6 2 ] 7 6 7 3 4 5

facsimile: [O B S] 7 6 7 3 3 0

[HAIR: P r o f e s s o r D o n A it k in

The Hon John Dawkins, MP Minister for Employment, Education and Training Parliament House

CANBERRA ACT 2600

Dear Minister

On behalf of the Australian Research Council I present the Report of the Grants and Fellowships announced by the Australian Research Council for 1990.

Yours sincerely

Don Aitkin

19 October 1990

auroras

Page

Australian Research Council and Canmittees ...................................... 33

Secretariat ......................................... 43

Grants Approved

Mclecular biology and cell metabolism......... 63

Plant and animal biology.................... 115

Chemical Sciences .......................... 175

Earth Sciences ............................. 215

Engineering and Applied Sciences .............. 249

Humanities ................................ 291

Physical Sciences .......................... 333

Social Sciences ............................ 377

Priority Area's ............................ 429-494

National Research Fellowships.......................... 495

Queen Elizabeth II Fellowships......................... 531

Statistical Tables

ARC Grants Scheme ................................... 45

National Research Fellowships......................... 537

Queen Elizabeth II Fellowships........................ 539

THE AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH COUNCIL

GRANTS AND FELLOWSHIPS: REPORT 1990

1 INTRODUCTION

The Australian Research Council (ARC) was established in 1988, under the Employment, Education and Training Act 1988. It is one of the four Councils of the National Board of Employment, Education and Training (NBEET).

The functions of the ARC are, broadly speaking, defined by its enabling legislation. The relevant section of the Act (S . 27) is quoted in Section 7 of this Report. The principal functions of the Council are:

. to make recommendations to the relevant Minister on the distribution of resources provided under research support schemes for which it is responsible; and

. to inquire into, and to provide information and advice to the NBEET with respect to, any matter referred to the Council by the Minister or the Board including research priorities, the coordination of research policy, and measures to improve interaction between the different

research sectors in Australia.

In matters relating to higher education research the ARC collaborates closely with the Higher Education Council (HEC). The HEC, another of the National Board's four Councils, advises the Board on higher education matters, such as higher education development and funding. These affect higher education research at the general, institutional level.

In the context of the Australian national research and development effort, the ARC is one of a number of Commonwealth research support bodies, including other granting bodies such as the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)

and the Industrial Research and Development (IR&D) Board, and national research organisations such as the CSIRO and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). Nevertheless, the ARC holds a particularly important

place by virtue of its important role in research policy, its funding and the range of disciplines it supports. Its funding in 1989 was $108.8 million, and in 1990 will be $161.6 million. By 1992 this will reach $207.3 million, by far the largest Commonwealth research granting body.

The ARC'S research policy role, which includes the provision of advice and information on the support to be given to fundamental research and on the development and implementation of research and research education programs, is particularly

significant, making the Council much more than merely a combination of research support schemes.

1

The ARC supports research in all disciplines except clinical medicine and dentistry, which are supported by the NHMRC. The research involved may be of a basic or applied nature, but developmental research is not usually supported. With a

limited number of exceptions (eg researchers employed full­ time by the CSIRO), any Australian may seek ARC research support.

The Council considers that its special responsibilities lie primarily at the basic end of the research and development spectrum and, if the distinction can be made between types of research in terms of longer and shorter term goals, then it is

the former which can be regarded as the Council's particular concern. In practice, this means that by far the greater part of ARC funding goes to support research in higher education institutions and that the ARC has a particularly important role to play in the support of Australia's basic research effort.

This does not mean, however, that the ARC has no interest in research of a problem-solving nature. Most of the major problems facing Australia are highly complex and will not be resolved without extended research effort in many disciplines.

It is particularly important, therefore, that the ARC interacts with other research performing and research supporting bodies and organisations in Australia, both public and private, to ensure the coordination of its activities with theirs.

2 STRUCTURE OF THE COUNCIL

The ARC has ten members and the Chair. Two members, including the Chair, are also members of the NBEET. Council members are drawn from a wide range of backgrounds, including higher education, industry, and the union movement. Members normally serve for three year terms, with the Chair holding a full-time appointment, whilst the other members serve on a part-time basis. The membership of the Council and its Committees in

1989 is given on page 33-41.

The ARC is supported by four committees:

. the Planning and Review Committee;

. the Research Grants Committee;

. the Institutional Grants Committee; and

. the Research Training and Careers Committee.

Each committee is chaired by a Council member. Three committees have wide and appropriate representation from the research community. The Planning and Review Committee consists of Council members only.

2

The Planning and Review Committee acts essentially as the Council's executive. It seeks to ensure that the full range of the ARC'S functions and responsibilities are effectively and efficiently managed and organised. It is also concerned with the longer-term planning of the Council's activities,

covering strategic planning, program budgets and evaluation strategies.

The Research Grants Committee is responsible for the Australian Research Council Research Grants Scheme. Its focus is therefore primarily at the level of the individual project, and, accordingly, it advises the ARC on the award of grants to

individuals and research teams. The Committee is assisted by a number of Discipline Panels which serve as a source of expertise in the disciplines. There are four Discipline Panels, each with about ten members, which handle the bulk of applications. These are:

. the Biological Sciences Committee;

. the Engineering, Earth, Applied Sciences Committee;

. the Humanities and Social Sciences Committee; and

. the Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Sciences Committee.

In addition, Priority Panels were established in 1989 to assess applications in priority areas. There were five priority areas in 1989 for allocation of funds at 1990, as discussed in Section 5.6.

The Institutional Grants Committee is responsible for matters bearing on the institution as an environment in which research takes place. This extends to the Small Grants Scheme (see 6.2), Special Research Centres (see 6.6), Key Centres of

Teaching and Research (see 6.9), and research infrastructure funding (see 6.10).

The Research Training and Careers Committee is responsible for research scholarships and fellowships and policies relating to research careers. Its focus is therefore on the individual involved in research activities rather than on projects as such.

The essential linkages involved in the Council and its Committees are shown in Figure 1.

3

FIGURE 1

ARC: STRUCTURE AND ESSENTIAL LINKAGES

ARC: FUNCTIONS AND ESSENTIAL LINKAGES

MINISTER

NBEET

Chair

Chair

ARC

Chair

ARC Chair

RGC

RTCC

Chairs Discipline Panels

IGC

P&RC

3 AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH COUNCIL MISSION STATEMENT

The ARC'S mission statement was issued in 1989.

The ARC'S mission is to devise, develop and help to implement an effective national research system, especially in the higher education sector, which will make the greatest possible contribution to the social, cultural and economic well-being of Australia.

Research has a major role to play, intellectually, culturally and economically, in the realisation of a creative, productive society which offers all its members economic security and the opportunity for personal fulfilment; a society which is culturally and economically rich, with a capacity to respond innovatively to changing circumstances and to maintain and advance its position in the international community.

The ARC will do all it can to ensure that the research talents at the nation's disposal are utilised to the fullest possible extent, in particular by seeking to ensure that gender and ethnic background are not barriers to research training and research careers.

To achieve these objectives there a number of considerations which must underpin research policy and programs. These include:

4

Responsiveness. Research in Australia needs to be:

. attuned to the changing economic, social and cultural needs and priorities which provide the context for research activity;

. alert to emerging problems and opportunities, and able to direct resources toward them;

. able to facilitate social criticism, intellectual debate and research based on alternative views of the desirable future and ways of getting there;

. responsive to the fact that the threats and opportunities facing society do not fall neatly within discipline boundaries and that major advances are likely to call for contributions from many disciplines;

. responsive to the agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors of the economy; and

. able quickly and effectively to capture the value of discoveries made elsewhere for the social and economic benefit of Australia;

Creativity. Research in Australia should be:

. rich in expertise across the full range of disciplines; and

. internationally competitive and respected.

Capacity. Research in Australia should be:

. assured of adequate resources and efficient in its deployment; and

. able to assure a continuing supply of highly trained, innovative personnel.

Support. Research in Australia should be:

. understood and supported by the general public.

4 AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH COUNCIL FUNDING

The ARC'S funding increased substantially in 1989 over 1988 levels, and increased further in 1990. Two factors account for this:

. the redirection of operating grant funds to the ARC; and

5

. the provision of new funding in 1990-1992 for postgraduate support, and to support research infrastructure in higher education, announced in the Prime Minister's May 1989 Science and Technology Statement (discussed at 5.3).

The May Statement also announced the provision of triennial funding for the ARC, bringing it into line with higher education institutions, providing researchers and institutions with more secure funding to assist the management of research

activities.

The first steps were taken in 1989 to establish a legislative basis for ARC funding. This was achieved by incorporating the majority of ARC program funds into the Higher Education Funding Act, the legislation under which higher education

operating and related funding is provided. This is expected to make administration of ARC funds considerably easier and more efficient while providing greater security of funding under programs.

Table 1 lists the funding under ARC programs.

TABLE 1

ARC FUNDING FOR 1989 AND 1990 (December 1989 $)

Allocations

1989 1990

$m $m

ARC Research Grants1 55.1 66.4

Research Fellowships 8.0 9.5

Special Research Centres 8.9 9.2

Key Centres of Teaching and Research 6.6 6.7

Australian Postgraduate Awards 27.6 35.8

Infrastructure - 25.7

Assistance to Technological Institutions 1.2 1.3 Large Equipment - 1.0

Learned Academies and ANZAAS NHMRC

1.1 1.2

- 4.4

Evaluation — 0.4

TOTAL 108.5 161.6

Notes:

1. Includes the Small Grants Scheme in 1990

2. A proportion of the funding reallocated from operating grants is passed to the NHMRC for allocation through its schemes. 6

5 AUSTRALIAN HIGHER EDUCATION RESEARCH POLICY IN 1989

1989 was a significant year for research in Australia with a wide-ranging review of higher education research policy, and a major Government policy statement on science, technology and research. It was also a year of considerable change for the

higher education sector, as the initiatives set out in the Government's White Paper on higher education, Higher Education: A Policy Statement (1988) were effected and the unified national system established. During 1989, many amalgamations between higher education institutions were

initiated or achieved.

1989 also saw the beginning of a significant period of growth in Australian higher education. In its 1988 Budget Statement, A New Commitment to Higher Education in Australia, the Government announced its intention to create over 40 000

additional higher education places over the 1989-91 triennium, to be funded at a substantially improved average operating grant rate. Capital funding was also to be increased, from its 1988 level of $78.5 million to $177.2 million in 1991.

5.1 The Review of Higher Education Research Policy

In October 1988, the Government commissioned the Committee to Review Higher Education Research Policy, chaired by Dr Robert Smith (Chair of the NBEET), to address issues central to the task of maximising the research potential of the higher education system. In April 1989, the Committee reported making

recommendations on research infrastructure, postgraduate research awards, fellowships, closer ties between industry and higher education institutions, and ARC priorities.

5.2 The Review of Commonwealth Postgraduate Awards

At the same time, a Working Party set up by the ARC and chaired by Professor Geoff Wilson, Deputy Chair of the Council, issued A Review of the Commonwealth Postgraduate Awards Scheme, recommending inter alia a significant increase

in the number of research awards and after-tax stipends provided, and the provision of a higher rate of stipend for a proportion of awards to be allocated to students undertaking research in priority areas. Further discussion on the ARC

Postgraduate Award Scheme can be found at 6.5 of this Report.

5.3 The May 1989 Science and Technology Statement

The Government's responses to the Smith and Wilson Reviews were contained in Research for Australia: Higher Education's Contribution. a policy statement forming part of a major statement on science and technology in May 1989 which

committed the Government to greater Commonwealth support of the national research effort.

7

Research for Australia outlined the essential elements of the Government's higher education research policies and detailed new initiatives to strengthen research in higher education, including:

. the provision of $110.6 million additional funds in the 1990-92 triennium to support high quality research by remedying deficiencies in current research infrastructure, to enhance support for areas of research strength and to ensure that areas of research potential are able to obtain the support necessary for development;

. additional funding of $33.0 million over the triennium to provide a substantial increase in the number and value of postgraduate research scholarships;

. the introduction of triennial funding for the ARC.

New resources for infrastructure detailed by Research for Australia were to be provided as follows:

1990 : $25.7 million 1991 : $38.5 million 1992 : $46.4 million.

The ARC was asked, in collaboration with the HEC, to advise on the allocation of these resources. A joint ARC/HEC working party was set up to undertake this task. After considering its advice the Minister agreed that funding should be allocated through three mechanisms:

. Infrastructure Block Grants (Mechanism A), to be allocated on the basis of immediate past research " performance to the pre-1987 universities;

. Infrastructure Development Grants (Mechanism B), to be awarded to institutions of the former advanced education sector on a competitive basis, after assessment of applications;

• Cooperative Infrastructure Development Grants (Mechanism C), to be available on a competitive basis for cooperative infrastructure development proposals involving two or more institutions, or across the sector as a whole.

Guidelines explaining each mechanism were circulated to institutions in late 1989 and applications called for. Further discussion on the ARC Research Infrastructure Funding Program can be found at 6.10 of this Report.

The Government accepted virtually all of the Wilson Committee's recommendations. As a result, there was an increase of 150 in the number of research scholarships awarded

in 1990, and stipends were increased to a non-taxable rate of between $12 734 and $16 433, equivalent to a taxable level of

8

$15 000 and $20 000 respectively, up substantially from the previous 1989 taxable level of $10 415. The scholarships are now known as Australian Postgraduate Research Awards (APRAs)

and administration of them has been devolved to institutions, which receive a block allocation of funding.

Additional funds have been provided for a new industry research scholarships scheme (Australian Postgraduate Research Awards [Industry]), designed to promote joint industry-higher education research opportunities. Thirty such scholarships were originally announced for 1990, but this was later

increased to sixty due to the high level of demand from industry. Further discussion on the ARC APRAs Scheme is found at 6.5 of this Report.

5.4 The Review of the Research Fellowships Scheme

Although the Government did not announce plans for a career fellowships scheme as such in Research for Australia, it did indicate that some form of career structure development could be an appropriate use for part of the expanded resources available through the ARC.

In response to a reference from the Minister, the ARC undertook a review of its research fellowships schemes in mid 1989, announcing in October the establishment of two new fellowship schemes: the Australian Research Fellowships Scheme

and the Australian Senior Research Fellowships Scheme. These new fellowships will provide full salaries in the lecturer to professorial range and appropriate research support. Along with the establishment of new fellowships, the existing

fellowship schemes were upgraded. The National Research Fellowships are now known as the Australian Postdoctoral Research Fellowships, and the salary and number have been

increased. A third category of industry fellowships was subsequently incorporated into the revised scheme to assist the further development of productive links between industry and the research community.

There has been understandable concern that many young researchers faced poor career prospects in Australia. The upgrading of the ARC fellowships schemes together with substantial growth in the higher education funding system planned for the 1989-91 triennium will improve those prospects. The new ARC Fellowships Scheme will also encourage

the return of high quality expatriate researchers to Australia. Further discussion is located at 6.4 of this Report.

5.5 Review of the Research Grants Scheme

A review of ARC procedures in respect of its research grants program was also undertaken in 1989. A joint ARC/DEET committee was briefed to examine:

9

. the rationale for and objectives of the program;

. the nature/structure of the annual granting cycle and its underlying processes;

. the administrative procedures relating to the annual cycle; and

. the adequacy and efficiency of the support system, in terms of both computer and secretariat support.

The committee's main recommendations for 1990 were:

. the closing date for applications should be brought forward to 1 March, relieving pressure on DEBT and Panel members and facilitating earlier announcements of grant allocations;

. there should be earlier despatch of application forms and related papers to institutions;

. applicants should arrange for two external assessments for each application to be sent to the ARC by 15 March;

. significant initial culling of non-competitive proposals should take place, using the applicant-nominated assessments;

. the remaining applications should be sent to fewer assessors;

. budget limits, for both DEBT and ARC, should be set for interview program;

. improved administrative procedures for handling priority area applications should be adopted;

. the Council should move towards a system involving multi­ year grants with one-line budgets, to replace year-by­ year grants dissected into individual items;

. Council should place greater emphasis on post-project evaluation; and

. restrictions on the numbers of applications per researcher should be applied.

These recommendations were accepted by the ARC and are incorporated in the Council's Advice and Instructions for Applicants for 1991 Research Grants. Further discussion is located at 6.1 of this Report.

10

5.6 Research Priorities

There is widespread acceptance within the research community of a need to focus and concentrate research resources, and to fund research selectively since Australia is unable afford to maintain an internationally competitive research effort in all areas of each discipline. Furthermore, publicly-funded researchers have an obligation to respond to the issues and problems facing society. Government and public support for research is strongly influenced by the perception that

research supports national goals. It is appropriate therefore that mechanisms be developed for the setting of priorities in resource allocation.

The ARC is required by its enabling legislation to inquire into and provide advice on research priorities. The Council's approach to this is contained in The Matter of Research Priorities. published in October 1989. Central elements of this paper are:

. In general, programs funded through the ARC can be seen as serving seven broad aspects of the public interest:

- the well-being and harmony of Australian society;

- the understanding of human culture and the physical universe;

- the advancement of Australia's geopolitical interests;

- understanding and managing the environment;

- furthering the contribution of research and education to society;

- enhancing the nature and potential of the primary industries;

- developing the science and technology underlying industrial development.

. The ARC must ensure that sufficient resources are directed towards those areas of national need which are most pressing. However, this does not mean that all other research should stop; the Council must ensure that

its other responsibilities are met. Therefore, only a relatively small proportion of its funds can be directed towards research priorities.

. In considering the selection of priority areas and the allocation of resources to them, the ARC must address three matters:

11

- whether, and to what extent, the problem is amenable to a research or research training solution;

- whether the national need has a sufficiently long time-scale to make it worthwhile to divert resources to its investigation, given the time taken to set up a research program, divert resources to it and achieve worthwhile results;

- whether the need is amenable to research of the kind the ARC believes it should be supporting, such as longer-term research at the basic or strategic end of the research and development continuum.

. Priority areas should be determined in consultation with the research community and with broad Government policies and objectives in mind. Any priority area should be established for a fixed period and reviewed regularly to consider whether it is still appropriate and whether the resources provided to it are adequate.

The ARC identified five priority areas for its Research Grants Scheme in the 1989 round (ie for 1990 grants). These were:

. materials science, including-aspects of mineral processing;

. scientific instruments and instrumentation;

. cognitive science;

. molecular approaches to the management of Australia's biological resources; and

. marine sciences and technologies.

Early indications are that these priority areas have proven a useful way of focusing a proportion of the ARC'S grant funds.

In addition, virtually all of the ARC'S other existing programs sit comfortably in the broad national interests identified above.

5.7 Evaluation of research activities and performance

Evaluation activities will form an increasingly important part of the ARC'S program and will operate at three levels: individuals or teams involved in research, (ie evaluation of researchers, research projects or centres); the ARC'S own

activities, including its programs and strategies; and evaluation activities associated with the broader research system.

12

Regular evaluation enables efficient and effective decisions to be made about the allocation of research resources at all levels. It also provides a means by which the users of research funding can be held accountable to its providers.

Peer assessment and review holds a central place in the allocation of the ARC'S resources, and will continue to do so. Although certain problems have been identified with the traditional peer review process, including its inherent

conservatism, the ARC remains firm in the belief that this is the most reliable way of allocating Council's research funds and ensuring that the highest guality research and researchers are supported.

This does not mean that the ARC believes there is no place for indicators of research performance - such indicators can provide valuable information relevant to the allocation of resources for research, provided the limitations of such techniques are recognised. In 1989, the Council established a Working Party to study research performance indicators, briefed to survey the Australian research community and

identify what researchers regard as appropriate performance indicators for their particular discipline.

This study complements a substantial study of possible indicators to measure the performance of higher education institutions undertaken by a DEBT research group building on the work of the AVCC/ACDP Working Party on Performance

Indicators. It will define and evaluate a range of performance indicators covering all the major functions of higher education institutions and involve a limited trial to assess the practicability of relevant performance indicators and their respective conditions of use.

Also in 1989, the ARC agreed in principle to undertake a series of discipline studies, in order to understand better the status of research in them and devise strategies for development. The studies will take two forms. First, the role of the ARC in supporting certain areas of research will be reviewed externally by review teams, broadly along the

lines of the Swedish Lindqvist reviews. The first area to be investigated in this way is Economics.

Second, areas of research will be analysed with a view to determining strategies for their development over the next fifteen years. While these strategic studies will be encouraged and supported by the ARC, they will be 'owned' by the research producing and using communities themselves, who will identify future directions and priorities. Work has begun on such studies in Earth Sciences and Physics. In

addition, ARC Discipline Panels will be asked to develop 'state of discipline' reports in their area, with a view to developing strategies for support.

13

The ARC has now reviewed, or organised for external review, virtually all of its research support programs: research grants, fellowships, postgraduate awards and research centres.

Such comprehensive review, increased levels of funding and the more flexible triennial-funding arrangement now enjoyed by the Council, provide a solid foundation for the development and expansion of ARC research support programs and strategies, cohesively integrating the diverse programs originally referred to the Council when it first formed.

5.8 Reviews of the Waite Agricultural Research Institute of the University of Adelaide and the Institute of Advanced Studies of the Australian National University

In July 1988 the National Board of Employment, Education and Training was asked by the Minister to advise on the role and funding of designated institutes and centres of research. It was in response to this reference, and at the request of the

University of Adelaide, that the ARC commissioned the review of the Waite Agricultural Institute. Headed by Dr J R McWilliam, formerly Director of the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, the review team began

its work in July 1989 and presented its final report to the ARC in March 1990.

The need for a comprehensive review of the Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS) of the Australian National University (ANU) has been recognised for some time, both by the Government and the ANU itself. In 1989 the National Board of Employment, Education and Training was asked by the Minister to develop terms of reference for the review and to recommend on the membership of the review team. The Board asked the ARC

for advice on these matters.

Terms of reference for the review were agreed with the ANU, and a distinguished review team assembled, headed by the former Governor-General and High Court judge, Sir Ninian Stephen. The review was formally announced in early January

1990 and submitted its report in October 1990.

5.9 Research funding through operating grants

Notwithstanding the increased funding for the ARC, most of the research and research training funds provided by the Commonwealth Government to higher education institutions are provided indirectly through general operating funding to institutions, particularly the nineteen pre-1987 universities. The method of distributing these funds is therefore of great importance to the research community.

In its 1988 White Paper, the Government undertook to provide for the more equitable distribution of resources among institutions in the unified national system.

14

In response to the White Paper commitment, DEBT and the HEC embarked on a study of the relative costs of providing higher education across the range of academic and professional disciplines in higher education institutions. Several studies were commissioned and, in November 1989, the Department

convened a Canberra seminar to discuss the results of these and related matters. Broad support was expressed by the higher education system for a funding model which, while recognising cost differences between disciplines and teaching

levels, remained as simple as possible.

As development of the model proceeded during 1990 it became clear that while research funding associated with postgraduate research training could be allocated on the basis of student load, with an appropriate weighting being given in recognition of the higher costs involved, there was also a need to

identify a component of institutional operating grants which would support staff research unrelated to postgraduate teaching. In the final model this 'research related component', estimated at $150 million in 1988 or 6 per cent of

total operating grant funds, was allocated between institutions according to their relative success in winning Commonwealth competitive research grants. This was used as an indicator, imperfect but readily available, of the extent and quality of the research activity of institutions, and hence of their research infrastructure funding needs.

It was recognised, however, that there is a need to give due consideration to the infrastructure requirements of research funds from other external sources, such as the State governments and industry. The funding model should also encourage institutions to continue to seek external funds from a range of sources. Therefore during 1991 a joint ARC/HEC/DEET working party will develop a composite research

funding index which will enable appropriate weight to be given to the various types of external funds obtained when determining the research related component of the operating grants of institutions.

The working party will also consider the links between research funding through operating grants and the ARC Research Infrastructure Program. In particular, it will advise on changes to be made to the system of infrastructure block grants and infrastructure development grants (Mechanisms A and B) in the light of the new approach to determining operating grants and new institutional configurations resulting from mergers.

6 AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH COUNCIL PROGRAMS

The Australian Research Council has responsibility for advising the Minister on the allocation of funds through the following programs in 1990:

. The Australian Research Council Research Grants Scheme (including the Small Grants Scheme); 15

. The Australian Research Council Research Fellowships Scheme:

Australian Postdoctoral Research Fellowship; Australian Research Fellowship; Australian Senior Research Fellowship; Australian Research Fellowship (Industry);* Queen Elizabeth II Fellowship.

* Another fellowship category, the Australian Senior Research Fellowship (Industry), was created and six such appointments were made in 1990 before the decision was taken to amalgamate this category with the Australian Research Fellowship (Industry). Both schemes have been designed to improve the level and quality of collaboration in research and development between the private sector and higher education institutions. Further discussion on the ARC Research Fellowship Scheme is

found at 6.4 of this Report.

. The Australian Research Council Postgraduate Scholarships Scheme:

Commonwealth Postgraduate Course Award; Australian Postgraduate Research Award; Australian Postgraduate Research Awards (Industry).

. Special Research Centres Program;

. Key Centres of Teaching and Research Program;

. Research Infrastructure Funding, including the Assistance to Technological Institutions Program;

. Large Equipment Fund Program; and

. Grants to the Learned Academies and ANZAAS.

The funding under each program is listed at Table 1 on page 6.

Booklets providing advice and instructions for applicants on most of these schemes are published annually by the ARC.

6.1 The Australian Research Council Research Grants Scheme

The Australian Research Council Research Grants Scheme grew out of the Australian Research Grants Scheme (ARCS), established in 1965, and the Marine Sciences and Technologies Grants Program. Its primary objective is to support high quality research by individuals or research teams throughout Australia. Grants under this scheme are allocated for specific research projects on a competitive basis.

16

The ARC invites applications each year for grants in support of pure and applied research projects in the physical, chemical, biological, earth, engineering, applied and social sciences, the humanities and in designated areas of public

interest. Grants are awarded on the likelihood of the project making a real advance in knowledge, either by making a significant contribution to the understanding of a subject or by making a contribution to the solution of an important

practical problem.

As noted in Section 2, the ARC is assisted by a number of expert Discipline Panels, which manage the research grants selection process. For this purpose the Panels report to the Research Grants Committee of the Council. Applications are

assessed using peer review methods, involving external written assessments, and interviews of applicants, where necessary, to assist panels in their judgement.

As also noted earlier, the ARC identified five priority areas for its Research Grants Scheme in the 1989 grants round: materials science, scientific instruments and instrumentation, cognitive science, molecular approaches to the management of

biological resources and, marine sciences and technologies. Discrete Priority Panels were set up to assess applications in these areas.

Grants for 1990 were awarded in 1989. In 1990, the ARC is providing $53.1 million to support 1350 large research projects, and $13.3 million to be distributed through institutions for the funding of research grants under the

Small Grants Scheme (see Section 6.2). This represents a considerable increase over 1989 when a total of $52.1 million was provided for large and small research grants in support of 1785 projects.

Statistical detail of ARC research and fellowship grants in 1990 together with a summary of each research project funded is given later in the Report.

Grants awarded in 1990 to researchers and teams in institutions from the former advanced education sector have again been provided with a 35 per cent infrastructure loading, as was the case in 1989, in recognition of the difficulties

faced by those institutions in providing the necessary infrastructure support for research activities.

6.2 The Small Grants Scheme

From 1990, a part of the ARC'S funds will be allocated to institutions for funding small or low-cost research projects under the Small Grants Scheme (SGS).

The SGS is a means of providing institutions with funding to allocate to research activities in accordance with their research profiles and priorities. Through such a mechanism,

17

institutions are able to exercise considerable discretion in the allocation of funds. Moreover, the SGS is a useful means of providing funds for start-up or pilot projects and new researchers.

Under the Scheme institutions are provided with a block grant to allocate as research grants smaller than $25 000 in the natural sciences and engineering, and $15 000 in the social sciences and humanities. All institutions which received more than a total of $250 000 in small ARC grants in 1989 or as an average over the period 1987-89, were eligible to participate

in the SGS in 1990. In such institutions, applicants for small grants (within the above limits) must apply to the institution rather than to the ARC for funding. Researchers in other institutions continue to apply direct to the ARC for small research grants.

In 1990, $13.3 million was provided to institutions through the Small Grants Scheme as detailed in Table 2. Eligible institutions processed 2027 applications for 1990 funding and awarded 1025 grants.

18

TABLE 2

SMALL GRANTS SCHEME APPLICATIONS, ALLOCATIONS, BY INSTITUTION (December 1989 $)

GRANTS 1990 AND

Institution Applic

Rec' d

Grants

Recommend

Allocation $

Aust National Uni 71 31 476 700

Uni of Adelaide 125 92 1 255 200

Flinders Uni 96 55 60b 100

Griffith Uni 63 30 401 500

James Cook Uni 86 29 393 600

La Trobe Uni 124 39 531 800

Macquarie Uni 55 52 644 800

Melbourne Uni 278 89 1 237 300

Monash Uni 129 76 1 169 300

Uni of New England 67 34 377 600

Uni of NSW 285 162 1 842 800

Uni of Newcastle 67 43 488 900

Uni of Queensland 160 98 1 467 100

Uni of Sydney 211 108 1 309 800

Uni of Tasmania 45 29 332 400

Uni of West. Aust 136 31 428 300

Uni of Wollongong 29 27 349 800

Aggregate 2 027 1 025 13 312 000

19

6.3 The Large Equipment Fund.

The ARC has established a fund for large equipment items. Funds are allocated competitively to individuals, teams or institutions.

Large Equipment Grants will be formally available in the 1990 research grants round (ie for 1991 funding). However, as an interim measure, $1 million was set aside from the research

grants budget in the 1989 round to fund more substantial equipment requests associated with research grants applications. The funding was not restricted to large equipment as defined above in this instance.

In the 1990 grants round, two types of application will be considered: those from individuals or research teams where equipment is associated with specific research proposals and those from a department or institution which are not necessarily associated with an ARC proposal but to be used to a significant extent for high quality research. In this round, only equipment above the minimum value ($200 000) will be considered.

Grants recommended in the 1989 round for 1990 funding are as follows:

Professor J R de Laeter (Curtin University of Technology) $200 000

Professor P Schwerdtfeger and Dr J Hacker (Flinders University) $200 000

Professor Teubner (Flinders University) $70 000

Professor D L Trimm (University of New South Wales)

Professor L Kane Macquire, Dr M J Garson and Dr S Pyne (University of Wollongong)

Professor R D Brown and Dr P D Godfrey (Monash University)

Dr W N Maslan and Associate Professor A H Wilson (University of Western Australia)

Professor J Ralston and Professor R Smart (South Australian Institute of Technology)

$100 000

$100 000

$80 000

$80 000

$60 000

Dr I D Mackinnon (University of Queensland) $125 000

20

6.4 The Australian Research Council Research Fellowships Scheme.

As noted in Section 5, 1989 was a transition year for ARC research fellowships schemes.

For 1990, fellowships were awarded in two categories: ARC Postdoctoral Research Fellowships and Queen Elizabeth II Fellowships (QEII). A total of fifty nine Postdoctoral Research Fellowships were approved. Postdoctoral Fellowships, which are non-renewable, are awarded for three years. Fifteen QEIIs are appointed annually for a three- year, non-renewable award period. As a result of appointments made in 1989, there are currently

some thirty nine QEIIs and 160 Postdoctoral Fellows (a number varying during the year with the movement of researchers).

A list of 1990 Fellows is presented at pages 495 of the Report.

Following the restructuring of the ARC Fellowships Scheme, five levels of fellowship will be available in the 1990 round for allocation in 1991:

Australian Postdoctoral Research Fellow (fifty new fellowships will be available in 1990, maximum tenure three years [non-renewable], stipend $29 388 - $32 599);

Australian Research Fellow (thirty new fellowships will become available in 1991, maximum tenure five years [non­ renewable], stipend $31 259 - $39 284);

Queen Elizabeth II Fellow (fifteen new fellows will be available in 1990, maximum tenure 3 years [non- renewable], stipend $37 946 - $40 622);

Australian Senior Research Fellow (up to twenty five new fellowships will become available in 1991, tenure 5 years [renewable], stipend $41 459 - $63 919);

Australian Research Fellow (Industry) (up to twenty new fellowships will be available in 1991, maximum tenure twelve months [non-renewable].

There is some overlap between the salary scales of Research Fellows and QEIIs in this restructured scheme. As before, QEIIs are awarded to outstanding younger researchers with exceptional capacity for original work. Annual Research Support Grants of

$3 500, $5 500 and $10 500 are available for Postdoctoral Fellows and QEIIs, respectively. The new scheme continues its predecessors' aims of strengthening the national research and development capability. It provides support for some of the best researchers in Australia and overseas to undertake full-time research in Australia, and now also provides a comprehensive career pathway for researchers in that, subject to the normal

competitive process, it is possible for researchers to progress through the levels to

21

Senior Research Fellow. The new scheme thus improves career prospects for researchers in Australia, and will also make it more attractive for outstanding expatriate researchers to return to Australia to take up research positions.

ARC Fellowships are open to all researchers in Australia or overseas, except that preference is given to Australians for Postdoctoral Fellowships and Research Fellowships. Fellowships may be taken up in higher education institutions, Government

research organisations, or private sector research institutions. Fellows are encouraged to apply for other funding, including ARC Research Grants.

The Australian Senior Research Fellowships (Industry) program provides funds to enable academics, particularly scientists, mathematicians, engineers and social scientists, to undertake research and development in an industrial or commercial

environment, for between three and twelve months on at least a half-time basis. The program aims to improve the level and quality of collaboration in research and development between the private sector and higher education institutions. The

funding provides a higher education institution with the replacement cost required to enable that institution's staff member to take up the Fellowship. See footnote at 6.0 of this Report.

6.5 The Australian Research Council Postgraduate Scholarships Scheme

The Commonwealth Government introduced a postgraduate research awards scheme in 1959 to provide competitive awards for students undertaking higher degree studies by research at Australian universities. In 1971, awards for postgraduate coursework degrees were introduced and in 1974 awards for study at colleges of advanced education were included. In 1989 all postgraduate scholarships were awarded through the Student Assistance Act, (1973), for which a separate annual report is produced.

From 1990 postgraduate research awards, now known as Australian Postgraduate Research Awards(APRAs), will no longer be made under the Student Assistance Act. Under the Higher Education Funding Act, block grants were now to be provided to higher education institutions for higher degree research scholarships. These changes were introduced following the ARC'S review of postgraduate scholarships (the Wilson Report)

and the May 1989 Science and Technology Statement, as discussed in Sections 5.2 and 5.3 above.

APRAs are available for students undertaking research leading to a Masters or Ph.D. degree. The awards provide a stipend, and thesis and relocation allowances to students with a good Honours degree or equivalent, to enable full-time study for a period of up to three years.

22

As a result of Government measures introduced with the May- Science and Technology Statement, funding will be provided in 1990 to allow for approximately 1450 continuing research scholarships, and 900 new awards each year, (an increase of

150 on the 1989 number of new awards), at the new stipendary levels of between $12 734 and $16 433.

In 1990 administrative responsibility for APRAs has been devolved to institutions. An initial quota of 800 research awards will be distributed to institutions based on the quality and quantity of their higher degree research student population. Institutions rank applicants on the basis of

academic merit and research potential and allocate quota awards to the highest ranked students. The remaining 100 new awards are then allocated by the ARC'S selection committee to the most meritorious applicants as they appear on the ranked lists submitted by institutions.

In awarding APRAs an institution will be allowed to set stipends within the above range. It is expected that higher stipends will be provided by the institution in areas of research priority as defined in each institution's research management plan.

The ARC is also providing 60 Australian Postgraduate Research Awards (Industry). These awards are intended to promote joint industry-higher education research opportunities, especially in areas such as engineering and computing. Each award must

be sponsored by a company, which must agree to provide an annual commitment of at least $5 000 in cash and a further $5 000 in cash or kind to support the student's research. The stipend provided will be at the highest rate of the APRA scheme.

Postgraduate Coursework awards continue to be made available under the Student Assistance Act to students undertaking Masters degrees by coursework. Through the Commonwealth Postgraduate Couse Awards Scheme, in 1989, 155 new awards were made with selection conducted by a central selection committee

on the basis of academic merit and employment experience. The number of new awards remained unchanged for 1989 and 1990. The Postgraduate Course Awards program will be reviewed by the NBEET in 1990.

6.6 Special Research Centres

The Special Research Centres Program commenced in 1982 when the former Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission established ten centres of excellence in higher education institutions. Responsibility for the program was transferred to the Australian Research Council in 1988.

23

Special Research Centres are established on the basis of research excellence and their potential to contribute to the economic, social and cultural development of Australia. They are currently funded at a rate of between $400 000 and

$800 000 per year, depending on the Centre. Funding is awarded for six years in the first instance, with the possibility of a three year extension to a maximum or nine years subject to satisfactory review. Reviews of individual Centres are held after three and six years of operation. After nine years, a Centre's ARC program funding ceases and is made available for competitive bidding (although a Centre is

able to reapply for further funding in the competitive process).

In 1990 $9.2 million was provided for the following fifteen Special Research Centres:

Clinical Immunology; University of Sydney, Professor A Hasten*;

Neurobiology; University of Sydney, Dr M R Bennett*;

Gene Technology; University of Adelaide, Dr J Wells*;

Environmental Fluid Dynamics; University of Western Australia, Professor J Imberger*;

Plant Cell Biology; University of Melbourne, Professor A Clarke*;

Cancer and Transplantation; University of Melbourne, Professor I McKenzie*;

Microelectronics; a joint centre between the University of New South Wales and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Professor G Rigby*;

Mathematical Analysis; Australian National University, Professor N Trudinger*;

Industrial Control Science; University of Newcastle, Professor G Goodwin;

Lasers and Applications; Macquarie University, Professor J Piper;

Membrane and Separation Technology; University of New South Wales, Professor C Fell;

Protein and Enzyme Technology; La Trobe University, Dr R Scopes;

24

Electronic Structure of Materials; Flinders University, Professor E Weigold and Professor I McCarthy;

Human Communication Research; University of Melbourne, Professor G Clark; and

Vision, Touch & Hearing; Queensland University, Professor J Pettigrew.

Those Centres marked with an asterisk reached their ninth and final year of program funding in 1990. The ARC has therefore conducted a selection round for Special Research Centres to commence in 1991. Thirteen such centres have been selected.

6.7 Key Centres of Teaching and Research

The Key Centres of Teaching and Research Program commenced in 1985 when the former Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission established seven Centres. Responsibility for the program was transferred to the ARC in 1988.

The Key Centres Program is designed to give equal weight to teaching and research in institutions. Key Centres in general are more closely linked to the needs of industry than the Special Research Centres. They are based on existing

departments in higher education institutions and aim at boosting expertise in areas relevant to national development and promoting cooperation between higher education and industry. They are funded at a rate of around $200 000 a year

for six years in the first instance, with a maximum funding period of nine years, subject to satisfactory review at three and six years.

The first seven centres established in 1985 were followed by a further fifteen in May 1988 and another ten in May 1989. In 1990, $6.7 million was allocated to Key Centres. A list of Key Centres appears below.

Advanced Computing Sciences; University of Technology, Sydney, Professor J Debbenham;

Statistical Science; La Trobe University, University of Melbourne, Monash University and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Dr R Vasudeva;

Computer Integrated Manufacture; Swinburne Institute of Technology, Mr W Thompson;

Land Information Studies; University of Queensland, Professor E Cotterell;

Resource Exploration; Curtin University, Professor J Scott; 25

. Petroleum Geology & Geophysics; University of Adelaide, Dr W Stuart;

. Aboriginal Studies & Education; South Australian College of Advanced Education, Ms J Lucas;

Agricultural Economics; University of New England, Professor J Dillon;

Food Industry Development; University of New South Wales, Professor R Willis;

School of Mines; University of New South Wales and University of Wollongong, Professor C Gerrard;

Advanced Manufacturing and Industrial Automation; University of Wollongong, Professor G Arndt;

Software Technology; University of Queensland, Professor A Lister;

Strategic Mineral Deposits; University of Western Australia, Associate Professor D Groves;

Dryland Agriculture and Land Use Systems; Roseworthy Agricultural College, Dr V Squires;

Applied and Nutritional Toxicology; Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Dr J T Ahokas;

Research and Teaching in Aquaculture; Tasmanian State Institute of Technology, Dr N Fortreath;

Antarctic and Southern Ocean Studies; University of Tasmania, Professor D H Green;

School Science and Mathematics for Women; Curtin University of Technology, Professor B A Fraser;

Gerontology; La Trobe University, Dr H Kendig;

Australian Studies; Monash University, Professor P Spearitt;

Women's Health in Society; University of Melbourne, Dr L Dennerstein;

Asian Languages and Studies; Griffith University and Queensland University, Professors D Lim and A Rix;

Economic Geology; James Cook University, Professor R Carter;

. Ore Deposit and Exploration Studies; University of Tasmania, Professor R Large;

. Industrial Relations; Monash University, Professor A Fels;

26

Industrial Relations Research and Teaching; University of Sydney, Professor R Lansbury;

Advanced Materials Technology; Monash University, Professor P Rossiter;

Design Quality; University of Sydney, Professor J Gero;

Design; Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Dr C Ryan;

Strategic Management through Quality; Queensland University of Technology, Professor P Coaldrake;

Strategic Management; University of Melbourne, Professor D Samson;

Knowledge Based Systems; University of Melbourne/Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Professor P Poole and Dr R Sacks-Davis.

6.8 The Languages Institute of Australia

In June 1989, the Minister announced the establishment of the Languages Institute of Australia, centred on Monash University. The Institute is funded jointly under the Key Centre program and programs of the National Policy on

Languages. Over $1 million has been allocated in the first year from all sources, including $250 000 from the ARC.

The Institute has two main functions. First, it will offer national leadership and guidance on language education issues by providing professional development for educationalists, by the creation and operation of a data base/clearing house on

language education issues, by facilitating and conducting research into language, and by assessing language education needs in Australia.

Second, it will seek to offer practical support for language education across Australia by providing a language testing service, organizing special purpose vocational language teaching, and offering a base for the secretariats of national language associations.

6.9 Assistance to Technological Institutions

in 1987, the Government announced that research funds would be tade available to technological institutions in the former Advanced education sector with a capacity for high-level research in areas of strategic importance to Australia.

27

After the ARC assumed responsibility for this program in 1988 and following a competitive selection process, thirteen institutions were awarded support amounting to about $3.6 million in the triennium 1988-90. Funds were provided for

research infrastructure, to be allocated in accordance with the institutions' research strategies, although in some cases the grant was tied to a particular project for the first year.

In 1991, the funding for this program will be transferred to the Research Infrastructure Funding Program, Mechanism B, (discussed below).

6.10 The Research Infrastructure Funding Program.

As noted in Section 5.0 of this Report, the Government in its May 1989 Science and Technology Statement, the Government announced its intention to provide $107.5 million in the triennium 1990-1992 to develop and maintain research

infrastructure in higher education institutions. The purpose of the funding is to support high quality research by remedying deficiencies in current research infrastructure, enhancing support for areas of research strength and ensuring that areas of research potential are able to obtain the support necessary for development„ The annual allocations are $25.7 million in 1990, $38.5 million in 1991 and $46.4 million in 1992 (1989 dollars).

As noted at 5.3, a joint ARC/HEC working party was set up to recommend mechanisms for the distribution of the infrastructure funds and, based on its recommendations, three mechanisms were devised to distribute funds.

. Infrastructure Block Grants (Mechanism A);

. Infrastructure Development Grants (Mechanism B);

. Cooperative Infrastructure Development Grants (Mechanism C).

Infrastructure Block Grants (Mechanism A)

Infrastructure Block Grants are provided to the pre-1987 universities in relation to their success in obtaining grants from Commonwealth competitive granting schemes. For 1990, a total of $15.2 million was distributed under this scheme. The amounts allocated to each institution are given in Table 3, below.

28

TABLE 3

INFRASTRUCTURE BLOCK GRANTS (MECHANISM A) ALLOCATIONS FOR 1990 (December 1989 $)

INSTITUTION ALLOCATION ($)

Australian National University 472 000

Deakin University 98 000

Flinders University 690 000

Griffith University 233 000

James Cook University 338 000

La Trobe University 477 000

Macquarie University 466 000

Monash University 1 118 000

Murdoch University 217 000

University of Adelaide 1 316 000

University of Melbourne 2 049 000

University of New England 515 000

University of Newcastle 442 000

University of New South Wales 1 761 000

University of Queensland 1 354 000

University of Sydney 1 900 000

University of Tasmania 372 000

University of Western Australia 1 132 000

University of Wollongong 263 000

TOTAL 15 213 000

Infrastructure Development Grants (Mechanism B)

Infrastructure Development Grants are provided to develop the research capacity of higher education institutions from the former advanced education sector. The grants are aimed specifically at building up existing research activity or at developing research areas of immediate potential.

Funding is allocated competitively on the basis of applications submitted by eligible institutions. A total of $10.5 million has been allocated under this mechanism in 1990 on the advice of a selection committee which included ARC and HEC members as well as representatives of the higher education research community. Details of the allocations are shown in Table 4.

29

TABLE 4

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT GRANTS (MECHANISM B) ALLOCATIONS FOR 1990 (December 1989 $)

Institution Allocations

$

Charles Sturt University Chisholm Institute of Technology Curtin University of Technology Footscray Institute of Technology James Cook University La Trobe University Queensland University of Technology Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Swinburne Institute of Technology South Australian Institute of Technology Tasmanian State Institute of Technology University of Canberra University College of Central Queensland University College of Southern Queensland

in co-operation with University of Queensland University of New England University of Newcastle University of Sydney University of Technology, Sydney University of Western Sydney University of Wollongong Victoria College Victorian College of Pharmacy

TOTAL

207 000 516 000 1 862 000 166 000

52 000 290 000 977 000 1 551 000

212,000 723 000 57 000 445 000

76 000

248 000 259 000 52 000 207 000

775 000 310 000 279 000 72 000 310 000

9 646 000

A sum of $854 000 has been provided under the infrastructure program in 1990 for the support of the proposed Australian Academic and Research Network (AARNet), which is being established to provide a high performance computer communications network between Australian higher education

institutions.

Cooperative Infrastructure Development Grants (Mechanism C)

Cooperative Infrastructure Development Grants are intended tc fund initiatives to develop research infrastructure across groups of institutions or the higher education system as a whole. It is envisaged that this mechanism would provide

support for large equipment items, national facilities and other major investments not funded through the other various grants schemes. Funding under this scheme will not be made available until 1991.

30

7 FUNCTIONS OF THE AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH COUNCIL AS DESCRIBED BY THE ENABLING LEGISLATION

The Australian Research Council is established under the Employment, Education and Training Act 1988. Its functions are set down in Section 27 of the Act, as follows:

27. (1) The functions of the Australian Research Council are:

(a) to make recommendations to the Minister with respect to:

(i) the distribution of resources allocated to any research scheme referred, in writing, to the Council by the Minister for the purposes of this section; and

(ii) the administrative and other costs directly associated with that scheme;

(b) to inquire into, and to provide information and advice to the Board with respect to, any matter referred to the Council by the Minister or the Board, being:

(i) a matter relating to national research priorities or the coordination of research policy and, in particular, but without limiting the generality of the foregoing, a matter relating to:

(A) the support to be given to fundamental research and to research that will contribute directly to the economic or social development of Australia;

(B) the development and implementation of research programs, or the establishment and maintenance of special research centres or key centres of teaching and research, by institutions and the

allocation of funds to achieve an appropriate concentration of research effort in institutions;

(C) measures (including the implementation of programs for postgraduates and the grant of postgraduate scholarships) aimed at enhancing the training of research personnel; or

(D) measures aimed at improving interaction among the higher education sector, the private research sector and the industrial sector; or

31

(ii) any other matter on which information or advice may reasonably be required by the Minister or the Board in conjunction with information or advice in respect of a matter referred to in subparagraph (i);

(c ) on its own motion, but subject to subsection (3), to inquire into and, and provide information and advice to the Board with respect to, any matter referred to in subparagraph (b) (i) or (ii).

(2) Any recommendation made by the Council under paragraph (1)(a) shall be in writing and the Council shall, as soon as practicable, send a copy of the recommendation to the Board.

(3) The Council may perform a function under paragraph (1)(c ) only if the performance of that function does not prejudice the performance of its functions under paragraphs (1)(a) or (b).

32

MEMBERSHIP OF THE AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH COUNCIL AND COMMITTEES - 1989

AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH COUNCIL

Chair

Professor Don Aitkin Member of the Australian Science and Technology Council Former Chairman, Australian Research Grants Committee (On leave from the Australian National University)

Members

Professor Adrienne Clarke Director Plant Cell Biology Research Centre University of Melbourne

Professor R Dennis Gibson Vice-Chancellor Queensland University of Technology

Professor Bruce McKellar Professor of Theoretical Physics University of Melbourne

Dr Michael Pitman Chief Science Adviser Department of Industry, Technology and Commerce Canberra

Dr Mark Schapper Managing Director of Advanced Technical Development CRA Limited Melbourne

Dr John Taplin Director-General of Transport WA Department of Transport

Professor Geoff Wilson Rector University College Australian Defence Force Academy

Mr Robert Bluer Member and Counsellor National Board of Employment, Education and Training

Professor Peter Sheehan Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Research) University of Queensland (From November 1989)

33

Professor Graham Rigby Professor of Electrical Engineering University of New South Wales (From November 1989)

Professor Max Neutze Head Urban Research Unite Research School of Social Sciences Australian National University

(Resigned February 1989)

Professor Kevin Stark Pro-Vice-Chancellor Science and Engineering

James Cook University (Deceased)

PLANNING AND REVIEW COMMITTEE

Chair

Professor Don Aitkin Chair, ARC

Members

Dr Michael Pitman ARC Member

Professor R Dennis Gibson ARC Member

Professor Geoff Wilson ARC Member

Dr Mark Schapper ARC Member

Dr John Taplin ARC Member

INSTITUTIONAL GRANTS COMMITTEE

Chair

Dr Michael Pitman ARC Member

34

Mr Robert Bluer ARC and NBEET Member

Nominees of the Higher Education Council

Dr Gregor Ramsey Chair, HEC Deputy Chair NBEET

Professor Max Brennan Pro-Vice-Chancellor University of Sydney NBEET and HEC Member

Members

Dr David Beanland Director Advanced Education Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology

Dr Michael Georgeff Director Australian Artificial Intelligence Institute

Dr Alessandra Pucci Former CEO Australian Monoclonal Development

Professor Anne Street Professor of Mathematics University of Queensland

Mr Lloyd Zampatti Deputy Chair Australian Science and Technology Council

D e p u t y C h a i r

RESEARCH TRAINING AND CAREERS COMMITTEE

Chair

Professor R Dennis Gibson ARC Member

Members

Mr Grant Belchamber ACTU Executive and HEC Member

35

Dr Garry Brown Director Aeronautical Research Laboratories Defence Science and Technology Organisation

Dr Suzanne Cory Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research

Dr Christa Critchley Department of Botany University of Queensland

Professor Frank Larkins Department of Chemistry University of Tasmania

Dr Alwyn Mackie Assistant Director (Academic Affairs) Phillip Institute of Technology

Professor Roland Sussex Department of Russian and Language Studies University of Melbourne

RESEARCH GRANTS COMMITTEE

Chair

Professor Geoff Wilson ARC Member

Deputy Chair

Dr Mark Schapper ARC Member

Members

Professor Robert Carter James Cook University

Professor Adrienne Clarke ARC Member

Professor Brian Figgis University of Western Australia

Professor Fay Gale University of Adelaide Chair, Social Sciences and Humanities Discipline Panel

36

Professor Brian Gunning Australian National University

Professor Bruce McKellar ARC Member Chair, Physical, Mathematical and Chemical Sciences Discipline Panel

Professor Deryck Schreuder University of Sydney

Discipline Panel Members

Biomedical, Biological and Veterinary Sciences

Chair

Professor Adrienne Clarke ARC Member University of Melbourne

Deputy Chair

Professor Brian Gunning Australian National University

Members

Dr Suzanne Cory Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research

Professor Michael Dilworth Murdoch University

Associate Professor Anthony Larkum University of Sydney

Dr Patricia Mather Senior Curator Queensland Museum

Professor Nancy Millis University of Melbourne

Dr Stephen Morton Division of Wildlife and Ecology CSIRO

Dr Rex Scaramuzzi Division of Animal Production CSIRO

37

Engineering, Earth and Applied Sciences

Chair

Professor Robert Carter James Cook University

Members

Dr David Beanland Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology

Dr Garry Brown Aeronautical Research Laboratories

Dr John Burgess BHP Central Laboratories

Dr George Cresswell Division of Oceanography CSIRO

Dr John Eady Comalco Foundry Products

Professor Anthony Perry University of Melbourne

Professor Ian Plimer University of Newcastle

Professor John Richards University College Australian Defence Force Academy New South Wales

Professor Peter Schwerdtfeger Flinders University of South Australia

Associate Professor Ronald Vernon Macquarie University

Social Sciences and Humanities

Chair

Professor Fay Gale University of Adelaide

Professor Robert Symons University of Adelaide

38

Members

Associate Professor Margaret Clunies-Ross University of Sydney

Professor Ann Curthoys University of Technology, Sydney

Mr James Davidson Footscray Institute of Technology

Professor Barbara Gillam University of New South Wales

Professor Leon Mann Flinders University of South Australia

Professor Michael Osborne University of Melbourne

Professor Millicent Poole Monash University

Professor Bruce Rigsby University of Queensland

Professor Peter Groenewegen University of Sydney

Physical, Mathematical and Chemical Sciences

Chair

Professor Bruce McKellar ARC Member

Deputy Chair

Professor Brian Figgis University of Western Australia

Members

Dr David Blair University of Western Australia

Professor Gavin Brown University of New South Wales

D e p u t y C h a i r

Professor Deryck Schreuder U niversity of Sydney

39

Professor Ronald MacDonald University of Newcastle

Professor John Ralston South Australian Institute of Technology

Professor Sever Sternhell University of Sydney

Dr Robert Wells Australian Government Analytical Laboratory

Professor Annette Dobson University of Newcastle

Priority Panel Members

Materials Science

Chair

Professor Ronald MacDonald University of Newcastle

Members

Dr John Burgess BHP Central Laboratories

Professor Sever Sternhell University of Sydney

Scientific Instruments and Instrumentation

Chair

Professor Brian Figgis University of Western Australia

Members

Dr David Blair University of Western Australia

Professor John Richards University College Australian Defence Force Academy

Dr Ian McIntosh Visiray Pty Ltd

40

Cognitive Science

Chair

Professor Roland Sussex University of Queensland

Members

Professor Max Coltheart Macquarie University

Professor Leon Mann Flinders University

Dr Ah Chung Tsoi University of New South Wales

Professor Barbara Gillam University of New South Wales

Marine Science and Technology

Chair

Professor Robert Carter James Cook University

Members

Dr George Creswell CSIRO

Dr Patricia Mather Queensland Museum

Dr Robert Wells Australian Government Analytical Laboratories

Professor Tony Larkum Sydney University

Molecular Biology and Techniques for Managing Australia's Natural Resources

Chair

Professor Adrienne Clarke University of Melbourne

Members

Selected as required from Biological Sciences Discipline Panels

41

-

SECRETARIAT 1990

Research Grants

Mr Allan Nichols - Secretary to the Carmittee Research Grants

Mr David McCarthy - Executive Officer

Ms Mary Meadowcroft - Executive Officer

Mrs Josie Robertson - Secretary to Biological Sciences (Mblecular Biology and Cell Metabolism)

Ms Dupe Fifita - Secretary to Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology)

Mr Russell Seberry - Secretary to Chsnical Sciences Sub­ committee

Mr Stephen Iverach - Secretary to Earth Sciences Sub-Committee / Finance Manager

Ms Kathy O'Brien - Secretary to Engineering and Applied Sciences Subcommittee

Ms Ingrid Struzina - Secretary to Humanities Subcommittee

Mr Charles Mann - Secretary to Physical Sciences Sub­ committee

Ms Anne Nemes - Secretary to Social Sciences

Subcommittee

Mr Kwaku Ascmani - Secretary to Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 Subcommittee

Research Training and Careers

Dr Tony Gallagher - Director

Mrs Margaret Kelemen - National Research Fellowships

Miss Edda Del Monaco - National Research fellowships

Mr Ian Tranter - Executive Officer

Post Graduate Awards

Mrs Christine Brown - Post Graduate Awards

43

Institutional Grants

Mr Ian Crebbin

Mr Keith Glover

Ms T.inda Collins

Ms Carol Locke

Mr Bruce White

Director

Executive Officer Special Research Centres

Executive Officer Small Grants

Small Grants

Small Grants

Administration

Mr Ross Toole

Mr Michael Mascher

Database Administrator

Systems Administrator

44

TABLE 1

Applications received and approved - new and continuing grants.

REQUESTS APPROVALS

New Cont Total New Cont Total

Biological Sciences (Afolec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) 243 114 357 61 96 157

Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology)

194 145 339 56 129 185

Chemical Sciences 156 109 265 52 89 141

Earth Sciences 139 81 220 50 62 112

Eng. & App. Sciences 280 115 395 35 96 131

Humanities 293 92 385 68 68 136

Physical Sciences 199 119 318 47 94 141

Social Sciences 362 104 466 71 91 162

Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2

69 37 106 19 37 56

45

TABLE 1

REQUESTS APPROVALS

Applications received and approved - new and continuing grants.

New Cont Total New Cont Total

Marine Sciences and Technology

126 21 147 30 21 51

Materials Science (A spects Minerals Processing) 81 17 98 18 14 32

Cognitive Science 70 5 75 22 5 27

Molecular Approaches (Management/Biological Res) 72 72 18 18

Scientific Instrumen 37 37 8 8

ts and Instrumentation

TOTAL 2321 959 3280 555 802 1357

Program Grants 34 34 34 34

(Included in above totals)

46

TABLE 2

Applications received and approved - new and continuing grants.

REQUESTS APPROVALS

New Cont Total New Cont Total

$ $ $ $ $ $

Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) 12,608,039 5,551,393 18,159,432 2,376,610 3,910,390 6,287,000

Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) 9,870,603 6,358,064 16,228,667 1,897,636 4,498,148 6,395,784

Chemical Sciences

11,110,498 5,897,128 17,007,626 2,236,000 3,266,862 5,502,862

Earth Sciences

9,385,224 4,744,532 14,129,756 2,185,614 2,731,002 4,916,616

Engineering & Applied Sciences

17,991,096 6,759,837 24,750,933 1,566,830 4,149,030 5,715,860

Humanities

11,991,267 3,471,533 15,462,800 1,657,390 1,922,610 3,580,000

Physical Sciences

18,224,949 6,836,291 25,061,240 2,094,841 4,687,582 6,782,423

Social Sciences

14,351,169 3,651,655 18,002,824 1,841,077 2,517,824 4,358,901

Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 4,385,053 2,726,696 7,111,749 771,721 1,952,819 2,724,540

47

TABLE 2

Applications received and approved - new and continuing grants.

REQUESTS APPROVALS

New Cont Total New Cont Total

$ $ $ $ $ $

Marine Sciences and Technology 8,134,939 998,520 9,133,459 1,200,599 837,038 2,037,637

Materials Science (A spects Minerals Processing) 7,283,802 1,135,996 8,419,798 1,029,000 560,000 1,589,000

Cognitive Science

4,198,398 284,973 4,483,371 636,414 174,586 811,000

Molecular Approaches (Management/Biological Res) 5,266,592 5,266,592 863,000 863,000

Scientific Instruments and Instrumentation 2,648,344 2,648,344 368,000 368,000

TOTAL

137,449,973 48,416,617 185,866,590 20,724,732 31,207,891 51,932,623

Program Grants (Included in above totals) 2,969,805 2,969,805 3,323,242 3,323,242

48

TABLE 3 Value and Hunter of Grants by State and Institution

INSTITUTION No of Grants Alloc.

$

NEW 90ΕΠΗ WALES

Sydney University 136 5,671,570

University of N.S.W 162 6,324,694

Wollongong University 29 1,039,866

University of New England 28 840,364

Newcastle University 31 1,322,282

Macquarie University 62 2,493,493

Aust Nuclear Science & Tech Org. 1 17,700

The Australian Museum 7 226,374

University of Technology Sydney 7 169,000

Riverina-Murray Inst of Higher Educat 1 35,000

The University of Western Sydney 1 81,000

N.S.W. Conservatorium Of Music 1 15,700

Northern Rivers CAE 3 35,000

Private - Moyal 1 15,645

CSIRO 2 46,430

The Heart Research Institute 1 27,000

TOTAL NEW SOUTH WALES 473 18,361,118

VICTORIA

The University of Melbourne 136 5,131,442

Monash University 83 3,089,981

La Trobe University 47 1,842,626

Deakin University 25 568,903

R.M.I.T. 8 291,897

Chisholm Institute of Technology 4 79,900

Victorian College Of Pharmacy Ltd 1 16,000

Museum Of Victoria 4 118,000

Swinburne Institute of Technology 1 11,000

Aust Council For Educational Research 1 20,000

Victorian Institute of Marine Sciences 2 57,000

Footscray Institute of Technology 1 48,000

Division of Atmospheric Research 1 5,000

Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute 2 65,000

TOTAL VICTORIA 316 11,344,749

49

TABLE 3 Value and Number of Grants by State and Institution

INSTITUTION No of Grants Alloc.

$

QUEENSLAND

Queensland University 112 4,461,285

James Cook University of North Qld 35 1,384,314

Griffith University 18 684,037

Bond University 6 123,473

Queensland University of Technology 10 262,058

Queensland Museum 3 92,997

Qld Institute Of Medical Research 4 119,370

Brisbane College Of Advanced Education 2 28,600

Australian Institute of Marine Science 1 37,800

Qld Department of Primary Industry 2 73,428

Qld National Parks & Wildlife Service 1 46,500

TOTAL QUEENSLAND 194 7,313,862

SOOTH AUSTRALIA

Adelaide University 109 4,179,637

Flinders University 41 1,608,631

S.A.I.T. 9 298,900

S.A. Miseum 7 185,147

S A Department of Mines and Energy 1 18,079

S.A. Department of Fisheries 1 39,118

TOTAL SOOTH AUSTRALIA 168 6,329,512

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

University of Western Australia 56 2,523,293

Murdoch University 26 778,624

Curtin University of Technology 18 583,542

Western Australian Museum 1 5,000

Office of the Administrator Cocos Is. 1 350,829

TOTAL WESTERN AUSTRALIA 102 4,241,288

TASMANIA Unversity of Tasmania 40 2,248,703

Division of Oceanography 5 160,600

Tasmanian State Institute of Technolog 2 61,000

TOTAL TASMANIA 47 2,470,303

50

TABLE 3 Value and Nunter of Grants by State and Institution

INSTITUTION No of Grants Alloc.

$

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY

Australian National University 47 1,632,358

Canberra College Of Advanced Education 3 55,000

Australian Institute Aboriginal Stud. 1 37,023

Division of Wildlife and Ecology 1 14,500

TOTAL AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY 52 1,738,881

NORTHERN TERRITORY

University College of the N T 1 38,550

Institute for Aboriginal Development 1 20,860

Pfenzies School of Health Research 1 18,000

Northern Territory University 2 55,500

TOTAL NORTHERN TERRITORY 5 132,910

GRAND TOTAL ALL LNSTTIVTICMS 1357 51,932,623

51

:

■

52

TABUS 4 the Nutter and Value of Grants in Specific Categories

GROUP No Value

Category of Grants $

Biological Sciences (Melee. Bio & Cell Metabolism)

Biochemistry and Metabolism of Plants 7 480,810

Biochemistry and Metabolism of Animals 14 458,000

Molecular Biology 40 1,743,710

Biochemistry of Reproduction 21 825,000

Structure and Infectivity of Viruses 2 62,000

Biochemistry of the Immune Response 9 336,000

Biochanistry of the Nervous System 5 164,000

Electron Microscope Techniques in Biology 1 45,000

Biochan and Physical Chem of Proteins and Enzymes 26 948,610 Chanistry of Natural Organic Substances 1 36,000

Biochanistry and Metabolism of Microorganisms 1 25,000 Biological Energy Conversion 4 125,000

Genetics and Biochemistry of Marsupials 2 59,000

Biochemistry of Insects 1 29,000

Genetics of Microorganisms 7 232,000

Biological Nitrogen Fixation 4 206,000

Soil Science (Biological Aspects) 1 35,000

Other(Molecular Biology and Cell Metabolism) 9 316,520 Cell Membrane Biology 2 160,350

Group Total 157 6,287,000

Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology)

Systematics and Taxonomy 15 443,697

Genetics and Evolution 17 662,779

Plant Physiology 6 187,400

Animal Physiology 9 290,180

Developmental Biology 8 240,800

Plant and Animal Ecology 18 621,400

Animal Behaviour 2 73,600

Limnology 3 92,900

Marine Biology 19 634,720

Parasitology and Plant Pathology 10 331,594

Anatomy and Histology 1 64,000

Electron Microscopy 1 28,000

Reproduction 10 399,550

Neurophysiology 2 105,500

Endocrinology 1 36,500

Veterinary Science 2 56,000

Applied Biology 1 25,000

Horticulture 1 25,000

Environmental Pollution 2 45,700

Genetics of Animals and Plants 1 30,000

Cell Membrane Biology 4 117,000

Plant Cell Structure 25 901,933

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) 27 982,531

Group Total 185 6,395,784

53

TABLE 4 The Number and Value of Grants in Specific Categories

Value $

QRCTJP No

Category of Grants

Chemical Sciences

Chemical Energetics 4 178,000

Chemical Binding 5 255,000

Mechanisms of Reactions 14 494,449

Determination of Chemical Structures 9 468,000

Inorganic and Metal Chemistry 22 718,601

Chemistry of Catalysis 5 180,000

Electrochemistry 3 116,000

Environmental and Analytical Chemistry 6 130,000

Polymer and Colloid Chemistry 14 508,645

Industrial and Mineral Chemistry 2 43,000

Biological Chemistry 5 175,000

Medical Chemistry 5 194,249

Organic Chemical Synthesis 18 591,000

Chemistry of Natural Organic Substances 5 191,000

Theoretical Chemistry 10 490,918

Other (Chemical) 14 769,000

Group Total 141 5,502,862

Earth Sciences

Crystallography and Mineralogy 4 307,683

Mineral Processing 6 190,601

Igneous and Ifetamorphic Petrology 13 715,000

Sedimentology (including sedimentary geochemistry) 4 118,948 Genesis of Ore Deposits 5 204,027

Geochronology and Isotopic Geochemistry 6 237,451 Structural Geology and Regional Geology & Tectonic 18 731,012 Solid Earth Geophysics 4 97,236

Marine Geology and Geophysics 8 240,852

Invert. Palaeontology, Palaeobotany & Stratigraphy 11 325,587 Vertebrate Palaeontology 5 244,951

Gecmorphology and Quaternary Geology 7 249,539

Soil Science (Physical Aspects) and Hydrology 5 144,556 Organic Geochemistry (including fossil fuels) 2 42,500 Exploration Geophysics 1 20,860

Other(Earth Sciences) 13 1,045,813

Group Total 112 4,916,616

Engineering & Applied Sciences

Civil Engineering (General) 10 362,973

Soil and Rock Mechanics 6 229,700

Mechanical Engineering (General) 4 161,180

Applied Mechanics 5 220,143

Manufacturing Processes 6 311,314

Fluid Mechanics 22 1,189,844

Heat and Thermodynamics 6 267,360

Mechanical Engineering (General) 1 58,020

54

TABLE 4 The Number and Value of Grants in Specific Categories

QOJP Category of

No Grants

Value $

Industrial Engineering 2 70,000

Electric Power 2 95,225

Communications 10 373,956

Electronic Devices and Circuits 11 475,435

Control and Systems 2 142,419

Computer Science and Engineering (General) 14 650,967 Computer Hardware 3 119,874

Computer Software 8 298,309

Mathematics of Computing 2 62,500

Applied Physics 3 139,318

Acoustics and Noise Control 3 99,000

Biomechanics 2 72,627

Surveying and Earth Resources 6 205,357

Other(Engineering and Applied Sciences) 1 30,239

Unknown 1 46,937

Building Science and Architecture 1 33,163

Group Total 131 5,715,860

Humanities

Classical Studies and Classical Archaeology 13 488,107 Asian Languages and Literature 2 40,500

English (including Anstralian&American Literature) 17 349,293 European Languages and Literature 6 128,444

Linguistics 13 403,061

Music and Fine Arts 12 331,554

Philosophy 1 20,000

Anthropology and Prehistory 18 566,725

Australian History 19 416,955

British and European History 5 101,000

Asian and Pacific History 3 173,108

Other Fields of History 5 83,500

Education/Humanities 6 146,569

Law 9 171,766

Political Science 5 122,111

International Relations 2 37,307

Group Total 136 3,580,000

Physical Sciences

Theoretical Physics 15 672,074

Acoustics and Optics 6 224,829

Nuclear and Particle Physics 8 446,136

Atonic and Molecular Physics 11 879,539

Discharge and Plasma Physics 6 316,348

Condensed Matter Physics 20 852,939

Physics of Ocean, Atmos., Ionos. and Magnetosphere 7 285,700 Astronomy and Cosmic Rays 13 756,878

Instruments and Techniques 7 451,508

55

TABLE 4 The Number and Value of Grants in Specific Categories

SiDOP No Value

Category of Grants $

Other(Physical Sciences) 6 382,557

Algebraic Structures 3 149,902

Computational Alegbra, Mathematical CcmputerScience 1 15,000 Functional and Harmonic Analysis 4 113,000

Number Theory 1 37,000

Differential Equations,Geometry and Topology 2 91,000 Statistical Theory and Applications 5 179,000

Optimisation, Control Theory, Numerical Analysis 1 55,000 Applied mathematics 3 105,155

Mathematics (Other) 22 768,858

Group Total 141 6,782,423

Social Sciences

Personality and Social Psychology 10 292,614

Learning, Memory and Perception 17 456,051

Comparative and Physiological Psychology 6 193,610 Psychopharmacology 3 82,500

Experimental Psychopathology 1 18,883

Neuropsychology 5 149,603

Evaluation & Psychometric s 5 128,000

Cognitive Processes 18 430,036

Developmental Psychology 13 304,134

Clinical and Counselling Psychology 3 64,500

Mental Retardation 1 28,000

Cross-Cultural Psychology 1 46,935

Industrial and Organisational Psychology 6 170,805 Educational Psychology 1 22,000

Economics (except agricultural economics) 23 659,274 Accounting, Commerce and Finance 5 137,723

Economic History 5 151,082

Agricultural Economics 1 32,157

Geography 7 151,827

Sociology 4 126,443

Sociology of Education 3 61,400

Industrial Relations 2 55,725

Ethnic and Race Relations 2 27,542

Criminology 2 126,958

Demography 1 34,000

Social Work and Administration 3 88,376

Social Welfare 1 30,793

Science Policy Studies 2 46,930

Womens Studies 1 12,000

Education/Social Sciences 10 229,000

Group Total 162 4,358,901

Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2

Civil Engineering (Structures) 2 66,000

Sanitary Engineering 1 56,000

56

TABLE 4 The Number and Value of Grants in Specific Categories

(3YXJP Category

No

of Grants

Value $

Building Science and Architecture 3 155,000

Marine and Coastal Engineering 4 121,000

Metallurgy and Materials 11 384,721

Chemical Engineering (General) 18 795,000

Biochemical Systems 4 115,300

implied Science (General) 2 128,000

Hydraulics 1 10,690

Physical Oceanography 10 892,829

Group Total 56 2,724,540

Marine Sciences and Technology

Structure and Infectivity of Viruses 1 42,000

Biochemistry of the Nervous System 1 30,000

Systematics and Taxonomy 1 63,000

Genetics and Evolution 1 20,000

Plant and Animal Ecology 2 93,256

Marine Biology 14 626,393

Anatomy and Histology 1 5,000

Reproduction 1 31,000

Applied Biology 1 32,190

Environmental Pollution 3 130,175

Plant Cell Structure 2 65,000

Marine Geology and Geophysics 1 20,860

Gecmorphology and Quaternary Geology 2 60,000

Soil and Rock Mechanics 4 187,510

Applied Mechanics 1 25,000

Fluid Mechanics 1 36,000

Marine and Coastal Engineering 5 193,000

Physical Oceanography 9 377,253

Group Total 51 2,037,637

Materials Science (Aspects Minerals Processing)

Biochemistry and Metabolism of Microorganisms 1 33,000 Inorganic and Metal Chemistry 1 48,000

Electrochemistry 1 35,000

Environmental and Analytical Chemistry 1 35,000

Polymer and Colloid Chemistry 2 210,000

Industrial and Mineral Chemistry 1 40,000

Mineral Processing 2 200,000

Civil Engineering (General) 2 57,000

Soil and Rock Mechanics 1 50,000

Fluid Mechanics 1 33,000

Heat and Thermodynamics 1 46,000

Electronic Devices and Circuits 4 175,000

Applied Physics 1 85,000

Condensed Matter Physics 1 25,000

Metallurgy and Materials 7 297,000

57

TABLE 4 The Number and Value of Grants in Specific Categories

GROUP No Value

Category of Grants $

Chemical Engineering (General) Ceramic and Polymer Engineering

1 85,000

4 135,000

Group Total 32 1,589,000

Cognitive Science

Computer Science and Engineering (General) 3 Linguistics 3

Education/Humanities 1

Learning, Memory and Perception 9

Psycholinguistics 5

Cognitive Processes 6

Group Total 27

Molecular Approaches (Managsnent/Biological Res)

Biochemistry and Metabolism of Animals 4 Molecular Biology 2

Systematics and Taxonomy 4

Cell Membrane Biology 1

Plant Cell Structure 7

72,515 86,293 65,000 256,221 137,684 193,287

811,000

195.000 95.000 200.000 50.000 323,000

Group Total 18 863,000

Scientific Instruments and Instrumentation

Environmental and Analytical Chsnistry 1 Medical Chemistry 1

Sedimentology (including sedimentary geochemistry) 1 Communications 1

Applied Physics 1

Acoustics and Optics 1

Instruments and Techniques 2

40.000 37.000 19.000 65.000 43.000 34.000 130,000

Group Total 8 368,000

Grand Total 1357 51,932,623

58

Distribution of Research Funds

CHEMISTRY 9%

Distribution of Research Funds by State

South Australia 13%

ARC RESEARCH GRANTS DISTRIBUTION OF DISCIPLINE GRANTS

CHEMICAL SCI 12%

EARTH SCIENCES 10%

ARC Research Funds Distribution of Priority Grants

MATERIALS 28%

COGNITIVE SCIENCE 14%

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism)

biochemistry and Metabolism o f Plants \ jpr Η Y Adamson CHLOROPHYLL RETENTION DURING 25,000

SENESCENCE IN NON-YELLOWING VARIETIES: ROLE OF THE LIGHT-INDEPENDENT CHLOROPHYLL BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY

Hicquarie University The regulation of chlorophyll accumulation and loss in flowering plants has implications for plant productivity and appearance and as such is of value to the agricultural and horticultural industries. This project investigates the

contribution of the light-independent chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway to chlorophyll levels during senescence and specifically the retention of chlorophyll by non

yellowing plant varieties.

[ P r o f C A Atkins PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES 158,980 Professor J S Pate OF NITROGEN METABOLISM IN PLANTS

hiversity of Western Australia This program aims to better understand the processes involved in the growth and nitrogen nutrition of plants, especially legumes and particularly nitrogen fixation by

legumes. This knowledge will help find ways to more effectively exploit legumes and other nitrogen-fixing plants in agricultural and natural ecosystems, to husband nitrogen resources in soil and provide insight into the processes of nitrogen nutrition which limit productivity and crop yield.

In the long term this information will be of value in selecting species from the native flora or improved cultivars from crop species for use in agriculture or

natural ecosystem management.

Professor B V Milborrow BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID AND ITS 43,500 ROLE IN THE STRESS METABOLISM OF PLANTS

diversity of N.S.W A highly active cell-free preparation has been developed which will be used to identify the intermediates of abscisic acid biosynthesis. A polar "ABA adduct" has been identified which may be a bound form and a stored precursor of ABA.

Tomato strains resistant to high concentrations of ABA will be selected from cell suspension cultures so that the influence of high stress-induced levels of ABA on growth can be examined.

Biochemistry and Metabolism o f Plants (Contd)

Dr G M Polya CYCLIC AMP METABOLISM AND CALCIUM- 43,00

MEDIATED PROCESSES IN PLANTS

La Trobe University Cyclic AMP and calcium ions act as "second messengers" in eukaryote cells ie. the cytosolic levels of these species rise in response to certain external signals, resulting in the activation of specific protein kinases and the consequent modification of cellular processes through protein phosphorylation. This project continues our work

involving definition of the nature of critical elements of cyclic AMP- and calcium ion-based stimulus-response coupling systems in higher plants.

Dr G M Polya CA2+ - INDEPENDENT PROTEIN 29, OCj

PHOSPHORYLATION-DEPHOSPHORYLATION IN PLANTS

La Trobe University A major mechanism by which cells of higher organisms - including plants - respond to external chemical signals involves a complex series of events resulting in the chemical modification of key cellular proteins termed

"phosphorylation" which in turn alters the function of such proteins. Resolution of such stimulus-response pathways in plants will help to define how plant cells respond to growth regulators, plant hormones and fungal pathogens.

Professor B A Stone BIOCHEMISTRY OF PLANT CELL WALLS 126,3:! Dr G B Fincher

La Trobe University ,

This program is about the biosynthesis, the degradation, the molecular biology and ultrastructure of plant cell walls. Studies on plant cell walls are important with respect to aspects of human and animal nutrition, the food processing and brewing industries, the paper and building material manufacturing industries and of course to agriculture.

Professor J F Williams CHEMISTRY AND METABOLISM OF THE PATH 55,0(1 Dr J G Collins OF CARBON IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Australian National University Continued research into the photosynthetic process is justified because enhanced plant productivity is one means of alleviating world food and fuel shortages. Our previous ARGS work showed that the Calvin pathway failed to completely describe the reaction sequence of carbon fixation

in spinach. We showed that additional (new) intermediates and enzymes were involved in C02 fixation. This project now aims to quantitatively measure the contribution of the new path to total C02 fixed. It is to be remembered that there

is still no answer to the question, "What limits photosynthesis?" - Basic investigations of the kind proposed . . . Cont/.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

here may contribute answers to the above questions.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biochemistry and Metabolism of Plants (Contd)

Biochemistry and Metabolism o f Animals

Dr D Blair ANALYSIS OF PARASITE EVOLUTION AND 35,000

HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIPS USING DNA SEQUENCE DATA

James Cook University of North Qld Identification of flukes on morphological grounds can be difficult, but is necessary for evolutionary studies. Specific DNA sequences permit recognition of species and construction of phylogenetic trees. I will investigate the pattern of colonisation of the cane toad, since its

introduction here, by flukes derived from native fauna. I will also investigate the relationships of the common liver fluke (Fasciola) and especially the identity of S.E. Asian forms and any recognisable subspecific strains in Australia.

Professor R Dean ARE PROTEIN HYDROPEROXIDES 27,000

INTERMEDIATES IN FREE RADICAL BIOCHEMISTRY?

The Heart Research Institute Free radical attack on membranes generates lipid hydroperoxides, which in the presence of copper or iron generate further damaging radicals. We showed that protein hydroperoxides are generated concomitantly, and during

radical attack on proteins in solution. We will study whether protein hydroperoxides can also give rise to further radicals when suitably reacted; and whether the resulting protein radicals also damage lipids, polysaccharides and

nucleic acids. If so, then protein hydroperoxides are a significant reservoir of potential free radicals in biochemical systems.

Or M R Edwards HIGH RESOLUTION NMR AND METABOLIC 42,000

Assoc Prof R S Norton STUDIES OF LEISHMANIA Professor W J O'Sullivan

University of N.S.W Leishmania are the parasites responsible for a group of tropical diseases that constitute a major health problem in developing nations. The project will use the technique of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy in a study of the parasites' growth and nutrition. The experimental approach

is novel, and has the potential to substantially improve our understanding of the biochemistry of Leishmania. The long term goal is to provide a basis for the development of new drugs for treating Leishmania infections, since current methods are unsatisfactory.

Biochemistry and Metabolism of Animals (ContdJ

Dr A J Howells THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF DIPTERAN EYE 40,000 COLOUR GENES: DEVELOPMENTAL AND EVOLUTIONARY STUDIES

Australian National University- Genes involved in the synthesis of eye pigments in dipteran insects are regulated on both a tissue-specific and temporal basis during the development of the organisms and provide an

ideal animal model for studying these forms of gene regulation. It also provides an excellent system for studying evolutionary changes in gene and genome organization and mechanisms of natural mutation. The structures and patterns of regulation of both normal and mutant eye colour genes from three different species are being studied using recombinant DNA techniques.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Dr M F Lavin MOLECULAR STUDIES ON CYTOPLASMIC 32,00C

LOCALIZATION OF RNA AND PROTEIN DURING EMBRYOGENESIS OF THE ASCIDIAN HERDMANIA MOMUS

Qld Institute Of Medical Research Over the last several years considerable progress has been achieved in understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with development. This project is designed to obtain information on the structure of maternal RNAs and their role in cytoplasmic localization as part of the process of development. We will employ an ascidian (marine organism) as a model system in this study.

Dr A Mackay-Sim CONSTRUCTION OF ODORANT-SPECIFIC 35,00( Dr G R Bushell BIOSENSORS

Dr D V Thiel

Griffith University The aim of this project is to develop techniques for constructing electronic odour detectors for air pollution and industrial monitoring, drug and explosives detection, and many other applications. These "bio-sensors" will incorporate into electronic circuits, the biological molecules responsible for the sense of smell. The worldwide market for such sensors is very large and the competition is

fierce but this research team has the expertise (in olfaction, biotechnology, and electronics) and a competitive advantage (a unique method of producing the biological molecules).

Biochemistry and Metabolism o f Animals (Contd)

DC R S MASON EFFECTS OF 1,25 DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 25,000

ON MINERALIZATION OF OSTEOBLAST- DERIVED MATRIX

Sydney University Although the vitamin D derived hormone 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is well known to be involved in bone mineralization, evidence that it directly affects this

process is lacking. This proposal aims to set up an in-vitro cell culture model in which the effects of 1,25D on mineralization can be examined and some studies concerning the mechanism of action of the hormone at one of its major

target sites can be performed. The project addresses a major question concerning the activities of an important metabolic regulator.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Dr J W McAvoy THE ROLE OF FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 30,000

IN THE CONTROL OF GROWTH PATTERNS IN THE EYE LENS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PRODUCTION

'Sydney University Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a molecule produced by the body which has profound effects on development and growth of many cells and tissues. This project will record FGF levels

in the eye: (i) in the ocular media and (ii) in the matrix that surrounds the lens, in order to determine if regional differences in exposure to FGF in vivo can explain differences in the growth patterns of cells in different parts of the lens. This project will provide important

information about FGF and its action on cells in vivo. Such basic knowledge is essential before this potent growth promoting molecule can be harnessed for uses in biotechnology.

Dr D W Pethick METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY 25,000 ACIDS BY THE TISSUES OF CONSCIOUS SHEEP

Murdoch University The tissues of sheep utilise different types of nutrients when compared to nonherbivorous animals in addition to an altered balance between fat and carbohydrate. This balance

has yet to be understood for two important situations commonly found in agriculture - (1) overnutrition (flushing, l growth and fattening), (2) exercise (grazing sheep can walk 16 km/day). Nutrient balance in various tissues (muscle,

liver and gut) of sheep will be measured in the above situations. Conclusions will increase our fundamental understanding of metabolisms in domestic ruminants and potentially aid the animal industries to plan altered

nutritional and husbandry strategies.

Dr V E Reeve THE EFFECT OF ALTERING DIETARY LIPID 27,OC

Professor C H Gallagher AND SKIN LIPID METABOLISM ON UV-INDUCED CARCINOGENESIS IN THE HAIRLESS MOUSE

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biochemistry and Metabolism o f Animals (Contd)

Sydney University This project will assess the role of various dietary lipids in an established model of UV-induced skin carcinogenesis in the hairless mouse, in terms of a) the degree of unsaturation of the lipids, and b) the importance of the ration of w3/w6 unsaturated fatty acids. The project will attempt to elucidate the mechanism of dietary lipid modulation of skin carcinogenesis, whether via prostanoid

synthesis, the immune system, or an oxidative free radical production.

Professor G H Schreiber SYNTHESIS AND REGULATION OF THYROID 46,OC Dr M Dziadek HORMONE BINDING PROTEINS AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT

The University of Melbourne Thyroid hormones are required for normal brain development. Their transport from the bloodstream to the brain involves specific binding proteins. The aim of the project is to investigate the development of the thyroid hormone delivery system using the most appropriate currently available system, amphibian metamorphosis. The use of recently developed techniques of molecular biology is expected to

significantly advance the understanding of a fundamental problem of developmental biology.

Dr D Veal ANALYSIS OF THE ANTIBIOTIC PROPERTIES 32,00

Professor A J Beattie OF ANT METAPLEURAL SECRETIONS

Macquarie University Ants produce secretions from their metapleural glands which have broad spectrum antibiotic properties. We will determine the spectrum of activity, mode of action, chemical and physical characteristics and efficacy within ant colonies of metapleural secretions and purified fractions. The novel source of material suggests that new biocides or antibiotics for agricultural, industrial or veterinary applications may be identified.

Assoc Prof R A Westerman USE OF LASER DOPPLER VELOCIMETRY TO 25,00 TEST SMALL NERVE FIBRES CLINICALLY.

Monash University Electrical and chemical excitation of small sensory nerve fibres results in brief blood flow changes in small skin blood vessels. This is measured sensitively and non-invasively by laser Doppler velocimetry which detects backscattered light reflected from moving red blood cells.

... Cont/.

Biochemistry and Metabolism of Animals (Contd)

Age-related responses will be computer measured and stored for each test in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Comparison of individual patient data with normal ranges will permit the routine clinical testing of small nerve

fibre function, selection of patients for trials of new medication (such as aldose reductase inhibitors, or gamma linolenic acid) and assessment of efficacy of such treatment in restoring normal neurovascular function and

symptom-relief.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Dr P M Whitington THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 37,000 IN THE EMBRYO OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

University of New England During the development of all animals, from worms to man, nerve cells send out extensions which grow along particular pathways to form connections with specific muscles. An understanding of how this occurs is basic to coping with clinical problems where, as a result of injury or abnormal development, nerve cells fail to contact their normal muscles. The fruitfly embryo is an ideal animal in which to

study this problem because of the simplicity of its nervous system and its well documented genetics.

Molecular Biology

Assoc Prof I R Beacham THE REGULATION AND PRODUCTION OF 41 , 0 0 0 HIGH-AFFINITY L-ASPARAGINASES

Griffith University L-asparaginases are enzymes which have been found to be useful in the treatment of certain leukemias. Although this was discovered in relation to an enzyme found in the serum

of guinea pigs, bacteria have long been used as a more convenient source of these enzymes. This project aims to study the molecular biology of certain bacterial and mammalian asparaginases, including the isolation of the

asparaginase gene guinea pig and its expression in bacteria. Together, these studies will contribute to the more efficient production of existing asparaginases, and to the availability of novel asparaginases for clinical use.

Molecular Biology (Contd)

Dr R G Birch ALTERNATIVE MECHANISMS OF PHYTOTOXIN 30,000 AND HERBICIDE RESISTANCE FOR TRANSFER TO PLANTS BY GENETIC ENGINEERING

Queensland University We have identified several mechanisms of bacterial resistance to the albicidin family of toxins, including the first example of antibiotic resistance by binding without enzymatic degradation. We have cloned a gene for this mechanism and propose to compare the effectiveness of this

and other bacterial genes in protecting plants from the toxins. The results will help to design effective approaches to genetic engineering of plants for resistance to herbicides, toxins and associated diseases.

Assoc Prof R H Crozier MITOCHONDRIAL DNA PHYLOGENY 38,000 OF BOWER BIRDS

University of N.S.W Bower birds and allies vary widely in the elaborateness of courtship plumage, and in bower complexity. It has been suggested that (a) the two features show tradeoffs (a bird species doesn't have both an elaborate bower and an elaborate display), and that (b) evolution has seen a gradual change in balance between these features. These

ideas will be tested by the production of a definitive, rooted phylogeny for this group. This project aids conservation efforts through surveying the systematics of a prominent Australian bird group and by testing biogeographic models.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Dr B E Davidson STUDIES ON THE MOLECULAR GENETICS OF 31,000 LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION BY STARTER BACTERIA USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CHEESE

The University of Melbourne This project is concerned with studying molecular details of the group of bacteria (streptococci) used in the dairy industry to make cheese. The most important role of these bacteria in the manufacturing process is to convert milk

sugar into lactic acid. The acid helps form the curd and preserves the cheese. We aim to isolate and study the bacterial genes which specify the enzymes that catalyse this conversion. The results will lead to improvements in the properties of the bacteria that will be of commercial value to the dairy industry.

Molecular· Biology (Contd)

Dr B E Davidson MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF THE REGULATION 42,000 OF AROMATIC AMINO ACID BIOSYNTHESIS AND UPTAKE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI K12

The University of Melbourne The aim of this project is to advance our understanding of how genes are switched on and off. The project seeks to determine molecular details of the interaction of a specific Escherichia coli regulatory protein with DNA. When the protein binds to DNA it switches off gene expression and plays a central role in controlling the amount of the

aromatic amino acids made by E. coli cells.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Professor I W Dawes REGULATION OF SEQUENTIAL GENE 50,000 EXPRESSION DURING CELL DEVELOPMENT: MEIOSIS AND SPORULATION IN YEAST

University of N.S.W The aim is to determine how cells control their genetic information as they undergo development from one type of cell to another. This should lead to a better understanding of the way some cells undergo aberrant development as in tumour formation. The cell development process to be

studied will be meiosis and spore formation in the micro-organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism is easier to analyse both biochemically and genetically than highest ones, but shares with mammalian cells many of the

control mechanisms affecting gene expression.

Professor I W Dawes REGULATION OF EXPRESSION OF CITRIC 56,000 ACID CYCLE GENES IN YEAST. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF COMPLEX EUKARYOTIC PROMOTERS

University of N.S.W The project aims to use molecular techniques to study how cells control the expression of their genetic information, especially how they respond to different conditions of cell

growth. By analysing genes concerned with aerobic metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is of industrial and biotechnological importance, there is the opportunity to determine, and modify, the control systems which affect yeast growth by the energy-efficient process of

respiration. It will also enable the design of regulated systems for optimal expression of recombinant genes under conditions which give maximum cell yield.

I

Dr H G De Couet GENETIC, MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A GENE AFFECTING NEUROMUSCULAR ACTIVITY IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Molecular· Biology (Contd)

University of N.S.W A large number of genes are involved in the coordinated development of muscles and nerves in higher animals. The molecular cloning and cell biological characterization of

such genes is significantly facilitated in the fly due to the large amount of available genetic data. The basic information obtained from the fly can be extrapolated to humans since 40% of the genes involved in brain function in the fly cross react to human brain genes. One such gene is

fit which, when mutagenised, disrupts normal neuromuscular activity. The project is an important step in investigating the molecular basis of behaviour and neuromuscular function

and will assuredly contribute to the understanding of inherited neuromuscular defects.

Dr R J Devenish ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Dr P Nagley YEAST NUCLEAR GENES CODING FOR PROTEIN SUBUNITS OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL ATPASE COMPLEX

Monash University A key energy-producing system of complex living cells is the multipartite ATPase complex located in mitochondria. Whilst a small number of protein subunits are synthesized within

the mitochondrial organelle, the majority are encoded in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytoplasm and imported into mitochondria. Using yeast cells, new information about imported proteins will be gained through the isolation,

characterization and manipulation of their nuclear genes and this will contribute to our understanding of subunit assembly and functional organisation of membrane-associated enzyme complexes.

Dr J B Egan CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION AND

DNA REPLICATION IN COLIPHAGE 186

Adelaide University Our research interest is in the molecular mechanisms whereby biology controls expression of its genes and in particular the strategies biology employs to establish and maintain one developmental pathway rather than another. To pursue this interest we are studying the controls that orchestrate the successive appearance of gene actitivites during a viral infection. We use the bacterium Escherichia coli for our studies because it is the best characterised cell in biology which enhances the probability of our success in answering molecular biological questions. The considerable benefit of our work is that it provides our students with a critical

. . . Cont/.

π

Molecular Biology (Contd)

experience of the foundation of modern biology and recombinant DNA technology, and best equips them to participate in its future development.

Cr J B Egan UV-INDUCED INHIBITION OF INITIATION OF 44,000 REPLICATION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI - CHARACTERIZATION AND PURSUIT OF PRESUMPTIVE GENE INVOLVED

Adelaide University It is generally accepted that it is the UV-induced lesions in the DNA blocking the progress of the replication fork that form the basis for the inhibition of DNA synthesis by ultraviolet irradiation. We have shown that UV also

inhibits initiation of replication, and our project aims to characterize this inhibition and to identify the presumptive gene encoding this inhibition. Success would enable future studies on a function controlling initiation of replication, which is the ultimate question to ask in understanding

cancer.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Cr D C Elliott THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCES OF PLANT 25,000

PROTEIN KINASE C

flinders University The biochemical basis of signal transduction across cell membranes is now beginning to be well understood in animals. In many cases it is effected by the phosphorylation of key

cellular proteins by protein kinase C. We have discovered an enzyme in plants which is immunologically similar to protein kinase C. To compare the plant enzyme with protein kinase C it is now essential to purify the enzyme completely and determine its amino acid sequence.

T Ferenci ARCHITECTURE OF A TRANSPORT PROTEIN: 67,000

MOLECULAR BASIS OF THE TOPOLOGY, SUBUNIT STRUCTURE AND CHANNEL SELECTIVITY IN MALTOPORIN

Sydney University The detailed structure of transport proteins like maltoporin (which determine the selective permeability of cellular membranes to ions, nutrients, antibiotics, etc) is

essentially unknown. The aim of this project is to use maltoporin as a model protein in determining the structural basis of transport selectivity. Maltoporin is an ideal model because its specific binding sites for various ligands

can be analysed at the genetic level, using both classical and modern in vitro techniques of molecular genetics and protein engineering.

Dr L R Finch ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF GENE

PLACEMENT ON PHYSICAL MAPS OF MOLLICUTE GENOMES AND ITS USE AS A NEW TAXONOMIC CRITERION

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Molecular Biology (Contd)

The University of Melbourne The genome is the molecular structure, composed of DNA, which carries the genes, the determinants of the hereditary characteristics of an organism. The organisation of the placement of genes on the genome may be important to cell

growth but has not been widely or easily studied. Mollicutes have the smallest of cellular genomes which are thus the most amenable to new methods to establish and compare the placement of their genes. New insights will be

gained on the role of genomic organisation in cells and a new criterion developed for the identification of mollicutes, many of which are plant, animal or human

pathogens.

Assoc Prof H G Greenway ROOT FUNCTION IN WATERLOGGED PLANTS: IS THERE EXCHANGE OF METABOLITES BETWEEN AN AEROBIC CORTEX AND AN ANOXIC STELE

University of Western Australia Resolve whether roots of crop and marsh plants exposed to waterlogging have: (i) aerobic metabolism in the cortex and anaerobic metabolism in the stele and (ii) if so, whether they exchange metabolites. Biological and economic

significance: Oxygen deficiency due to waterlogging reduces grain yields on millions of hectares of, potentially highly productive land. Elucidation of the stele-cortex interaction will stimulate research by our own and other group funded by the Rural Industries and Governments; thus contributing to increased farming efficiency on soils prone to waterlogging by improved management and varieties, obtained by either conventional breeding or via gene transfer.

Professor B W Holloway CHROMOSOME ORGANIZATION OF BACTERIA Assoc Prof V Krishnapillai IN PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES IMPORTANT FOR Dr A F Morgan HUMAN HEALTH, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND AGRICULTURE

Monash University This project seeks to investigate the overall structure of the chromosome of three species of the bacterial genus Pseudomonas. This will be done using both traditional genetic and modern recombinant DNA procedures. It will enable the identification of functional gene arrangements, non-coding areas and interactions between plasmids and the chromosome which would not be possible by any other approach. It will provide new data of importance for the genetic manipulation of bacterial strains for a variety of

... Cont/.

research and practical applications.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Molecular Biology (Contd)

professor R S Holmes MOLECULAR GENETICS AND BIOCHEMISTRY 29,000 Sssoc Prof I R Beacham OF BABOON ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASES

Griffith University Alcohol is the major drug of use and abuse among Australians, and is initially metabolized in the body by a two stage process, involving the enzyme, alcohol

dehydrogenase (ADH). The studies proposed in this application are designed to exploit the baboon as an established animal model in alcohol research, and to enable a study of the molecular genetics and biochemistry of ADH's

in baboon liver and kidney. Knowledge derived from this project will be of considerable significance to future studies investigating 'gene markers' associated with differential responses to alcohol consumption.

OrN J Hoogenraad NEW APPROACHES TOWARDS CLONING CDNAS 44,650 OrG K Brown ENCODING RARE OR REFRACTORY PROTEINS BASED ON EXPRESSION OF LIBRARIES IN MAMMALIAN CELLS

La Trobe University An approach is proposed for cloning DNA encoding mammalian proteins which would prove difficult to isolate by conventional techniques. This approach is based on expressing

cDNA libraries in mammalian cells so that cDNAs may be selected based on the unique biological activities they encode. A selection procedure has been devised based simply on growth of cells carrying the appropriate clone. The methodologies developed in this project should be generally

applicable to the isolation and characterization of key regulatory proteins and will be used initially to clone two such enzymes for arginine biosynthesis.

^ofessor M J Hynes STUDIES OF GENE EXPRESSION AND 55,000

REGULATION IN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

•he University of Melbourne Species of filamentous fungi are used widely in industry for the production of antibiotics, enzymes and as potential sources of novel products including pharmaceuticals. Studies on the molecular genetics of gene regulation in the i laboratory species Aspergillus nidulans are well advanced.

In this project it is proposed to apply these principles to the study of related industrial fungal species which are less suitable for classical genetic studies. This will enable an understanding of the evolution of metabolic regulatory processes and the potential for developing genetically engineered fungi for commercial purposes.

,u

Molecular Biology (Contd)

Dr P Langridge Dr Μ E Tate Dr B G Clare

Adelaide University Strong positive selection markers provide the key to the effective transformation (genetic modification) of organisms. The absence or unreliability of such markers has been a major reason for the current difficulties in the genetic engineering of the winter cereals; wheat, rye and barley. We have had considerable experience in the chemical

synthesis of a series of compounds called opines that can be used as a sole nitrogen source for organisms providing they can be broken down (catabolised) by that organism. The catabolism is achieved by the protein product of certain bacterial genes. We plan to isolate these genes and use them to confer this nutritional survival advantage on cereals cells.

Assoc Prof Η B Lukins Dr P Nagley Professor A W Linnane

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Monash University The inner membrane of mitochondrial organelles contains the complex enzymatic machinery for the production of ATP, the energy-rich compound required to drive all the energy dependent processes of cell growth. The key enzyme of this machinery is the multicomponent ATP synthase complex. The

identity of protein subunits of yeast ATP synthase and their assembly into the complex is being determined in this project by correlating subunit deficiencies in mutant strains with alterations in composition and assembly detected by the use of subunit-specific antibodies. The

function of individual subunits and the processes of assembly of this enzyme complex are central to an understanding of energy transduction in cells.

Dr R F Martin DNA LIGANDS AS NOVEL RADIOMODIFIERS 30,00

Dr R Cooper FOR CANCER RADIOTHERAPY: MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF SENSITISATION AND PROTECTION OF DNA STRAND BREAKAGE

Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute The radiotherapy of cancer depends on the fact that radiation kills cells by damaging DNA. This project is aimed at developing drugs that modify the sensitivity of DNA to radiation. Preliminary studies have revealed a novel approach to the design of radiomodifying drugs. Mechanistic studies of these active compounds will be undertaken and the results used to develop more active drugs for application to radiotherapy.

STRUCTURE AND ASSEMBLY OF 44,00

MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES: A BIOCHEMICAL GENETIC FOCUS ON THE YEAST ATP SYNTHASE COMPLEX

GENERAL SELECTION MARKERS FOR THE 29,00 TRANSFORMATION OF EUKARYOTES AND THEIR APPLICATION TO THE WINTER CEREALS

r

Molecular Biology (Contd)

D r B K May REGULATION OF HEME BIOSYNTHESIS DURING 30,000

DIFFERENTIATION OF MUSCLE CELLS

Adelaide University Myoglobin is expressed in red skeletal muscle and heart muscle. In red skeletal muscle, myoglobin is formed upon differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes. Myoglobin

requires heme for catalytic activity and the supply of heme is an important aspect of the differentiation process. Nothing is known about the regulation of heme in muscle cells. The first enzyme of the heme pathway,

5-aminolevulinate synthase, may play a key role. Importantly, two genes exist for this enzyme. We plan to determine which gene is expressed during differentiation and I to investigate its control.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

DrC C Moritz ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF DUPLICATE 28,000

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCE

Nensland University The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of animals is compact, and evolves rapidly, with few rearrangements. In contrast, many mtDNA's from the HETERONOTIA BIONEI have over half their DNA

duplicated. This unusual system can be used to increase our understanding of why animal mtDNA's are typically so small, how rearrangements occur, and what types of mutations are established in the absence of functional constraints. This

information is basic to evolutionary and molecular biology and is relevant to understanding some debilitating human diseases (eg., Nature 331:717-719).

l r P Nagley FUNCTIONALLY RELOCATED MITOCHONDRIAL 64,000 l r R J Devenish GENES IN THE STUDY OF MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE ASSEMBLY

*°nash University Energy production in higher cells occurs on specialized membranes in the mitochondrial compartment. In this project a powerful new strategy is being applied, which derives from

our own discovery that genes naturally inside mitochondria can be functionally translocated to the cell nucleus. A novel genetic engineering approach is being used in yeast cells, in which the custom-designed artificial nuclear genes are propagated and activated in carefully controlled ways,

in order to systematically modulate mitochondrial membrane assembly, and hence, energy output.

Molecular Biology (Contd)

Dr P A O'Brien AMPLIFICATION OF NUTRITIONALLY 36,OC

ADVANTAGEOUS GENES IN PLANTS TO STIMULATE WOOL GROWTH IN SHEEP

Murdoch University The degradation of dietary proteins by rumen microorganisms reduces the supply of sulphur amino acids thus imposing a major limitation on wool growth. We have introduced a gene

for a sulphur rich rumen resistant protein into both tobacco and lucerne and shown that the gene is expressed in all plant tissues (O'Brien and Higgins, in preparation). However this strategy requires a high level expression of the gene, and the experiments proposed here are aimed at achieving this by gene amplification.

Professor R W Parish MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF GENE REGULATION 44,Oi AND DEVELOPMENT

La Trobe University During the growth of embryos, specialized tissues develop and the size and shape of these tissues, along with the regions where they appear, are strictly controlled. This development involves a continual interaction and exchange of chemical messages between cells in the embryo. Similar mechanisms maintain the organisation of the adult organism

and their failure can result, for example, in the formation and spread of tumour cells. We are identifying specific proteins which are situated at the surfaces of cells and are part of the control network. We are isolating the genes

that code for these proteins and studying the way the synthesis of the proteins is regulated.

Dr J M Pemberton DNA CLONING, SEQUENCING & REGULATION 37,0 OF BACTERIAL GENES WHICH DEGRADE THE ABUNDANT BIOL.CELLULOSE, STARCH, CHITIN, PECTIN, CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE & XYLAN

Queensland University The major organism in this study CELLVIBRIO MIXTUS is unique in the biological world in being able to degrade a wide range of biological polymers including cellulose, starch, xylan, pectin and chitin, and having the genes encoding these enzymes clustered in a single region of its chromosome. Hydrolytic enzymes of this type are of major biological significance in that they allow the recycling of virtually all the plant biomass produced by photosynthetic

fixation of C02. Such genes have important applications in plant genetic engineering and a variety of industrial and agricultural processes.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

(olecular Biology (ContdJ

I A A Piper THE ROLE OF METHYLATION IN THE 28,000

MECHANISM OF MAMMALIAN X-INACTIVATION

diversity of Technology Sydney Sex dosage compensation in female mammals is achieved by inactivation of one of their two X-chromosomes. This study will investigate the role of differential DNA inethylation in

the mechanism of X-inactivation in marsupials. The marsupial X-inactivation process appears to lack additional controls that are overlaid onto the eutherian inactive-X and thus may be a simpler system in which to elucidate the basic

underlying X-inactivation mechanism. These studies are significant because of their relevance to eukaryotic gene regulation.

'rofessor A J Pittard REGULATION OF AROMATIC AMINO ACID 76,000 BIOSYNTHESIS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI

' b e University of Melbourne This study involved (a) a detailed investigation of the way an important repressor protein recognizes and binds to a number of different target sites on the DNA thereby controlling the expression of adjacent genes and (b) a molecular analysis of the proteins that facilitates the

transport of aromatic amino acids through bacterial membranes and a search for a specific aromatic channel.

[professor P R Reeves 0 ANTIGEN GENES AS A MODEL FOR STUDY 109,530 OF EVOLUTION

I'Jney University The 0 antigen of bacteria such as Salmonella and E Coli varies greatly from strain to strain, like human blood group variation. This variation includes changed or added

enzyme functions, and should provide a good model for study of this basic step in the evolution of species. The genes involved will be cloned and analyzed to determine how the variation arose. 0 antigens are important in pathogenesis of Salmonella and E coli and there may well also be direct practical applications.

: R B Saint THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF EYE 41,000

DEVELOPMENT IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

tielaide University The study of animal development is one of the great frontiers in modern biological research and one that will impinge on many aspects of the biotechnological and biomedical sciences. We propose to extend our studies of development in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, by the analysis of genes required for pattern formation in the developing compound eye, a tissue whose cellular development is well-characterized. We propose to use a combination of molecular, genetic and cell biological techniques to study

... Cont/.

IROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Molecular- Biology (ContdJ

the function of these genes. The work promises to elucidate molecular mechanisms operating to control cell proliferation and differentiation during development.

Dr R A Skurray MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF THE CONJUGATIVE F PLASMID

Monash University Conjugational transfer of plasmid DNA provides an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance, toxin production and pathogenicity amongst microorganisms. It is

therefore of medical and economic importance to elucidate the nature of bacterial conjugation and the mechanisms of plasmid maintenance once a cell gains a plasmid. Studies are concentrating on the F-like plasmids which transmit

genes among enteric bacteria, the causative agents of diseases such as diarrhoea and dysentery which affect man and livestock on a world-wide scale.

Dr K S Sriprakash MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF CHLAMYDIA Dr M L Woods TRACHOMATIS: THE ROLE OF THE

CHLAMYDIAL PLASMID

Menzies School of Health Research The parasitic bacterium, CHLAMYDIA, has a small plasmid which is essential for the maintenance of chromosomal DNA. Therefore plasmid-less CHLAMYDIA is inviable. Therefore,

faithful partitioning (inheritance) of the plasmid molecule to the daughter cells is very important. What determines this partitioning? A detailed study of the genes on the plasmid may help understand the basic biology of this parasite. Isolation and regulation of the plasmid encoded product may help to determine the function of some of these proteins. We would also verify if any of the proteins will be a candidate for vaccine.

Professor E 0 Thompson GENOMIC DNA SEQUENCES CODING FOR Assoc Prof A G Mackinlay INVERTEBRATE HAEMOGLOBINS

University of N.S.W An understanding of the DNA coding for haemoglobins is relevant for many diseases, including thalassemia. The arrangement of coding and non-coding regions in the genes

for haemoglobins differs between vertebrates and invertebrates, and this project aims to investigate and understand this arrangement and how it has changed with time in the evolution of species.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Molecular Biology (Contd)

)r J N Timmis ISOLATION OF GENES CONTROLLING 33,000

professor A Kerr PLANT/PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS IN PSEUDOMONAS SOLANACEARUM

Adelaide University P SOLANACEARUM, a destructive plant pathogen, causes bacterial wilt in more than 30 plant families, many of commercial importance. We propose to study the molecular basis of pathogenicity by using transposon mutagenesis and recombinant DNA techniques to isolate genes controlling host/pathogen specificity at the race/cultivar level and those of the hypersensitive reaction on non-host plants. Transposon mutants will be used to isolate the relevant

genes from a wild-type cosmid library. Knowledge of the mechanism of pathogenicity should contribute to formulating a biological control strategy for bacterial wilt.

) r B J Wainwright MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN 43,000

INT-l-LIKE PROTEIN (ILP) GENE

iueensland University We have previously isolated a human gene sequence (ILP) which is homologous to a gene thought to cause mammary tumours in mice. This gene has no defined role in man, yet

its equivalent in other species leads to errors in development and differentiation. This project seeks to further define the role of the human ILP gene through

analysis of human tissue and through the creation of a mouse defective for ILP expression.

SROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

'rofessor R G Wake STUDIES ON TERMINATION OF CHROMOSOME 104,070 REPLICATION AND INITIATION OF CELL DIVISION IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS

"ydney University The process of cell growth and division (the cell cycle) is central to biology, and particularly relevant to the problem of cancer. At present we are far from understanding the molecular nature of events associated with the cell cycle and the aim of this project is to increase this understanding. Under certain growth conditions the bacterial cell cycle is remarkably similar to that of higher organisms (animals and plants) and the information obtained with bacteria, which are a lot easier to study, will have wider implications.

Dr J R Wells MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS OF CIS AND

TRANS FACTORS WHICH REGULATE S-PHASE TRANSCRIPTION OF HISTONE HI GENES

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Molecular Biology (Contd)

Adelaide University By creating novel transformed cell lines, we have defined an HI histone gene specific promoter sequence (core sequence, 5' AAACACA 3') which is required for the burst of HI gene transcription in S-phase of the cell cycle.

A factor (Hl-SF) interacts with this sequence specifically. Levels of Hl-SF are maximal during S-phase suggesting a positive role for it in transcription regulation. Scale up and refinement of methods will allow isolation of

sufficient Hl-SF for further characterisation and subsequent isolation of the Hl-SF gene.

Molecular studies at the transcriptional, and post-translational level will then be possible.

Dr D M Woodcock RGL HOST STRAINS AND IMPROVED Dr M W Graham RECOMBINANT CLONING

Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute An essential part of recombinant DNA technology is the construction of genomic "libraries" (i.e. a set of clones representing all of the DNA in that genome). However many

DNA sequences are under-represented or absent from even the very best genomic libraries. We have very recently found ways to construct much more representative eukaryotic genomic libraries. The most immediate economic gain will be

in plant biotechnology but will also facilitate the recombinant cloning of animal genes.

Biochemistry o f Reproduction

Dr A P Avolio CHANGES IN AORTIC WALL STRUCTURE WITH Dr B G Celler AGE AND HYPERTENSION: MORPHOLOGICAL QUANTIFICATION USING COMPUTERISED IMAGE ANALYSIS

University of N.S.W This project uses advanced computer image analysis techniques to investigate age related structural changes in arteries in man and to compare these changes with those caused by hypertension. The results will provide new quantitative data on age related changes in structure and

function of arteries, to better understand the progression of cardiovascular disease with age.

I I s K Baker AN INTERACTION BETWEEN IRON AND 42,000

SULPHUR AFFECTS MICROBIAL PROTEIN

;RODP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

biochemistry o f Reproduction (Contd)

Iniversity of Western Australia The project will lead to a better fundamental understanding of the energy transactions by the microbial population in the rumen in relation to the yield of microbial protein and trace-element nutrition of ruminants. Since wool growth responds more to the supply of protein than energy from the

rumen, this understanding has a direct bearing on the production of wool.

'rofessor S D Bradshaw PHYSIOLOGICAL HOMEOSTASIS OF BIRDS AND 65,000 i r P C withers SMALL MAMMALS IN A DESERT ECOSYSTEM & t R D Wooller ITS CONTROL IN RELATION TO AVAILABLE MATERIAL AND ENERGY RESOURCES

Iniversity of Western Australia Birds and small mammals are both conspicuous inhabitants of deserts of the world, but differ in their overall survival strategies. Birds are diurnal and highly mobile, whereas

small mammals are sedentary, and avoid the full onslaught of the arid situation through nocturnality. Utilisation of vital resources must differ substantially between the two groups and this will be measured in relation to the animals' well being, thus providing a basis for understanding and

conserving this complex and unique desert ecosystem.

rofessor C Bryant THE ROLE OF THE HOST IMMUNE RESPONSE 45,000 rM J Howell IN METABOLIC REGULATION AND GENE EXPRESSION IN PARASITIC HELMINTHS

ustralian National University Parasitic helminths encompass adaptive flexibility in their biochemical and molecular mechanisms and these processes vary in response to changes in the host environment. This project will study the associations between the fundamental biochemical strategies operating in parasites, their origin

in the way the parasites genome is regulated and/or expressed, and the immune status of their hosts. A correlation between host immunology and regulation of gene expression in parasites necessitates that we expand or modify the conceptual framework of biochemical mechanisms to

encompass the implications of the dynamic nature of a host-parasite relationship.

Dr J Clulow MECHANISMS OF WATER AND ELECTROLYTE Professor R C Jones REABSORPTION FROM THE DUCTULI EFFERENTES TESTIS OF THE RAT

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biochemistry of Reproduction (Contd)

Newcastle University The project will lead to an understanding of how the ducts draining the testis (ductuli efferentes testis) produce changes in the fluid environment of the epididymis which are essential for sperm to acquire the capacity to fertilize ova. The project will also establish a new model system for studying kidney tubule function.

Dr D I Cook PATCH-CLAMP STUDY OF ELECTROLYTE

Professor J A Young SECRETION BY SHEEP SALIVARY GLANDS

Sydney University Sheep salivary glands exhibit unique features which, if investigated, will enable us to add to existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which epithelia secrete fluid and electrolytes, and the manner in which the rate of secretion is controlled. We propose (i) to characterise the ion channels in the plasma membranes of secretory cells from sheep salivary glands, (ii) to discover the ionic mechanisms underlying spontaneous secretion, a special feature of the sheep parotid gland, (iii) to characterise the ion channels

found in the apical plasma membrane of sheep parotid secretory cells (this gland is one of the few in which it is technically possible to do this) and, (iv) to determine the mechanisms by which neurotransmitters control the activity of ion channels in sheep salivary secretory cells.

Dr I R Cooke THE ROLE OF COMPETITION IN THE

DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF PATTERNS OF INHIBITORY INNERVATION

Deakin University Inhibitory neurons are of critical importance in the perception of environmental stimuli and in shaping animal behaviour. However, the mechanisms which determine how the precise patterns of connections made by inhibitory neurons develop and become 'Stable are largely unknown. These will be investigated using a simple, but generally applicable, animal model, the neuromuscular system of the crayfish. The general hypotheses that competition between inhibitory neurons is of critical importance in the development and maintenance of stable patterns of inhibitory connections will be tested.

Biochemistry of Reproduction (Contd)

Dr J D Curlewis PURIFICATION OF MARSUPIAL PITUITARY 45,000 HORMONES PROLACTIN LH AND FSH

Queensland University An understanding of marsupial reproductive physiology is important for captive breeding programmes of rare species and management of our natural resources. In addition the

unusual mechanisms provide a unique model for biomedical research. For further advances to be made in this field, special methods that will enable scientists to measure protein hormones in the blood of marsupials must be developed. In this study, marsupial hormones will be purified by advanced biochemical techniques. The pure

hormones will then be used to develop hormone assays which will be used to study the blood levels of reproductive hormones at different stages of the breeding season and

reproductive cycle in species such as koala, wallaby and possum.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

)rC B Daniels STUDY OF THE LUNG OF THE CENTRAL 32,000

tesoc Prof T E Nicholas NETTED DRAGON WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE SURFACTANT SYSTEM

flinders University Reptilian pulmonary surfactant contains the same essential ingredients as mammalian surfactant, but is apparently extremely insensitive to major fluctuations in temperature.

Mammalian surfactant is extremely sensitive to temperature and its failure may lead to respiratory distress and death. This study examines the functions of surfactant in lizard lungs and the mechanism behind the temperature

insensitivity. Such a study may elucidate the functional and evolutionary significance of surfactant in the lungs of air breathing animals.

'rA Georges INFLUENCE OF FLUCTUATING TEMPERATURES 25,000 ON THE OUTCOME OF SEXUAL DIFFERENT­ IATION IN THE MARINE TURTLE CARETTA CARETTA

anberra College Of Advanced Education This project will test a model of the action of fluctuating nest temperatures on hatching sex ratios, and so provide insight into the action of temperature under natural conditions greater than can be provided by previous

laboratory studies at constant temperatures. The findings will have implications for the design of future field studies and will have management implications where eggs are

incubated in artificial nests.

Biochemistry o f Reproduction (Contd)

Professor P Greenaway SALT AND WATER BALANCE AND 40,000

NITROGENOUS EXCRETION IN LAND CRABS

University of N.S.W Colonization of land by crabs is recent and ongoing. It offers the opportunity to study and understand the changes in physiological processes necessary for terrestrial life in these animals and the much earlier invasions by insects and vertebrates. Land crabs are favoured food items in tropical

areas and their culture requires a basic understanding of their physiology which this and previous projects are designed to supply.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Dr D L Hayman ELECTROPHORETIC STUDIES OF 33,000

INCOMPATIBILITY MUTANTS IN PHALARIS COERULESCENS

Adelaide University Gel electrophoretic studies will be made of extracts from the stigmas and pollen of a unique series of mutants nullifying the specificity of the self-incompatibility system

in the grass PHALARIS COERULESCENS. Changes in proteins and/or carbohydrates associated with the mutants will identify these as the molecules involved in the specificity. No such knowledge is presently available. It is essential for a molecular biological analysis and artificial control of the system.

Assoc Prof D M Jackson DOPAMINE AND 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE; 35,000 Dr E J Mylecharane THEIR ROLE AND INTERACTION IN CONTROLLING MOTOR FUNCTION IN RODENTS

Sydney University The neurotransmitters, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, are both involved in controlling certain aspects of motor function. Most researchers have studied one or the other. A few early studies indicate an interdependence between

these neurotransmitters. This project will use recently developed specific agonists and antagonists at the various receptor subtypes for these 2 neurotransmitters to further explore this interdependence.

Biochemistry of Reproduction (Contd)

professor R B Knox MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF POLLEN 66,000

DEVELOPMENT IN AN OILSEED CROP

The University of Melbourne Pollen grains, the male element of plant life, are vital for seed-setting in flowering plants. Yet little is known of the processes by which they are formed.

Outlined here is an integrated research approach employing powerful gene cloning methods and using carefully selected model systems to understand the genetic control of the male program in plants and to apply this knowledge in developing

novel techniques of hybrid seed production for oilseed.

Dr D L MacMillan A PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL 32,000 ANALYSIS OF A COMPLEX ANIMAL SERVO- CONTROL SYSTEM

The University of Melbourne The interplay of neural and mechanical factors underlying even simple movements by animals is so complex that our understanding of this important process is still rudimentary. Animals like engineers, employ servo-loops to

stabilise and control movement but again, details are lacking. One of the most interesting and potentially informative model systems is that controlling the position of the crayfish abdomen. Work on its analysis almost halted

some twelve years ago because of experimental difficulties. This project proposes the use of more recent technology to fake up the analysis again.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Dr L Martin REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY & SEASONALITY 4 5 ,0 0 0

Dr A W Blackshaw OF FLYING FOXES (GENUS PTEROPUS): HORMONAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS.

Q u e e n s l a n d University We are determining how reproduction is regulated in flying foxes (large bats found in Asia, Oceania, Australia). Australian species (largely blossom feeders and important

pollinators of night flowering hardwoods) sporadically attack commercial fruit; growers see them as pests. Overseas, 15/60 species are recently extinct/endangered; locals are at risk from habitat destruction/persecution.

Information from our research is essential for population control, conservation, captive breeding of endangered species. Control of ovarian function is so unusual that our observations will also have important applications in other

species.

Professor A J Pittard EXPRESSION VECTORS FOR INDUSTRIAL 36,000 FERMENTATIONS

The University of Melbourne One of the greatest problems to be overcome in constructing micro-organisms able to give increased yields in industrial fermentations is the instability of the highest producing

strains. This project proposes to investigate two strategies to overcome this problem for fermentation processes producing primary metabolites such as amino acids.

Dr K C Richardson A COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF 30,000 Dr R D Wooller THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACTS OF HONEYEATERS (AVES: MELIPHAGIDAE) IN RELATION TO THEIR DIETS.

Murdoch University Honeyeaters are the most diverse family of birds in Australia and, although some species are common, many are now very rare or extremely restricted in their distribution.

This project aims to identify those unique structural specialities of selected bird species which have been moulded by their dietary regimes or particular habitats. Then, it should be possible to use these morphological

indicators as inexpensive and rapid guides to the management and conservation of a wide range of bird species worldwide.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biochemistry o f Reproduction (Contd)

Professor B P Setchell IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE PEPTIDE AND INTER- 52,000 LEUKIN LIKE ACTIVITY IN THE TESTES AND ASSOCIATED FLUIDS OF BULLS AND RAMS

Adelaide University The peptides we propose to study are important in regulating the immune response in the testis. If they are transported to other tissues nearby they may be important in prostate cancer and AIDS. Their purification may help our understanding of why immunologically foreign grafts are rejected.

Dr M

Dr P J Smith R Baverstock

REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF HYBRIDS BETWEEN AUSTRALIAN RATTUS SPECIES. 40,000

S.A. Museum The eight Australian Rattus species offer a unique natural situation in which the contribution made by chromosomal versus genetic factors to reproductive isolation can be

separated and assessed independently. Many of the species hybridise in the laboratory to produce offspring with various levels of reduced fertility. The cause of low fertility and reproductive isolation is being investigated by locating precisely the points at which reproduction and development are impaired. This will lead to a better

. . . Cont/.

IF

biochemistry of Reproduction (Contd)

understanding of the process of speciation and should yield insights into the genetic cause of reproductive failure.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Assoc Prof G M Stone REPRODUCTION IN THE KOALA 27,000

Dr R K Dickens (PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS)

Sydney University Although considerable concern has been expressed about the future of the Koala, there are few published data on the regulation of Koala reproduction. In particular there has

been a lack of controlled longitudinal studies of the level of the reproductive hormones, as reproductive activity changes. The project will generate such data which are intrinsically desirable and are necessary for the later development of artificial breeding techniques in this

species.

Structure and In feeti vi ty o f Viruses

Assoc Prof W F Robinson VACCINATION STRATEGIES TO PROTECT 32,000 Dr T M Ellis AGAINST LENTIVIRUS INFECTION USING CAPRINE ARTHRITIS-ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS INFECTION AS A MODEL

M u r d o c h University One of the priorities associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the development of a vaccine. It is not that candidate vaccines against human

immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be produced, but whether they are protective and safe. A caprine lentivirus, CAE virus, is related to HIV and serves as an animal model of a lentiviral infection. As such, CAE virus infection is used

to test the effectiveness of candidate lentiviral vaccines.

Dr J M Whalley STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF EQUINE 30,000

A s s o c Prof M Sabine HERPESVIRUS GENOMES A s s o c Prof D N Love

Macquarie University Herpesviruses cause a variety of disease syndromes in animals and man. In this project techniques of molecular biology are being used to compare the genetic material of equine herpesviruses with that of other herpesviruses, i particularly the human herpes simplex viruses. This is

revealing key features necessary for infection and provides a basis for the development of vaccines or drugs against herpesviruses, specifically against equine abortion virus, a major cause of abortion in mares and of neonatal deaths of

foals.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biochemistry o f the Immune Response

Dr R H Andrews MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEMATICS Dr G Mayrhofer POPULATION STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT PARASITE GIARDIA

Adelaide University We will apply molecular genetic techniques to investigate the evolution, speciation and population structure of the medically important protozoan parasite Giardia. The unique

significance of this proposal is the large number of potential genetic markers we have established as which can provide a sound genetically based systematics of Giardia within which to interpret the results of ecological,

immunological and biochemical investigations. The results may have important medical and environmental applications.

Dr L Dalgarno EARLY EVENTS IN THE INTERACTION OF Dr R C Weir DENGUE VIRUS AND SUSCEPTIBLE CELLS

Dr I D Marshall

Australian National University Dengue viruses cause widespread disease in the tropics and sub-tropics where around one thousand children die annually from the severe form. There is no vaccine. Virus grows in a subset of lymphocytes which release toxins causing haemorrhage. We will study the interaction between these cells and virus surface proteins made in quantity by recombinant DNA methods. We plan to identify the cell receptor for the virus which could be synthesised and used as an anti-virus drug.

Professor C Dobson GENETIC HETEROGENEITY IN Assoc Prof D P McManus NEMATOSPIROIDES DUBIUS BRED TO SURVIVE PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY IN MICE

Queensland University The work will analyse genetic heterogeneity among phenotypes of Nematospiroides dubius which show variety in their capacity to survive in immune mice. The aim is to test the hypothesis that such variation in the biology of parasites

is under genetic control.

Dr S B Easterbrook-Smith STRUCTURAL BASIS AND FUNCTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF CLQ:FC AND FC:FC INTERACTIONS

Sydney University Antibody molecules bind specifically to pathogenic cells; this process targets these cells for removal by the effector mechanisms of the immune system. These effector mechanisms recognise the FC parts of antibody molecules.

... Cont/.

biochemistry of the Immune Response (Contd)

The aim of this project is to provide an understanding of the structural basis for this recognition. Achieving this aim will be important because of the central role of antibody molecules in providing a defence against infectious diseases.

Dr I H Holmes ROTAVIRUS RECEPTORS AND INHIBITORS

The University of Melbourne Attachment of a virus to specific receptors on a host cell is the first essential event in its replication. When receptors have been identified, it may be possible to find ways to block them and thus prevent virus infection.

Rotaviruses are the major cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and many kinds of young animals, so we aim to study rotavirus receptors and methods of interfering with rotavirus infection.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Assoc Prof D N Love VIRULENCE FACTORS OF BLACK PIGMENTED BACTEROIDES SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH FELINE PERIODONTITIS

Sydney University An investigation of the virulence factors of asaccharolytic black pigmented Bacteroides will enable us to determine their significance in the pathogenesis of feline

periodontitis. The genetic investigation of these species will include development of gene probes for their rapid identification and will increase our understanding of virulence factors in potentially pathogenic bacteria. The work is of consequence to animal welfare, to companion

animal medicine and will enhance our understanding of aetiology and pathogenesis of human periodontitis.

Hr R L Raison MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES ON THE EVOLUTION OF ANTIGEN RECEPTORS

University of Technology Sydney Structurally related but distinct receptors for antigen are present on T and B lymphocytes of mammals. Our studies indicate the existence of a common ancestor of these two

forms of receptor in the hagfish, the most primitive living vertebrate. Characterization of this molecule at the 1 protein and gene level will improve our understanding of the more complex mammalian immune system.

43,000

30,000

35,000

Professor G R Shellam MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF PAPILLOMAVIRUSES 35,θ| Dr J K Kulski IN INBRED HAIRLESS MICE

University of Western Australia The significance of our finding and proposed further molecular study of Papillomavirus (PV) DNA in the inbred hairless mouse is that it can yield important information on

the evolution, distribution and natural history of these viruses in the animal kingdom. In addition, this mouse species could be developed as a laboratory model to study the role of PVs in the aetiology of skin cancers and

immunoresponses to infection with the aim of developing vaccines against PV infections.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biochemistry of the Immune Response (Contd)

Dr L M Tilley HOST PARASITE INTERACTIONS AND 25,000

MEMBRANE EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH

FALCIPARUM INFECTIONS ERYTHROCYTES OF HUMAN

La Trobe University Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of human malaria. This project employs unique luminescence spectroscopic techniques to examine host-parasite

interactions in the intra-erythrocyte stages of this malaria parasite. The proteins and the lipid components, which are critical to the parasitic process, will be identified and characterised in the expectation that this will aid the

future design of anti-malarial drugs and vaccines. ·

Biochemistry o f the Nervous System

Dr J M Hughes ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC COMPONENTS 35,00 Dr Μ P Zalucki OF ACTIVITY TIMES IN DIURNAL AND Ms J Bodero NOCTURNAL LEPIDOPTERA

Griffith University Cold-blooded animals such as insects become active, mate, lay eggs, eat plants, etc. only when temperatures are appropriate. Identifying the contribution of genotype and environmental components to flight activity as this project aims to do, is an important prerequisite to understanding diurnal, seasonal and geographic changes in activity patterns of insects.

professor A P Mead TO INVESTIGATE AUSTRALIAN TURBELLARIAN WORM PREDATORS, GENUS MESOSTOMA, TO ASSESS THEIR USE IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES IN SMALL VOLUME ENVIRON.

S.A.I .T. Control of mosquito populations is difficult. Resistant strains are produced which survive insecticides, toxins and parasites. Of the many known mosquito predators only a few have been used with limited success. The Neorhabdocoele Turbellarian worm Mesostoma is an aquatic predator of mosquitoes which, it is postulated, has the characteristics

to be used in mosquito biological control in small volume or container habitats. The little known Australian forms will be investigated to verify this.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

biochemistry of the Nervous System (Contd)

Dr A W Meats FACTORS ENHANCING THE ROLE OF THE

Assoc Prof F J McDonald PARASITIC WASP, TRISSOLCUS BASALIS, IN THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PENTATOMID BUGS

Sydney University Identify the features of farms and farming methods that increase the effectiveness of the biological control agent, Trissolcus basalis in suppressing pest bug populations. Quantify the impact of Trisolcus on native bugs and establish, for each species, whether this relationship is

likely to enhance or hinder the control of pest bug populations, and whether any harmful effects on the native species can be avoided.

Assoc Prof R A Rush A NEW NEURONAL GROWTH FACTOR: ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND FUNCTION

flinders University It is now well established that neurons require specific growth factors to survive. Although several factors have been identified, only Nerve Growth Factor has been isolated

in sufficient quantities to allow characterization both of the molecule and its biological activities. This project examines a newly described factor that we have purified from chickens. Amino acid sequence analysis of the factor will allow both antibody production and gene isolation. The purified factor, antibodies and cDNA will be used as probes to examine the physiology of the molecule, particularly in development.

3 0 , 0 0 0

35,000

39,000

Dr C J Webb SILK PRODUCTION AND THE ECOLOGY OF

Mr D L Parry AUSTRALIAN CHIRONOMID FLIES

Northern Territory University The project aims to investigate silk-spinning mechanisms and the biochemistry and ultrastructure of silks produced by larvae of chironomid flies, the single most important group of freshwater macroinvertebrates in Australia and potentially of considerable nuisance value to humans. Silk production, which has been poorly investigated, is important

in the success of many chironomid larvae and its detailed study will significantly increase our understanding of the biology of these ubiquitous, numerous and diverse insects.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biochemistry of the Nervous System (Contd)

Electron Microscope Techniques in Biology

Dr A T Marshall HIGH RESOLUTION X-RAY MICROANALYSIS OF ION AND WATER TRANSPORTING EPITHELIA

La Trobe University Methods will be developed to permit x-ray microanalysis of extremely small microvolumes within cells and in extracellular space in sections of frozen-hydrated tissues and organs. The organs of interest are concerned with the regulation of body fluid composition of a variety of animal species. Successful accomplishment of this form of analytical electron microscopy will lead to significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental processes involved in the movement of ions and water across secretory and absorptive epithelia. This in turn may have important medical applications. A corollary may be the development of methods which are also useful for the analysis of non-living materials such as man-made polymers.

Blochem and Physical Chem of Proteins and Enzymes

Dr A P Arnold THE INFLUENCE OF ENDOGENOUS METAL Dr J G Collins BINDING ON THE SOLUTION CONFORMATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PEPTIDES

University of N.S.W The shape (conformation) of a biological molecule often determines its biological activity, in a lock-and-key manner with enzymes and hormones etc. This project investigates a new approach to study the shape of biologically active peptide molecules. By allowing bioactive peptides to

interact with metal ions such as zinc, which will always be present under physiological conditions, strong bonds between the metal and the peptide will induce a 'preferred' shape to the peptide. This will potentially provide a more rational

... Cont/.

Blochem and Physical Chem o f Proteins and Enzymes

approach to the design of drugs to enhance or reduce peptide bioactivity than has been possible to date.

3R0UP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

U P V Attwood AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANISM OF CATALYSIS OF PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE ΑΝΓ ITS REGULATION AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL BY THE METABOLIC ACTIVATOR, ACETYL COA

university of Western Australia The enzyme, pyruvate carboxylase, is implicated in epilepsy in man and the fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chickens. Both of these diseases are of considerable economic

importance. We propose to study how the activity of the enzyme is controlled at the molecular level.

l r F M Clarke THE STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES RELATED TO CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS

klffith University The project aims to determine the molecular structures of the sites of interaction between actin, the major cytoskeletal protein, and a number of proteins including the enzyme aldolase, known to be involved in regulating the

structure and function of the cytoskeletal apparatus of all animal cells. The objective is to use this knowledge to specify and design synthetic peptide reagents which may be applied to cells to mimic or modify these interactions to induce predictable changes and so regulate, many essential cellular processes including cell motility and metabolism.

I r W D Comper HYDRODYNAMICS OF THE INTERSTITIUM

lonash University The interstitium is the intervening space in the body between cells and the vascular compartment; it occupies most tissues and is often referred to as the extra-cellular matrix. The normal function of tissues depends very much on ) how water is distributed and moves in this interstitium or

matrix. For example, when a tissue swells through inflammation, it is the interstitium of the blood capillary wall which has facilitated water movement into the tissue in some way. The normal functioning of cartilage on the ends

of bones in the joint relies totally on its ability to retain water - i.e. for cartilage to resist compression and protect bone, it has to retain water as water itself is highly incompressible. This project sets out to investigate the molecular machinery in tissues which regulates the flow

and distribution of water.

27 ,000

36,000

25,000

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biochem and Physical Chem of Proteins and Enzymes

Dr J De Jersey INVESTIGATION OF THE ACTIVE SITE OF Dr R B Gordon HUMAN HYPOXANTHINE-GUANINE PHOSPHORI- Professor B T Emmerson BOSYLTRANSFERASE BY CHEMICAL MODIFIC. & SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENISIS

Queensland University This project concerns the enzyme HPRT (hypoxathine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase), a catalyst which is involved in the biosynthesis of purine nucleotides (building blocks of DNA). Genetic deficiency of HPRT in humans results in clinical disorders such as gout. The enzyme is also needed to activate drugs such as the anti-cancer drug,

6-mercaptopurine. In parasites, HPRT is a potential target for drugs designed to combat several serious parasitic diseases. The aim of the project is to learn which parts of the HPRT molecule are important in its function as a catalyst so that its action in cells may be understood and

controlled.

Dr R G Duggleby DEVELOPMENT OF PROCEDURES TO FACILITATE KINETIC STUDIES OF ENZYME- CATALYSED REACTIONS

Queensland University Throughout the entire 20th century, measurements of the activity of an enzyme have been dominated by a single idea, viz. initial rates. The principle reasons for this, while valid for the technology of 1900, are no longer sensible today. I have been working for some years on extracting the wealth of information which is contained in entire reaction progress curves and this project will extend the range of problems to which the technique can be applied.

Dr R G Duggleby CRUCIAL STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF Professor J S Mattick PYRUVATE DECARBOXYLASE. A COMBINED APPROACH USING PROTEIN CHEMISTRY AND SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS

Queensland University Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is an enzyme which enables the conversion of Pyruvate to Acetaldehyde, a reaction which is essential for almost all living organisms. The enzyme is not active unless a derivative of vitamin B1 (thiamin diphosphate) is present and some aspects of a nutritional deficiency of this vitamin can be explained as a result of the reduction in PDC activity. The broad aim of the present project is to attempt to identify those regions of PDC which are essential for its biological activity, using a combination of selective chemical modification and specific mutation. These studies will be done on the enzyme from the

harmless bacterium, ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS.

29,00

25,00

26,00

liochem and Physical Chem o f Proteins and Enzymes

tofessor P F Hall AFFINITY ACTIVE SITE ALKYLATION OF STEROIDOGENIC CYTOCHROMES P-450

ROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Iniversity of N.S.W I will affinity label the active site of two cytochromes P-450 (aromatase and 170-hydroxylase), using bromoacetoxy steroids which on incubation with the enzymes derivatise amino acids at the active sites. The derivatised proteins will be subjected to acid hydrolysis and proteolytic digestion to determine which amino acids are located at the

active sites of the enzymes.

’ rofessor Μ T Hearn

ionash University These studies are designed to provide new procedures for the simultaneous optimisation of chromatographic resolution and the assessment of compositional integrity of eluted biomacromolecules using new solvent optimisation and

spectroscopic algorithms. These investigations will form the basis of advanced computer-controlled strategies which will enable concomitant assessment of resolution, recovery and peak identification in the chromatographic analysis of biological macromolecules of natural and rDNA origin.

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM APPROACH FOR ANALYTICAL HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF

PEPTIDES, PROTEIN AND POLYNUCLEOTIDES

jr E Helmerhorst MAPPING OF THE INSULIN BINDING DOMAIN OF THE INSULIN RECEPTOR USING NOVEL PHOTOAFFINITY LABELLING TECHNIQUES

; urtin University of Technology This project utilises and extends the technique of photoaffinity labelling to obtain details about the molecular structure of the insulin receptor. The detailed

definition of the molecular structure of the insulin receptor will provide a model to explain the basis of the insulin receptor's biological and immunological behaviour, its physiochemical properties and the evolution of its

primary structure. In the long term, more effective treatment and perhaps prevention of insulin-related diseases may follow the complete elucidation of the insulin-receptor interaction and the coupling of this interaction with the

cellular responses of insulin. Furthermore, this study provides the first direct approach to probe for conformational changes in the insulin-receptor complex. These conformational changes may be important in conveying the message of insulin into the cell.

3 8 , 0 0 0

41,000

35,610

Biochem and Physical Chem of Proteins and Enzymes

Dr P B Hoj ACTIVE SITES AND SUBSTRATE

SPECIFICITIES IN A FAMILY OF RELATED B-GLUCAN ENDOHYDROLASES

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

La Trobe University The functioning of any cell is a result of the specific recognition and transformation of individual substrates by enzymes. Although strict substrate specificity is almost always observed with catalytic enzymes the molecular arrangements ensuring this specificity is in most cases unknown. In this project we will address this problem by

investigating the molecular basis for catalysis in closely related polysaccharide hydrolases.

Professor Μ E Howden STUDIES ON TETANUS TOXIN AND Dr I Spence TEXTILOTOXIN

Dr Μ I Tyler

Deakin University Tetanus toxoid (as currently prepared) is not as specific as is desirable, and has adverse side effects. The project will aim to develop highly specific synthetic tetanus toxin

and monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies against tetanus toxin to provide a more stable efficacious vaccine. The nature of the lethal brown snake venom (textilotoxin) and its mode of action will be determined, with the purpose of developing an effective anti-venom.

Assoc Prof C R Hewlett CELLULAR ADHESION AND GROWTH ON ION Professor J C Kelly BEAM MODIFIED MATERIALS

University of N.S.W Materials can be altered to enhance or discourage cell attachment and growth by ion beam implantation. Using this technology, reactive surfaces can be created by inserting elements of any kind into the substrate of choice at varying depths without affecting the bulk properties of the chosen material. These modified substrates will be defined

chemically and electrically, and tested for their effect on growth spread and multiplication of cells cultured onto them.

Dr G F King Professor R G Wake

Sydney University Replication of chromosomes is fundamental to cell growth and division and yet little is known about the molecular mechanism by which this process is precisely terminated. Wake's group in Sydney have recently demonstrated that

... Cont/.

DETERMINATION OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF REPLICATION TERMINATOR PROTEIN OF BACILLUS SUBTILIS USING HIGH RESOLUTION NMR SPECTROSCOPY

Eiochem and Physical Chem o f Proteins and Enzymes

replication arrest in Bacillus subtilis involves binding of a 14.5 kDa protein to a short segment of DNA in the termination region of the chromosome. Examination of the three-dimensional structure of this protein using NMR

spectroscopy will enable a better understanding of how it recognises and binds DNA and how termination is achieved.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Dr M F Lavin DEFECT IN DNA TOPOISOMERASE II

ACTIVITY IN HUMAN GENETIC DISORDER ATAXIA-TELANGIECTASIA

Qld Institute Of Medical Research Ataxia-telangiectasia one of a series of human genetic diseases in which chromosomal instability is correlated with an increased incidence of malignancy. Furthermore

heterozygotes or carriers of the gene, while appearing clinically normal, have a 5-fold greater risk of developing a number of different tumours than the general population. Since it has been estimated that heterozygotes represent

approximately 1% of the population this disease becomes a very significant model for studying a molecular mechanism for predisposition to cancer. The recent description of a

defect in the enzyme DNA topoisomerase II in A-T by this group is the first major lead in understanding the deficiency in this syndrome.

Professor A W Murray DIFFERENTIAL MEMBRANE ASSOCIATION OF PROTEIN KINASE C SUBSPECIES

Flinders University This project explores the role of protein kinase C in transmembrane signalling. In particular, the question of whether the various forms of the kinase differentially

associate with membrane following stimulation of cells with regulatory molecules will be examined.

Assoc Prof R S Norton NMR STUDY OF STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS IN SEA ANEMONE POLYPEPTIDES

University of N.S.W Sea anemones contain a number of small proteins with cardiac stimulatory activity superior in most respects to that of the digitalis glycosides currently used in cardiac therapy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is being used to determine the three-dimensional structures of several of the naturally occuring proteins, as well as some analogues with

specific amino acid substitutions. These studies will provide a detailed understanding at the molecular level of how these proteins stimulate the heart.

26,000

30,000

50,000

Biochem and Physical Chem of Proteins and Enzymes

Assoc Prof B N Preston DIFFUSIVE AND CONVECTIVE TRANSPORT IN BIOLOGICAL AND MODEL SYSTEMS

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Monash University Our studies of the formation of structured convective flows has wide ramifications in various fields (e.g., oceanography, astrophysics and geology) where multicomponent convection" has been studied (Chen & Johnson, J. Fluid Mech.

(1984) 138, 405-416). Furthermore, thermodialysis as a technique for separation of components of a mixture may be of great significance. The applicant is aware of the comparatively smaller cost of reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration processes compared with one driven by a temperature gradient. However, with the abundant supply of solar energy in Australia, thermodialysis may have a real commercial value and make some practical separation processes economically attractive.

Assoc Prof B N Preston THE INTERACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CELL Dr Μ P Van damme SURFACE POLYSACCHARIDES: DEV. OF A Dr W H Murphy MODEL SYS. USING SULPHATED POLY­ SACCHARIDES IMMOBILIZED ON GEL MATRICE

Monash University A model of the cell surface will be developed by linking sulphated polysaccharides to commercially available gel beads. This model will enable the study of the binding properties of polysaccharides associated with most cell

types. Changes in these properties are believed to cause "leakage" of serum components from tissues leading to various kidney and vascular disorders. The structure of the polysaccharides anchored to the beads will be modified in order to mimic changes due to molecular degradation reported

in various pathological conditions.

Dr G B Ralston AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SELF ASSOCIATION OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE SPECTRIN UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH THERMODYNAMIC NON-IDEALITY

Sydney University Biological interactions take place within the cell in an environment quite different from that usually used to study them. This project investigates the effects of high concentrations of proteins and other molecules on the association behaviour of human spectrin, in order to understand more fully the way this protein functions in controlling the shape and survival of the red blood cell.

I Biochcm and Physical Chem o f Proteins and Enzymes

i: w H Sawyer MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF CELL RECEPTORS AND CROSS-LINKED CYTOSKELETAL SYSTEMS

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

The University of Melbourne The shape and movement of a cell is manipulated and controlled by an internal cytoskeleton consisting of filamentous-like protein structures. The flexibility of this internal scaffold is being determined by using a pulsed

laser spectrometer to measure the time-resolved phosphorescence anisotrophy of suitably labelled cytoskeletal proteins. Details of the molecular mechanics of the cytoskeleton are important if the diseased state, as well as the natural state of the cell is to be understood

and controlled.

)r R W Smith STUDIES OF THE STRUCTURE, ORIENTATION, MOTION AND MECHANISM OF ACTION OF LYTIC PEPTIDES IN LIPID BILAYERS

jueensland University Cell lysis and ion permeability through cell membranes are two physiologically important but poorly understood phenomena. The proteins that cause such changes in biomembranes are generally too complex for detailed study, but there are a number of small peptides which appear to act

similarly. This project focuses on two such peptides, melittin (from bee venom) and alamethicin. The structure, orientation and motion of these peptides in membranes will be investigated to clarify the mechanism by which they change membrane properties.

I T P Walsh FUNCTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF STRUCTURAL HETEROGENEITY IN THE REGULATORY PROTEINS OF THE CONTRACTILE APPARATUS OF MUSCLE

‘ Ueensland University of Technology This project examines the regions of troponin-T, a constituent of the regulatory complex of muscle thin filaments, which may be involved in the transmission of

structural changes along the thin filament. It will identify the reasons for the variations in primary structure of troponin-T and help to understand how the behaviour of a multi-protein complex is determined by contributions from individual components.

3 7 , 0 0 0

30,000

42,000

Professor R E Wettenhall SOLID PHASE PROTEIN MICROSEQUENCING: GLYCOLYSATION/PHOSPHORYLATION SITE AND SUBPICOMOLE SEQUENCE ANALYSES

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biochem and Physical Chem of Proteins and Enzymes

The University of Melbourne New protocols for the automated structural analysis will be developed for commercially available protein sequenators. Proteins (peptides) will be covalently attached to glass discs to allow the use of more flexible sequencing protocols. The major objectives will be 1) to increase

sensitivity by reducing backgrounds and introducing novel methods of detection, and 2) to identify and characterise attachment sites for phosphoryl and carbohydrate groups. The new methodology will create new opportunities in basic

and applied research as well as contribute to the cost-effectiveness of the biotechnology industry.

Dr D J Winzor PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PROTEIN INTERATIONS

Queensland University The quantitative characterization of protein/enzyme interactions is a prerequisite for the complete understanding of physiological function, since the mere qualitative detection of an interaction provides no detail of the extent to which it occurs in the environment of the

living cell. An impediment to the quantitative characterization of these interactions has been the speed with which they attain equilibrium - a biological necessity from the viewpoint of metabolic regulation and control, but

a factor that precludes their study by classical methods. This project aims to develop and apply the appropriate methodology.

Professor B Zerner THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES

Queensland University This project seeks to understand the detailed chemistry of a wide variety of enzymes (biological catalysts) which speed up the reaction of water with many other molecules. This group of enzymes constitutes more than one third of all known enzymes, and the range of chemistry is broad indeed. Nature is very conservative in its approach and uses but a handful of acids provided by the protein of which all these enzymes are made. Sometimes a metal ion is also used to help as a kind of super acid. One system of current interest is the enzyme urease which uses nickel ion. Urease causes the breakdown of the most common of all agricultural

fertilizers, urea. This unwanted breakdown results in the wasteful loss of some 60% of all urea used. The rewards in ... Cont/.

Biochem and Physical Chem o f Proteins and Enzymes

the case of urease are potentially enormous (billions of dollars) because of its fundamental importance in agriculture.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Chemistry o f Natural Organic Substances

Dr M J Garson PRODUCTION OF BIOACTIVE METABOLITES BY 36,000 )r P T Murphy MARINE SPONGES - IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

STUDIES

follongong University There is current interest in the development of therapeutic agents from marine sources. The marine chemicals which have so far shown potent biological activity as anti-tumour or

anti-viral agents are not amendable to large scale chemical synthesis on a cost effective basis and may have to be developed as aquaculture products. The successful cultivation of marine organisms requires detailed knowledge of their biochemical and ecological strategies; such

information is currently lacking. This project therefore addresses methods by which marine sponges could be cultivated to produce quantities of bioactive metabolites for development and clinical trials.

Biochemistry and Metabolism of Microorganisms

)r L R Finch GENETICS AND METABOLISM OF MOLLICUTES 25,000

, ’ he University of Melbourne The mollicutes (meaning "soft-skinned"), including the mycoplasmas, are like bacteria but lack a cell wall. They live naturally in host tissues and can cause economically

serious diseases in plants and animals as well as affecting humans. The infections are often long-lasting and few antibiotics act against them. We are developing a study of mollicute genetics. The knowledge we obtain and the

techniques we develop will assist towards establishing methods to detect and identify infecting organisms, to produce antigens for immunisation and to characterise strains developed commercially for use as live vaccines.

Dr D E Catcheside THE REGULATION OF GENETIC RECOMBINATION

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biological Energy Conversion

Flinders University- Recombination accompanies sexual reproduction and leads to the rearrangement of parental genes inherited by offspring. The process is biologically regulated, limiting the degree to which progeny differ from their parents. This project seeks to describe the molecular basis of this control. This knowledge will aid the understanding of inherited genetic abnormalities, and the stability of genetically modified crop plants and domestic animals.

Dr R G Hiller THE STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF

PHOTOSYNTHETIC LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEINS CONTAINING CHLOROPHYLL C

Macquarie University Knowledge of the primary structure of chloroplast pigment proteins is crucial to our understanding of photosynthesis. The structure of chlorophyll C - containing complexes from algae is needed to complement our knowledge of higher plant complexes. This information can be applied to the construction of novel light-harvesting and fluorescing systems as research and diagnostic tools in cells biology and medicine.

Professor A B Hope Dr D B Matthews

Flinders University Photosynthesis is the basis of the food chain, makes natural fibre and fuel. It also produces oxygen and consumes carbon dioxide, and is thus a vital terrestrial process. Understanding photosynthesis is hence of the utmost

importance. This project is designed to find more about molecular interactions in this process in green plants. R & D on artificial solar energy conversion may and does draw with profit on knowledge of the natural process.

Professor E H Morgan MEMBRANE TRANSPORT OF TRANSFERRIN AND IRON

University of Western Australia Iron, which is essential for the function of all cells, is carried throughout the body bound to a protein, transferrin. It is transported into cells as the iron-transferrin complex but exactly how this is achieved is unknown. The project aims to solve this problem. This solution will aid

in understanding how cell membranes function and the causes, prevention and treatment of diseases in which there is iron overload or iron deficiency, when too much or too little ... Cont/.

ELECTRON TRANSFERS IN CHLOROPLASTS AND RECONSTITUTED PHOTOSYNTHETIC SYSTEMS: CONTROL OF RATES AND PATHWAYS IN AND AROUND THE CYTOCHROME B/F COMPLEX

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

biological Energy Conversion (Contd)

iron enters cells.

Genetics and Biochemistry o f Marsupials

Dr R M Hope MITOCHONDRIAL GENETICS AND DNA

Professor J H Bennett SEQUENCE IN AN AUSTRALIAN MARSUPIAL

Adelaide University A laboratory colony of the marsupial SMINTHOPSIS CRASSICADATA will be utilized for determining the molecular structure and genetics of marsupial mitochondrial DNA.

Genetic studies on marsupials contribute to knowledge of the biology of our native Australian fauna. They also provide a basis for comparison with the genetically well characterized placental mammals including humans. Such comparisons give an insight into the evolution and hence

mode of action of fundamental genetic processes.

i s s o c Prof M Messer MILK CARBOHYDRATES OF MARSUPIALS AND MONOTREMES

Sydney University The milk of marsupials and monotremes contains carbohydrates which are not found in the milks of other mammals. This project seeks to discover how these carbohydrates are

synthesised by the mother and assimilated by the pouch young, thus increasing our understanding of the important processes of lactation and development in Australian native mammals and providing essential data for designing diets for

hand-reared marsupials.

biochemistry of Insects

I s s o c Prof M Slaytor BIOCHEMISTRY OF TERMITES AND THEIR SYMBIOTIC MICROBIOTA

Sydney University Most discussions on termites in Australia would be on eradication. In evolutionary terms, termites are amongst the most successful land animals and preceded and survived

the dinosaurs. It is unrealistic to discuss eradication when little is known about their evolutionary success. Our proposed study of cellulose digestion and nitrogen fixation in termites will lead to a greater understanding of this. Like all basic research our project has already had

unpredictable 'spinoffs': e.g., termite bacteria have been used by CSIRO to make cheese.

34,000

25,000

29,000

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Genetics of Microorganisms

Dr A L Fimmel SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS OF THE C-SUBUNIT OF THE F1F0-ATPASE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

Australian National University Dr P R Fisher MOLECULAR AND CLASSICAL GENETICS OF DICTYOSTELIUM BEHAVIOUR

La Trobe University The activities of all cells are regulated by external signals - from the firing of a nerve cell to the growth of blood cells. During the last decade expanding research into how these signals are processed has shown that all eukaryotic (nonbacterial) cells share the same internal signal processing pathways. This knowledge is contributing to our understanding of disease as diverse as cancer, cholera and whooping cough. This project aims to explain

signal processing in eukaryotic cells by using a eukaryotic microbe that is easily handled experimentally. The cellular slime mould DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM is ideal because its behavioural responses to light, heat & chemicals can be

analysed by genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology.

Professor M J Hynes MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF GENE REGULATION IN ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS

The University of Melbourne Complex regulatory gene networks control the expression of enzymes that breakdown sources of carbon and nitrogen. This project involves the use of modern molecular genetic techniques to investigate the mechanisms of gene regulation involved and the ways in which the processes are integrated.

Knowledge gained from this is of relevance to industrial microbiology and to gaining an understanding of basic control mechanisms.

Dr M F Lavin CHLAMYDIAL DISEASE IN THE KOALA

(PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS)

Qld Institute Of Medical Research This study will investigate in more detail, CHLAMYDIA PSITTACI, a micro-organism responsible for disease and infertility in the koala. In addition it is designed to characterize antigen genes of C PSITTACI already cloned in this laboratory. This in turn will allow us to express these genes in attenuated strains of SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM as an approach to developing a live vaccine against C PITTACI in the koala. While loss of habitat represents the greatest threat to the koala, chylamydial disease is high on the list as a threat to this national symbol, and as such warrants more detailed study.

Genetics o f Microorganisms (Contd)

Cr P A Manning BIOSYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURE OF THE 46,000

Assoc Prof J W Redmond LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE 01

Adelaide University Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the most abundant molecule on the surface of Gram negative bacteria, representing a protective barrier and responsible for the serotype

specificity. In VIBRIO CHOLERAE the LPS is important in vaccines as an antigen to generate protection but it is also subject to variation. Elucidation of the molecular details of LPS biosynthesis and structure and how variation occurs

should provide a sounder basis for vaccine development.

Professor P Reeves DETERMINATION OF THE GENETIC STRUCTURE 37,000 AND DYNAMICS OF BACTERIAL POPULATIONS BY STUDY OF ALLELE DISTRIBUTIONS

Sydney University Many bacteria are now known to exist as clones, or strains, which remain unchanged for years. Thus for E COLI some clones cause diarrhoea, others urinary tract infection and most are non-pathogenic. New clones must arise by mutation

or occasional genetic exchange and we propose to develop DNA sequence fingerprint techniques to determine the relationships between clones, as an essential step in understanding bacterial populations, including the origin of new pathogenic clones. May lead to specific diagnostic

methods.

Dr J I Rood MOLECULAR GENETICS OF CLOSTRIDIUM 33,000

PERFRINGENS ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND TOXIN GENES

tonash University The anaerobic bacterium CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS is important in both biotechnology and medicine. The aims of this project are: to determine how antibiotic resistance genes are organized in C PERFRINGENS, and are related to similar

genes from other bacteria: and to study the gene coding for the toxin, phospholipse C. The project will increase our knowledge of the evolution and epidemiology of bacterial antibiotic resistance genes; and will be important in biotechnology because it may lead to the development of new vaccines.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biological Nitrogen Fixation

Dr Y M Barnet PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY OF THE NITROGEN­ FIXING ROOT-NODULE BACTERIA RHIZOBIUM AND BRADYRHIZOBIUM: THE EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMP. & LOW SOIL WATER LEVELS

University of N.S.W We plan to determine the mechanisms (biochemical and physical) which enable some strains of root-nodule bacteria to survive drought and high soil temperatures. These organisms are used with legume crops to increase yield since they can convert nitrogen gas to a form which can be used by plants. Further improvements in production require better

strains, but use of selected or genetically engineered organisms will only be successful if we can ensure survival of the improved strains in soil. This requires better knowledge than is currently available of the way in which root-nodule bacteria survive in difficult conditions.

Dr D A Day METABOLIC CONTROL OF NITROGEN FIXATION

IN SOYBEAN ROOT NODULES

Australian National University The ability of legumes such as soybean to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria, make them valuable crop plants. Nitrogen fixation occurs in root nodules and depends on an exchange of nutrients between the plant cells and the bacteroids within them. Bacteroids are enclosed in a membrane of plant origin which controls this metabolite exchange. This project aims to investigate the nature and control of metabolite fluxes across this membrane.

Professor M J Dilworth RHIZOBIAL METABOLISM AND ITS RELATION Assoc Prof A R Glenn TO NITROGEN FIXATION BY LEGUME NODULES Professor J F Loneragan

Murdoch University The symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes is fundamental to Australian primary production. The project will examine carbon and mineral nutrition of rhizobium. Studies on carbon metabolism will examine the movement of carbon compounds

from plant cytosol to bacteroid, the route of metabolism and how such processes are controlled. The role of siderophore production in iron nutrition of rhizobias and its impact on overcoming iron deficiency in legumes will be investigated with a view to seeking a cure for field iron deficiency in crops like chick pea in NSW and Queensland.

29,00(1

58, OOC

85,000

·"

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Biological Nitrogen Fixation (Contd)

professor B Zerner IRON-CONTAINING PHOSPHATASES: STRUCTURE OF METAL CENTRES; RELATION OF STRUCTURE TO FUNCTION IN SIMILAR MOLECULES

Queensland University Since our identification of the first iron-containing acid phosphatase in 1973, related enzymes have been identified. In addition to the Fe(II) - Fe(III) enzymes from beef spleen

and pig allontoic fluid, there is a Zn(II) - Fe(III) enzyme in red kidney beans, and a Mn(X) - Fe(III) enzyme in sweet potato. Closely related physical properties characterise these metal centres, e.g. the oxygen-carrier, hemerythrin. The work seeks an explanation at the molecular level of the

relationship between structure and function in such molecules.

Soil Science (Biological Aspects)

Dr A S Black SOIL ACIDIFICATION INDUCED BY GRAZING f i r P D Cregan OF LEGUME-BASED PASTURES

liv e rina-Murray Inst of Higher Education Grazing animals may be causing between 20-40% of the annual acidification observed in legume-based pasture soils. In urine patches, N is returned in quantities in excess of pasture plant demands. The contribution of nitrification

(N03 and H+ release) and N03 leaching of the excess N to acidification, is to be assessed. Where is it substantial, the only soil management practice which would prevent serious deterioration of agricultural land would be lime

application. The annual cost of lime to neutralize acidity from this source would be $15m in NSW alone.

°ther (Molecular Biology and Cell Metabolism)

S W Adkins MORPHOGENIC SUBSTANCES RELEASED BY CEREAL TISSUE CULTURES: EFFECT ON CULTURE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Q ueensland University The ability to manipulate genetically economically important cereals, such as rice and wheat, is still limited by our imperfect understanding of the physiology of cell cultures.

To date, most research directed at improving culture growth, has been concentrated on the solid or liquid media on which these cultures are placed. However, in some cases growth is significantly inhibited by an unfavourable gaseous environment which builds up inside the culture vessel. The project will analyse the gaseous atmosphere and develop methods to optimise conditions for culture growth and

development.

34,000

35,000

26,000

i

Other (Molecular Biology and Cell Metabolism) (Cost 1

Assoc Prof J P Barford COMPUTERISED FEEDING STRATEGIES AND 32,0 Dr C Harbour CELL LINE STABILITY STUDIES FOR 1

HYBRIDOMA CELLS

Sydney University This project aims to design and test computerised feeding strategies for the optimisation of antibody yield from hybridoma cells. In addition, cell line stability will be investigated and a computer simulation of the growth requirements, kinetics and energetics of hybridoma growth and antibody production will be developed. It is expected that this will result in optimum antibody production from hybridoma cells and will contribute significantly to the developing commercial exploitation of animal cell technology.

Dr C A Behm A STUDY OF TREHALOSE AND GLYCOGEN/ 26,01)

METABOLISM IN THE FILARIAL PARASITE/ ONCHOCERCA GIBSONI

Australian National University This project is an investigation of the role of trehalose, a storage carbohydrate, in the metabolic economy of adults of the bovine filarial parasite, onchocerca gibsoni, a good experimental model for the important human parasite, 0. volvulus. Trehalose is not important in mammalian . metabolism and this work may uncover potential molecular

targets for chemotherapy.

Dr F L Bygrave AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF 26,0

Dr C A Behm LIVER FLUKE INFECTION ON THE

METABOLISM OF THE LIVER IN RATS

Australian National University Liver flukes infect a wide variety of grazing animals, including many native Australian mammals, and cause severe economic losses in sheep and cattle production. We shall investigate the effects of infection on hepatic metabolism in rats, with emphasis on impaired energy metabolism in the mitochondria and on important functions such as

glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, using preparations of isolated mitochondria, hepatocytes and intact perfused livers.

Dr R M Li1ley THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND 25,0

OSMOREGULATION OF THE MARINE ALGA DUNALIELLA

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Wollongong University The green alga DUNALIELLA has remarkable resistance to salinity and osmotic shock. It is ideal for the study of osmoregulation, a fundamental problem in cell biology with implications for agricultural productivity. This alga is also of interest because of its large-scale mariculture in

... Cont/.

ROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

tier (Molecular Biology and Cell Metabolism) (Cont

Australia for the commercial production of B-carotene, and because D TERTIOLECTA (to be used in this project), is one member of the open ocean phytoplankton. The aim is to continue an investigation into the mechanism of

osmoregulation, introducing molecular biology techniques to enhance this investigation and to commence a study of how genes may be introduced and expressed in DUNALIELLA.

rJ F Mercer A CELL CULTURE MODEL FOR COPPER 26,000

rJ Camakaris METABOLISM IN SHEEP

he University of Melbourne This project's applied components is concerned with understanding and manipulating copper poisoning particularly when combined with consumption of certain plants. This

results in an estimated loss of $10 million p/a in N.S.W. and Victoria alone. The project's basic component is directed towards an understanding of the biological roles of metallothioneins (MT's). Sheep MT genes will be transferred to a cultured cell line with no MT's and the ensuing effects on copper metabolism investigated.

I r D R Phillips IN VITRO TRANSCRIPTION ASSAY OF 33,000

ANTI-CANCER DRUG-DNA KINETICS AND DNA SEQUENCE SPECIFICITY

6 Trobe University We have developed an assay, based on the transcription of DNA into RNA, in which blockage of RNA polymerase reveals the exact location on DNA of DNA binding drugs (or proteins

or other ligands), the relative affinity of the drug for those sites, and the rate of dissociation of the drug from those sites. We have used this technique to measure the rate of dissociation of a drug from a series of successive drug sites on the DNA and have discovered a previously unknown phenomena that some drug sites induce complete termination of transcription, as distinct from the classical text book concept of drug-induced delay (inhibition of transcription). This termination phenomena is of potential

significance in the design anti-cancer drugs.

We are also in the process of developing the synchronised IN VITRO transcription technique to a "bidirectional transcription system" (promoter regions facing each other), a procedure which appears likely to supercede DNasel as a

"footprinting" technique, and are also applying these techniques to elucidate the DNA sequence specificity and mode of action of action-cancer agents in current clinical use.

Other (Molecular Biology and Cell Metabolism) (Cont

Dr F A Smith H+ TRANSPORT AND THE REGULATION OF

INTRACELLULAR PH IN CHAROPHYTE PLANTS

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

Adelaide University This project investigates processes that control the acid balance (pH) of plant cells, including exchange of hydrogen-ions between cells and their surroundings, uptake of nutrients and biochemical reactions involved in growth. Giant charophyte cells are used because they can be manipulated relatively easily and problems of

compartmentation within cells can be partly overcome. Improved micro-electrode technology will be one result of the work. An understanding of pH control is fundamental to the study of growth and productivity of plants in all ecosystems - from aquatic to agricultural.

Dr S E Smith QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF VA

Dr F A Smith MYCORRHIZAL INFECTION PROCESSES

Adelaide University Mycorrhizal fungi infect the vast majority of plant species (including crop plants) and normally improve plant growth by increasing the uptake of phosphate and other nutrients from

soil. This project will investigate the processes which determine the extent to which roots are colonized by the fungi and the biochemical responses to colonization. The most important outcome will be increased understanding of

this widespread symbiosis in relation to horticulture and agriculture. The results will also allow comparisons with the different responses of plants to soil fungi that cause disease.

Cell Membrane Biology

Professor N A Walker MECHANISMS OF SOLUTE TRANSPORT ACROSS THE MEMBRANES OF CHAROPHYTE PLANT CELLS: CHARACTERISATION AND KINETIC STUDIES

Sydney University Plant cells take up nutrients through their surface membranes by very specific transport processes operated by proteins. We study these processes in a water plant, CHARA which is ideal for electrical and chemical experiments. By

identifying and studying these processes we are laying the basis for understanding plant nutrition; and we are understanding how transport proteins work. Such proteins as these will be needed for the coming generation of biological chips and computers.

4 6,81;

75,66C

60,85

r

Cell Membrane Biology (Contd)

professor K L Williams A MOLECULAR APPROACH TO MORPHOGENESIS IN THE EUKARYOTE DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM

Kacquarie University Dogs, cats and humans are all composed of similar types of cells arranged in different ways. This arrangement is complicated and in fact very little is known about how multicellular organisms are put together. This program has

as its aim to understand how a simple multicellular organism, comprising just two types of cells, is put together. We are studying the processes involved with

decision making concerning cell type and how cells communicate with each other via their surfaces. Our findings undoubtedly will generalise to complex organisms such as people.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Molec. Bio & Cell Metabolism) (Contd)

99,500

Systematics and Taxonomy

professor J S Barker FACTORS MAINTAINING GENETIC VARIATION • IN CACTOPHILIC DROSPHILA

University of New England Research in the last two decades has demonstrated extensive genetic variation in many species, but its functional significance and mode of maintenance are uncertain. This project is using a model biological system of Drosophila , flies, microorganisms and prickly pear plants to study the

importance of natural selection in maintaining genetic variation and the mechanisms involved. The work will increase understanding of evolution, and may have

application in biological conservation and animal breeding.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology)

Dr J S Bradley GENETIC FACTORS IN THE RESISTANCE TO f o r I J Bennett HERBIVORY IN EUCALYPTS Assoc Prof J A Me Comb

Murdoch University Damage by insect herbivores can be extensive in the eucalypt forests of Australia and can substantially increase the cost of reforestation programmes. This project aims to

investigate, using cloning, the degree of genetic resistance to insect damage in jarrah trees, an economically important eucalypt used for reforestation. In addition, a reservoir of genetically resistant jarrah plants will be available for

future tree planting programmes. If a satisfactory level of genetic resistance occurs in jarrah, other important eucalypts will be included.

Dr L Christidis ORIGINS ADAPTIVE RADIATION & DIVERSITY I OF THE AUSTRALO-PAPUAN HONEYEATERS

(AVE S :MELIPHAGIDAE)

Museum Of Victoria Using the modern analytical techniques of protein electrophoresis and chromosome banding, integrated with morphological reappraisal, the project will elucidate the

phylogeny and adaptive radiation of the largest, most ecologically significant family of Australian bird the Meliphagidae. With over 60 species in Australia and nearly 60 in New Guinea, the Meliphagidae (honeyeaters) are the

dominant avifauna in the region, zoogeographically centred in it, and diversified to exploit all niches, and are thus the best indicators of environmental health among the nation's land vertebrates. Their systematics and relationships, which this study would resolve, are in a

state of flux.

Dr G T Kraft THE TAXONOMY & BIOGEOGRAPHY OF MARINE Ms J M Noble GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA) FROM

TROPICAL & SUBTROPICAL EASTERN AUSTRALIA

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Systematics and Taxonomy (ContdJ

The University of Melbourne Green algae are major components of the plant life in near shore marine waters of tropical and subtropical eastern Australia. Most species are undescribed or poorly known, yet

some play important roles as primary food sources for marine animals and as large contributors to sediments, especially along the Great Barrier Reef. We are making detailed descriptions of the green algae at several locations where tourism, development, and preservation of unique habitats vie for consideration in an absence of basic inventories of

indigenous marine organisms.

Dr P Y Ladiges PATTERNS OF VARIATION AND

Dr T P Whiffin RELATIONSHIPS IN STRINGYBARK EUCALYPTS

The University of Melbourne The aim of the project is to understand the pattern of variation and evolution in a group of native eucalypt species, following analysis of both morphological and chemical characteristics. The resulting pattern will be the basis for a taxonomic classification which has application

in forestry, conservation studies and ecology. The pattern will also be used for biogeographic studies of the evolutionary history of eastern Australia.

Dr J K Lowry GENERIC REVISION OF THE LYSIANASSOID AMPHIPODS OF THE WORLD

The Australian Museum Lysianassoid amphipods are an extremely diverse group of small crustaceans found in all marine habitats throughout the world. The taxonomy of this group is at present a mess, mostly because the majority of its 160+ genera are

inadequately defined and cannot be compared one to another. At present the superfamily is divided into 2 families, but our preliminary work suggests there are at least 10

families. The aim of the project is to revise all genera and, by using standardised comparable characters, redefine the genera. Then, species can be confidently given a correct generic name and the relationships between genera can be analysed to produce a new, usable, classification for this group.

Γ

SystematJ.cs and Taxonomy (Contd)

l ) r T A McMeekin THE MICROBIAL BIOTA OF ANTARCTIC LAKES

University of Tasmania The Australian Collection of Antarctic Microorganisms ( A C A M ) (1) collects and characterises Antarctic bacteria, (2) examines the ecological role of bacteria in Antarctic ecosystems. ACAM also serves as a resource and information centre on Antarctic microbiology for Australian and

international researchers. A current research priority of ACAM is to examine Antarctic methane-producing bacteria which may produce methane, an economically useful gas, at temperature considerably lower than can be achieved by

cultures currently available.

D r D J O'Dowd ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES AND EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS OF MITE ASSOCIATION WITH LEAF DOMATIA OF AUSTRALIAN PLANTS

Monash University The importance of mutualism as an organizing principle in nature is poorly understood. This project examines the ecological consequences and evolutionary history of a widespread and diverse association between mites and plants.

Domatia, specialized structures in vein axils on leaves, house predaceous and fungivorous mites. These mites may be natural biological control agents and domatia may increase their effectiveness in controlling plant pests. These associations have implications for the biological control of crop and forest pests in temperate and tropical regions.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr J R Paxton SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY OF THE BATHYPELAGIC WHALEFISH FAMILY CETOMIMIDAE

The Australian Museum The proposed research will complete a taxonomic review, including descriptions of at least 10 new species, of the cetomimid whalefishes, second largest family in the bathypelagic zone below 1,000 m depth. Reproduction modes

in the family, currently unknown because no males have ever been identified, will be studied by gonad histology. Analysis of different characteristics of the skeleton will provide information on the evolutionary relationships of whalefishes. As Australia fulfils its obligation to study

all waters of the Australian Fishing Zone, knowledge of such deepsea families as the Cetomimidae will become even more important.

46,382

30,000

14,200

Sys tea a tics and Taxonomy (Contd)

Dr W F Ponder GENETICS OF A RECENT RADIATION

Dr D J Colgan IN AN ARID ZONE ARTESIAN SPRING

The Australian Museum A radiation of hydrobiid snails in Dalhousie springs in arid northern South Australia which has differentiated in less than two million years will be studied genetically. This radiation appears to have been induced by small-scale

geographic isolation between springs acting in concert with physical (temperature, size of waterbody, water flow etc.) and biological (presence of predatory cat fish) differences within the springs. This represents an excellent

opportunity for studying speciation in progress.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr C J Quinn A CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS IN ANACARDIACEAE: AN EVALUATION OF A NEW INFRAFAMILIAL CLASSIFICATION

University of N.S.W Preliminary studies of fruit and flower anatomy in this large family of tropical plants suggest that current ideas of relationships within the family and between it and several small satellite families are erroneous. Four evolutionary trends from a common ancestral stock have been proposed on the basis of these early studies. Broader chemical and anatomical studies will test each of these proposals and provide a better understanding of the pattern of relationships.

Dr R J Raven THE MYGALOMORPH GENERA OF THE WORLD; TAXONOMY, CLADISTICS, AND BIOGEOGRAPHY WITH AN EMPHASIS ON SPIDERS OF AUSTRALIA AND THE WESTERN PACIFIC

Queensland Museum Relationships between Australian trapdoor, tarantula and funnel-web spiders and those elsewhere will be examined in order to produce simple identification procedures and establish their biogeographic history. Such precise statements about relationships between regions will benefit biogeographers and paleoclimatologists and provide interpretive material for the public.

Assoc Prof K Rohde ULTRASTRUCTURE OF PARASITIC AND FREE-LIVING PLATYHELMINTHES

University of New England Ultrastructural studies of the protonephridia and their development, and of the pharynx of selected species of parasitic and free-living Platyhelminthes, will be used to establish a phylogenetic system of the Platyhelminthes. Data will be analysed using Hennigan cladistics. It is expected that the studies will significantly increase our

... Cont/.

Systematics and Taxonomy (Contd)

knowledge of an invertebrate phylum which very likely is at the root of all "higher" metazoan animals.

CROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr L I Sly MICROBIAL RESOURCES DATA BASE TO 35,000

SUPPORT SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY IN AUSTRALIA

Queensland University Information on the location and characteristics of microbial cultures is of fundamental importance to the progress and development of science and biotechnology. The microbial culture collection in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Queensland is a unique microbial resource which serves education, industry, biotechnology and science

in Australia. The provision of information would be greatly enhanced by the establishment of a computerised data base and production of a strain catalogue.

Dr R Wetherbee TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF MARINE PHYTO- 36,000 PLANKTON FROM BASS STRAIT AND ENVIRONS

The University of Melbourne The Bass Strait and environs support active fishing and shellfish industries which are founded on the phytoplankton, small plants that are the basis of the off-shore food chain. However, little is known of their taxonomy or distribution,

including potentially toxic species responsible for selfish poisoning. This project addresses that deficiency, providing a flora with detailed information regarding the

taxonomy and diversity of phytoplankton from Victorian coastal waters.

Genetics and Evolution

Mr M Adams MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC STUDIES OF 54,000

Or p R Baverstock AUSTRALIAN LIZARDS

S'A. Museum Very little is known of the evolutionary history of Australian lizards. This study aims to clarify their history by using modern molecular approaches. These include the

techniques of allozyme electrophoresis, immunology and DNA sequencing.

II

Dr D J Ayre FACTORS DETERMINING THE GENETIC

STRUCTURE OF POPULATIONS OF THE SEA ANEMONE ACTINIA TENEBROSA

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Genetics and Evolution (ContdJ

Wollongong University This project will investigate the reproduction and recruitment of the sea anemone A. tenebrosa on stable rock platforms and unstable boulder shores. This will satisfy two aims:

(i) It will provide an important test of the theoretical predictions about the use of sexual and asexual reproduction. (ii) It will provide an understanding of the importance of environmental heterogeneity in the life-history of a much neglected but economically important group, which includes the reef building corals.

Professor J S Barker GENETIC VARIATION AND EVOLUTION IN SYMPATRIC COLONIZING SPECIES

University of New England Two closely related insect species that have colonized in Australia will be compared for evolutionary changes in enzyme coding genes and in traits such as body size, survival and offspring production. Many pest species are colonists, and this study will contribute to basic understanding of natural selection and of genetic change in colonizing species, and possibly therefore to improved

strategies for pest control.

Professor A J Beattie BREEDING GENETICS OF SOME AUSTRALIAN ORCHIDS

Macquarie University Orchids are a significant part of the Australian flora but little is known of their population genetic structure. Two major factors that determine structure are pollination

system and clonal architecture. The effects of these factors on the genetics of orchid populations will be analysed in the field, and in the lab using electrophoretic methods. Research will initially focus on orchid species with a type of pollination system until recently unknown to science.

36,10

33,50i

4 3 ,0 0 '

genetics and Evolution (Contd)

p I Beveridge SPECIATION AND EVOLUTIONARY 28,370

RELATIONSHIPS OF NEMATODE PARASITES OF MACROPOD MARSUPIAL HOSTS

;,A. Museum The aim of the project is to use molecular genetic techniques to investigate the speciation and evolution of helminth parasites (Cloacinidae) of Australian marsupials

(Macropodidae). The unique significance of the project is that in macropods, co-speciation and host-switching as mechanisms of parasite evolution can be studied simultaneously is a diverse group of related nematode

genera. Furthermore the data can be used to examine the evolutionary rate among nematode genera and their hosts and determine whether molecular evolution has occurred in a clock-like fashion and whether it is time-dependant or

generation-dependant.

to R L Close FERTILITY SPERMIOGENESIS AND 32,070

to G M McKay SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEXES OF HYBRID ROCK WALLABIES

iacquarie University Hybrids are bred in captivity from many of the 19 types of rock- wallaby, which can each be distinguished by the shapes or number of their chromosomes. The studies of breakdown in

sperm production, and meiotic pairing between homologous but structurally rearranged segments of chromosomes are shedding light on the phytogeny of this unusual genus, the processes of speciation, and the causes of infertility in mammalian hybrids.

Assoc Prof R H Crozier EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS OF SOCIAL 43,000 INSECTS

1R0UP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

diversity of N.S.W Studies on mitochondrial DNA sequences will elucidate insect mitochondrial genome organisation and the evolution of social patterns and karyotypes in highly social

Hymenoptera. The initial effort will complete the cloning and sequencing of the honeybee mitochondrial DNA. The honeybee sequence will aid worldwide efforts to characterise honeybee strains, particularly Africanized bees, and lead into other subprojects dealing with the evolution of the major groups of ants and of the bulldog ants of the MYRMECIA PILOSULA group.

Prof Associate D F Hales APHID VIRUS VECTORS ON WHEAT AND BARLEY IN AUSTRALIA

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Genetics and Evolution (ContdJ

Macquarie University Aphids transmit a range of plant viruses (such as barley yellow dwarf virus) causing disease and loss of production in crops and pastures. It is known that at least two species of Sitobion occur in Australia but their distribution is unknown. In addition we have already discovered a genetic variant of one species, which appears to be better able to

survive in temperate conditions. We wish to clarify the range, distribution, taxonomy and ecological requirements of the various genetic forms of cereal aphids with a view to understanding their role in viral outbreaks.

Professor J Kikkawa SELECTION OF ECOBEHAVIOURAL TRAITS IN Dr C Catterall AN ISLAND POPULATION OF SILVEREYES

Queensland University An ideal condition for a long term population study of a monogamous bird species exists on Heron Island. The isolated silvereye population there has been individually colour banded since 1965 and parent-offspring relations of 80% of each generation known since 1979. We are now in a position to demonstrate natural selection in progress by dissecting characteristic variables and demographic parameters of each group, by comparing behavioural traits and their frequency distributions among different age classes and by measuring the effect of environmental perturbations.

Dr J Martin SEX DETERMINATION AND EVOLUTION OF Dr B T Lee DIPTERA

The University of Melbourne Like humans, many insects have male-dominant sex determination where the presence of a gene, (MD), determines the primary distinction between males and females. These MD genes are usually on a heterochromatic Y chromosome but in the insect CHIRONOMUS they may occur on any one of the chromosomes, i.e., the MD moves to various sites and so may be a jumping gene. We will characterize an MD gene allowing us to answer many important questions relating to sex determination in insects and possibly in humans. Cloning the gene also has a particular role in insect control studies which involve manipulated changes in male-female ratio.

genetics and Evolution (Contd)

professor P G Martin A PHYLOGENETIC STUDY OF HIGHER PLANTS 38 USING NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES

Adelaide University Although flowering plants supply most of our food, fibre and many other raw materials, our understanding of them is limited by our ignorance of the evolutionary relationships

of their 400 families. In research allied to gene sequencing, we will determine the sequence of nucleotides in ribosomal-RNA and expect to find variation at about 400 sites. Computer analyses of these variations will yield

"phylogenetic trees". Our work will include Australian families and will complement similar work in U.S.A.

Dr J A McKenzie THE EVOLUTION OF INSECTICIDE 34

RESISTANCE: MUTATION SELECTION AND INTERGENIC INTERACTION

The University of Melbourne Successful agricultural programmes are often based on the effective use of pesticides but after the development of resistance control of the pest may cease. The project

investigates the phenomena involved in this process by defining the genetic and molecular bases of resistance and the fitness of susceptible and resistant genotyes to make fundamental and applied contributions at the interface of developmental, molecular and evolutionary genetics.

Ur C C Moritz EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS AND ECOLOGY OF 29

PARTHENOGENIC LIZARDS (HETERONOTIA)

Queensland University The lizard species Η BIONOEI has evolved both sexual and all-female populations. I propose to investigate the evolutionary history of the all-female form and to compare

its genetic variation and ecological breadth with that of its sexual relatives. The results will increase our understanding of two fundamental problems: how genetic variation effects ecological breadth, and why sexual reproduction is so common. Understanding of the former is essential to the design of sound conservation strategies, a vital issue for Australia's future.

I C Murfet PHYSIOLOGICAL GENETICS OF PISUM 68,

] 'JB Reid

diversity of Tasmania This program explores the role of genes, plant hormones and environment in the control of plant development. We use genetic mutants in the garden pea and controlled environment

facilities to modify these developmental processes and then explore the resulting changes at both the whole plant and the molecular level. Understanding how these important processes are controlled may enable us to modify plant

... Cont/.

5R0UP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

, 1 7 0

800

800

700

Genetics and Evolution (Contd)

growth and development, either genetically or by application of chemicals, to suit particular agricultural or forestry requirements.

Dr W F Ponder EVOLUTION AND RELATIONSHIPS OF 36,00

AUSTRALIAN HYDROBIIDAE

The Australian Museum Hybrobiid snails are a world-wide family confined to fresh and brackish waters which, because of poor dispersal capabilities, often reflect ancient distribution patterns. Allopatric speciation in small geographic areas make many

hydrobiids especially vulnerable to extinction through habitat modification or destruction. Most of the 150 Australian species are undescribed. Sympatric species often appear to demonstrate size displacement and/or habitat partitioning and are thus of interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists.

Dr R J Whelan GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF PLASTICITY OF 37,50 Dr D J Ayre MATING SYSTEMS IN THE PROTEACEAE

Wollongong University The Proteaceae (including Banksia, Waratahs and Mountain Devils) are an important and conspicuous component of our woodland flora. Reproductive success in these species may be

affected by environmental conditions, population size (i.e. number of potential mates) or competition for pollinators (including small marsupials). This project will use genetic data to distinguish between these possibilities. The project will provide a greater understanding of the factors that

control plant breeding systems and will be of specific value in the future planning of Australian flora and fauna reserves.

Dr R W White EVOLUTIONARY POPULATION AND 50,06

Dr J R Ovenden MOLECULAR GENETICS OF THE FISHES OF THE FAMILY GALAXIIDAE

University of Tasmania This project will investigate the evolutionary and population genetics of the galaxiid fishes, a morphologically conservative group of freshwater fishes, to

give a fuller understanding of the methods by which new fish species are formed, particularly in relation to the break-up of Gondwana and to recent tectonic and glacial events. It should also give valuable information of the rate of evolution of mitochondrial DNA. This project will contribute to our understanding of the origins of Australia's special

fauna. ,

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

1SS0C Prof E W Barlow IMPACT OF RISING C02 ON PLANT DEVELOP­ MENT-EFFECT OF C02 ENRICHMENT ON PHOTO SYNTHATE PARTITIONING INTO LEAF GROWTH AT VARYING LEVELS OF P & H20 AVAILABILITY

Kacquarie University This project will investigate the influence of C02 enrichment on leaf growth and development of crops and trees growing at the sub-optimal levels of phosphorus and water availability typical of the Australian environment.

This knowledge is urgently required for the development of the computer models of plant growth and productivity needed to accurately predict the impact of rising C02 levels and the 'Greenhouse Effect' on agricultural productivity and catchment yields in the year 2000 and beyond.

Dr P B Goodwin THE ROLE OF THE SYMPLAST IN LONG RANGE TRANSPORT OF SOLUTES IN PLANTS

Sydney University Most plant cells have channels linking the cytoplasm of one cell to that of the next. We hope to find out what can move through these channels, and what regulates their operation. This should lead to a better understanding of what controls

the movement of nutrients, ions and applied substances within plants, and should help us to produce healthier, higher yielding plants.

cr C F Jenner CONTROL OF STARCH SYNTHESIS IN THE DEVELOPING ENDOSPERM OF WHEAT: THE PLASMALEMMA AND THE AMYLOPLAST ENVELOPE AS POSSIBLE REGULATORY SITES

Adelaide University Production and export of wheat are vital to Australia's economy. Yield and quality of wheat are influenced by the deposition of starch during grain-filling. Investigating the transport of intermediates of starch metabolism within

the cells of the endosperm will contribute to our meagre knowledge of the mechanism(s) controlling the deposition of starch. This knowledge is needed for guiding the improvement of wheat yield and quality.

5r R L Overall REGULATION OF INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION IN PLANTS

^dney University Individual plant cells are separated from one and other by cell walls, but they communicate via minute channels known as plasmodesmata which cross these intervening cell walls. This project will examine the mechanisms that plants use to control the permeability of plasmodesmata. A knowledge of how plants control the level of their intercellular

... Cont/.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

plant Physiology

25,000

water

26,800

43,100

36,900

Plant Physiology (Contd)

communication is fundamental to our understanding of the internal co-ordination, development and physiology of plants and therefore anticipated to have eventual agricultural applications.

Professor L G Paleg COMPATIBLE SOLUTES OF THE MELALEUCA Dr G P Jones GENUS

Adelaide University This project deals with responses of Australian melaleucas to environmental stress. Earlier we found that some melaleucas accumulated analogues of the amino acid, proline,

in response to cold, salt and drought. Since melaleuca is a large and commercially important plant genus, the identification of a family of stress induced compounds provides opportunities to a) explore the nature, distribution and amounts of analogues in the genus; b) determine their storage capacities, sites of synthesis, etc., c) test the analogues for their ability to protect plant growth; and d) increase the economic value of the crop.

Dr J R Smith INTER- AND INTRA-CELLULAR TRANSPORT IN PLANTS BY AC ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

University of N.S.W The aim of this project is to elucidate how plant cells can control the passage of materials between the cell interior and exterior, and also how the exchange of material between adjacent cells is controlled. Animal life on this planet is ultimately dependent upon the growth of plants, and an understanding of the nature and control of their transport processes will be advantageous, particularly in determining how plants can accommodate adverse conditions.

Animal Physiology

Dr A M Beal MECHANISMS OF ION AND FLUID SECRETION

BY THE KANGAROO PAROTID GLAND

University of N.S.W Parotid glands of primates, ruminants, kangaroos and the koala produce saliva with high bicarbonate & phosphate. The underlying mechanism causing this secretion are poorly understood but are known to differ fundamentally from those now believed to cause secretion of saliva having chloride levels. This project will increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying production of high bicarbonate

secretions and concurrently, will add to our knowledge of marsupial physiology and of how ion transport systems have evolved in mammals.

■

Animal Physiology (Contd)

professor T J Dawson ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY OF EMUS 31,

University of N.S.W In arid areas the Emu seems to break the rules for desert survival that have been established for mammals. For example, the Emu concentrates its urine poorly, yet it may go days without drinking. In its long adaptation the Emu has highlighted a different possible set of physiological

responses. Consequently, these studies on the Emu are to obtain a better understanding of the general physiology of desert survival.

Professor G C Grigg PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY OF ECHIDNAS 38, (TEMPERATURE, ENERGY AND WATER RELATIONS)

Queensland University The aims of this project are to describe and explain the physiological and behavioural mechanisms by which this unique Australian Monotreme mammal is able to live in such diverse habitats, from alpine snowfields to hot, dry

deserts. In 1987 we found that echidnas are true hibernators, an observation which, because of the supposedly primitive evolutionary position of echidnas, has major significance for current ideas about the evolution of warm-bloodedness in mammals.

Dr R T Hinde PARTITIONING OF CARBON AND 35,

THE REGULATION OF TRANSLOCATION IN SYMBIOSES BETWEEN ZOOXANTHELLAE AND INVERTEBRATES

Sydney University

Invertebrates, including reef building corals, often contain mutually beneficial, or symbiotic, algae whose photosynthetic products are transferred to, and nourish, the animal. Models for assessing the amount translocated and the

effects on the growth of both the animals and algae will be improved and applied to a range of symbioses. Corals produce substances which cause algae to translocate. These will be identified. This project will improve understanding of

productivity on coral reefs, and of movement of metabolites between cells in general.

kssoc Prof R A Holland PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF 32, RESPIRATORY PROPERTIES OF BLOOD IN ADULT AND DEVELOPING MARSUPIALS

diversity of N.S.W Marsupials are born at a very early stage and their organs, including the lungs, are immature at birth. In the Tammer Wallaby we have shown special features of the blood that are

suited to oxygen exchange in immature lungs. This project ... Cont/.

SttOUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

300

590

000

050

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Animal Physiology (Contd)

is to investigate the chemical mechanisms by which these blood features are produced and also if they are found generally in marsupials. Also it will investigate the rates at which marsupials haemoglobins react with gases, and special features of oxygen transport in adult marsupials.

Dr H W Mitchell A MOLECULAR BASIS FOR THE CHANGES IN Dr Μ P Sparrow THE FUNCTION OF AIRWAYS SMOOTH MUSCLE DURING DEVELOPMENT

University of Western Australia Bronchial hyperresponsive, i.e. abnormal of airways to a stimulus, is a characteristic of the airways in all animal species, particularly during early post-natal life, but the cause is unknown. To elucidate its mechanisms, concurrent changes in the biochemical, physiological and pharmacological properties of the airways smooth muscle and

its innervation will be followed in the foetus, neonate, young and adult animal. In this way the functional changes seen during development can be interpreted on a molecular basis and a causal relationship identified.

Dr S C Nicol PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF ACTIVITY AND HETEROTHERMY IN THE ECHIDNA

University of Tasmania The echidna, as a mammal with a low body temperature (28-32 degrees Celsius) which may sometimes fall as low as 5 degrees, provides a unique model for the study of the effects of variations in body temperature on basic physiological processes, such as acid base regulation and gas carriage. This study should provide considerable

information on the most appropriate strategies to be employed in human hypothermic surgery.

Professor I C Potter ANATOMICAL PHYSIOLOGICAL & BIOCHEMICAL Dr D J Macey STUDIES ON AUSTRALIAN LAMPREYS TO Dr Μ H Cake ELUCIDATE THE EVOLUTION OF FUNDAMENTAL VERTEBRATE PROCESSES

Murdoch University Many of the sophisticated and complex systems of higher vertebrates have evolved from modifications to the simpler systems of their primitive ancestors. This project will produce data on important aspects of the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of lampreys, one of the two surviving representatives of the most primitive vertebrates, the

jawless fishes. Such information will elucidate trends in vertebrate evolution and increase our understanding of the divergent larvae and adults of the unique Southern Hemisphere lampreys which are abundant in temperate Australian rivers.

3 5,36C

45,78(1

42, IOC

Assoc Prof R S Wyburn A STUDY OF THE PROPAGATION OF 5,000

CONTRACTIONS ACROSS THE RETICULO-RUMEN OF SHEEP

Kurdoch University The efficiency of the ruminant digestive system is almost entirely due to the action of the reticulo-rumen which enhances the fermentation process that breaks down cellulose. The contraction sequences involved have been described but their control is not understood. The aim of the project is to investigate this by analysing the electrical conduction through smooth muscle and nerves with

the anticipation that the contraction frequency could be controlled by an implanted pacesetter.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

piitaal Physiology (Contd}

Developmental Biology

tr K E Dixon MOLECULAR INDICES OF DIFFERENTIATION 36,850 |r A A Hobbs IN THE GERM CELL LINEAGE IN XENOPUS

LAEVIS

Flinders University The germ cells in XENOPUS LAEVIS, the cells from which the gametes arise, can be recognised in early embryos, and therefore their developmental history has been characterised

in some detail. For this reason these cells can be used as a model system for the study of the earliest events in cell differentiation. We will investigate the molecular processes in these cells. This work is important because cell differentiation is a fundamental part of embryonic

development and a better understanding of this area is relevant to many medical questions e.g. birth deformities, tumours.

P G Johnston X-CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION AND CELL 26,000 DIFFERENTIATION IN MARSUPIAL ' 1 DEVELOPMENT

Macquarie University Marsupials possess a unique system of regulating X-linked genes in females by inactivation of the paternal X chromosome. This project will provide basic information on

the timing and nature of X-chromosome inactivation and early cell differentiation. This will be achieved by examining X-linked gene expression in early embryos establishing

embryonic stem cell lines. These lines will provide sufficient material for detailed biochemical, cytological and molecular investigations of the important events which occur in early marsupial development.

Developmental Biology (Contd)

Assoc Prof L J Rogers FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ASYMMETRY OF BRAIN FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE

University of New England Asymmetry of brain function is an important characteristic of humans as well as a number of other species; yet little study has been made on how it develops. This project is

investigating the way in which genetic, hormonal and environmental factors influence the development of asymmetry of both structure and function in the chicken brain. The latter provides a useful model as it undergoes a series of discrete phases in development. The aim is to discover some of the environmental and cellular processes responsible for the growth of nerve and plasticity in nerve cell connections.

Dr L Selwood EMBRYOLOGY OF MARSUPIALS WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON DASYURIDS

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

La Trobe University This project will explore the mechanisms whereby cells in marsupial embryos become determined to form the embryo proper or the supporting tissues of the embryo. Research

into such fundamental questions has considerable potential in marsupials, where the embryo lies free in the uterus until late in gestation. This study will also provide basic knowledge and techniques required for breeding of rare or captive marsupials by in vitro techniques.

Dr D R Smyth MOLECULAR GENETICS OF FLOWER

DEVELOPMENT IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA

Monash University The way flowers develop is a mystery. This project aims to uncover the molecular mechanisms of flower formation using a wild mustard with very convenient genetics as a model plant.

Mutants which disrupt its flowers will be isolated, the genes cloned individually, and the way they normally work to assemble the flower deduced. Thus we should be able to manipulate flower and seed formation in all plants including

close relatives of the model such as rape and the cabbage family vegetable.

Professor J Warren Wilson POSITIONAL CONTROL OF TRACHEARY ELEMENTS AND STRANDS

Australian National University Biologists have long sought to understand how the spatial patterns of vascular tissues are defined during development. Recent studies give limited insight into some of the controlling mechanisms. This project exploits new methods of tissue culture, hormone treatment and quantitative analysis to further elucidate the positional control mechanisms that

... Cont/.

31,30'

3 2 , 95(

2 9 , 95C

2 5, OOC

underlie normal and anomalous development as well as wound repair of conducting tissues in plants and perhaps also in animals.

professor J Warren Wilson INDUCED ABSCISSION IN EXPLANTS: 25,000 POSITIONAL CONTROL, DIFFERENTIATION AND PARTITIONING MECHANISMS

Australian National University We find that segments of stems, when explanted into aseptic culture, may form a transverse separation layer; the upper part senesces, loses nutrients, and abscises from the basal

part. The position of abscission can be altered experimentally. This simple system will be used to investigate problems of positional control, abscission, senescence, and hormone directed transport. These basic

studies relate to horticultural practices for preventing young fruit drop and loosening fruit for mechanical harvesting.

Dr R Wetherbee SCALE/SPINE MORPHOGENESIS, SECRETION 33,750 Dr G I McFadden AND DEPLOYMENT: MODEL SYSTEMS FOR Professor J D Pickett-Heaps STUDYING THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT CELL SURFACES

The University of Melbourne The fishing and shellfish industries are founded on the phytoplankton, small plants which form the basis of the marine food chain. Many of these organisms interact with

their environment, including predators, with surface layers of ornate scales and spines. These structures are often mineralized and preserved in sediments where they are useful indicators of important gas and oil deposits. Our detailed

studies will provide valuable data on themorphogenesis of scales/spines and their important role in the marine environment.

;ROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

pevelopnental Biology (Contd)

Plant and Animal Ecology

Or D H Ashton DESICCATION STIMULATION OF WET-FOREST 29,950 SOILS IN VICTORIA

The University of Melbourne Successful regeneration of eucalypts in wet climates demands large gaps and bared soil. Such micro habitats result in the total drying of the top soil which, on re-wetting supports a

6-9 fold increase in the growth of seedlings. This hat been correlated with a change of soil micro flora, particularly the demise of antagonistic fungi around the roots. An understanding of this problem may enable regeneration of trees in sites where the use of fire is undesirable.

I

Plant and Animal Ecology (Contd)

Dr P M Attiwill MINERALIZATION AND CONSERVATION OF 30

NITROGEN IN AUSTRALIAN FORESTS

The University of Melbourne Processes by which nitrogen and phosphorous, essential for plant growth, are cycled and made available (mineralized) again for uptake are fundamental to long-term forest growth. This project aims at the development of methods by which mineralization can be quantified, and at using these methods

to study the stability of forest growth and nutrient cycling, particularly after bushfire in eucalypt forests.

Professor Μ M Bryden A STUDY OF HUMPBACK WHALES (MEGAPTERA 65 NOVAEANGLIAE) IN HERVEY BAY, QUEENSLAND

Sydney University The major aims and significance of this project will be to: (1) determine the ecological requirements of humpback whales in a putative breeding area, Hervey Bay; (2) assess whether human activity (whale-watching, commercial development) is likely to affect the value of these whales as

"indicators" of the status of the Antarctic marine system; (3) provide the information necessary to draft guidelines for whale-watching ventures and commercial development in breeding areas.

Dr K A Christian ACTIVITY AND ENERGETICS OF VARANID 38

LIZARDS: ENVIRONMENTALLY INDUCED RESPONSES AND ADAPTATIONS OF TROPICAL AND TEMPERATE-ZONE SPECIES

University College of the N T Most varanid lizards (goannas) of the world are tropical, the best studied species are those few species that are found in the temperate zone. A variety of laboratory studies have shown that varanids have higher capacities for activity than other lizards. However, the few temperate zone species which have been studied in the field are not more active than similar sized iguanid lizards. This project will address the questions concerning the functions of varanid's unique physiological characteristics and whether they use the potential of these characteristics to a greater extent in the tropical species than in the temperate zone species.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

ROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

lant and Animal Ecology (Contd)

r D C Christophel

ielaide University Following World Heritage recognition it is imperative that the diversity & ecology of Australia's wet tropical rainforests be documented. This project proposes to test

the relationship between the taxonomic and physiognomic composition of the rainforest canopy and the forest floor and stream bed leaf litter. Resultant data will provide a leaf-litter based classification system which will have

application to both Australia's living and fossil rainforests. These data will also be relevant to the current controversy on the origin of the wet tropical forests.

r A Cockburn EVOLUTION OF PARENTAL INVESTMENT IN ANTECHINUS SPP(MARSUPIALIA:DASYURIDAE) WITH EMPHASIS ON LITTER SIZE, SEMELPARITY, SEX RATIO AND DISPERSAL

ustralian National University The regulation of parental investment is of profound theoretical and practical interest because patterns of survival and reproduction are the traits through which

fitness is expressed, and because reproductive patterns determine the potential for population growth. There is consensus that a holistic approach to the measurement of reproductive effort is desirable, but this is difficult because of the complexity of the life history of most organisms. Small marsupials in the genus ANTECHINUS have the ; simplest life history of any vertebrate, and this project

will exploit this simplicity to build a holistic model of parental investment.

-AC Delves THE NITROGEN-CARBON BALANCE IN -DA Day SUPERNODULATING SOYBEAN MUTANTS

jstralian National University The initial characterization of one supernodulating soybean mutant has indicated an alteration in its carbon and nitrogen partitioning. It is important to establish whether

this is directly related to the supernodulation trait, and hence we intend to investigate the physiology of other | mutants and of the progeny from crosses between mutants and current commercial cultivars. It is probable that the

information gained will be of benefit to the creation of new, improved soybean crops.

THE FOLIAR PHYSIOGNOMY AND TAXONOMIC COMPOSITION OF NORTHERN AUSTRALIAN RAINFORESTS AND THE TAPHONOMY OF RESULTANT LEAF BEDS

40,000

30,850

32,600

Plant and Animal Ecology (Contd)

Dr P J Doherty AN EMPIRICAL TEST OF THE "RECRUITMENT LIMITATION" HYPOTHESIS

Australian Institute of Marine Science This research involves a unique test that will show whether populations of coral reef fishes are stable assemblages that reflect the carrying capacity of the reef environment or unstable assemblages that reflect variable oceanic conditions on the survival and dispersal of their larval offspring. The replenishment of 70 local populations has been monitored annually since 1980. These populations will be collected in 1989 and all fishes aged to provide detailed demographic and life-history data. This information is essential for proper management of coral reef ecosystems and tropical reef fisheries.

Dr B F Green FUR SEALS ON THE SOUTHERN COAST OF

Dr P D Shaughnessy AUSTRALIA: ABUNDANCE, POPULATION IDENTIFICATION, FEEDING ECOLOGY AND LACTATIONAL ENERGETICS

Division of Wildlife and Ecology Fur seals in Australian waters were overharvested last century and are still well below original population levels. If they were to expand, interaction and conflict with marine

fisheries would increase. Estimates of their abundance will provide a baseline against which expected changes can be judged. Studies of their diet, foraging ranges and food consumption rates will facilitate rational management of both fisheries and fur seals, and aid their conservation.

Professor R E Jones CORRELATED INTRASPECIFIC VARIABILITY IN REPRODUCTIVE, BEHAVIOURAL, AND LIFE HISTORY OF TRAITS OF INSECT HERBIVORES

James Cook University of North Qld Earlier work suggests that some species of plant-feeding insects include different types of individuals - relatively sedentary individuals which reproduce rapidly, and more mobile individuals which reproduce more slowly and may colonize new areas. This project examines both the basis of

this variability and the kinds of species in which it does or does not occur. Such species include Australia's major agricultural insect pests, and this understanding may lead to better strategies for their management.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

IROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

ilant and Animal Ecology (Contd)

Tofessor R E Jones WET REFUGES IN THE TROPICAL DRY SEASON 34,000 >r C J Hill AND THEIR EXPLOITATION OF ARTHROPOD POPULATIONS

iames Cook University of North Qld The severity, unpredictability, and patchiness of the dry season is a major environmental challenge to many animals inhabiting the Australian tropics. One way for animals to cope with the dry season is to retreat into wetter refuge

areas, which form a very small fraction of their wet-season range. This study examines how and by whom potential refuges are exploited, the impact of the refugees on refuge vegetation, and the importance of refuge sites to tropical

animal communities.

>r J B Kirkpatrick SATELLITE AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL 27,500 )r M Nunez MAPPING OF CLIMATE IN THE SUPERHUMID

ZONE OF TASMANIA

diversity of Tasmania Previous work has indicated that species composition and satellite-sensed cloud cover may be used to predict climatic parameters in uninstrumented areas of south west Tasmania. This project would establish the techniques for such prediction at the local and regional scales using

geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS) data, phytosociological data and data from data loggers set out over environmental gradients in south west Tasmania. The

results of this project could solve the question of the origin of peculiar vegetation boundaries in the area and could also provide information vital for adequate catchment

and fire management.

’ tofessor R L Hitching IMPACT OF FOREST REDUCTION ON GUILD 29,400 STRUCTURE AND FOODWEBS IN INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES IN THE CANOPY OF SCLEROPHYLL AND RAIN FOREST

University of New England The widespread clearing of forest lands created a series of habitat islands. Predictions from current ecological theory about the impact of such environmental modification on guild

structure, connectance and other community parameters will be tested in both sclerophyll woodland and temperate rainforest. The work has fundamental importance in ecology

as well as being of great importance in the design of reserves and management plans for forested lands.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Plant and Animal Ecology (Contd)

Dr B B Lament POPULATION ECOLOGY AND ECOPHYSIOLOGY Dr N J Enright OF BANKSIAS

Curtin University of Technology This project aims to determine the biological reasons why some species of Banksia are widespread while others are rare and endangered. We are particularly interested in the effect of bushfires and summer drought on the welfare of populations of this well-known Australian genus. The results we are gathering are assisting land managers

involved in post-mining rehabilitation, the cutflower industry, conservation of rare species, honey production and bushfire control.

Dr P W Miles FACTORS DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF

FEEDING SITE BY INSECTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO A FLUSH - FEEDING APHID

Adelaide University Growing plant tissues change in composition when damaged by insects, and sucking insects inject enzymes that modify such changes to the advantage of the insect. The biochemical systems fundamental to the interaction require identification in order to breed crop varieties that are less susceptible to insect attack but that do not themselves encourage emergence of pest biotypes able to overcome crop resistance.

Dr H F Recher ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF RAINFOREST Dr H A Ford PIGEONS IN NEW SOUTH WALES: SPECIES

ENDANGERED BY HABITAT DESTRUCTION

University of New England Primarily as a result of clearing for agriculture, most rainforest in New South Wales is fragmented and occurs only as isolated remnants in agricultural areas or as larger tracts at relatively high elevations in parks and reserves.

In this project we plan to study the ecology of rainforest pigeons, emphasising species endangered by habitat fragmentation. The knowledge gained will be used to develop plans of management for the conservation of pigeons and associated birds which move between and rely on rainforest in national parks and on agricultural areas.

Dr R Shine EFFECTS OF TROPICAL SEASONALITY ON

REPTILE POPULATIONS

Sydney University More than 15% of Australia's land mass lies in the wet-dry tropics, and this relatively unstudied area is under increasing pressure for utilization in various (sometimes competing) ways. This project aims to gather extensive ecological data on significant Aboriginal food items

(filesnakes and pythons), and will provide a basis for ... Cont/.

50, OCO

25,000

25,800

45,000

'lant and Animal Ecology (Contd)

rational exploitation of these resources as well as clarifying important general questions concerning biological consequences of climatic variability in the Top End.

ssoc Prof M Westoby EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF SEED DISPERSAL 35,600

acquarie University The proposed project will test hypotheses as to why so many Australian plants on infertile soils are adapted for dispersal by ants, while on fertile soils dispersal by birds

is more common. Understanding the evolutionary basis of dispersal biology will be important in projecting vegetation movements in response to the forthcoming climate change.

ROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

nimal Behaviour

r P J Jarman LIFETIME REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS IN 40,000

MACROPODS: BEHAVIOURAL AND ECOLOGICAL STRATEGIES

niversity of New England Individual kangaroos and wallabies seem able to vary the rate and form of their reproductive output to some extent. For example, young female kangaroos, and those on good pasture, are the most likely to produce daughters. This project will investigate how behaviour and reproduction vary over an individual's life and are affected by ecological circumstances. It will contribute to our understanding of

the adaptiveness of individual behavioural and ecological strategies of both marsupials and large mammals in general.

E J D Roberts CALL STRUCTURE EVOLUTION IN AUSTRALIAN 33,600 FROGS

liversity of Western Australia Evolutionary theory predicts that mechanisms that prevent species interbreeding evolve if: a) species hybridize and hybrids are sterile. Individuals who recognise conspecifics better leave more offspring .b) sexual selection (i.e.

interactions among males seeking mates, or females choosing among males) favours different mating systems in different populations. I propose to test these theories by comparative analysis of mating systems in Australian frogs, concentrating on hybrid zones in Western Australia.

!

Limnology

Professor J H Choat BIOGEOGRAPHY AND SYSTEMATICS OF PARROTFISHES FAMILY SCARIDAE

James Cook University of North Qld The present day distribution of parrotfishes mirrors that of coral reefs. Reef fish biogeographers wish to know how the different groups of fish arose and how historical events have influenced the patterns we see today. Recent studies in marine geology have provided a key by which the present distribution patterns of reef fishes may be analysed in the context of plate tectonics and past sea level changes. The close link between parrotfishes and reef environment have provided an excellent opportunity to employ both geological

information and a knowledge of biological relationships to interpret the past and present distribution of this widespread group.

Dr B T Hart DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AUSTRALIAN Dr J B Bapat STREAMS - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION Dr R Edwards AND CARBON SOURCE FOR STREAM BIOTA

Chisholm Institute of Technology Studies over the past decade, mostly on northern hemisphere temperate streams, has shown that they derive most of their energy from the surrounding forest (i.e. are basically heterotrophic). Most of these studies have concentrated on the larger particulate matter (leaves, bark, etc.), and have neglected

the role of the dissolved organic matter (DOM). The role of DOM in Australian streams is likely to differ considerably from that in northern hemisphere systems, in that (i) the dominant eucalyptus leaf species will result in leachates with higher concentrations of polyphenols than deciduous leaves, and (ii) the main input of eucalyptus leaves occur in summer (low flow, higher temperatures) compared with autumn is deciduous forests.

This project seeks to investigate the chemical composition of DOM present in Australian streams and entering the stream as leachate from leaves and bark. Additionally the utilization of this DOM by stream bacteria will be studied.

Dr P A Tyler EVOLUTION, DEVOLUTION, MICROBIOLOGY AND PALAEOLIMNOLOGY OF MEROMICTIC LAKES IN TASMANIA'S WORLD HERITAGE AREA

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

University of Tasmania The World Heritage Area contains meromictic lakes, of international scientific and cultural significance, now threatened by regulated river flow. The project is to design manipulative National Park management strategies to preserve

the post-glacial history of Aboriginal occupation recorded in the sediments, and to chronicle the wax and wane of their ... Cont/.

unique microbial communities under the influence of a changed river flow pattern.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

limnology (Contd)

Karine Biology

Dr T A Anderson REGULATION OF FISH GROWTH BY NUTRIENTS 35,000 HORMONES AND GROWTH FACTORS.

Deakin University This project aims at understanding the regulation of skeletal and muscular growth of Australian fish. It will contribute to three areas of basic science, (1) fish growth regulation, (2) fish nutrient requirements, and (3) role of

insulin related proteins in growth. In addition, it will provide part of the technological base necessary for the economic production of fish.

Dr M F Capra THE ECOLOGY OF CIGUATOXIN LIKE TOXINS 22,000

Dr J Cameron ON THE GREAT BARRIER REEF

[Queensland University of Technology Ciguatera poisoning continues to be a significant and severe form of human food poisoning in tropical regions including those of Australia. This proposal seeks to obtain a greater understanding of how the causative agent, Ciguatoxin moves

through the tropical marine biota. Carrier animals unaffected by CTX will be examined with a view to elucidating partitioning or detoxification mechanisms. Such mechanisms may suggest more effective therapies for human

victims of CTX.

Professor J H Choat THE LIFE CYCLES OF REEF FISHES OF 66,000 Dr G R Russ COMMERCIAL AND RECREATIONAL FISHING INTEREST IN THE GBR REGION

James Cook University of North Qld A need exists to improve knowledge of the life histories of commercially and recreationally important reef fishes of the GBR region. Reef ecologists need to sample a wider range of

habitats (e.g. adjacent interreefal areas) with a wider range of sampling techniques and a sound sampling protocol in order to 'close' the life cycles of important species. More emphasis must be placed on determining age structure and mortality schedules. This project aims to address these needs and thus has direct significance to the proper management of the GBR region.

Dr R W Day VARIATION IN GROWTH OF ABALONE

AFFECTING RECRUITMENT TO THE FISHERY AND MARICULTURE

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Marine Biology (Contd)

The University of Melbourne Juvenile abalone recruit to harvestable stocks after years of variable growth. The variability poses a major problem both for fishery management and for mariculture. Extensive

laboratory and field experiments to estimate components of variation in growth will be undertaken. These are designed to develop a stochastic model of abalone growth; as a major step towards predicting recruitment rates on reefs, and optimising growth in mariculture.

Assoc Prof R Endean TOXINOLOGY OF MARINE ANIMALS Dr A M Cameron

Queensland University This study of the actions of a variety of marine toxins will contribute to an understanding of their natural roles and to the treatment of envenomations and poisonings involving them. It will provide new tools for cell research (e.g. pure toxins that open or close specific ion channels in membranes) and is expected to provide molecular blueprints

for new therapeutic drugs including heart drugs, asthma drugs and antibiotics for development by Australian industry.

Dr L S Hammond IN-SITU STUDIES OF LARVAL ECOLOGY OF THE PREDATORY STARFISH COSCINASTERIAS CALAMARIA

Victorian Institute of Marine Sciences The causes of dense aggregations of marine species, particularly starfish, are poorly understood, even though the aggregations can have significant economic consequences. This study will test whether exceptional survival of larval stages, perhaps in response to food availability, as a factor on formation of aggregations of COSCINASTERIAS CALAMARIA in Port Phillip Bay, where it results in local depletion of commercially important shell-fish. The study will apply new field techniques in an environment which is markedly less oligotrophic than those in which previous studies have been done: therefore, important comparative information will be gained.

ROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

tarine Biology (Contd)

r R T Hinde THE ROLE OF SPONGES IN THE ECOLOGY OF

r M A Borowitzka CORAL REEF

ydney University The proper management of coral reef resources is vital to Australia's tourist, mariculture and fisheries industries, yet the contribution of sponges (which are very common on

reefs) to their high productivity is not understood. Like corals, most tropical sponges are symbioses between algae and the sponge animal; the animal tissue is nourished by algal photosynthesis. This project will establish (i) the

role of these "plant-animals" in the productivity and food chains of reefs; (ii) the effects of the environment on sponge growth & (iii) their production of chemicals of potential medical importance.

, r M J Keough RECRUITMENT OF MARINE FOULING ORGANISMS: WHAT CUES INDUCE LARVAE TO SETTLE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS ?

he University of Melbourne Sessile marine animals impose serious economic burdens by fouling man-made structures and molluscs in mariculture. Anti-fouling measures aim to restrict settlement of the

planktonic larvae of fouling species, but progress is hindered by poor knowledge about settlement under natural conditions, especially the cues that cause larvae to settle. This project will identify those cues for three major

fouling organisms that occur in many harbours of the world. An understanding of settlement is crucial to the development of more effective anti-fouling treatments.

rM F Lavin CLONING OF GENES FOR FERRIASCIDIN AND W L Finlayson POLYPHENOL OXIDASE: NOVEL MARINE ADHESION PROTEINS WITH BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS

Id Institute Of Medical Research This project is designed to continue research on novel marine proteins with adhesive properties. The cloning and expression of the genes for these proteins is not only of

scientific interest but is essential for the next stage of development to produce a viable commercial product. This project may lead to significant commercial opportunity of Australia's growing biotechnology industry.

42,000

38,000

33,370

Marine Biology (Contd)

Dr L Owens THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRAWN CELL LINES

FOR QUARANTINE AND DETERMINING THE VIROLOGICAL STATUS OF NATIVE PRAWN SPECIES

James Cook University of North Qld The objectives of this research are to develop prawn cell lines and media to support them so that endemic and exotic prawn viruses can be screened. Worldwide, introduction of prawn species to new areas for mariculture has lead to

introduction of exotic viruses which have crippled fledgling mariculture industries. The viral status of Australian prawn stocks is unknown even though live prawns are being transported around the country. This method can identify virus free stocks which can then be used to stock mariculture operations without the risks of spreading viruses to the commercial fishery or other areas.

Professor J C Pearson ALLOZYME ANALYSIS OF THE TAXONOMY, EVOLUTION AND LIFE-CYCLES OF THE DIDYMOZOIDAE (TREMATODA: DIGENEA)

Queensland University This study concerns the Didymozoidae, a large and economically important group of marine fish trematodes. Enzyme electrophoresis is a new technique in helminthology;

it will be used to define species precisely, to link developmental stages, to identify the effect of host biology on parasite morphology, and to examine the degree to which these parasites have evolved with their hosts.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr G C Poore THE SOUTH-EASTERN AUSTRALIAN SLOPES Dr L S Hammond PROGRAM: BENTHIC,DEMERSAL AND MESOPEL-Dr C C Lu AGIC COMMUNITIES OF THE SE AUST SLOPES

THEIR ORIGIN, EVOLUTION & ECOLOGY

Victorian Institute of Marine Sciences Studies commenced in 1986 indicate very diverse communities on upper to mid continental slopes of south-eastern Australian, characterised by high degrees of endemism and a different composition from those elsewhere in the world. This suggests that the community structure and trophic links with high-level, commercially exploitable resources such as

fish may differ from other parts of the world. The project will enable the origin and evolution of the Australian fauna to be understood, and provide a basis for future resource or environmental management.

'arine Biology (Contd)

ssoc Prof K Rohde ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION AND ZOOGEOGRAPHY 28,200 OF MARINE PARASITES

niversity of New England Three aspects of the ecology, evolution and zoogeography of parasites of marine fish will be studied , i.e. 1) species diversity and host specificity of endo- and ectoparasites of Antarctic fish. 2) taxonomy and zoogeography of Monogenea

of Scombridae and coevolution of parasites and hosts, and 3) geographical variation of populations of Monogenea of the scombrid fish SCOMBER AUSTRALASICUS in Australasian waters as a model case for distinguishing fish populations by the use of monogenean sclerites.

r F R Roubal THE BIOLOGY OF PARASITES AND DISEASES 15,000 r R J Lester AFFECTING WILD AND CAPTIVE MARINE YELLOWFIN BREAM, ACANTHOPAGRUS AUSTRALIS

ueensland University The taxonomy, pathology and zoogeography of ectoparasites on marine bream are well known, but not their biology. Less is known about their endoparasites. This study will provide

information about the ecology and development of parasites and pathogenesis of infections in wild and captive bream. The project aims to determine the likely effects of

infection on bream in mariculture.

ROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

f R Shine EVOLUTIONARY CAUSES OF SEXUAL 48,000

DIMORPHISM

iydney University Males and females differ in many ways other than in their reproductive organs. This project investigates the evolutionary basis for this secondary sexual dimorphism.

Snakes are the subject of the study, because they,show certain biological characteristics which make them uniquely suitable for such work. A fuller understanding of this question is significant for evolutionary-ecological theory,

and may help us to appreciate and interpret ecological relationship among Australia's remarkable fauna.

> r J A Sved THE USE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED 38,000

TRANSPOSONS IN THE STUDY OF FITNESS CHANGES AND THE MECHANISM OF MALE RECOMBINATION IN DROSOPHILA

iydney University The importance of transposons (mobile DNA or jumping genes) has become clear in the past few years. These exist in high numbers in all organisms from bacteria to man. In higher organisms, the DROSOPHILA transposons, particularly the P

elements, are the best understood model system. The ... Cont/.

Marine Biology (Contd)

current availability of genetically engineered P elements enables us to study the mutation process in a precise manner, and this project should help to clarify whether all jumps, or only a small proportion, are potentially harmful.

This project is part of an international collaborative effort, and, as in much fundamental research, it is important that Australia is seen as playing a role.

Dr D I Walker CONSEQUENCES OF SEAGRASS DECLINE: AN 25

Assoc Prof A J McComb EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS Dr F E Wells OF CHANGES IN DENSITY ON PRODUCTION, SEDIMENTS, EPIPHYTES & ASSOC. FAUNA

University of Western Australia

Seagrass resources are recognised as valuable to coastal fisheries (particularly the rock lobster fishery in Western Australia) and to coastal processes. This perceived value is based largely on anecdotal evidence, particularly in Western Australia and so it is difficult to predict the

consequences of changes to seagrass beds which are often associated with coastal development and eutrophication. This project will document the changes which take place in physical and biological properties of the meadows when the density and abundance of seagrasses are manipulated experimentally. The project will provide important information for coastal management and increase our

understanding of the functioning of seagrass ecosystems.

Dr C C Wallace EVOLUTION & BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE LARGE 42,

CORAL SUBGENUS ACROPORA (ACROPORA) DOMINANT CORAL OF MODERN REEFS

Queensland Museum "Staghorn" corals ACROPORA (ACROPORA) dominate most coral-reef habitats and are important in much current research: however relationship between species are not understood and generalizations about ecological characteristics are based on species from "typical" habitats. This program will examine the evolution and distribution of the whole subgenus using phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. Reproduction will be investigated in species occurring in "atypical" habitats and spawning at times other than that of the coral mass-spawning event. This will give more correct overview of ecological characters of the subgenus, providing a firmer basis for research and management decisions.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Marine Biology (Contd)

)r P E Williamson BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE AUSTRALIAN 17,700 >r P D Shaughnessy SEA LION (NEOPHOCA CINEREA)

lurdoch University The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) population was decimated by sealers in the last century and today are one of the rarest seal species in the world. Small groups

inhabit undisturbed islands along the southwestern coastline. Their numbers and breeding biology are unknown. Estimates of their numbers and identification of breeding colonies and reproductive strategies will enable management plans to be developed and further population changes to be monitored.

5R0UP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Parasitology and Plant Pathology

Professor C Bryant ROLE OF OXYGEN DERIVED FREE RADICALS 29,194 )r K S Ovington IN HOST IMMUNE AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION

lustralian National University Parasites cause two million deaths per year: in addition, three billion people suffer parasitic infections. Livestock also suffer; Australia spends millions of dollars protecting

farm animals from parasitic disease. This study is concerned with one aspect of the cellular immune system, the chemical means (oxygen derived free radicals) by which cells bring about the death of parasites in the host. A greater understanding of this process will lead to the discovery of

techniques for enhancing it and, duplicating it artificially, thus improving parasite control.

Professor B J Deverall ELICITATION OF HYPERSENSITIVITY IN 50,000 RUST/WHEAT INTERACTIONS

Sydney University When a rust pathogen infects a resistant wheat variety, the host plant recognises the fungal presence and expresses a ) range of antifungal physiological responses which include

the death of host tissue around the site of infection (hypersensitivity). This project aims at discovering the structure and properties of the fungal products which trigger the plant's resistance response. Isolation and identification of these fungal elicitors would be an

important step forward in the study of disease resistance in economically significant crop plants.

Parasitology and Plant Pathology (Contd)

Dr M J Howell MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF HELMINTH PARASITES: CHARACTERISATION OF DNA CODING FOR ANTIGENS EXPRESSED DURING INFECTION

Australian National University Parasites (helminths) of humans and their domestic animals exact an enormous toll on health and agricultural production. Making inroads into their impact has been hampered by their antigenic complexity and the difficulty of growing them outside the body of their hosts. Genetic engineering techniques provide the means of obtaining antigenic products of parasites in unlimited quantities for

immunodiagnosis and vaccination as well as for studying how genes are expressed in these animals. Such experiments form the basis of this proposal.

Dr G W Hutchinson CANINE BABESIOSIS: ANTIGENICAND TICK TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF THE AUSTRALIAN STRAIN

James Cook University of North Qld Canine babesiosis ("bilary fever") is an haemolytic anaemia causing disease which is often fatal for puppies. The protozoan Babesia organisms, which are tick transmitted from host to host, invade and destroy red blood cells. In Australia the disease is of varying virulence, possibly due

to antigenic strain differences and/or epidemiological and vector factors. This project is designed to study the morphology, development and antigenic profiles of the dog BABESIA, and confirm the role of the common brown dog tick, RHIPICEPHALUS SANGUINEUS, in its transmission.

Assoc Prof J A Irwin THE BIOCHEMICAL BASIS OF RACE-CULTIVAR SPECIFICITY IN ANTHRACNOSE OF STYLOSANTHES SPP

Queensland University Anthracnose disease on Stylosanthes (an important tropical pasture plant) is a major problem in the commercial development of these legumes in Australia. Newly deployed resistant cultivars have so far quickly been matched by new virulent fungal races. Increased understanding of the biochemistry of resistance of host cultivars and of virulence in matching races of the pathogen will aid the development of novel disease control strategies for this disease.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

'arasltology and Plant Pathology (ContdJ

rofessor A Kerr TO CLONE A GENE FROM FLAX LINUM 36,000

USITATISSIMUN FOR RESISTANCE TO FLAX RUST MELAMPSORA LINI

delaide University By means of recombinant DNA technology, it is now possible to genetically engineer many plants, but there is a great dearth of useful genes. The location and cloning of genes

for disease resistance would result in a dramatic increase in the usefulness of this technology. It would also lead to a greatly increased understanding of disease resistance by plants.

r R J Lester CONTROL OF AMOEBIC GILL DISEASE IN 27,100

r C K Foster SALMONIDS FARMED AT SEA

r S 0 Stanley

ueensland University Amoebic gill disease causes major economic losses to the sea-caged salmonid industry in Tasmania, Western Australia and Victoria. This project will identify conditions in the

environment that promote infection and pathogenesis, and will develop immunological and management strategies to minimize losses.

r D J Maclean USE OF RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH 27,300

.ssoc Prof J A Irwin POLYMORPHISMS TO ASSESS GENETIC VARIATION IN PHYTOPHTHORA VIGNAE AND PHYTOPHTHORA MEGASPERMA

'ueensland University PHYTOPHTHORA MEGASPERMA f. sp. GLYCINEA (Ping), and PHYTOPHTHORA VIGNAE (Pv) are fungal pathogens of two important crop plants in Australia (soybean and cowpea

respectively). New races of these pathogens which can attack otherwise resistant cultivars have arisen in the field. To predict such future changes in virulence, this project will study the genetics of variation in Pmg and Pv using cloned DNA probes to identify gene differences in natural populations.

' t J p Opdebeek ANTI-IDIOTYPIC ANTIBODIES AS SURROGATE 25,000 T I J East ANTIGENS FOR IMMUNIZATION AGAINST

LIVESTOCK PARASITES

ROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Queensland University BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (cattle tick) and intestinal worms cause major production losses to the Australian livestock industry. Protection from infection by vaccination with

parasite extracts is not yet commercially feasible, and recombinant DNA technology may not be appropriate. We propose to develop anti-idiotypic antibodies, which mimic the natural antigen, to vaccinate against these parasites.

Protective antigens from NEMATOSPIROIDES DUBIUS (a model for ... Cont/.

Parasitology and Plant Pathology (Contd)

intestinal parasites) and B MICROPLUS will be evaluated.

Doctor R C Thompson BIOLOGY AND SPECIATION OF THE CESTODE PARASITE ECHINOCOCCUS

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Murdoch University This project is concerned with elucidating the extent of strain variation in the cestode (tapeworm) parasite ECHINOCOCCUS. The parasite causes hydatid disease in humans and lower animals and as such, constitutes a medical and economic problem on all of the inhabited continents. Knowledge of the extent of strain variation is essential in order to understand transmission cycles and thus implement control programmes.

Anatomy and Histology

Dr B J Gannon CAPILLARY LOOPS OF THE MICROVASCULAT- Assoc Prof R V Baudinette URE OF MARSUPIAL CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM-STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, DEVELOPMENT AND REGENERATION

Flinders University This project investigates the small blood vessels called capillaries in the brain of marsupial mammals from both structural and functional points of view. Capillaries in the marsupial brain are uniquely organised among mammals in that they are present as hairpin shaped loops, with the incoming and outgoing blood being closely opposed. Understanding of this unique arrangement in marsupial brain may provide insights into not only functioning of marsupials, but also into the critical design parameters

necessary for small blood vessels supplying brain tissue in mammals in general, including humans.

Electron Microscopy

Assoc Prof B G Jamieson SPERMIOCLADISTICS: SPERMATOZOAL ULTRA­ STRUCTURE IN TAXONOMY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY; INVERTEBRATE TISSUE ULTRA­ STRUCTURE

Queensland University Spermiocladistics comprises the use of the ultrastructure of sperm, throughout the Animal Kingdom, for deducing phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships, in this project

involving computer methods. Stable taxonomy is essential for Zoology and the study of spermatazoal structure has clarified relationships and led to definitive placement of many taxa of uncertain affinities. The study of sperm

structure is of great interest and value in its own right and illuminates many areas of reproductive biology. General ... Cont/.

46,500

64,000

2 8, 00 0

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Electron Microscopy (Contd)

invertebrate ultrastructure, especially that of annelid worms, is also under investigation.

Reproduction

Assoc Prof N W Bruce STUDIES ON TRANSPORT MECHANISMS IN THE MAMMALIAN CORPUS LUTEUM IN RELATION TO GENERAL METABOLISM AND HORMONE SECRETION

University of Western Australia The corpus luteum, derived from the ruptured ovarian follicle, secretes hormones which are essential for the maintenance of early pregnancy in the mammal. This project will examine the biology of the corpus luteum and

particularly its growth, metabolism and causes for its occasional failure. The results could lead to new methods of fertility control and improved support of pregnancy.

Mr R N Garrett REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND GAMETE Dr A W Blackshaw STORAGE POTENTIAL IN THE BARRAMUNDI Dr M F Capra (LATES CALCARIFER)

Qld Department of Primary Industry The development of reliable methods of hormonal induction of spawning in barramundi will be undertaken. Manipulation of light, temperature and salinity will be used to control reproduction of captive broodstock barramundi. Techniques

for production of larval barramundi will be defined. Methods will be developed for the collection of spermatazoa and their storage. Practical methods of cryopreservation of sperm and, if possible, ova will be developed.

Dr R T Gemmell THE LOCALISATION AND ROLE OF OXYTOCIN Dr C Sernia IN THE CORPUS LUTEUM AND OTHER

ENDOCRINE GLANDS

Queensland University Initially, oxytocin was though to be a hormone produced by the hypothalamus, released in to the circulation and its prime action was on the muscle of the uterus and mammary gland. Recently, oxytocin has been found in a variety of endocrine glands and it is suggested that this hormone may have a regulatory role in hormone secretion. Further

information is required to ascertain the usefulness of oxytocin in controlling the synthesis and secretion of a large variety of hormones, particularly the steroid hormones.

35,400

38,500

25,000

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Reproduction (ContdJ

Professor R B Knox CONTROL OF FERTILIZATION IN FLOWERING PLANTS

The University of Melbourne This project seeks to understand the mechanisms involved in seed setting in crop plants. How does the male gamete, one of two sperm cells, recognise the female gamete, the egg? The hypothesis will be tested that sperm-egg recognition is based on surface determinants that will be identified. The specific genes involved in fertilization will be characterized. This understanding will lead to new plant breeding technologies.

Dr G B Martin HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION METABOLISM AND WOOL GROWTH IN SHEEP PART B: FUNDAMENTAL ENDOCRINOLOGY

University of Western Australia This project aims to elucidate the way in which the sheep overcomes the constraints of the Australian environment so it can survive, grow, produce wool and reproduce. The hormones controlling the activity of the reproductive and metabolic systems are involved, but there are large gaps in our understanding of this area. The proposed experiments will reveal the interplay between pituitary and testicular

hormones, and the roles of prolactin and S-endorphin in the control of metabolism and wool growth. This new knowledge will improve our basic understanding of the mammalian reproductive system and lead to improvements in sheep

productivity.

Prof T K Roberts THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL IMMUNISATION Dr J Falconer WITH LEUCOCYTES OR TROPHOBLAST ON LIVESTOCK PRODUCTIVITY

Newcastle University Current concepts of the immunology of early pregnancy suggest that maternal recognition of the conceptus and some degree of immunological response are necessary for successful pregnancy. In the absence of recognition abortion occurs. When these spontaneous aborters are immunised with paternal leucocytes or trophoblast extract pregnancy rate is increased dramatically. Maiden ewes have a high rate of early embryo mortality despite normal

fertilisation rates. The aim of this project is to determine whether this embryo loss can be reduced by prior immunisation of the ewe with paternal leucocytes or trophoblast antigens. This treatment may enhance the total productivity of flocks both by increasing the lamb marking percentage and by reducing the number of maiden ewes needed in fat lamb flocks. It may also be applicable to other species (cattle, goats, pigs).

89,00-

27,101

32,6 0(

Reproduction (Contd)

Dr J C Rodger FERTILISATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT IN 38,000 MARSUPIALS AND ITS EXPERIMENTAL MANIPULATION IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

Newcastle University The maturation of marsupial sperm and eggs and their interactions at fertilisation will be studied using in vitro culture, electron microscopy and monoclonal antibodies. Topics include: sperm activation events; sperm binding to the outer coat of the egg; penetration of that coat; and the role of sperm surface regions in fusion with the egg. A

secondary aim is to continue to improve our control of marsupials breeding to aid basic research and conservation.

Professor B P Setchell TRANSPORT OF HORMONES INTO AND OUT OF 25,000 THE TESTIS

Adelaide University Steroid hormones produced by the testis are important for male reproductive function. However, little is known about the processes involved in their secretion. This project

should provide a better understanding of these processes, and help explain why, under some conditions, the hormones produced appear to stay in the testis, while under other circumstances they leave the testis in blood. The results obtained should also be of general significance for other endocrine tissues.

Professor R V Short THE CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION IN 72,950 FEMALE MARSUPIALS

Monash University Australian scientists have been slow to appreciate that marsupials represent a unique and largely unexploited resource for biomedical research. The long term goal of this

project is to understand the reproductive physiology of female marsupials, and to exploit the differences in their reproductive strategies in order to provide insight into other mammalian reproductive phenomena. Most of our work has been focused on the factors that control the reproductive cycle, namely lactation and the effects of season (time of year), using a small wallaby, the tammar (MACROPUS EUGENII)

as our main experimental animal. The tammars are held in a three acre breeding colony on campus. Additional work has also been completed using a small possum, the feathertailed glider, ACROBATES PYGMAEUS, collected from the Dandenong area.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Reproduction (Contd)

Dr M J Smith THE CONTROL OF EMBRYONIC DIAPAUSE IN

BETTONGIA PENICILLATA

S.A. Museum The quiescent blastocyst of some continuously breeding macropodid marsupials reactivates prior to the suckling young vacating the pouch. Consequently the foetus is at

full term when the pouch is vacated. This study investigates the effect of the suckling stimulus in permitting reactivation of the quiescent corpus luteum and hence of the blastocyst in BETTONGIA PENICILLATA by (a) decreasing the suckling stimulus, (B) increasing it and (C) desynchronising lactation and the quiescent corpus luteum.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Neurophyslolo g y

Assoc Prof M J Rowe CODING MECHANISMS IN TACTILE SENSATION

University of N.S.W The aim of this project is to understand the mechanisms for coding sensory information at different levels of the brain. The studies are of fundamental significance for understanding brain function and may lead to more sensitive procedures for the neurological testing of patients with

suspected sensory impairments, such as is experienced in multiple sclerosis or as a complication of diabetes.

Professor D C Sandeman NEURONAL FUNCTION AND ARCHITECTURE IN THE INVERTEBRATE CNS

University of N.S.W Many substances (neurotransmitters) contained in human brains can be found in the brains of invertebrate animals using immunocytochemical techniques. Understanding the complex effect of neurotransmitters such as seratonin on the behaviour of animals and man is one of most important questions in modern Neuroscience. Discoveries in this area have wide consequences in biological, medical and psychiatric fields.

16,00

68,00

3 7 , 50C

Endocrinol o gy

lif A Janssens THE EVOLUTION OF HORMONAL REGULATION 36,500 OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN THE VERTEBRATES

lustralian National University The hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in mammals is an extremely complex process which is not fully understood. Breakdown of this regulation is seen in diseases

such as diabetes. Studies in vertebrates such as fish and amphibians which have less complex regulatory mechanisms, lead to a better understanding of metabolic control in mammals, including humans, and provide model systems in which metabolic control can be further investigated.

toup - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Veterinary Science

issoc Prof D A Pass PSITTACINE BEAK AND FEATHER DISEASE: 31,000 issoc Prof W J Penhale VIROLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL STUDIES > r M Robertson

lurdoch University Psittacine beak and feather disease is a widely distributed, common virus disease of psittacine birds that causes feather loss, beak degeneration, chronic illness and death. There

is no cure or reliable means of prevention. The objective of the research is to develop a serological test to detect infected birds in order that aviculturists can breed from non-infected birds to prevent the disease. The aims are to produce pure viral antigen and develop a reliable

serological test using that antigen.

rJ B Woolcock PATHOGENESIS AND IMMUNITY OF CHLAMYDIA 25,000 PSITTACI INFECTION IN KOALAS (PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS)

ueensland University Diseases of the koala such as pneumonia, conjunctivitis, cystitis and reproductive tract infection may be caused by the bacterium CHLAMYDIA PSITTACI. This project will examine the steps involved in the development of these diseases and the means by which the animals respond to infection. As some populations of koalas are extensively affected by this organism, further knowledge of how C.PSITTACI spreads within and between animals is vital for effective control

and prevention of the infection.

Applied Biology

Dr M C Geddes THE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES LEADING TO 25,

PRODUCTION (YIELD) IN COMMERCIAL-SCALE EXPERIMENTAL AQUACULTURE PONDS FOR THE YABBIE (CHERAX DESTRUCTOR)

Adelaide University The project will involve experimental studies on the feeding, respiration, growth and mortality of yabbies (CHERAX DESTRUCTOR) in 0.08 ha ponds at the South Australian Department of Fisheries Aquaculture Research Station, Port Noarlunga. An understanding of the biological processes underlying pond production will provide answers relating to optimum stocking density, optimum feeding rate and type of

food and the value of refuges, temperature control and aeration. This will provide a major contribution to the furthering of freshwater crayfish aquaculture in Australia.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Horticulture

Dr K Sivasithamparam THE ROLE OF BACTERIA-FUNGI INTERACTION 25, Dr K W Dixon FOR PRODUCTION OF HIGH-HEALTH

TERRESTRIAL ORCHIDS

University of Western Australia Bacteria associate endotrophically with the mycorrhizal infected roots and stems of a number of Australian ground orchids. This study proposes to determine the extent and degree of bacterial infection in natural orchid populations and their importance in germination and growth of seedlings

IN VITRO and seedling establishment exflask. The possible involvement of bacteria in the production of high health ground orchids will have significance for development of commercial production of Australian terrestrial orchids.

Environmental Pollution

Dr M Ahsanullah USE OF A GASTROPOD SPECIES AS AN 17,

Dr G B Thompson INDICATOR OF ORGANOTIN POLLUTION IN Dr G Batley AUSTRALIAN MARINE WATERS.

Aust Nuclear Science & Tech Org. There appears to be no published information on the effects of organotin materials to Australian organisms. Overseas literature suggests that gastropods appear to be the most sensitive to organotins and reproductive impairment has been induced experimentally at 20 ng/L and probably occurs at 1 ng/L. In this study we propose to identify suitable indicator species of organotin pollution for Australian marine waters. This would enable government

agencies to establish guidelines for the management of organotin compounds.

Environmental Pollution (Contd)

Dr A T Marshall APPLICATION OF ANALYTICAL ELECTRON 28,000 Dr R J Condron MICROSCOPY TO THE NATURE &

CONSEQUENCES OF CADMIUM ACCUMULATION IN PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES

La Trobe University Cadmium is an environmental pollutant and cadmium nephrotoxicity is a threat to both livestock and to humans in Australia. This project seeks to contribute to an understanding of the means by which cadmium is stored in mammalian kidney cells and how it exerts its toxic effects.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Genetics of Animals and Plants

Dr R Frankham PRODUCTION OF NOVEL VARIEGATED PLANTS 30,000 Dr H W Stokes AND ANIMALS USING GENETIC ENGINEERING

Macquarie University This proposal is designed to test patented procedures (devised by R.F.) to produce novel variegated ornamental plants and animals using genetic engineering. The procedures are based on either simultaneous sense and

anti-sense RNA transcription or on promoter occlusion. If the procedures work successfully, they will be exploited in the worldwide ornamental plant market that has an annual value of approximately $A25,000 million.

Cell Membrane Biology

Dr P H Barry MECHANISMS UNDERLYING OLFACTORY 25,000

RECEPTION - A SINGLE CHANNEL PATCH CLAMP ANALYSIS

University of N.S.W The olfactory receptors are extraordinarily sensitive sensors for detecting the presence of odorant molecules in minute concentrations. This project is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the response of such receptors to

single odorants and mixtures of odorants by using a technique which isolates a small patch of membrane, to directly measure the current passing through single protein channels in these receptor cells. This study could have

implications for sensor development in contexts such as food processing control and may also give insight into why certain odours are masked or, in some cases, not detected.

Cell Membrane Biology (Contd)

Dr P A Gleeson CHARACTERIZATION OF GOLGI PROTEINS AND SUBCOMPARTMENTS WITH MONOCLONAL AND POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES

Monash University The compartment in cells called the Golgi complex plays a vital role in the synthesis of new glycoproteins and in the sorting, packaging and distribution of these proteins to their various destinations. The basic framework of Golgi organisation and function is understood but there is little known about the molecular signals underlying these

functions. The aim of this research is to identify the signals responsible for control of protein traffic. This information is of fundamental importance to understanding how a cell is organised and is imperative to the successful production and secretion of genetically engineered molecules.

Professor K C Marshall PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES BY BACTERIA TO Professor I W Dawes PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONDITIONS EXISTING AT INTERFACES

University of N.S.W Microbial adhesion to interfaces is a fundamental property of bacteria in natural habitats and leads to fouling of ship hulls and oil platforms, reduced heat transfer in heat exchangers, colonization of mine dumps causing acid leaching of metals and pollution of soils and waters. Knowledge of the mechanisms of adhesion and of bacterial responses to surfaces may enable inhibition or enhancement of adhesion processes.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr S D Tyerman MEMBRANE ION CHANNELS IN PROCESSES OF Dr G P Findlay ION SELECTIVITY AND GROWTH REGULATION Dr D C Elliott IN HIGHER PLANTS

Flinders University Certain proteins in cell membranes act as channels through which ions such as calcium move. In higher plants these channels may be primarily involved in processes which discriminate between toxic ions and metabolically important ones and in processes involving recognition of and responses to plant hormones. We intend to investigate these processes using recent technological advances which allow measurement of properties of single ion-channel molecules. These investigations should provide background knowledge for

future genetic engineering of economically important plants.

llWG Allaway GAS EXCHANGE IN MANGROVE ROOTS

lydney University Mangroves survive salty groundwater, twice-daily flooding, and a soil lacking free oxygen. Any of these would kill ordinary plants. This project examines the oxygen and

flooding problems, to find out whether oxygen diffuses or flows into the root system, whether the fine feeding-roots stay aerobic all the time, whether they release oxygen to the soil, and whether carbon dioxide (a waste product of respiration) is disposed of biochemically or by other means.

;ROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

viant Cell Structure

i r J Beardall LOCATION AND INDUCTION OF PROTEINS ASSOCIATED WITH THE C02 CONCENTRATING MECHANISM IN MICROALGAE

lonash University The "C02 concentrating mechanism" is an important process in microalgae as it results in the suppression of photorespiration and a consequent increase in the primary productivity of these organisms which play a vital role in

aquatic food chains. This project proposes to characterise the mechanism at the molecular level and to provide a sound basis for future studies into the regulation of the gene(s) controlling C02 accumulation.

'rofessor A E Clarke STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF A CLASS OF PLANT PROTEOGLYCANS - THE ARABINOGALACTAN PROTEINS

'he University of Melbourne Plant organs such as roots or leaves consist of different types of cells held together in particular patterns. The space between the cells is often filled by an adhesive material which contains a high proportion of complex

carbohydrates linked to proteins. These materials are known as arabinogalactan proteins and they are characteristic of individual organs such as roots or leaves. This project is to establish the detailed structure of these proteoglycans and their function in plants. The information obtained will advance our knowledge of plant growth and is relevant to plant biotechnology.

39,000

25,000

65,000

Plant Cell Structure (Contd)

Dr C S Cobbett THE GENETICS OF PHYTOCHELATIN 25,0

BIOSYNTHESIS AND HEAVY METAL TOLERANCE IN PLANTS USING THE MODEL ORGANISM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA

The University of Melbourne Pollution of the environment by heavy metals, such as cadmium, is increasingly common. Ultimately through genetic manipulation, it may be possible to use plants to detoxify

polluted waste products and polluted environments. This project aims to identify genes important in the response of plants to heavy metals as a first step towards such a goal. Such a biological detoxification system would be relatively

inexpensive and environmentally desirable.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr K S Gibb MECHANISMS OF RESISTANCE TO POTYVIRUS- 30,5

ES IN NORTHERN TERRITORY CUCURBIT CROPS AND EXPERIMENTAL SWEET POTATO CROPS.

Northern Territory University The study of resistance in rockmelons and sweet potatoes to two potyviruses is of practical significance to growers who will be able to select resistant cultivars. Native

cucurbitaceae and convolvulaceae that support virus replication will be identified, which will increase our understanding of how viruses persist in the field and will focus vector (aphid) control on specific areas. An

understanding of the mechanisms of resistance at the cell and molecular levels is essential if plant breeders and genetic engineers are to develop resistant crops.

Dr J P Glaister POPULATION AND MAR I CULTURE GENETICS OF 34,9:1 BARRAMUNDI (LATES CALCARIFER) THROUGH­ OUT THE RANGE OF THE SPECIES

Qld Department of Primary Industry The mariculture of barramundi is a new potential Australian industry. Questions as to the genetic diversity of the species have both mariculture and management significance. This study will provide answers to these questions, define the genetic heritability of desirable traits and examine production possibility of polyploid fish which again has both management and mariculture implications.

ROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

ilant Cell Structure (Contd')

ssoc Prof H G Greenway METABOLIC FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SURVIVAL OF PLANT TISSUES IN THE ABSENCE OF OXYGEN

diversity of Western Australia This project aims to elucidate mechanisms contributing to survival of plant tissues in the absence of oxygen (02). 02 deficiency due to waterlogging reduces yields on millions of

hectares of potentially highly productive land. The proposed physiological work will stimulate research funded by the Rural Industries and Governments; thus contributing to increased farming efficiency on soils prone to

waterlogging by improved management and varieties, obtained by either conventional breeding or via gene transfer.

) r D L Hayman ISOLATION AND ANALYSIS OF CDNA CLONES IrP Langridge SPECIFIC TO THE INCOMPATIBILITY GENES IN PHALARIS COERULESCENS

idelaide University This project aims to identify and characterise the gene controlling a recognition system that determines which pollen grains will be successful in fertilization. The project will potentially enable an understanding of the

regulation of gene expression in pollen and of factors influencing seed set in grasses.

Its H James GENETIC DIVERSITY AND EVOLUTIONARY RESPONSES IN SMALL POPULATIONS OF CERTAIN AUSTRALIAN NATIVE PLANTS

diversity of Western Australia This research will contribute to an understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms operating in small populations of otherwise widespread species. An understanding of these mechanisms may enable discrimination between genetically

competent and genetically limited population systems. Such discrimination is necessary for enlightened taxonomy and effective conservation.

j ) r p Langridge MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF A RYE CHROMOSOME

l ( lelaide University The short arm of rye chromosome 1 is of great agronomic importance since it carries genes for resistance to several major diseases, a yield benefit and grain quality

characters. Transfer of this chromosome arm to wheat offers great benefits to the wheat industry if the desirable characters can be separated from the undesirable. For this to be achieved we need a more detailed understanding of the

structure of the chromosome and the organisation of the ... Cont/.

30,000

40,000

25,000

42,000

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Plant Cell Structure (Contd)

genes. This project aims to use the DNA cloning and analysis procedures to build a molecular picture of DNA organisation in rye chromosome 1.

Assoc Prof J S Mackenzie THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF GENETIC Dr A K Broom PROBES FOR THE RAPID SURVEILLANCE AND DETECTION OF MOSQUITO-BORNE VIRUSES.

University of Western Australia The purpose of this proposal is to develop a novel technique to detect the presence of viruses in mosquitoes. Surveillance of insect-borne diseases is essential to predict and prevent disease outbreaks in man and animals, but current methods where available, are slow, insensitive and unreliable. The project will investigate the use of genetic probes to detect virus in mosquitoes by hybridization as a very rapid, highly sensitive surveillance method. This will allow much earlier prediction of disease potential and will further our understanding of virus-vector

relationships.

Dr G I McFadden MOLECULAR STUDIES OF THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC ORIGIN OF MARINE ALGAL PLASTIDS

The University of Melbourne Plant cells evolved by fusion of three different, but relatively simple cells to give a single complex cell. Evidence suggests that four cells fused to form certain seaweed and plankton cells. This implies that the tree of evolution contains previously unrecognised cross-branches that fuse different streams of descent. I will test this hypothesis with new techniques using cloned genes and electron microscopy. This will tell us how cells, which are the building blocks of all living things, came into being.

Dr C E Offler CELLULAR PATHWAY OF SHORT-DISTANCE TRANSFER OF PHOTOSYNTHATES IN FLESHY FRUITS

Newcastle University The partitioning of photosynthetically-produced sugars (photosynthates) within a plant is a determinant of crop yield. Control of photosynthate partitioning resides with the receiving organ (for example, vegetative apices and

fruits) in which photosynthates are unloaded from conducting cells and transferred to cellular sites of utilization or storage. This project involves defining the cellular pathway of photosynthate transfer in tomato fruit and grape berry at different stages of fruit development. The

findings will add to the current understanding of control of photosynthate partitioning and may offer new ways of increasing crop yield.

40,OC

39,00

32,00

Dr J W Patrick PATHWAY AND MECHANISM OF PHOTOSYNTHATE 45,000 UNLOADING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ROLE OF TRANSFER CELLS

Newcastle University The distribution of photosynthates (sugars) in plants appears to be determined by their relative rate of withdrawal (unloading) from the phloem (transport tissue).

This project will contribute to the understanding of phloem unloading and hence sugar distribution. Furthermore, since past increases in yield potential can be accounted for by alterations in sugar distribution, the findings may have

agricultural significance.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

plant Cell Structure (Contd)

Dr J M Pettitt THE CELL BIOLOGY OF INTERSPECIFIC 50,500

Professor R B Knox INCOMPATIBILITY REACTION IN CONIFERS

The University of Melbourne Hybridization is the means of introducing commercially important traits into coniferous trees. A system operates to prevent hybridization by suppressing the sexual performance of the male partner (pollen) in the ovule of a different species. To exploit the natural gene pool in the population to the full, methods must be devised to overcome

this barrier and make hybridization possible. This requires understanding the nature of the mechanism involved in interspecific pollen rejection.

Dr N Prakash COMPARATIVE EMBRYOLOGY OF 2 5 , 0 0 0

Dr B G Cameron AUSTRALIAN FABACEAE

Driversity of New England In contrast to the situation elsewhere in the world, virtually nothing is known about the embryology of Australian Fabaceae most of which, including two whole

tribes (544 spp), are endemic to this continent. A preliminary survey of 66 Eastern Australian species has revealed a gamut of new features hitherto unknown not only in the family but angiosperms in general. We propose to extend this research to Western Australia - the centre of

species diversity. This should lead to a better understanding of the reproduction and evolutionary interrelationships of the taxa within this large family.

Dr J B Reid THE USE OF ORGANELLE DNA TO STUDY

HYBRIDIZATION AND GENE FLOW IN EUCALYPTUS

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Plant Cell Structure (Contd)

University of Tasmania The development of protocols for comparing organelle DNA in Eucalyptus will provide immediate opportunities for studies of hybridization, gene flow, phylogeny and population variability. Cytoplasmic DNA will be used to test the novel hypothesis of species migration by long-distance pollen dispersal and hybridization. The techniques will also be valuable for gene pool management and have applications in eucalypt breeding programmes.

Dr N Reid POPULATION DYNAMICS, EFFECTS ON HOSTS

AND CONTROL OF AUSTRALIAN MISTLETOES

University of New England Mistletoes are common parasites in Australian woodlands, and may be linked to rural tree decline. It is still unclear, however, whether mistletoes significantly debilitate or kill

their hosts, and if so, whether the widespread practice of cutting individual mistletoes from trees is cost-effective. This project will quantify the dynamics of mistletoe

infection for the first time, determine whether mistletoes do indeed pose a serious threat to trees, and recommend economic and effective control measures.

Professor M Sedgley INTERSPECIFIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BANKSIA SPECIES (PROTEACEAE)

Adelaide University The research will investigate the possibility for interspecific hybridisation between species of banksia, particularly those with potential for the cut flower industry. Cut flower cultivars of exotic genera are

frequently interspecific hybrids, but such relationships have not so far been exploited for banksias. The research will involve investigation of the structure of the reproductive organs, development of methodology for interspecific pollination and confirmation of hybrid genotypes. The research will benefit the cut flower industry which has strong export potential.

30,000

31,400

36,000

•>lant Cell Structure (Contd)

I A P Smith AN EVALUATION OF THE LIFE-HISTORY 7,000

CHARACTERISTICS OF RARE AND ENDANGER­ ED AUSTRALIAN PLANTS TO PROVIDE BASIS FOR THEIR MORE EFFECTIVE CONSERVATION

Diversity of New England Approximately 10% of the Australian flora (2206 species) has been listed as rare or threatened. Time and resources are insufficient to manage these species individually. By

determining the ecological and life-history characteristics of groups of rare species, the project will contribute to our understanding of causes of rarity. Extrapolation of these life-history generalizations to the management of endangered species will significantly advance the effectiveness of strategies for plant conservation in

Australia.

[ROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

> r G D Smith ASPECTS OF THE HYDROGEN METABOLISM, 30,000

NITROGEN FIXATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF CYANOBACTERIA

iustralian National University This research is concerned with aspects of hydrogen metabolism, nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are one of the largest and most diverse group of micro-organisms on earth and are

potentially useful as solar energy converters and as biomass for fertilizer, food and various fine chemicals. The research also has a role in training graduate students to a high level in biochemical and microbiological research.

’ r J N Timmis ISOLATION AND NATURE OF GENES 38,000

ASSOCIATED WITH OBLIGATE PARASITISM

delaide University This project aims to isolate and characterise avirulence genes from flax rust using a 250 bp probe prepared during two years of previous ARC funded research. Full characterisation of the genes, by transformation of rust

strains from virulent to avirulent, is reguired and approaches are described to develop such a system as yet unavailable for rust fungi. It is argued that flax and its rust may be a Rosetta stone for the understanding of rust diseases in plants and their eventual reliable control. No other system will permit this direct approach to rust avirulence gene isolation.

Professor R F Van Steveninc HEAVY METAL TOLERANCE IN SELECTED CLONES OF LEMNA MINOR. A POSSIBLE ROLE FOR PHYTIC ACID IN DETOXIFICATION

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Plant Cell Structure (Contd)

La Trobe University Our recent discovery that a zinc tolerant grass species utilizes phytic acid for the deposition of insoluble zinc complexes in root tips provides an important alternative to the binding of heavy metals by phytochelatins. Phytic acid is a natural product which occurs in crop plants and serves as a store of minerals in grains. This project will extend our knowledge of the role of phytic acid with respect to toxic quantities of heavy metals in plants. It is likely to provide essential information for applied research in toxic metal pollution and could lead to the use of aquatic plants

as a means of concentrating toxic metals from sewage wastes and industrial effluents.

Dr J T Wiskich THE FUNCTIONAL ORGANISATION OF RESPIRATORY ENZYMES AND ELECTRON TRANSFER COMPONENTS IN PLANT MITOCHONDRIA

Adelaide University Plant growth is the balance between photosynthesis (carbon import) and respiration (carbon export) and photorespiration. This project is attempting to understand the respiratory processes which release energy and are vitally important for the successful growth of healthy plants. However, associated with these "useful" respiratory processes there appears to be another "non-useful" or

"wasteful" respiration in plants. These two processes are intimately interconnected and this project is trying to determine those factors which lead to one pathway being preferred over the other. We should be able to minimise the

"wasteful" aspects.

Dr I E Woodrow ASSESSMENT OF AND STRATEGIES FOR THE OPTIMISATION OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC RATES IN CROP AND RAIN FOREST SPECIES IN A CARBON DIOXIDE-ENRICHED ATMOSPHERE

James Cook University of North Qld There is no doubt that atmospheric C02 levels are rising and will continue to rise. This increase in C02 stimulates the growth of some plant species but not others. In the proposed project, the metabolic basis for the degree to which plants (two crop species and a rainforest species)

respond to C02 will be examined, and strategies for "molecular engineering" of improved growth rates at high C02 will be suggested. Improvement of growth rates of crop species in the atmosphere of the future is of great economic . ... Cont/.

3 8 , 50!

49,00'

54,00'

importance to Australia.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

plant Cell Structure (Contd)

Other (Plant and Animal Biology)

Dr R A Alford EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON THE 35,000

BIOLOGY OF TROPICAL AUSTRALIAN FROGS, FROG LARVAE, AND THEIR COMPETITORS AND PREDATORS

James Cook University of North Qld Simple models of species interactions in communities have poor predictive power. Better models are necessary for managing and controlling animal populations. This project will investigate whether species' performance in communities

can be predicted from simpler systems. It will examine how body size and taxonomic distance affect the strength of ecological interactions, and how the ecology of adults interacts with that of larvae. Data collected in wet and

dry tropical habitats will allow formulation of more realistic models of multi-species interactions.

Dr W J Bailey THE EVOLUTION OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION 15,000 IN INSECTS: SEXUAL COMMUNICATION BY SOUND IN BUSHCRICKETS

University of Western Australia Signals used in reproduction are subject to severe evolutionary selection. By examining the acoustic behaviour of a manipulable and highly vocal group of insects, the bushcrickets, we are able to test evolutionary predictions concerning the origin and development of sound communication. Through laboratory and field experiment we

can identify those cues that are used for individual recognition, and we can discover how the signal is influenced by predators that may use these acoustic signals

to locate their food.

Professor A J Beattie EFFECTS OF SEED DISPERSAL BY ANTS ON 40,000 GENETIC STRUCTURE OF PLANT POPULATIONS

Macquarie University Much of the Australian flora is dependent upon ants for the dispersal of its seeds but there are no studies on the effects of ants on the genetic structure of plant

populations. This research will show the effects of seed-dispersing behaviour and nest-building behaviour on gene flow and the genetic structure of populations of Sclerolaena diacantha, an important drought-resistant forage

... Cont/.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

plant in semi-arid rangelands.

Dr C M Bull PAIR FIDELITY IN THE SKINK

TRACHYDOSAURUS RUGOSUS

Flinders University This study will increase our understanding of the behaviour and ecology of a common, but little studied, component of Australian fauna, and contribute to a broader understanding

of the variety of mating systems found in the animal kingdom. This is the only species of reptile known to show pair fidelity, a unique case which deserves further study.

Assoc Prof S Davies THE REGENERATION IN GRAZED QUADRATES AT MILEURA STATION WA OF SHRUBS AND WOODY FORBS IN 1990 COMPARED WITH TWO PREVIOUS ASSESSMENTS IN 1967 & 1976

Curtin University of Technology The management of Australia's rangelands for the production of meat and wool from domestic animals depends on a knowledge of the ability of fodder shrubs to regenerate under grazing at commercially viable stocking rates. This study continues earlier ones to indicate the survival and regeneration of shrubs under a grazing regime of known intensity and provide information that will assist the determination of stocking rates in mulga shrublands that are sustainable in the long-term.

Professor T J Dawson THE ECOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FORAGING BY KANGAROOS IN SEMI ARID GRAZING LANDS

University of N.S.W The ecology and physiology of feeding by kangaroos in semiarid country will be studied. Our present understanding of the foraging biology of kangaroos is superficial. Competition between them and domestic stock is suspected but

firm evidence is sparse. A new theoretical model will be examined, which may provide an integrated understanding of the feeding behaviour of herbivores, such as kangaroos and sheep.

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr D Doley ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF RAINFOREST 70,000

Dr D J Yates REGENERATION

Dr D Lamb

Queensland University The restoration and management of rainforests are activities of national importance, both for biological conservation and renewable resource production, and they require an understanding of the processes by which rainforest tree

species become established, survive and grow in natural and disturbed environments. This project addresses the problem of forest restoration by field and laboratory studies that

define the effects of light, temperature and water supply on the production and utilization in shoot growth of dry matter in selected rainforest species.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr B K Evans ADRENAL FUNCTION IN THE PLATYPUS: ITS 28,600

Dr I R McDonald ROLE IN ADAPTATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

The University of Melbourne At least 30% of captive platypus die within 3 weeks of capture - many within the first 48 hours. We have evidence to suggest that this unacceptably high mortality may be due

to an inadequate early adrenocortical response to stress. We propose to make a detailed investigation of adrenal function in the platypus, including its effects on the immune system. Little is known of either of these systems in the platypus. The findings would contribute both to the management of captive platypus and to our understanding of the evolution of these systems.

Dr J C Fanning FREEZE FRACTURE AND FREEZE FRACTURE 73,000 Dr B J Gannon DEEP-ETCH FACILITY FOR BIOLOGICAL U1 TRASTRUCTURE. INVESTIGATION FOR SOUTH AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES

Adelaide University This facility will provide urgently needed facilities, w h i c h are currently not available to researchers at South Australian Universities. It will enable projects on the

structure of elastic tissue, blood vessels in the brain, tumour diagnosis and toxic liver damage due to anaesthetic agents to proceed. At present researchers must either go

interstate to do this work or differ the investigation until such a facility is provided.

)

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr J C Fanning ELASTIC TISSUE, ELASTOGENESIS Dr E G Cleary AND ELASTIC FIBRILLOGENESIS: AN ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY

Adelaide University This project investigates the structure of elastic tissue which is an important component of walls of arteries and veins, of skin, of the lungs and in lesser amounts, of many other tissues. It is responsible for the rubber-like properties of the arteries and for the normal texture of young skin. Understanding the structure of elastic tissue

is important in the understanding of the changes which occur with ageing and disease processes such as atherosclerosis and emphysema and on exposure of skin to sunlight.

Dr B J Fox THE STRUCTURE OF ANIMAL COMMUNITIES

University of N.S.W An understanding of the evolution and organization of communities of animals is crucial to their long-term management to maintain high diversity of species in habitats

or ecosystems. What factors contribute most to the type of species organized into animal communities: other competing species, species' use of habitat or the disturbance history of a site? Controlled, replicated, field manipulation experiments can answer these questions. Australia's rich ant communities make ideal subjects for such experiments. The same basic principles examined here for invertebrates and vertebrates should apply to natural communities in conservation reserves, artificial communities of husbanded animals and mixtures of the two under rangelands conditions.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr W F Humphreys PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON HUNTING TIME IN SPIDERS

Western Australian Museum To examine the ability of spiders to extend their hunting period by temperature regulation and the environmental conditions which constrain their activity patterns and restrict prey capture. Definition of these conditions is required to set the limits to the efficacy of prey capture by spiders in exposed situations such as field crops. Spiders are important regulators of communities and potential agents of biological control.

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr J B Kirkpatrick GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN THE ECOLOGY OF THE BOUNDARIES OF FOREST WITH GRASSLAND AND GRASSY WOODLAND

University of Tasmania Natural boundaries between temperate forest and grassland o r grassy woodland have been almost all destroyed by land clearance. This project is investigating the origin of s o m e

remnant natural boundaries over an altitudinal gradient in Tasmania, with particular attention being played to the roles of animal grazing, fire, frost and waterlogging in limiting tree establishment in the open areas. The data

already obtained have given important insights into the effects of land use over the gradient, particularly the effects of stock grazing on soils and vegetation.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr J Kuo FUNCTIONAL BIOLOGY OF CERTAIN WESTERN

Professor J S Pate AUSTRALIAN PARASITIC PLANTS Dr N J Davidson

University of Western Australia Western Australia sandplain and forest ecosystems have the prominence of parasitic angiosperms, whether in terms of taxonomic groups, or sheer volume of biomass which they

represent in many habitats and growth forms. By using a wide variety of experimental approaches and techniques at both structural and functional levels, much important useful new information will be gained about the basic mechanisms and

processes involved in host/parasite inter-relationships within angiosperms.

Dr J D Majer THE SPECIES OF INVERTEBRATES IN AUST. Dr H F Recher EUCALYPT FOREST CANOPY WITH PARTICULAR REF. TO COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, FOREST MANAGEMENT & TAXONOMIC DATA BASES.

-Urtin University of Technology This project builds on the material collected in the previous ARC-funded project concerning arboreal invertebrates in Australian forests. Invertebrates were previously identified at the ordinal level. This project will identify the collected material to species level in order to:

1) Characterise invertebrate communities in Australian forest canopies; 2) Provide data on which to base and improve forest management practices; and 3) Provide a taxonomic data base

for Australian forest canopy invertebrates.

30,000

38,000

25,000

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr H D Marsh LIFE HISTORY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY 35,00 OF A TROPICAL ROCK WALLABY PETROGALE ASSIMILIS

James Cook University of North Qld The knowledge of the life history and ecophysiology of the rock wallaby, Petrogale assimilis, provided by this project will elucidate the way in which it copes with its unpredictable and drought prone environment, and contribute

to our understanding of the mechanisms of evolution in a taxonomic group which is in the process of rapid speciation.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Professor C E Oxnard MORPHOLOGY, BEHAVIOUR AND ENVIRONMENT: 30,0C DYNAMIC INTERACTIONS IN PRIMATES

University of Western Australia i

This research studies the interface between anatomies, behaviours, environments and diets. It is aimed at humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians. It requires interactions between anatomical, behavioural and ecological ways of thought, and it employs computer methods of investigation. It helps us understand new facets of our closest animal relatives at a time when the animals are threatened with extinction and the environments are vanishing forever.

Professor J D Pickett-Heaps THE CYTOSKELETON AND VALVE 68,0! MORPHOGENESIS IN DIATOMS: STRUCTUTE CORRELATED WITH STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

The University of Melbourne Diatoms comprise much of the biomass in the oceans and contribute significantly to the oxygen we breathe. In fossil form, their unique cell walls of silica comprise deposits of diatomaceous earth which are commercially valuable and very important to geologists, for example in oil exploration. The useful properties of this material depends on the microstructure of the walls in it. Our work

investigates how this microstructure is formed by the living cell, how it evolved and how it can be altered experimentally.

Dr G H Pyke DISTRIBUTIONS, ABUNDANCE AND MOVEMENTS 58,1! OF HONEYEATERS?

The Australian Museum To manage any animal population it is necessary to know what factors control its distribution, abundance and movements and how these factors operate. This project seeks to achieve these goals for honeyeaters (nectar-feeding birds) which often account for most of the terrestrial birds in an

area.

%her (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

i r V Sarafis 3D INVESTIGATION OF PLANT CELL 81,000

STRUCTURE AND PROCESS IN VIVO BY CONFOCAL SCANNING LIGHT MICROSCOPY

’ he University of Western Sydney Artefact free 3D reconstruction of dynamic plant cell processes will focus on the structural elements involved in three key physiological plant activities:

a. chloroplast photosynthetic surfaces and their comportment with their associated nucleoids in differing ecological conditions.

b. stomatal dynamic morphology during opening and closing. c. the transformations of the "resting" nucleus through mitosis. Confocal microscopy will be promoted in Australia by the

provision of "image” fellowships by the Hawkesbury Agricultural College.

)r L H Schmitt A STUDY OF GENETICAL & MORPHOLOGICAL 25,000 ) r D J Kitchener VARIATION OF MAMMALS IN INDONESIAN ) r R A How ISLANDS TO INVESTIGATE THE AUSTRALIAN

ORIENTAL BIOGEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARY

diversity of Western Australia This collaborative project with the Indonesian Government is to document the genetical structure of mammals from the islands immediately to the north of Australia. This will

enable (1) a contemporary appraisal of Australia's past and present regional biogeography; (2) a resolution of some Australian and Oriental mammalian systematic problems and (3) an examination of relationships between genetic and

morphological variation and ecological parameters such as species diversity, time of isolation and geographic distance.

;ROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

> r G N Stevens THE TAXONOMY & BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE 27,000

LICHEN GENUS USNEA IN AUSTRALIA

iueensland University This project aims at understanding the reason for the chemical and morphological variation that occurs in this quite common but least understood lichen genus. The array of acids produced by the different species is very complicated; usnic acid, produced by all members of the group is an acknowledged antibiotic. In S.E. Asia several pendant Usnea species are used in folk medicine. The biogeography of such species and their correct

identification is important. Only by having a sound taxonomic base can researchers in biology proceed with certainty.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Professor I W Thornton STUDIES ON EARLY PHASES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TROPICAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM ON THE VIRGIN ISLAND ANAK KRAKATAU

La Trobe University The project will provide some understanding of the way a tropical forest ecosystem develops on an initially sterile island, by examining in particular, the role of animals in early stages of this process. Such stages are uniquely available for study on Anak Krakatau. In the context of global warming, and the part played by tropical forests in global ecology, such knowledge would be relevant to consideration of forest reinstatement programmes.

Dr J K Volkman FATTY ACIDS OF MICROALGAE USED IN Dr S W Jeffrey MARICULTURE

Division of Oceanography Microalgae are an important feedstock in the mariculture industry for growing fish, molluscs and Crustacea. Significant losses in animal production through poor growth rates can result if the feedstock'does not contain required dietary factors such as essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. New species of microalgae will be screened to' identify those better suited for mariculture operations. Culture conditions will be varied to optimise the lipid content of species in present use. The influence of diet on growth rates of prawns and oysters will be tested in feeding trials.

Professor R G Wales COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE METABOLISM OF PREIMPLANTATION EMBRYOS

Murdoch University Sheep embryos undergo extensive development prior to implantation and thus serve as an excellent model to study biochemical changes associated with development. This project aims to study the availability and utilization of substrates by sheep embryos and to determine their use for the synthesis of essential components. The results should further our understanding of early differentiation and may offer some insight into early embryonic mortality.

30,00

15,60

17, 50

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

;mer Prof D Walker RECENT TROPICAL RAINFOREST DYNAMICS 35,000 THROUGH REFINED POLLEN ANALYSES OF SEDIMENTS AT LAKE BARRINE, QUEENSLAND

tostralian National University Informed conservation and utilization strategies for rainforest need information on natural variations in numbers of individual trees of important species. This cannot be obtained by direct observation because of the trees'

longevities. The project will reconstruct the histories of such species at decadal intervals through the last 3000 years by the application of refined pollen analysis at Lake Barrine surrounded by a well-recorded tropical rainforest.

It will also expose the effects of any climatic fluctuations on the forest during the period.

SROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Ussoc Prof M Westoby EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF HUMMOCK 32,000 GRASSES

iacquarie University Hummock grasses dominate more than a quarter of Australia. They are a distinctively Australian growth form, and are adapted to low soil nutrients, drought, and fire, the three dominant forces in Australia's plant ecology. The project

aims to deepen understanding of their ecology. Immediate objectives are to find out why they set so few seed in relation to the number of flowers, and how they direct their wind-transported pollen to their own species.

chemical Energetics

)rGT Hefter HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELETROLYTES IN 16,

NONAQUEOUS SOLVENTS

jurdoch University Nonaqueous electrolyte solutions are becoming increasingly important in areas such as chemical process engineering, hydrometallurgy, and battery technology, but our knowledge

and understanding of their properties is rather limited. This project aims to use heat capacity measurements on nonaqueous electrolyte solutions of theoretical and

technological significance with a view to developing relationships between solution phenomena and the measured heat capacities. The understanding and information so

obtained will be of considerable benefit in the above areas.

Dr M A Hitchman SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF TRANSITION 25, METAL COMPLEXES

University of Tasmania The relationship between the electronic and molecular structures of transition metal complexes will be investigated, in particular by studying the spectral behaviour of simple copper(II) complexes which change their geometry as a function of temperature. The theoretical models used to interpret the data should help to explain the

central role of copper in many biological systems, and in the newly discovered "warm" superconductors.

Professor B J Orr LASER-INDUCED MOLECULAR ENERGETICS 81, AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY

Macquarie University

We are studying how molecular internal energy is transferred, either spontaneously or by collisional interactions, from one quantised state to another. Such processes are relevant to chemical reaction mechanisms and

to laser-induced photochemistry. A combination of advanced laser spectroscopic and molecular beam instrumentation is used for this work, thereby developing novel physical techniques and providing training opportunities for graduate

students in areas of laser-based technology relevant to Australian industry.

Assoc Prof Μ N Paddon-Row THROUGH-BOND INTERACTIONS AND LONG 56, RANGE INTRAMLOECULAR ELECTRON TRANSFER IN RIGID POLYCHROMOPHORIC SYSTEMS

University of N.S.W We seek to explore the factors that govern electron transfer, a process of fundamental importance to the biological world (photosynthesis, for example), and also to

the new technological fields of molecular optics and liquid crystals. One aim of this project is to build systems that ... Cont/.

3R0UP - Chemical Sciences

000

000

000

000

Chemical Energetics (Contd)

may have applications to these fields.

GROUP - C h e m ic a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Chemical Binding

Professor B N Figgis THE CHEMICAL BOND IN TRANSITION METAL Assoc Prof G S Chandler COMPLEXES

University of Western Australia Knowledge of how atoms are held together by the interactions of their electrons to form molecules is central to chemistry and through that to materials science. Conventionally this chemical bonding is studied by spectroscopy, but our novel approach using x-ray and polarised neutron diffraction gives the spatial distribution of the valence electrons, paired and unpaired. Uniquely detailed information results which we use to test and improve theories of the chemical bond. Transition metal complexes are specially suitable for the diffraction techniques.

Dr E N Maslen ELECTRON DENSITY IN STRATEGIC AND ARCHETYPAL MATERIALS

University of Western Australia The electron density in crystalline materials is functionally related to physical properties such as bonding energy. The objective is to measure that density accurately via diffraction experiments, and to clarify the functional

relationships via archetypal cases, in order to predict properties for a series of related compounds. Equipped in this way, we will be better placed to explore the special characteristics of cases with commercial significance such as catalysts and superconductors, which are central to this project. The techniques for relating the diffraction experiments to physical properties will be developed in a

form suitable for application in other laboratories.

Dr J B Peel PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF WEAK MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS

La Trobe University Weakly bound gas-phase cluster of atoms and molecules represent a state of matter in transition between the gaseous and condensed states. The structure and properties of both neutral and ionic clusters are to be investigated using visible laser photodissociation and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic techniques. The data should provide valuable insight on the nature of liquids and

solutions at the submicroscopic level.

Chemical Binding (Contd)

professor R S Smart REACTION OF OXIDE FILMS WITH SILICA

S.A.I .T. Reaction of oxide films on nickel and brass surfaces with silica at low temperatures has been shown to produce a silicate layer highly resistant to corrosion. Extension of

the method to aluminium, mild steel, zinc and copper surfaces will be tested. The mechanism of reaction will be defined for optimisation of the passivating layer. Application to large-scale treatment of metals for corrosion

and wear resistance will be assessed.

GROUP - C h e m ic a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Professor C Wentrup REACTIVE INTERMEDIATES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. NEW MOLECULES AND PROCESSES

ΐ Queensland University Reactive intermediates are short-lived species involved in numerous chemical reactions. Knowledge of them is of both fundamental and industrial importance since it leads to new

insight and to the discovery of new molecules and processes. We plan to investigate a number of such reactions of fundamental significance in organic chemistry.

Mechanisms of Reactions

Professor J H Bowie NEGATIVE ION CHEMISTRY USING ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE

Adelaide University An understanding of the mechanisms of chemical reactions is as fundamental in chemistry as a knowledge of sub-atomic particles is in physics. Experimental gas phase ion

chemistry (ie chemistry in the absence of solvent), considered in concert with high level theoretical calculations, provides vital information concerning the mechanism of chemical reactions, and the intrinsic reactivity of reagents. This information can be applied directly to

improve the manufacture of chemicals; the basis of the chemical industry, an industry vital to the nations economy.

R Cooper REACTION RATES OF IONIC AND NEUTRAL

SPECIES IN IONISED GASES

Phe University of Melbourne

This project aims to measure the rates of basic processes occurring in ionised gases. The rate of recombination of simple ions will be examined over wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results will test the predictions of

several different three-body mechanisms for the first time. The results will also provide unique data to enable accurate modelling of electrical discharge phenomena and ... Cont/.

18,000

43,000

45,000

35,000

Mechanisms of Reactions (Contd)

upper atmosphere electrical phenomena. The light output from ionized gas system will be studied to provide fluorescence yield from systems of known chemistry.

Dr R Cooper DYNAMICS OF ENERGY

AND CHARGE TRANSFER IN SOLIDS

GROUP - C h e m ic a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

The University of Melbourne We aim to generate and assay defects produced in solids by electron beam irradiation. Charge transport (conductivity), trapping and recombination, control the mechanisms of electrical properties, catalysis and thermoluminescence in

solids. Pulsed electron beams will be used to initiate transient ionisation in solid oxides. The intensity and rate of light emission produced from this will be studied by ultrafast spectroscopy; a novel microwave conductivity

system will be built to detect the fast conductivity changes occurring on nanosecond timescales. Application to thermoluminescent personal Radiation Dosimeters will be made.

Dr C J Easton FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION AND REACTIONS OF AMINO ACID RADICALS

Adelaide University The principle aim of this project is to examine and exploit factors affecting freeradical reactions of amino acid derivatives. Reactions of this type are involved in numerous aspects of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of proteins and other peptides. It is expected that the results of the work will be used to effect synthesis of modified peptide antibiotics, and to improve the quality of wool fibre.

Professor B F Gray THEORY OF COUPLED OSCILLATING REACTIONS

Macquarie University Professor L Kane-Maguire KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF METAL CARBONYL CLUSTER REACTIONS

Wollongong University There has been considerable recent interest in metal carbonyl clusters as potential catalysts for a range of industrial processes. However, our ability to exploit their potential is currently limited by the lack of quantitative mechanistic information.

A systematic kinetic and spectroscopic investigation is therefore proposed of a range of typical cluster processes, with emphasis on reactions believed important in the Fischer-Tropsch conversion of syngas (C0/H2) to gasoline. The establishment of these fundamental behaviour patterns and parameters should considerably assist the rational

... Cont/.

Mechanisms of Reactions (Contd)

design of improved homogeneous catalysts.

)r K D King VERY-LOW PRESSURE PYROLYSIS STUDIES OF UNIMOLECULAR REACTIONS

;rOUP - C h e m ic a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Adelaide University The aim is to carry out experimental and theoretical studies of the rates and pathways of selected thermal unimolecular gas reactions at high temperatures and low pressures. Thermal unimolecular reactions of complex molecules and the

reverse recombination reactions of atoms, radicals and molecules play an important role in such complex reaction systems as combustion, oxidation, flame processes and aerochemistry. Kinetic data and mechanistic information are

in high demand for the interpretation and computer modelling of these systems eg knowledge of the relative reaction rates of the different pathways occurring in the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons is essential for the

understanding and modelling of high temperature thermal cracking and combustion operations using feedstocks derived from oil and coal.

)rW Kitching MECHANISTIC AND SYNTHETIC STUDIES IN AND ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY

Queensland University Organometallic derivatives of silicon, tin and mercury are of towering importance in synthetic organic chemistry because of their structural variety, mechanistic diversity and stability. Especially important are allylic derivatives and this project seeks to extend our knowledge of them and

related derivatives and their use in acquiring compounds and ring systems e.g. spiroketals, medium ring derivatives etc. of potential biological utility. I tosoc Prof A E Knight SPECTROSCOPY AND DYNAMICS OF

ORGANOSILANE REACTIONS RELEVANT IN MICROELECTRONICS FABRICATION

Griffith University The proposed research is directed towards advancing the understanding of thermal and photochemical reactions that are of practical relevance in microelectronics for the

fabrication of solid state thin films on surfaces. In particular, we shall investigate the fundamental chemical mechanisms that lead to the deposition of amorphous silicon when organosilane vapours are subjected to intense UV or IR

irradiation, or to the photo-chemical etching of silicon. Use will be made of new laser techniques to characterise the properties of gas-phase reactant and product species important in surface related technologies involving etching

or deposition, and to extend these diagnostics wherever possible to explore the nature of gas-surface reactions explicitly.

30,000

33,000

40,000

Mechanisms of Reactions (Contd)

Dr P A Lay VERY FAST ELECTROCHEMICAL

Professor J K Beattie INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE STUDY OF CATALYTIC REACTIONS AND ELECTRON TRANSFER THEORIES.

Sydney University Electron transfer is a ubiquitous part of life processes including respiration and photosynthesis. In addition, many aspects of our technological society (chemical catalysis, batteries, corrosion, etc.) are influenced directly or

indirectly by redox processes. This project entails the construction of state-of-the-art instrumentation that will be used to study electron transfer problems that are not amenable to study using commercial equipment. This equipment is to be utilized in the development of commercially viable catalytic systems for the production of chemicals of economic importance and for the development of theories of electron transfer.

Assoc Prof S F Lincoln THE INCLUSION CHEMISTRY OF Dr J H Coates CYCLODEXTRINS AND THEIR MODIFIED FORMS Dr C J Easton

Adelaide University In the centre of a cyclodextrin molecule is a hole into which other smaller molecules can fit and be retained, but only if they are of the correct size to fit neatly. In this

project we intend to make and study new improved cyclodextrins which will exactly fit a range of useful molecules including drugs, but not other similar molecules. These new cyclodextrins will be used to separate wanted

from unwanted molecules and to deliver drugs where they can act effectively in the body.

Assoc Prof J C Mackie THE ROLE OF COAL HETEROATOMS IN THE RELEASE OF NOX AND POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON POLLUTANTS IN THE COMBUSTION OF COAL

Sydney University Australian coals have a high nitrogen content. Large-scale burning of these coals leads to the emission of significant amounts of oxides of nitrogen and of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants. By developing an understanding of the mechanisms of the chemical reactions leading to the formation of these pollutants, improved strategies for combustion of coals can be devised, thereby promoting a safer and increased usage of Australian coals both domestically and overseas.

GROUP - C h e m ic a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Mechanisms of Reactions (Contd)

)rP A Tregloan KINETIC STUDIES OF HOMOGENEOUS 25,000

)r J I Sachinidis CATALYTIC PROCESSES FOR LIGHT )r A F Masters TO HEAVY OLEFIN CONVERSION

[he University of Melbourne This project is aimed at understanding the molecular mechanism of operation of a new homogeneous catalyst for the highly efficient conversion of light olefin hydrocarbons to

speciality chemicals and liquid fuel grade material. From studies of the precursors and intermediates generated in the reaction, using a range of spectroscopic, kinetic and computer modelling techniques, we expect to optimise the operation of the catalytic conversion and open routes to new conversion catalysts and conditions.

I r D J Young A NOVEL ORGANOMETALLIC REACTION 25,000

EMPLOYING "RING STRAIN"

iriffith University Organometallic chemistry has revolutionized the synthesis of organic compounds by providing highly specific methods for forming carbon-carbon bonds. This project will examine the mechanism and synthetic potential of a relatively unexplored

organometallic reaction which makes use of the considerable strain inherent in three carbon rings. A number of biologically important compounds could be made by employing this reaction. These include antibiotics, insect pheromones

and inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis.

;ROUP - C h e m ic a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

tetermination of Chemical Structures

rofessor Μ I Bruce CRYSTAL STRUCTURE STUDIES 32,000

r E R Tiekink

delaide University Determination of molecular and crystal structure of chemical species by X-ray diffraction gives insight to their properties and to the way they are formed. The present proposal plans to utilise a central facility in which a professional crystallographer can service groups with

interests in diverse areas such as the chemistry of metal clusters, the design of new drug delivery systems and catalysts, the interaction of metals with biological materials, processes for strengthening wool fibres, the

development of properties and minerals in both an effective and desirable manner.

Determination of Chemical Structures (ContdJ

Professor D M Doddrell CHEMICALLY-SELECTIVE NMR MICROSCOPY, IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY

GROUP - C h e m ic a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Queensland University A high resolution high field NMR microscopy system is to be constructed which will enable the acquisition of images with pixel resolution of 100*100 micrometres squared and slice thickness of less than 1mm. Techniques for spectral editing combined with volume selection will be used to selectively observe the 1H spectra of metabolites. The development of this technology will have application for the study of brain and tumour metabolism in very small samples of tissue.

Dr L D Field TRANSITION METAL ACTIVATION OF

Dr K J Cross HYDROCARBONS

Sydney University Professor H C Freeman STRUCTURES OF METALLOPROTEINS Dr M Guss

Sydney University The aim of the research is to determine accurately the structures (atomic arrangements) of "metalloproteins" - a class of proteins which contain one or more atoms of a metal

in each molecule. Each metalloprotein to be studied has an important biological function for which the metal atoms are essential. A detailed understanding of the way in which each protein carries out its biological function awaits a determination of the molecular structure, especially the

immediate surroundings of the metal atoms. The methods to be used in the research belong to the biotechnology revolution. They include state-of-the-art synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements, massive computations, and

3-dimensional computer graphics.

Dr K P Ghiggino STUDIES USING FOURIER TRANSFORM Dr R B Johns INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

Dr P J Thistlethwaite

The University of Melbourne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the elucidation of chemical structures. The aim of this proposal is the application of FTIR spectroscopy to three separate projects:

(1) the photodegradation of polymers; (2) detection of functional groups on the surface of coal; (3) the structure of monolayers at the air-water interface.

)rE N Maslen SINGLE CRYSTAL X-RAY FOUR CIRCLE issoc Prof A H White DIFFRACTOMETER FACILITY UPGRADE, CRYSTALLOGRAPHY CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA

diversity of Western Australia The Crystallography Centre at UWA is a major international resource for the precise determination and interpretation of small molecule structures by single crystal X-ray methods, both in terms of data collection facilities, computer

software development and project execution. Funding is ;o enable upgrading of the diffractometer facilities .vith continued increased demand for its services, to cope particularly in the area of high precision, low temperature

studies.

Professor S Sternhell HELICAL MOLECULES Dr L D Field

Sydney University Although organic biopolymers, notably DNA and segments of proteins, often assume helical structures, little is known about properties of small (non-polymeric) helical compounds.

We plan to synthesise two series of novel helical molecules and investigate their chirptic and physical properties, especially spectroscopy and inversion dynamics. We also plan to develop novel liquid crystalline materials based on

small helices for use in optical display devices.

'Dr P J Thistlethwaite STABILITY AND STRUCTURE OF LANGMUIR- Dr F Grieser BLODGETT FILMS STUDIES BY FLUORESCENCE METHODS.

;F.OUP - C h e m ic a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

determination o f Chemical Structures (Contd)

the University of Melbourne

The aim of this project is to use fluorescence measurements to study the homogeneity and stability of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. The technique consists of transferring a single layer of organic molecules floating on the surface of water onto a solid substrate. LB films have great potential as the basis of thin-film and electro-optic devices in communications, chemical and biochemical sensors, and

electronics. The realization of this potential has been delayed by difficulties in achieving homogeneity and stability of the LB film. This study deals with the surface chemistry underlying these problems.

80,000

sought

35,000

25,000

Determination of Chemical Structures (Contd)

Assoc Prof A H White STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY

University of Western Australia Single crystal X-ray structure determination is the most widely applicable, powerful and sophisticated high precision technique generally available for the definition of the relative dispositions of atoms in the solid state and

is the concern of this project, which participates in endeavours ranging from 'pure' to 'applied' science across the dimension from geology to biochemistry, exemplified by the determination of crystal structures of minerals, potentially catalytic organometallic compounds, and natural product toxins and mutagens.

GROUP - C h e m ic a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

inorganic and Metal Chemistry

Professor Μ I Bruce ORGANOMETALLIC & CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

Adelaide University This project will investigate the synthesis and reactivity of compounds containing organic molecules attached to three metal atoms, thus resembling molecules absorbed on metal

surfaces. These studies will enable a better understanding of the reactivity of hydrogen and other small molecules with several metal atoms to obtained; such multisite attachment is a key in the activation of these molecules towards further reactions.

Dr A J Canty ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY OF PALLADIUM AND ITS CONGENERS

University of Tasmania Palladium is important in the synthesis of organic compounds and in metal based industrial catlysts. Compounds with a chemical bond between metal and carbon atoms are formed temporarily in some processes using palladium catalysts. We have prepared the first organopalladium compounds of oxidation state +IV, although such compounds have been known

for 80 years for platinum, which is also important in catalysis. Oxidation state +IV may be important in the role of palladium as a catalyst, so that studies of palladium (IV) compounds with carbon will develop palladium chemistry, and

in particular, will aid the understanding of existing applications of palladium and possible lead to new ones.

jROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

inorganic and Metal Chemistry (Contd)

> r R Colton STUDY OF REDOX PROCESS OF LABILE AND 40,000

irofessor A M Bond INERT INORGANIC COMPLEXES OVER TIME DOMAIN VIA VOLTAMMETRIC. NMR AND ESR TECHNIQUES

|'he University of Melbourne A combination of NMR and ESR spectroscopies and variable temperature/variable time domain voltammetry should lead to a detailed understanding of the nuances of inorganic redox

reactions. Inorganic redox reactions from the basis of many biologically important processes, catalytic processes and photochemical reactions and a more fundamental understanding of the nature of the processes and photochemical reactions and a more fundamental understanding of the nature of the chemical intermediates and products of inorganic redox processes is therefore important.

i r D Dakternieks ORGANOMETALLIC CLUSTERS AS 22,000

INTERCALATES IN COMPOSITE CLAY CATALYSTS

ieakin University

Zeolite cracking catalysts are used extensively in oil refineries however the available pore size range limits their use in applications such as the conversion of high molecular weight hydrocarbons of the type found in heavy

crude oils. This project aims at development of new catalysts based on naturally occurring clays which have been interlayered with suitable robust chemical pillars. Pillared interlayered clays with appropriate properties are certain to find a specialised niche within the zeolite catalyst market, estimated at U.S.$703 million for 1990.

rofessor I G Dance METAL OXIDES AND CHALCOGENS 56,000

niversity of N.S.W This project will advance the molecular engineering of metal-oxide molecules, through the investigation and development of new synthesis of new compounds. Condensation

of these molecules to non-molecular compounds, using supramolecular chemistry, will be investigated as a synthetic technique. These compounds are relevant to bioinorganic chemistry, electronic and conducting materials, , and catalysis.

Inorganic and Metal Chemistry (Contd)

Dr G B Deacon RARE EARTH CHEMISTRY

Monash University

The rare earth elements are of increasing importance as shown by their involvement in the new warm superconductors. This project focuses on the synthesis, reactions, complexes and use in organic synthesis of the highly active rare earth organometallics, organoamides, alkoxides and aryl oxides. The high reactivity (e.g. to air and water) poses challenges

in synthesis and handling, but also offers prospects of exciting new reactions and uses as catalysts, microelectronic dopant and surface coating precursors.

Assoc Prof R S Dickson VOLATILE ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUND OF Professor B 0 West MERCURY, CADMIUM TELLURIUM AND Dr G B Deacon MANGANESE - IMPORTANT PRECURSORS TO SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS

Monash University

Mercury cadmium telluride, and the manganese doped material, are important semiconductors for use in optoelectronic devices that will be used in mid-infrared optical fibre transmission systems. Wafers of the semiconductor material are produced by the MOCVD technique with ultra-high purity and volatile feedstocks. We intend to develop better syntheses of the usual feedstocks, to prepare and study adducts of these materials, and to investigate potential new

feedstock materials containing >2 of the required metals in the same compound.

Dr D P Fairlie TOWARDS ARTIFICIAL ENZYMES - Professor R N Warrener REACTIVITY OF METAL IONS IN Prof D Butler HYDROPHOBIC ENVIRONMENTS

Bond University This project is aimed at developing artificial metallo-enzymes: simple complexes which have many characteristics of more complex naturally-occurring biological catalysts. By reproducing extremely rapid and

selective chemical reactions which proceed naturally in biological systems, we plan to (1) develop superior chemical catalysts for industrial application, and (2) understand the mechanisms by which some natural metallo-enzymes function.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

giOUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

'Inorganic and Metal Chemistry (Contd)

y-.soc Prof I K Gregor GAS PHASE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY: INVESTIGATIONS USING FOURIER TRANSFORM ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

Jniversity of N.S.W New chemical reactions between highly reactive metal-containing ions and organic, organometallic and inorganic neutral reagents will be examined in the absence

of solvents while the ions are trapped within the high magnetic field of superconducting magnet in Australia's only Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer. This chemistry is of fundamental significance and is also of

importance in the areas of catalysis, ■ transition-metal-mediated organic synthesis, metal oxide and oxidation chemistry and ion implantation.

)r J R Hall MULTINUCLEAR NMR APPLIED TO THE

)r T G Appleton CHEMISTRY OF PLATINUM AND OTHER NOBLE METALS

Queensland University Part of the project involves the study of reactions between simple compounds of platinum and amino acids and other constituents of living cells. This is relevant to the

action of these and related compounds as anti-tumour agents. New compounds will also be prepared with platinum in the "unusual" oxidation state, III, which may have potential as anti-tumour agents. These studies will be carried out using the very powerful instrumental technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). To make these studies possible, it is

frequently necessary to use compounds in which the normal isotope of nitrogen, N-14, is replaced by the much rarer isotope,N-15. While N-15 NMR studies of platinum compounds have thrown light on many important reactions, this technique has not been used with compounds of other noble metals. This technique will be applied to compounds of

palladium and rhodium, to establish fundamental chemistry, and to study reactions with molecules of biological interest, to allow comparisons with the platinum compounds.

>r J M Harrowfield MOLECULAR SELECTIVITY WITH MACROCYCLES

diversity of Western Australia The project is concerned with the exploitation of a range of newly developed materials which are characterised by their selective interactions with metal ions. These

"macrocyclic"ligands promise use in more efficient mineral processing, improved catalysis, medical applications of metal ions, and new analytical methods.

25,000

36,000

38,000

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Inorganic and Metal Chemistry (Contd)

Professor C J Hawkins METAL COMPLEXES OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE Dr L R Gahan CYCLIC PEPTIDES FROM DIDEMNID

ASCIDIANS

Queensland University- Some cyclic peptides, extracted from species of didemnid ascidian, are cytotoxins. These bind metals strongly. The activity of the metal compounds will be determined for certain cell cultures, including tumour cell lines, and bacteria, and compared to the activity of free peptides. Lissoclinum Patella has been found to be more toxic against tumour cells than any other compound from ascidians. The mode of action of these peptides and their metal compounds will be investigated.

Assoc Prof W G Jackson INORGANIC SYNTHESIS, REARRANGEMENTS AND SUBSTITUTION MECHANISMS

University of N.S.W The manner in which molecules rearrange their structure, of their own accord or by specific interaction with their environment, is becoming an increasingly important question in chemistry. This project is concerned with how and why these rearrangements occur in inorganic systems, especially those of biological relevance where metal ions are now known to have a clear role.

Dr G A Lawrance CARBON ACID METAL TEMPLATE SYNTHESES Dr M Maeder AND COMPLEXATION OF PENDANT-ARM MACROCYCLES

Newcastle University

Facile and inexpensive routes to large cyclic organic molecules (macrocycles) which can bind metal ions will be explored. In particular, macrocycles with chemical 'tails' on metal ion discrimination and the properties of metal compounds will be explored. Macrocycles which select and bind strongly one metal ion from mixture have potential for use in metal separation processes, for metal analysis, and

for medicinal uses.

Dr P A Lay STUDIES ON THE CHEMISTRY OF CHROMIUM V

COMPLEXES: IMPORTANT INTERMEDIATES IN INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY AND IN CR-INDUCED CANCERS

Sydney University Chromium(VI) compounds are common industrial and laboratory chemicals, however they are also known to cause human cancers. When either organic or biological molecules react with Chromium(VI), they produce Chromium(V) compounds as

intermediates. These intermediates control both the nature ... Cont/.

64,00

25,0

33,00

25,00'

Xnorganic and Metal Chemistry (Contd)

of the organic products and are sought to be the active carcinogens in Chromium-induced cancers. This project is aimed at understanding the sparsely-characterised chemistry of Chromium(V), which is likely to have important

implications in the prevention and treatment of Chromium-induced cancers and in improving the selectivity and yields of organic molecules that utilize Cr(VI) oxidants

in their preparations.

3R0UP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

’ rofessor R L Martin NEW INORGANIC MATERIALS

-lonash University

New Inorganic materials are the basis of technological innovation especially in fields such as electronics and computing. Following the recent discovery that mixtures of rare earths, barium and copper oxides produce a remarkable new class of warm ceramic superconductor, we are undertaking experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of

superconduction and so synthesize improved materials. Experiments are also being undertaken to encapsulate metal atoms and so modify their behaviour to create compounds with j catalytic and other properties.

> r K S Murray MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF INORGANIC AND BIOINORGANIC COMPOUNDS

lonash University The magnetic and spectroscopic properties of carefully chosen inorganic and bioinorganic compounds will be investigated over a wide range of temperatures. This enables a detailed picture of the electronic structure and bonding in such materials to be obtained. Appropriate magnetic and spectroscopic equipment will be used to study

the properties of important metal enzymes (eg some iron enzymes) so that an understanding of the electronic features of these natural systems can be obtained and used to complement data on the functions of these macromolecules.

rofessor C L Raston NITROGEN FUNCTIONALIZED ALKYL-OR AMIDO- MAIN GROUP METAL AND METALLOID CHEMISTRY

tiffith University The preparation of hitherto unknown types of main group metal and metalloid (semimetal) compounds is the immediate objective. They will possess unusual physical and chemical

properties, and a detailed understanding of such properties will be a major advancement in this important area of chemistry, main group compounds having application in several areas including the preparation of electronic

devices by chemical vapour deposition.

)

25,000

10,000

41,000

Inorganic and Metal Chemistry (Contd)

Dr R Robson THE CONSTRUCTION OF TETRA-METALLIC Dr B F Hoskins REACTION SITES AND THEIR PROPERTIES

The University of Melbourne

We shall synthesise molecules tailor-made to bind four metal centres in close proximity roughly in a rectangular arrangement. Molecular structures will be determined by X-ray crystallography. We predict that the organisation built into these tetrametallic complexes will lead to unprecedented types of structures and unprecedented types of reactivity, possibly including examples of novel catalysis. Our synthetic strategy gives us access to rectangular metallic groups with a range of dimensions, which will be a very useful variant in our quest for unusual reactivity and useful catalytic properties.

Dr R S Vagg CHIRAL RECOGNITION BETWEEN NUCLEIC ACIDS AND METAL CHELATE COMPLEXES

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Macquarie University The chemical study of nucleic acids is fundamental to man's understanding of the molecular basis for the control of disease, reproduction and growth. This project is a systematic experimental investigation into the discriminatory binding of suitable chiral metal complexes to these large bio-molecules, and to DNA in particular. The results should contribute significantly to an understanding of the stereochemical and symmetry factors which control small-molecule/nucleid-acid interactions, and thus assist the development of pharmacological agents which function in this manner.

Professor B 0 West OXYGEN, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS BRIDGING IN HETEROMETALLIC COMPOUNDS

Monash University There are at present only a handful of compounds known having nitrogen or phosphorus atoms bridging between pairs of similar metals and none at all involving different metals. It is a major synthetic challenge to find ways of

synthesising such molecules. Their likely properties can only be predicted in general terms but high reactivity can be predicted for the bridging groups and hence catalysis based on group exchange processes.

r c G Young OXOTHIO AND (HYDROSULFIDO) COMPLEXES 25,000

OF MOLYBDENUM AS MODELS FOR THE ACTIVE SITES OF OXO-TYPE MOLYBDOENZYMES.

a Trobe University

To date, adequate structural and functional models for the oxothio-Mo(VI) and oxothio-Mo(VI) states of the molybdoenzymes xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase have not been discovered. This project will explore the

synthesis and chemistry of oxothio and oxo(hydrosulfide) complexes of molybdenum and establish the relationship of such complexes to the structure and function of the active sites of the molybdoenzymes xanthine oxidase and xanthine

dehydrogenase.

ROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

norganic and Metal Chemistry (Contd)

Viemistry of Catalysis

rofessor B G Baker CHARACTERIZATION OF SUPPORTED 33,000 CATALYSTS

Unders University Recent publications and patents from this laboratory have shown that iron on alumina catalysts can be modified to achieve high selectivity in the synthesis of hydrocarbons

from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Such catalysts have potential use in the conversion of natural gas to liquid fuel. The experiments will aim to determine the structure and surface composition in order to gain an understanding of

the factors influencing the selectivity of the catalysts.

r K J Cave11 A STUDY OF HOMOGENEOUS CATALYST 35,000

SYSTEMS FOR THE CONVERSION OF LOWER OLEFINS INTO SPECIALTY CHEMICALS.

Diversity of Tasmania Catalytic conversion of lower molecular weight olefins (available from refinery sources in particular via cracking operations) into specialty chemicals or into feedstock for

further processing is an important industrial goal. The need to bring about these conversions with high specificity has led increasingly to the study of homogeneous catalysts as a suitable means. The aims of this project are to understand mechanisms controlling these catalytic reactions and thus develop new catalyst systems.

Chemistry o f Catalysis (Contd)

Professor F P Larkins HYDROCARBON SYNTHESIS FROM THE CATALYSED REACTIONS OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND WATER.

University of Tasmania Fundamental studies are to be undertaken on the development of new catalyst systems and kinetics and mechanism for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water. Multi-element iron and cobalt based catalyst systems

suitably doped on different supports will be investigated at elevated pressures (up to 2MPa). More detailed knowledge of processes which have the potential to provide synthetic liquid fuels for transport from coal-based feedstocks is vital in the National interest as our level of oil

self-sufficiency declines in the 1990's.

Dr A F Masters ORGANOMETALLIC ASPECTS OF OLEFIN OLIGOMERIZATION

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Sydney University Novel catalysts for the room temperature conversion of light hydrocarbons to heavier products with a range of industrial uses are being investigated. In particular, these catalysts can convert ethylene, the simplest reactive product from natural gas, into distillate. Natural gas constitutes 85% of Australia's remaining indigenous fuel reserves. This project seeks to understand the fundamental organometallic chemistry which underpins the catalysis and to use this understanding in the further development of improved catalysts.

Professor D L Trimm INDUSTRIAL CATALYSIS BY SUPPORTED Assoc Prof N W Cant METALS AND METAL OXIDES Assoc Prof M S Wainwright

University of N.S.W Heterogeneous catalysis is of major importance in Australia for the production of industrial chemicals and the control of pollution. Small improvements in efficiency can have major effects on the financial and environmental welfare of

the community. This program focuses on improving and developing industrial catalysts, through understanding the factors important to catalyst preparation, promotion and utilization. These include catalysts for the production of strategic chemicals and for the minimisation of pollution.

ylectrochemls try

irofessor A M Bond NEW AREAS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL 36,000

INVESTIGATION WITH ULTRA MICRO ELECTRODES

leakin University Ultramicroelectrodes possess novel properties that enable electrochemical investigations to be made in new media. In this project new technologies for manufacture of microelectrodes are to be explored. Theoretical studies will be undertaken to define how the electrodes work and

applications in the gas phase, solid state and other unusual media will be investigated. It is likely that this work will lead to commercial development of instrumentation based on microelectrodes.

'rofessor L F Lindoy METAL ION RECOGNITION WITH MACROCYCLIC 52,000 IONOPHORES

antes Cook University of North Qld

This project is concerned with the development of new cyclic reagents for the discrimination (and sensing) of such economically important groups of metals as: nickel, and . copper; zinc and cadmium; silver and lead. The study will

include an investigation of the selective transport of individual metals across liquid membranes- such a process may well form the basis of a new technology for the industrial separation of these metals in the future.

it P T McTigue ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF NON-AQUEOUS AND 28,000 MIXED SOLVENTS

he University of Melbourne This work makes possible the prediction of the voltages of the new breed of non-aqueous batteries. It involves the establishment of an electrode potential scale valid in

solvents other than water, and the development of the means of predicting voltages occurring at the internal junctions of such cells.

SROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

'nvironnental and Analytical Chemistry

( PW Alexander POTENTIOMETRIC DETECTION WITH METALLIC 35,000 ,ssoc Prof P R Haddad SENSORS IN CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS

diversity of N.S.W The potentiometric response characteristics of metallic copper sensors have been elucidated in this project during a six-year period from 1983-88 funded by ARCS. This

application is for an initial grant to allow expansion of this project for a further three years. The previous work has resulted in 25 papers either published or submitted, and ... Cont/.

Environmental and Analytical Chemistry (Contd)

including two US patents which have been licensed commercially. The present aims are to study further chromatographic applications, enzymatic and immunochemical reactions, and other metallic electrodes in flow systems. Further patentable sensor devices of economic value are likely as a result of the proposed studies.

Dr R W Cattrall CHEMICAL SENSORS

Dr T J Cardwell Dr L W Deady

La Trobe University

This project proposes to develop new chemical sensors and methods for analysis of cations and anions in complex mixtures. This will involve the synthesis of highly selective ionophores and the use of these and other

available reagents in sensors which form part of an instrument capable of fast simultaneous multi-ion analysis in environmental, clinical, agricultural and food chemistry. This new instrument will combine two recent developments

from our laboratories, a pre-electrolysis device and a composite potentiometric/spectrophotometric chemical sensing flow cell. This work has considerable commercial importance.

Dr D E Davey APPLICATIONS OF FLOW-CONTROLLED ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY TO CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES

S.A.I.T. The combination of flow injection and a tunable cross-flow nebulizer provides a flexible method of flame spectrometry, which provides a means of diluting samples in stream, adding controlled solution modifiers or accommodating sample

solutions of unusually high solute concentrations, and slurried samples. The project aims to apply the procedure to analytes selected from both galvanizing plant and zinc processing plant.

The quality of the commercial product depends on rapid and precise results concerning process parameters. The significance lies in increased economic output of those

industries.

Dr B T Hart PHOSPHORUS SPECIATION IN NATURAL Mr I D McKelvie WATERS BY FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS

Chisholm Institute of Technology

Phosphorus occurs in natural waters in a number of different physico-chemical forms, which have varying bioavailability to aquatic plants and algae. Rapid transformations of phosphorus between these forms may occur. To study the

... Cont/.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Environmental and Analytical Chemistry (Contd)

cycling of phosphorus in natural waters, a fast analytical technique, capable of distinguishing between these different species is required. This research will seek to develop and thoroughly test an analytical method, based on flow injection analysis and size exclusion chromatography, to separate and determine the concentration of the different forms of phosphorus in natural waters.

) r S Kokot FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION OF DYES 15,000

IN TEXTILE FIBRES BY FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

jueensland University of Technology This project which arises from the current pilot program investigating FT-IR methodology for analysis of forensic textile samples of known dye composition, will demonstrate

the applicability of FT-IR methods for samples of unknown dye composition. This will enable the establishment of quality assurance criteria.

Independent comments (1) on this work have indicated that it is of "incalculable" value for social justice and of | economic benefit to Australia through cost reduction in legal work.

; rOUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

>r D M McConchie HEAVY METAL CYCLING IN 16,000

)r P Saenger AUSTRALIAN MANGROVES

forthern Rivers CAE

Mangrove forests are common in Australian estuaries and are important breeding areas for commercial marine animals, but their environment is often polluted by industrial and sewage effluent, particularly near major urban centres. Although we know that mangrove communities provide a buffer between

sources of pollution and the marine environment, little is known of how the mangroves react to metallic pollutants. This study will examine how mangroves respond to heavy metals in their environment and may reveal a new pollution monitoring tool. It also will improve knowledge of the value of mangroves as an environmental buffer, and as to how metals enter the food chain.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Polymer and Colloid Chemistry

Dr G T Barnes STUDIES OF MONOLAYERS INTERACTIONS 67,00

Dr D M Alexander

Queensland University

Monolayers are layers of oriented molecules one molecule thick, usually formed on a water surface. Processes to be studied include deposition of one or more layers on solid supports (with potential applications as sensors and in

electronics), polymerization to stabilize monolayer structure, penetration by surfactants (modelling the action of, e.g., drugs on cell membranes), formation of bilayers (two monolayers back-to-back) and vesicles (minute volumes enclosed by one or more bilayers) (making convenient model biological membranes).

Dr R Beckett CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS BY 30,00!

Mr K R Chynoweth FIELD-FLOW FRACTIONATION TECHNIQUES Dr D E Hewitt

Chisholm Institute of Technology

The molecular weight distribution of a polymer is a important characteristic which determines many of its material and processing properties. As such it is a critical parameter that must be monitored during the manufacture and processing of plastics. This project aims

at developing several new techniques for characterising polymers. These methods will fill needs not adequately met by the instruments currently available.

Assoc Prof J L Garnett RADIATION POLYMERISATION IN THE 38,00! Dr R P Burford IMMOBILISATION OF BIOACTIVE MATERIALS

University of N.S.W The project involves a novel radiation polymerisation procedure using electron beam initiation for the immobilisation of a variety of bioactive materials including enzymes, drugs, cells, blood cells, antigens and antibodies.

The project would lead to new discoveries in basic polymer chemistry with unique applications in biomedical work, particularly the early diagnosis of certain diseases, e.g. malaria, cancer, AIDS etc.

Dr K P Ghiggino ULTRAFAST PROCESSES IN PHOTOIRRADIATED 45,000 POLYMERS: APPLICATIONS TO NOVEL POLYMERIC MATERIALS FOR OPTICAL SWITCHING AND DATA STORAGE

The University of Melbourne This project seeks to develop and character a new polymer which may be used in ultrafast switching p h o to c h r o m ic o f optical signals. These materials may also and storage applications as optical wave components, in document have

... Cont/.

;ROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

polymer and Colloid Chemistry (Contd)

security, light responsive goggles, actinometry and displays. The project will involve the synthesis of the polymers and their characterization by ultra laser

techniques.

Assoc Prof R G Gilbert PARTICLE FORMATION MECHANISM IN Professor D H Napper EMULSION POLYMERIZATION

Sydney University Emulsion polymerization is a process used to produce vast quantities of materials in Australia: artificial rubber, adhesives, and paint, to name just a few. At present, control and improvement of this process is an art more than

a science, largely because of lack of understanding of how the tiny latex particles form. This project sets out to redress this, through recently-developed theoretical and experimental methods that lie at the forefront of modern chemistry and physics.

Professor T W Healy SURFACE SPECTROSCOPY OF AQUEOUS Professor L R White INTERFACES )r C G Barraclough

,rhe University of Melbourne Assoc Prof R J Hunter ELECTRO-ACOUSTIC EFFECTS IN COLLOIDAL )r R W O'Brien DISPERSIONS

Professor J K Beattie

Sydney University The aim is to test the validity of a new theoretical description of the effects of passing an ultrasonic wave I through a colloidal dispersion. By measuring the electrical

signal which is generated as the sound wave moves through the colloid it is possible to estimate the electric charge on the colloidal particles and (possibly) the state of

aggregation or the size of the colloidal particles.

Colloidal suspensions are found in many industrial situations: inks, paints, paper making, ceramics, soils, plastics etc and the control of their particle size and electric charge is essential in many aspects of processing. This project may well lead to the development of a new type of scientific instrument able to provide in-line monitoring of these important quantities.

>r D E Mainwaring FLUID PHASE BEHAVIOUR OF CONFINED It R J Sadus FLUIDS

iwinburne Institute of Technology Capillarity is an important phenomena with technological implications ranging from soil physics, through oil recovery to separation science. Capillary condensation governs the uptake of fluids by porous media as well as influencing

their fluid transport. Few groups have exploited recent ... Cont/.

40,455

53,670

43,211

11,000

Polymer and Colloid Chemistry (Contd)

advances in fluid phase behaviour to answer questions in capillary condensation. Our approach is to model absorption as a continuous process with equilibrium conditions dependent upon the thickness of the film.

Professor J H O'Donnell RADIATION DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS

Queensland University Degradation of polymeric materials by high energy and ultraviolet radiation is utilized in the lithographic process for manufacture of silicon chip integrated circuits and provides the major limitation on the service lifetimes of structures used in space. Fundamental understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure of polymers and radiation sensitivity under different exposure conditions will lead to improved technology.

Assoc Prof I D Rae INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANISMS OF THERMAL DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS USING ISOTOPIC LABELLING AND THE STUDY OF MODEL COMPOUNDS

Monash University Professor J Ralston WETTING DYNAMICS

S.A.I.T. The spreading of liquids over solid surfaces is a phenomenon which we encounter every day but is poorly understood. The practical applications of spreading include droplet

impaction on plant leaves during insecticide spraying, printing, painting and adhesion. The object of this investigation is to increase our knowledge through dynamic contact angle studies on characterized solid surfaces by optical and force measurements.

Professor P J Stiles CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER ACROSS Dr P J Blennerhassett MAGNETIZED FERROFLUIDS

Macquarie University

Ferrofluids belong to a new class of colloidal liquids with valuable properties that can be controlled by magnetic fields. In industrial applications of ferrofluids to the cooling of electromagnetic coils and modern loudspeakers

it is important to be able to estimate heat transfer across the convecting fluid. This project seeks to quantify, at a fundamental level, the factors that determine convective heat transfer in systems for which experimental data are available. It will stimulate local interest in the production and applications of these commercially important magnetic fluids.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

polymer and Colloid Chemistry (ContdJ

professor L R White POLYELECTROLYTES: STRUCTURE AND 30,000 Dr D Y Chan TRANSPORT PROPERTIES

The University of Melbourne Polyelectrolytes are long chain molecules which acquire electric charges on dispersal in solution. They are a class of commercially vital chemical and are used as stabilizers,

lubricants and exchangers. Their commercial properties depend on their size, absorption characteristics and state of charge. This project is a theoretical and experimental program with industrial collaboration aimed at understanding

in detail how solution conditions (acidity, salt concentration, temperature etc) control the size, charge and absorption properties of polyelectrolytes.

Dr G D Willett LASER DESORPTION FOURIER TRANSFORM 29,000 MASS SPECTROMETRY

University of N.S.W If pulsed Ultraviolet or Infrared laser radiation is directed onto surfaces then the material at the surface is spontaneously etched away. Such photoablation is used in welding, cutting, photoetching and surgery. We propose to

irradiate metallic, polymeric, semiconductor and ceramic interfaces to characterize particles photoejected by such radiation. The photoablation will occur in the source of a Fourier Transform mass spectrometer and the photoejected products detected at various times after the laser pulse. Besides the analytical value of the experiment, the results will provide valuable evidence to test various photoablation models.

G30UP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Industrial and Mineral Chemistry

Dr J Abbot CATALYTIC PROCESSES DURING PULPING 30,000

AND BLEACHING OF WOOD.

University of Tasmania Two chemical processes are of major importance during production of wood pulp. These are pulping and bleaching. Because of the complex nature of wood itself, as well as the chemical systems used as reagents, the chemistry of these processes are not well understood. Specific studies related

to native species in particular Australian hardwoods such as Eucalyptus Regnans are of current interest, with continuing major developments in the wood products industry in Tasmania, and elsewhere in Australia.

Industrial and Mineral Chemistry (Contd)

Professor J Ralston FLOTATION: PARTICLE SIZE, HYDROPHOBICITY Dr R W O'Brien AND THIN FILM STABILITY

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

The basic mechanisms of bubble-particle attachment are poorly understood yet are of central importance to mineral flotation, the primary method by which valuable minerals are concentrated. We are using model particles of known size and wettability to understand these mechanisms. Our work has already led to a far sounder understanding in the

flotation process and has led to significant practical advances.

Biological Chemistry

Professor D J Craik CONFORMATION AND BINDING OF Dr M Sadek NEUROKININS TO A MODEL RECEPTOR BY NMR

Victorian College Of Pharmacy Ltd Alterations of the distribution of neuropeptides belonging to the tachykinin family are implicated in a number of serious neurological disorders, inflammation, and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. This study proposed to determine the bioactive conformations of two members of the neuropeptide family with the aim of using this information

for the design of new drugs.

Dr M J Garson CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF MARINE INVERTEBRATES FROM THE ILLAWARRA REGION

Wollongong University The Illawarra region contains marine habitats ranging from coastal rock platforms to major shipping harbours. Study of species specific metabolic processes in local marine organisms is of interest since it may suggest chemical parameters for assessment of each local environment and

therefore contribute to correct management of marine resources. Research will focus on the chemical ecology and biochemistry of marine pulmonates and of marine sponges.

Isolated metabolites will be submitted to the National Cancer Institute (USA) for screening as leads to anti-cancer and anti-AIDS drugs.

Professor Μ T Hearn STUDIES WITH NOVEL MICROPARTICULATE MATRICES FOR THE HIGH PERFORMANCE CHROMATOGRAPHY OF BIOMACROMOLECULES

Monash University Realisation of the objectives of this research project should lead to significant improvement in the separation capability for biomacromolecules in terms of enhanced resolution and recovery. This project examines alternative

. . . Cont/.

biological Chemistry (Contd)

approaches to remedy existing limitations of biomacromolecular separation through the synthesis and characterisation of a family of new high resolution

chromatography sorbents. Their importance will be rigorously assessed through detailed analysis of their absorption properties.

) r J M Webb STUDIES OF IRON IN THE PROTEIN

FERRITIN USING MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY, ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENTS

lurdoch University

Ferritin is a crucial protein in the metabolism of iron, being present in the liver and spleen. Diseases of iron overload (e.g. thalassemia and haemachromatosis) involve iron deposition in this protein, but we know little of the

molecular mechanism of this process. Studies of the reduction and oxidation of iron in ferritin and of its subsequent magnetic properties offer an opportunity to understand this mechanism. The novel ferritins from the marine molluscs, which are even more reactive than the mammalian protein, will allow the key steps of this process

to be identified.

IrA G Wedd METALLOPROTEINS AND METALLOENZYMES: STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY

a Trobe University

This proposal aims to clarify the role of the trace elements molybdenum and iron in certain enzymes and proteins. It emphasises understanding of structure and reactivity at the

molecular level through an integrated study of both the biological molecules and low molecular weight models. Particular attention will be paid to the milk enzyme xanthine oxidase, to the iron-activated alcohol

dehydrogenase from the fermenting bacterium Zymomonas mobilis and to the electron transfer protein ferredoxin from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum.

«OUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

45,000

52,000

i

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Medical Chemistry

Professor M R Bendall LOCALISATION OF SPECIFIC METABOLITES Dr P J Rogers IN INTACT ANIMALS BY NMR

Dr R J Willis

James Cook University of Dr J B Bremner Dr E J Browne

North Qld DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF NEW HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL MEDICINAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL AGENTS

University of Tasmania There is a need for new compounds for use as medicinal agents which have high levels of desired activity with few or no adverse side effects. We have prepared examples of new types of active compounds whose study in this project will contribute to understanding the chemical basis for such

activity. Directed modifications should then lead to synthesis of more highly selective and active products which could act, for example, to lower blood pressure or counteract depression. If successful, the results of this project could be useful for the development in Australia of cheaper and safer medications.

Dr R T Brownlee THE INTERACTION OF POLYPEPTIDE- Dr J A Reiss ACRIDINE CONJUGATES WITH DNA

Dr D R Phillips

La Trobe University We wish to synthesise and study compounds which will recognise and bind to specific sites in DNA: such compounds could mimic the proteins that regulate the replication, repair and maintenance of the DNA structure. These compounds would be a significant model for drugs which could regulate DNA and be used as sequence specific anti-cancer drugs. We see this project as the first step towards the use of polypeptide based drugs designed as synthetic agents

for the specific control of gene expression. Major implications are apparent for such a class of new drugs in the treatment of many diseases including cancer.

Dr W D Lawrence SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF INTRAMOLECULAR VIBRATIONAL ENERGY TRANSFER

Flinders University The rate at which energy is redistributed among the vibrations of a molecule following the absorption of light determined whether or not it is possible to use a laser to select desired reaction pathways. The project investigates the vibrational behaviour of molecules at energies approaching those where chemical reaction occurs. The aim is to investigate the parameters that control the redistribution of vibrational energy within isolated molecules. Understanding the redistribution process is a first step towards laser control of chemical reactions.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Medical Chemistry (Contd)

Dr A D Ward SYNTHESIS OF PORPHYRIN BASED 12,000

ANTI-CANCER DRUGS

Adelaide University We have prepared a variety of ether linked porphyrin dimers which have substantial anticancer activity. We plan to extend this synthetic work further and to widen the

structural types and mode of action by attaching known anticancer agents to the active porphyrins to create a "double action" anticancer agent . We also plan to link suitable porphyrins with appropriate "spacer" units to

obtain DNA and RNA active materials with potential anticancer, antiviral and antibacterial activity.

Organic Chemical Synthesis

Dr D P Arnold SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF NOVEL 14,000

HYDROPHILIC PORPHYRINS

Queensland University of Technology Porphyrins are important biological molecules. Simpler, chemically synthesized porphyrins are used in such fields as solar energy capture and cancer therapy, and their study contributes greatly to chemical and biochemical knowledge. The presently available water soluble synthetic porphyrins offer a limited choice of physical and chemical properties. This project seeks efficient ways to prepare new types of

porphyrins for use as corrosion inhibitors, as probes for studying biological molecules, and in studies of their interactions with light.

Dr M G Banwell STEREO CONTROLLED ROUTES TO 40,000

BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE ORGANIC MOLECULES

The University of Melbourne Dihydrocatechols, derived from mirobial oxidation of ' mononuclear aromatics, are now commercially available materials. These dihydrocatechols contain a previously

inaccessible combination of functional groups and as such have considerable potential as starting materials for the efficient and stereochemically controlled preparation of a wide range of biologically active cyclohexane derivatives.

The bioactive compounds that could be prepared from dihydrocatechols include antibiotics, glycolysation inhibitors, and potential anti-AIDS compounds. This project aims to pursue these possibilities.

Ϊ

Organic Chemical Synthesis (Contd)

Professor D S Black NEW MACROCYCLIC IONOPHORES

University of N.S.W Macrocyclic natural ionophores play vital roles in the transport of ions by selective binding. Numerous synthetic compounds have been developed in attempts to minimise enzymic selectivity to some extent. This project involves the synthesis of a new structural class of macrocyclic ionophores, making use of the structurally versatile bispidone moiety.

Professor D S Black NEW INDOLES RELATED TO NATURAL PRODUCT

University of N.S.W This project aims to synthesize new types of molecules, which are related to known indoles of biological importance. These naturally-occurring indoles include many powerful controllers of biological processes (eg bio-rhythms) and drugs (eg LSD, reserpine) and new classes would be expected to show varied and useful biological effects, as well as extended our understanding of their reactivity.

Dr J B Bremner SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF HETERO-CYCLOPHANES AND DERIVATIVES

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

University of Tasmania There is extensive current interest in the preparation of novel compounds with potentially useful properties. In this project the preparation of new types of organic ring compounds will be undertaken, and the relationship between their unique structures and chemical, and in some cases, pharmacological, properties investigated. A better understanding of these relationships should result, thus enabling more directed syntheses of further compounds; such products could assist with the future development of the specialty chemical industry in Australia.

Dr R F Brown DEVELOPMENT OF THE BENZYNE TO

Dr F W Eastwood FULVENECARBENE REARRANGEMENT

Monash University Earlier work has shown that the formation of benzyne (1,2-dehydrobenzene, C6H4) from aromatic precursors at very high temperatures is associated with a reversible contraction of the six-membered ring to give five-membered

fulvenecarbene (C5H4=C:). The project aims to discover how this ring contraction occurs, and how such highly reactive carbenes can be used to produce unusual hydrocarbon products.

Organic Chemical Synthesis (Contd)

Professor D W Cameron SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS

[he University of Melbourne The project seeks to devise access to several classes of biologically active substances by rational chemical synthesis. In a purely academic sense this represents development of new methodology and provides compelling proof of structure. In a wider sense it offers (a) efficient

access to such substances without reliance on natural sources, and (b) the possibility of making new synthetic analogues having usefully modified biological activity.

’ rofessor P S Clezy NEW PORPHYRINS

diversity of N.S.W Porphyrins and related systems play a major role in the biochemistry of the life processes and it is necessary to define the structures of these pigments before it is possible to begin to understand how they perform their

biological roles. It is planned in this project to tackle the synthesis of three new porphyrin pigments of biological significance as a means of defining their structure. The

pigments in question are the prosthetic group of the enzyme lactoperoxidase, a new chlorophyll of the c type and a prosthetic group of a terminal oxidase found in anaerobic organisms.

> r D J Collins

3R0UP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

lonash University > r G T Crisp

delaide University T E W Della

linders University The object of our research activities is to assess how changes in molecular structure affect the physical and chemical properties of substances. The knowledge gained

from these studies may then be employed to predict what effect certain structural features have on the behaviour of unknown compounds and, ultimately, used to advantage in their synthesis.

GENERATION OF USEFUL SYNTHETIC INTERMEDIATES BY TANDEM NUCLEOPHILIC/ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION TO ENOLIC ORTHO ESTERS

PALLADIUM CATALYZED COUPLING OF ORGANOSTANNANES WITH IODOPYRIMIDINES. SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NUCLEOSIDES.

SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF STRAINED CARBOCYCLES: THE EFFECT OF THROUGH- SPACE ORBITAL INTERACTIONS

3 5 , 0 0 0

50,000

34,000

15,000

25,000

Organic Chemical Synthesis (Contd)

Dr D P Hamon THE ASYMMETRIC OF AMINO ACIDS AND

Dr R A Massy-Westropp ARYLPROPANOIC ACIDS.

Adelaide University

Amino acids and arylpropanoic acids are biologically active compounds many of which are used as drugs. Each of them has at least one chiral centre in the molecule and therefore they are usually prepared as a mixture of enantiomers. Enantiomers of drugs usually have differing modes of action within the body and ideally a pure enantiomer should be used. This project is aimed at developing chemistry which will lay the foundations necessary for the solution of the practical problem of preparing pure enantiomers of drugs. The drug industries are actively looking for the solution to these difficult problem.

Dr R K Haynes SYNTHESIS AND BIOSYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Sydney University Prostaglandins are biologically highly active and clinically important substances which occur in all mammals. They are formed in a way which is not properly understood from essential fatty acids which are ingested as part of our normal diet. Although they have widespread clinical and veterinary use, they are expensive substances, as they cannot be isolated from the mammal in sufficient quantities, and they cannot be prepared easily in the laboratory. The aim of the project is to develop economic ways of preparing these substances in the laboratory, and hence in industry, and to gain an understanding of how the substances are

formed - biosynthesized - in our bodies.

Professor W R Jackson NEW SYNTHETIC METHODS INVOLVING Professor J R Anderson HOMOGENEOUS AND HETEROGENEOUS METAL Assoc Prof R S Dickson CATALYSTS

Monash University The project involves the development of new catalyst systems for the preparation of organic molecules of commercial interest to the fine chemical, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. Particular attention will be paid

to achieving good regio- and stereocontrol in these syntheses. The new system will involve bimetallic homogeneous catalysts and also organometallic catalysts which are bonded to novel supports, such as the cyclodextrins.

Organic Chemical Synthesis (Contd)

)r I D Jenkins STUDIES IN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS CHEMISTRY

Griffith University This project is a continuation of our work in organophosphorus chemistry. A technique recently developed in Australia, will be used to probe the chemistry of phosphorus free radicals. The project aims to extend our knowledge of the nature of various reactive organophosphorus

intermediates and to explore the use of organophosphorus compounds on organic synthesis.

Professor L Kane-Maguire ORGANOMETALLIC COMPLEXES AS REAGENTS i D r S G Pyne IN PEPTIDE SYNTHESIS AND MODIFICATION, Dr J A Carver AND ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS

flollongong University This project exploits the unique properties of one class of organometallic compounds with the aim of producing novel land superior reagents for (a) peptide and protein

synthesis, (b) the non-radio labelling of peptides and proteins as a new analytical tool, (c) the asymmetric synthesis of organic chemicals of pharmaceutical interest,

and (d) in the longer term, the radio-isotope labelling of proteins for tumour treatment. Each of the areas has significant potential for commercialisation. A provisional Australian patent has been taken out for the application of

those new reagents in area (a).

Dr P Perlmutter STEREOSELECTIVE CONJUGATE ADDITION- APPLICATION TO THE SYNTHESIS OF CLINICALLY IMPORTANT ANTIBIOTICS

tonash University

Antibiotics, especially B-lactam based molecules, are the most prescribed drugs in the world today. We have recently discovered a new synthetic method which promises to find wide application in synthesis. In this project we propose

to extend this discovery to the synthesis of the latest generation of B-lactam antibiotics, the carbapenems, as well as chiral fragments of several representatives of the macrolide antibiotics.

Dr J T Pinhey STUDIES IN ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY

Sydney University Organolead compounds are being developed as new reagents for the synthesis of organic compounds. The project is concerned mainly with the production of low cost reagents, which are capable of achieving transformations not readily

brought about with currently available methods. The types of organic chemical compounds used in the pharmaceutical industry.

; rOUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

25,000

36,000

40,000

40,000

Chemistry of Natural Organic Substances

Dr J C Coll THE NATURAL PRODUCTS CHEMISTRY OF

Dr B F Bowden MARINE ORGANISMS

James Cook University of North Qld Marine animals and plants contain chemicals which are often different to those present in land animals and plants. These chemicals are used by the different animals or plants

for their defence, or for communication. The same compounds may also be useful to society as antibiotics, antifouling compounds or natural insecticides. This project will isolate and identify novel compounds with potentially useful properties from marine organisms.

Dr M Gill STRUCTURE STUDIES ON BIOLOGICALLY

ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM FUNGI

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

The University of Melbourne Micro-organisms have provided man with many of the most valuable drugs presently at his disposal. The aim of the project is to discover new substances of chemical and biological value from fungi such as 'toadstools'. Initial

studies show a range of new substances, some of which have promising activity as antibiotics.

Dr R J Quinn MARINE CHEMISTRY

Griffith University Natural products have provided many useful medicines. The isolation of constituents of water extracts of marine organisms has received little attention in view of the

increasing world-wide interest in the biomedical potential of novel marine natural products. This project aims to investigate water extracts in order to isolate novel constituents and to isolate the active constituents from water extracts which have already been shown to be cytotoxic

to human cancer cell lines.

Assoc Prof J W Redmond DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE SOLID-PHASE Dr M Batley IMMUNOASSAY FOR SUGARS IN

Dr E Smith GLYCOPROTEINS AND GLYCOLIPIDS

Macguarie University

If acceptable protein drugs are to be produced by biotechnology, it will be necessary to ensure that the correct sugars are present on them. At present, there are no good, sensitive methods for analysing sugars, which is a major problem for the biotechnology industry. This project will continue the development of a new assay procedure for complex sugars that promises to be million times more

sensitive than existing methods. The materials developed will also be valuable for diagnosis and, possibly, treatment of cancer.

30,000

36,000

33,000

52,000

Chemistry of Natural Organic Substances (Contd)

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

professor W C Taylor BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS

Sydney University This project is significant because it has high potential to produce compounds of use as new drugs in medicine and compounds with other activities of commercial value.

Theoretical Chemistry

’ rofessor R D Brown MOLECULES IN SPACE -PHASE 3 )r P D Godfrey

fonash University Using microwave and Fourier transform techniques, it is possible to detect new small molecules, many of which have interesting properties or are of astrophysical interest

because they may occur in other parts of the Milky Way galaxy. These techniques provide much information about molecular properties and are essential for radioastronomical studies of interstellar molecules.

) r P J Dunlop TRACER AND SELF DIFFUSION IN LIQUID NOBLE GASES

Adelaide University The objective of this project is to measure the rate at which noble gas atoms diffuse in the liquid phase, e.g. Kr85 moving in Ar. For such systems there are no complicating

degrees of freedom. The same information can be calculated using the technique of "molecular dynamics". There is, however, poor agreement between existing experimental results and hence poor agreement with calculations. This

work seeks to reduce experimental error to 1-2%, and thus accurately test the method of molecular dynamics as a predictive technique.

issoc Prof R G Gilbert THEORY OF DISSOCIATION AND RECOMBINATION REACTIONS IN THE GAS PHASE

ydney University Problems such as the ozone layer and the greenhouse effect can be understood (and mitigated) through computer modelling of numerous chemical reactions and atmospheric circulation. This requires knowing the speeds of reactions; however, many of these cannot be measured in the laboratory. This project is to advance our ability to calculate accurately

the speed of a large class of these reactions completely from theory, through a knowledge of the forces between, and complex dynamics of, the component atoms.

4 0 , 0 0 0

140, 144

45,000

30,000

Theoretical Chemistry (Contd)

Assoc Prof R G Gilbert SIMULATIONS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES Professor G B Bacskay OMNIBUS PROPOSAL - PART 1 (0F3)

Sydney University The fundamental understanding of chemical processes is now such that computer simulations can be carried out to give data on molecules and reactions that cannot be observed experimentally. The simulations which are the object of this project require large-scale computer resources, but give information that is valuable for fundamental science and also necessary for commercial and environmental applications such as aerochemistry, catalysis and materials science.

Dr J E Gready Professor P W Kuchel

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Sydney University The project aims to increase understanding of the fundamental molecular processes involved in a particular type of biochemical reaction. This knowledge has a number of possible applications. Results of the initial work are now being used in our laboratory to design new anti-cancer drugs, while another possible application is in the design of new redox catalysts.

Dr P Harrowell THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE GROWING CRYSTAL-MELT INTERFACE

THEORETICAL STUDIES OF NICOTINAMIDE ACTIVATION AND REACTION MECHANISMS FOR HYDRIDE-ION TRANSFER IN SOME DEHYDROGENASE & REDUCTASE ENZYMES

Sydney University Elucidation of the mechanisms of crystal growth and the structure of the resulting crystal on both large scales (e.g. crystal shape) and small scales (e.g. density of defects in molecular order) constitutes one of the central concerns of material science. While much is now understood about the nature of crystal growth from the vapour, few of these insights have been extended in detail to the industrially important case of crystal growth from the liquid. I intend to study this process using both recently developed theoretical techniques and calculations on simple model systems.

Professor N S Hush MOLECULAR ELECTRONIC MATERIALS Professor G B Bacskay MOLECULAR ELECTRIC FIELD RESPONSE FUNCTIONS RELEVANT TO NON LINEAR OPTICAL DEVICES & THE SCANNING TUNN

Sydney University There is great international interest in the use of non-traditional molecularly-engineered (eg organic) instead of traditional (eg metals and glass) materials for electronic and optical communication devices. This area is

... Cont/.

Theoretical Chemistry (ContdJ

Molecular Electronics. The project is concerned with improving methods of theoretically predicting principles of design of molecules with optimal properties for such uses, particularly for optical communications systems, using

state-of-the-art computer methods.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Dr C J Marsden QUANTUM CHEMICAL STUDIES OF STRUCTURE AND BONDING

The University of Melbourne This project will use complex mathematical modelling techniques to investigate areas of basic chemistry which cannot at present be studied by experiment. The aim of the project is to improve our understanding of the fundamental

interatomic forces which control chemical behaviour. An improved understanding of these forces would enhance our ability to design and produce new materials with properties which are technologically useful or desirable.

Dr E V Nagy Felsobuki INVESTIGATION OF ELECTRONIC AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF SMALL ALKALI METAL VAPOURS

Newcastle University The study of the electronic and structural properties of the small alkali metal vapours Xn(+)(0)(-) (where X represents Li, K, Rb and Cs) should yield valuable information on the nucleation phenomena as well as their utility in such diverse technologies as optically pump lasers and in

amplifiers.

Dr J R Reimers SEMICLASSICAL CALCULATION OF RADIATIVE ASSOCIATION SPECTRA

Sydney University This project will calculate spectra emitted during the course of chemical reactions. Such spectra contain information about the microscopic mechanism through which

the reaction occurred. The results of this study will aid in the development of theories for predicting and interpreting chemical reactions, thus allowing chemical

researchers and process engineers to optimize their synthesis strategies.

40,000

30,000

40,774

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Other (Chemical)

Dr R Bishop SYNTHESES, STRUCTURES, AND PROPERTIES Professor I G Dance OF ORGANIC HELICAL MOLECULAR ASSEMBLIES

University of N.S.W Inclusion compounds are molecular aggregates where the size and shape of one component (the host) provides cavities occupied by a second component (the quest). This project explores the structures and properties of a new and unique type of inclusion system where the host molecules form helical assemblies containing canal-like cavities whose size may be varied by deliberate synthetic design. The resulting materials have structural similarities to certain natural

antibiotic molecules which act as ion channels across cell membranes.

Professor R D Brown MASS SPECTRA OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC Dr P D Godfrey COMPOUNDS

Monash University Dr M J Crossley ADVANCED MATERIALS BASED ON NOVEL METALLOPORPHRIN ASSEMBLIES

Sydney University This application is for a new initiative project which aims to synthesize novel (and exotic) materials based on liphophilic, planar, laterally-bridged, rigid metalloporphyrin systems discovered at the University of

Sydney. The materials should have interesting and useful electrical, optical, and magnetic properties, and may ultimately be of great commercial importance in the areas of conducting polymers, microelectronics, superconductors, and

solar-energy conversion, i.e., in the areas of technology where all the recent developments have occurred abroad.

Dr L D Field HIGH FIELD NMR SPECTROSCOPY

Professor P W Kuchel Professor W C Taylor

Sydney University A number of research groups from differing scientific disciplines seek to obtain an NMR spectrometer operating with the highest commercially available magnetic field

strength (14 Tesla) in order to study chemical and biochemical reactions, detect the presence of reactive chemical intermediates in chemical reactions, determine the structures of organic and bio-organic compounds and establish new methods of measuring molecular properties. There is currently NO such facility available in Australia.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Other (Chemical) (Contd)

Dr T L Henderson NEW MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR Dr R N Bagchi SHORT-LIVED REDOX SPECIES USING SIMULTANEOUS ESR-ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Deakin University Electrochemistry is extensively used to study the redox behaviour of a wide variety of compounds. This behaviour is often complicated due to the labile nature of electro-generated species which transform irreversibly into

stable products after a number of steps. Elucidation of electrochemical/chemical pathways is useful as it can lead to new methods of synthesis and provide understanding of

chemical reactions. Our recently developed esr-electrochemical apparatus can provide information on reaction pathways not easily obtainable by other methods.

I’ rofessor L A Kane-Maguire NMR STRUCTURAL STUDIES ON BIOACTIVE > r M J Garson MOLECULES

) r S G Pyne

jitollongong University > r F R Keene SPECTROSCOPIC AND ANALYTICAL issoc Prof A E Knight APPLICATIONS OF LASER ABLATION/ TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

ames Cook University of North Qld The project seeks to construct an instrument which, by use of an infrared laser, vaporizes non-volatile substrates to make them suitable for a variety of sensitive and detailed

analysis. There are manifold applications of such studies: for example, to the analytical determination of trace species in mixture, and to the elucidation of the fundamental composition and behaviour of many metal-containing compounds which may have potential as , industrial catalysts or light-sensitive materials.

r J Liesegang r G L Nyberg T R W Cattrall

SURFACE SCIENCE STUDIES OF ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODES USING X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY (XPS)

a Trobe University Ion selective electrodes are used for detecting extremely small concentrations of specific ions (down to lmg/litre) in fluids. Preliminary La Trobe measurements have already accounted for the action of fluorine ions in lanthanum trifluoride surfaces. Similar studies will be made for

silver sulphide, copper sulphide and silver sulphide/chloride electrodes. The electrodes have the capacity to detect extremely small ion concentrations in biological fluids (eg. Blood) in small samples.

10,000

100,000

30,000

32,000

Other (Chemical) (Contd)

Assoc Prof S F Lincoln Assoc Prof T M Spotswood

Adelaide University Dr B V 0'Grady Dr A J Canty Dr P D Carpenter

University of Tasmania Professor G L Ritchie

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

University of New England The objectives of this research are the experimental determination and theoretical interpretation of a range of fundamental and inter-related electric and magnetic properties of molecules. Amongst these are dipole and quadrupole movements, electric polarizabilities and magnetic susceptibilities. A knowledge of these properties provides a wealth of information about the molecular charge distributions and their interaction with electric and magnetic fields.

Assoc Prof T M Spotwood ASSOCIATION OF CHIRAL COMPOUNDS. A SOLID-STATE NMR STUDY.

Adelaide University Association of chiral molecules is the fundamental process of molecular recognition for many systems of chemical and biological importance. This project is designed to provide better understanding of the weak interactions involved in

recognition by investigating by CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, the association of chiral molecules to racemates and diastereomers. It is expected that the results may provide a rational basis for the development of resolution methods, chiral chromatographic phases, and design of host-guest and biomimetic systems.

Professor D L Trimm SURFACE ANALYSIS FACILITY: XPS, AES, Prof N Cant SIMS.

Assoc Prof M S Wainwright

University of N.S.W Dr M A Wilson TWO DIMENSIONAL SOLID STATE NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

HIGH RESOLUTION AND SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES

CHEMISTRY OF ANTARCTIC LAKES

STUDIES OF ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MOLECULES

100,00

15.00

35.00

25.00

100,00

80,00

University of N.S.W

feOUP - Earth Sciences

Crystallography and Mineralogy

)r W Birch REPLACEMENT OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION 50,000

EQUIP. IN THE MUSEUM OF VICTORIA'S DEP. OF MINERALOGY: A SPRINGBOARD FOR RESEARCH INTO AUSTRALIAN MINERALS

tuseum Of Victoria The purchase of a new X-ray diffraction equipment is significant because the research programmes it will support are amongst the few Australian studies which are leading to new mineral species being documented and characterized. As well the secondary associations within the oxidized zone of

the Broken Hill orebody and the diversity and origin of Victorian zeolite assemblages will be investigated.

)r I D Mackinnon ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF 35,000 MIXED-LAYER CLAYS

Queensland University Mixed-layer clays are important indicator minerals for diagenesis and thus, are used as an exploration tool for resource evaluation in, for example, petroleum source rocks

and oil shales. However, the methods for study and the interpretation of mixed-layer clay formation are still poorly understood. High resolution imaging and image simulation, coupled with spatially precise (<20nm), thin-film elemental analyses of individual clay particles

from a mixed-layer clay diagenetic sequence should resolve many of the complex crystallographic problems associated with these minerals.

Or I D Mackinnon kssoc Prof G C Morris

jueensland University Or A Pring

-•A. Museum Sulphides are an economically important and structurally diverse group of minerals in which the ordinary rules of chemistry are only obeyed approximately. Through the study of how their structures adapt to changes in composition it

is hoped to gain a better understanding of the conditions under which they are formed. These minerals are also important semiconductors and the results of this study may aid in the design of new semiconducting materials.

A FIELD EMISSION SCANNING ELECTRON 212,253 MICROSCOPE ('IN-LENS" DESIGN)

COMPOSITION AND DISORDER IN SULPHIDE 10,430 MINERALS

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Mineral Processing

Dr S N Bhattacharya TRANSPORT CHARACTERISTICS OF A SLURRY OF COARSE MATERIALS SUSPENDED IN A DISPERSION CONTAINING FINE PARTICLES

R.M.I.T. Coarse particles may be hydraulically transported using a carrier suspension of fine particulates. It is proposed to investigate the transport characteristics of mixtures of coarse and fine particle-suspensions covering a wide concentration and particle size range of spherical and non-spherical particles. Both laboratory and pilot scale pipeline study is proposed and development of mechanism for multiphase flow behaviour envisaged. This study is part of

a mineral transport likely to be commercialised in the near future.

Dr P C Hayes Dr H G Lee

Queensland University Australia has significant quantities of zinc in its mineral deposits. These materials are processed and exported in various forms and compositions. This project is aimed at

improving our understanding of the complex chemical reactions which take place during the production of zinc metal and zinc oxide. In this way improvements in the control of existing processes can be made and this

information can be used to assist the development of new more efficient methods of processing.

Dr I A Nicholls APPLICATIONS OF LASER ABLATION ICP Dr R J Morrison MASS SPECTROMETRY IN EARTH AND Dr B C Muddle MATERIALS SCIENCES

Monash University The ICP-MS technique (inductively coupled plasma mass ' spectrometry) allows rapid analysis of elements and isotopes at trace levels (to 1 part/billion by weight, or 0.0000001%) for samples introduced as aqueous solutions. The purchase of a laser microprobe/sample chamber system for a new Monash University ICP-MS instrument will also allow analysis of resistant solids by direct ablation/vaporisation. This project aims to develop a capability unique within an Australian university for laser ablation trace analysis of

industrial materials (especially metals, advanced ceramics and optical fibres and their high-purity chemical components) and geological materials (rocks, minerals and ores) for research and service applications.

HIGH TEMPERATURE EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES IN THE FE0-FE203 - ZN0-CA0-SI02 SYSTEM

s s o c Prof M Skyllas-Kazac STUDIES OF INERT CATHODES FOR ALUMINIUM ELECTROLYSIS CELLS

ROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

liner a 1 Processing (Contd)

niversity of N.S.W This project will be of great significance to the aluminium industry as a whole which has for many years now been trying to reduce its total energy consumption. The use of inert cathodes in aluminium electrolysis cells would allow savings of up to 20% of the total energy requirements, but although

significant advances and improvements in materials have been achieved to date, serious problems still exist in the short and long-term aluminium wettability of TiB2/C composites. A fundamental electrochemical study of aluminium deposition of

these substrates should allow a better understanding of the phenomenon, in that the problem can be solved either by a suitable pretreatment or by improved formulations.

r P H uhlherr MODELLING THE THICKENED DISCHARGE OR SLOPE DISPOSAL METHOD OF MINERAL TAILINGS DEWATERING

onash University A new technology for the disposal of mineral tailings involves suspension flow in and solids deposition from thin layers on a slope. A model which has been postulated for

this process includes yield stress and solids dispersive pressure as critical parameters. The independent measurement of these parameters is to be investigated. A simple technique for measuring yield stress is to be further

developed - it uses a geometry closely related to that of the process being modelled. A laboratory technique is to b e sought for the measurement of solids dispersive force in sheared suspensions.

t W J Whiten IMPROVED MODEL BUILDING TECHNIQUES FOR MINERAL PROCESSING

Weensland University

gneous and Me tamor phic Petrology

r B C Chappell THE ORIGIN OF GRANITES AND THEIR ROLE IN THE PRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEW CRUST AT CONTINENTAL MARGINS

Wstralian National University This project is a continuation of previous studies in SE Australia, to look in more detail at the trace element content of granites from elsewhere, particularly New England

(NSW), north to central Queensland, and from western North America. It will focus on the range of granites that result from melting of relatively young Earth's crust (1-types). ... Cont/.

40,000

25,752

26,075

100,000

Igneous and Metamorphlc Petrology (Contd)

The aim is to examine the genetic relationships between these granites and their source rocks, to better understand their origins. This will also provide more basic information about how the continents form and should have

implications in the search for mineral deposits.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Dr W J Collins Dr R Offler

CONTRASTING P-T-T HISTORIES IN THE TIA COMPLEX, SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND FOLD BELT

Newcastle University This project aims at understanding the evolution of a terrane, the Tia Complex, where the metamorphism changes from high-Pressure (P), low Temperature (T) to low-P, high-T over 25 km. Tectonic models usually explain these two metamorphic environments as a result of fundamentally different geological processes. Study of the Tia Complex

should allow a new tectonic model to be developed, which reconciles the different environments into a unified, dynamic process of crustal evolution.

Dr A Ewart LATE PALAEOZOIC TO MESOZOIC VOLCANISM OF EASTERN CENTRAL-SOUTHERN QUEENSLAND

Queensland University Project deals with phases of ancient, but extensive volcanism in southern and central Queensland, occurring between 100-220 million years ago. The volcanism occurred

in very different environments, initially (220 m.y.) when N.E. Australia was part of the active "palaeo-Pacific" margin (with active subduction) to the younger phases (~100m.y.) when segments of what was N.E. Australia was being pulled open by the formation of the Tasman Sea. The volcanic magmas were formed in part by melting of the crust, and thus represent major stages in the geological evolution of eastern Queensland. They may also have contributed to

formation of certain mineral deposits.

Professor D H Green EXPERIMENTAL PETROLOGY AT HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES DIRECTED TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING OF DEEP CRUSTAL AND UPPER MANTLE PROCESSES

University of Tasmania The research program is fundamental research investigating the origin and causes of volcanism, and of high pressure crystallization of minerals and rocks, by laboratory duplication of high pressure, high temperature conditions existing in the deep crust and upper mantle. The immediate emphasis is on the role of deep earth fluids

... Cont/ .

qneous and Me tamorphlc Petrology (ContdJ

ROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

(water-methane-carbon dioxide). These fluids are a key- factor in causing melting, in transport of metals, and in crystallization of diamond. The program is basic research underpinning the models of volcanism and mineralization used

in earth resources exploration, and has world leadership status, evidenced by publications, academic awards etc.

ssoc Prof T H Green TRACE ELEMENT BEHAVIOUR IN SILICATE SYSTEMS AT HIGH PRESSURE

acquarie University Trace elements are extremely sensitive to magmatic processes. Hence they are useful "fingerprints" of these processes, and of the source regions for the magma.

Important "high-tech" trace elements (Nb, Ta, Zr and Y) are readily analysed with the new proton microprobe at CSIRO. This capability is linked (in a world-first) with high-pressure experimental work, enabling evaluation of

trace element enrichment processes in magmas. This may assist in targetting economically significant geological settings for these elements.

ssoc Prof S Y O'Reilly INTEGRATED PETROLOGICAL, GEOCHEMICAL & GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AUSTRALIAN CONTINENTAL LITHOSPHERE

iacquarie University The aims of this project are to investigate the composition of the lower crust and upper mantle, and to integrate geophysical information ((eg. seismic, heat flow and remotely sensed magnetic (MAGSAT)) with properties of rocks

from these regions. This work will also identify large continental blocks with constraining chemical and thermal properties. It is relevant to the diamond exploration industry and to oil occurrence in prospective sedimentary basins.

irR Powell THERMODYNAMIC CALCULATION OF METAMORPHIC PHASE EQUILIBRIA

’ he University of Melbourne The compositions of coexisting minerals, fluids and/or partial melts in rocks during metamorphism - metamorphic phase equilibria - are at the heart of metamorphic geology.

Although equilibria in some complex systems can now be calculated, extension of the methodology and expansion of the thermodynamic dataset involved in the calculations will allow the solution of geological problems through consideration of real systems, for example, the elucidation of the fluids responsible for Archaean greenstone gold mineralisation.

54,707

81,459

34,000

Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (Contd)

Dr R Powell PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE-DEFORMATION-TIME Dr C J Wilson PATH IN A PROTEROZOIC OROGENIC BELT: THE REYNOLDS RANGE, CENTRAL AUSTRALIA

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

The University of Melbourne * The Reynolds Range, a typical Proterozoic mountain belt which displays clear temporal relationships between sedimentation, deformation and metamorphism, is now one of the better known belts, providing a key to much of Australia's basement. With the continuation of our metamorphic and structural studies, putting the results into

a time framework, the orogenic processes involved in the origin and evolution of Proterozoic belts can be properly constrained and quantitatively modelled for the first time.

Dr M J Rubenach DISSOLUTION DURING DEFORMATION IN THE METAMORPHIC ROCKS OF THE MT. ISA INLIER, QUEENSLAND

James Cook University of North Qld Fluid sources and fluid-rock interactions involved in the formation of a variety of syn-deformation metasomatic lithologies will be studied in the Mt. Isa Inlier. In particular, the project will determine stable isotope characteristics, and document petrographic and geochemical changes across strain transitions (eg. folds limbs to hinges) to evaluate whether strain-enhanced dissolution may explain the sources of metasomatic components and hypersaline metasomatic fluids. The project could reveal sources of syn-deformation mineralization.

Dr M A Sandiford HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PROCESSES IN THE METAMORPHIC ENVIRONMENT AT LOW PRESSURES AND HIGH TEMPERATURES

Adelaide University In this project we plan to document the distribution of heat and fluids in a low-pressure, high-temperature metamorphic terrain in the southern Adelaide foldbelt. The results will be used to develop quantitative models for the thermal evolution of metamorphic belts in thermal regimes dominated by magmatic and fluid heat transfer processes. These models should provide important insights into the thermal structure, and nature of heat and matter transport within the continental crust. The southern Adelaide foldbelt is uniquely suited to this project because of the distribution of appropriate rock types, allowing, particularly, the documentation of subtle mass transfer processes as guides to the behaviour of the fluid phase during metamorphism.

qneous and Metamorphic Petrology (Contd)

isoc Prof P J Stephenson ALKALIC TO THOLEIITIC BASALTIC ROCKS OF THE TOWNSVILLE HINTERLAND

imes Cook University of North Qld Volcanic activity occurred in north Queensland over the last 44 million years, even until 13,000 years ago. The basalt lavas erupted originated as melts which rose from depths of

50 to 100 km. They provide samples of this deeper region known as the 'mantle'. The nature of the mantle and how it evolved through the long history of geological time can be considered by studying basaltic chemical and isotopic

character. The north Queensland study will investigate a volcanic region known to contain some anomalous features. These basalts, erupted from over 150 volcanoes, are varied in character.

rR Varne THE ROLE OF NORTHEAST INDIAN OCEAN

CRUST AND MANTLE IN THE PETROGENESIS OF SUNDA ARC VOLCANISM

aiversity of Tasmania Our proposed studies of island-arc volcanics, and sea-floor sediments and volcanics from the northeast Indian Ocean will enhance Australia's research efforts in the marine and geological sciences. This research programme seeks to resolve several problems which are central to our understanding of the mechanisms of magma genesis and differentiation of the Earth's mantle at convergent plate margins. Although the aims of the project is in the field

of geology/petrology, the methodology requires marine science facilities in the collection of samples and emphasises the relationship between seafloor processes and consequent events in convergent plate margins.

Ssoc Prof R H Vernon PETROLOGICAL AND TECTONIC STUDIES OF r R H Flood GRANITIC ROCKS

r W J Collins

acquarie University This project is concerned with processes involved in the heating and deformation of the deeper parts of the earth's crust, especially in hotter zones in which partial melting of the crust takes place. It is also concerned with the coalescence of melt and its transport upwards through the crust, as well as the crystallization history of melts that

are trapped high in the crust, to form granite intrusions.

2 1 , 9 0 3

27,118

116,650

Sedimentology (including sedimentary geochemistry)

Professor L A Frakes CRETACEOUS ICE IN HIGH LATITUDE SITES 40,0

Adelaide University The Cretaceous Period (65-135 million years ago) was one of the warmest times in Earth history. In central Australia however, shales containing large stones could be interpreted as due to the presence of continental ice. If this can be established, boundary conditions can be set for both Australian and global numerical modelling of this unusual

time.

Dr B W Logan BRINE OUTFLOW SYSTEM AND RELATED 34,4;

DOLOMITIZATION, MACLEOD EVAPORITE BASIN, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

University of Western Australia A basic research into the hydrological system of a unique modern evaporite (salt-filled) basin, Lake MacLeod, Western Australia; also involves studies of interactions between

acidic brines and receptor rock formations. Results from this aspect are important in the understanding of petroleum reservoirs and ore deposits that commonly are associated with ancient salt basins. The project also has applied

applications in that it is defining brine reserves and other mineral resources in Lake MacLeod. Brines are the feedstock for present large-scale salt production and for other potential developments.

Dr J C Tipper MINERALOGICAL AND THERMODYNAMIC 3 9,31

Dr R A Eggleton APPROACHES TO DIAGENETIC BASIN Dr J L Walshe MODELLING

Australian National University A wealth of information can now be read from the mineral record on the physio-chemical environments of diagenesis in developing sedimentary basins. This integrated mineralogical and thermodynamical study of diagenetic'

sheet-silicates from one economically important basin provides a substantial body of new data to constrain numerical modelling of its evolution and potential with a precision not previously achievable.

Dr Η H Veeh ACCUMULATION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN 5,25

MARINE SEDIMENTS

Flinders University The research project aims at a better definition of the processes which control the accumulation of organic matter in marine sediments. Inasmuch as organic matter is a precursor of petroleum, it can be expected that the results of this project will aid in the hydrocarbon resources assessment of Australia's offshore areas and guide exploration efforts. The results will also provide

important clues to the complex interplay between ocean ... Cont/.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

pdimentoJoc/y (including sedimentary geochemistry)

circulation and climate, both in the long and short term.

lOUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

ones is o f Ore Deposits

: R R Keays APPLICATION OF PLATINUM GROUP ELEMENT 41,000 GEOCHEMISTRY TO ORE GENESIS AND PETROGENETIC PROBLEMS

l e University of Melbourne This project will contribute to our understanding of the genesis of Platinum Group Element deposits and of the processes involved in the formation of the rocks which host

them. Deposits of the Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Os and Ir) are of growing economic and strategic importance. The conceptual models developed in this project will facilitate the discovery and evaluation of PGE mineralization in Australia.

: J D Kleeman FLUID INCLUSION AND ISOTOPIC STUDY OF 34,000 :ofessor I R Plimer GOLD DEPOSITS, NEW ENGLAND AREA, AND : P M Ashley THE SN, W AND BASE METAL DEPOSITS

ASSOCIATED WITH THE MOLE GRANITE, NSW

liversity of New England Tin and tungsten mineralization associated with the Mole Granite in northern New South Wales is very significant, and we have a good three-dimensional model for the relationship

of the granite to the five episodes of mineralization. ARCS funding will be used to obtain isotopic measurements and fluid inclusion data, to understand the nature and source of the mineralizing fluids and the metals, and help in the discovery of new resources.

• R R Large APPLICATION OF ORE GENESIS RESEARCH TO 37,027 THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ' EXPLORATION TECHNOLOGIES

hversity of Tasmania In order to maintain the Australian mining industry on a competitive basis as a major export earner, new and higher grade resources will need to be discovered at regular

intervals in the future. This project is a collaborative research effort with industry involving advanced geological and geochemical research on a number of major mining districts in Tasmania, Queensland and the Northern Territory with the aim of developing improved ore genesis models and

techniques which can be directly applied to on-going exploration programmes, leading to mineral discoveries for Australia's future benefit.

Genesis of Ore Deposits (Contd)

Assoc Prof R G Taylor MECHANISMS CONTROLLING VERTICAL MAG- Dr P J Pollard MATIC FRACTIONATION IN RARE METAL GRANITES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GENESIS OF RARE-METAL ORE DEPOSITS.

James Cook University of North Qld The project proposes to demonstrate the mechanisms by which rare-metals are concentrated in the upper portions of some magma chambers. The result will represent a significant new

scientific advance to the basic concepts of ore concentrations in tin, tungsten, tantatum-niobium and gold deposits, and will also be of value to exploration targetting for new reserves.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Dr J L Walshe ORE GENESIS STUDIES USING ION- Dr R A Both MICROPROBE ANALYSIS

Australian National University This project is making use of new ion-beam technology to measure stable isotopes ratios in minute samples of natural materials sputtered from a 30 micron diameter site. These

insitu analyses differentiate the complex populations of stable isotopes found in natural materials in a manner not previously possible. Their significance is, for example, in permitting a better understanding of the way in which mineral and oil deposits form.

Geochronology and Isotopic Geochemistry

Dr R R Large

University of Tasmania Assoc Prof S Y O'Reilly Professor I R Plimer

Macquarie University This is a collaborative project (involving 12 individual research programmes and representing 9 Tertiary institutions) to provide access to mass-spectrometer time. An approximate 50% contribution by CSIRO makes the establishment of this high-technology facility economically viable. Data on isotopic systems and trace elements will result. This mass spectrometer facility will be used in basic research to address such problems as the origin of the earth; how the earth has changed through geological time; the age of different rocks; and the structure of the Earth.

It will also be used for applied research including the origin and location of oil fields at the Earth's surface; the nature and origin of economic deposits such as gold, platinum, copper, uranium and rare-earth elements; and for

... Cont/.

STABLE ISOTOPE MASS SPECTROMETER (SIMS)

ROLE OF ISOTOPES IN UNDERSTANDING LITHOSPHERIC PROCESSES AND EARTH'S GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

geochronology and Isotopic Geochemistry (Contd)

setting up frameworks and targets for oil and mineral exploration.

Dr R T Pidgeon TIMING OF ARCHAEAN EVENTS IN THE YILGARN BLOCK OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Curtin University of Technology This study will use geochronological techniques to determine the distribution and relationships within greenstone belts of the Yilgarn Block of two major episodes of volcanic

activity dated at 3 billion years and 2.7 billion years. The presence of two distinct volcanic episodes provides a unique opportunity for investigating Archean tectonics and

the timing of additions of new crust to the evolving Yilgarn Block. The relationship of specific mineralisation to either 2.7 or 3 billion year old volcanism will also provide new parameters for predicting the occurrence of hidden mineral deposits.

Professor J Roberts GEOCHRONOLOGY OF THE LATE CARBONIFEROUS-EARLY PERMIAN TIME SCALE OF EASTERN AUSTRALIA

liniversity of N.S.W Dr K J Rosman THE ASSESSMENT AND UTILISATION OF THE Dr N J McNaughton K-CA DECAY SCHEME TO PRECAMBRIAN GEOLOGY

Curtin University of Technology The objective of the project is to assess the application of the potassium-calcium decay scheme in archaean geology, both as an isotopic tracer of geochemical processes and as a geochronometer. High precision geochronology is an

important tool in geological mapping and interpretation in Archaean terrains. As such terrains host the majority of Australia's non-ferrous metallic wealth, it is advantageous to assess the method in the metal-rich Archaean of Western Australia. An understanding of the mobility of potassium

and calcium during metamorphism is applicable to the identification of mesothermal gold deposits.

J'JD Smith RECONSTRUCTION OF PALEOCLAIMATES IN , Dr J M James AUSTRALIA FROM RADIONUCLIDE AND STABLE ISOTOPE STUDIES OF STALAGMITES

University of Melbourne We will date the formation of stalagmites from Jenolan Caves using uranium/thorium radionuclide methods. Average temperature at time of deposition will be established from

stable isotope ratios using C-12/C-13 and 0-16/0-18. The project will be extended to submerged stalagmites in the Nullarbor Caves where similar studies, correlated with the position of the stalagmites, will allow us to estimate

surface temperature and sea-level changes over the last ... Cont/.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

2 8 , 1 6 1

31,290

43,000

30,000

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Geochronology and Isotopic Geochemistry (ContdJ

300,000 years. These results are important in modelling future changes from the Greenhouse Effect.

Structural Geology and Regional Geology 6 Tectonic

Dr T H Bell STRUCTURAL PROCESSES DURING OROGENESIS

James Cook University of North Qld Inclusion trail geometries in zoned porphyroblasts enable determination of the progressive structural/metamorphic development of orogenic belts. The inclusion trails preserve interim stages of foliation development, foliation orientation, and their location relative to zoning, that have been destroyed in the surrounding matrix. This enables determination of structural/metamorphic P-T-t paths from rocks collected across orogenic belts, and will considerably advance understanding of orogenic processes in a manner not previously possible.

Professor F K Brunner CONTINUOUS AND ECONOMIC LONG GPS BASELINE MEASUREMENTS OF ONE CM ACCURACY FOR GEODYNAMIC STUDIES

University of N.S.W Geodynamic studies urgently require continuous, accurate and economic observations of long baselines. We aim to develop methods for producing long baselines accurate to one cm

using the Global Positioning System. Because the Australian plate is stable at the cm level it is an ideal test-bed for these developments. The application of the proposed methods to crustal deformation measurements will provide key

information of plate-tectonic phenomena which would lead to a better understanding of earthquake mechanisms and earthquake prediction.

Professor R M Carter SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE TEST OF THE CAINOZOIC PART OF THE VAIL "GLOBAL" SEA-LEVEL CURVE

James Cook University of North Qld In recent years a model sea-level curve through geological time has been widely used in petroleum exploration. There are indications that the present model sea-level curve cannot be directly applied in the southern hemisphere. This project will assess the value of the so-called "global" sea-level curve for the understanding of Australasian Cainozoic (70-0 million year old) sedimentary rocks.

40,00

53,00

62,00

D r P G Flood PALAEOZOIC RADIOLARIAN BIOSTRATIGRAPHY 38,462 AND ITS APPLICATION TO TERRANE ANALYSIS IN THE SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND OROGEN, EASTERN AUSTRALIA

University of New England Palaeozoic radiolarian biostratigraphy is a relatively new research pursuit worldwide and results from the 1988 ARCS funded pilot project has demonstrated its potential in recognising individual terranes within the New England Orogen. It provides a time constraint on the significant events such as mineralisation. The project could contribute economic benefits to Australia by highlighting rocks of similar geologic origin.

Dr D R Gray STRUCTURAL AND TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF 37,000

THE TASMAN OROGENIC ZONE IN NORTHERN TASMANIA

Honash University An 110 km geotraverse along the northern coastline of Tasmania will be used to investigate the structural, metamorphic and sedimentation history of these rocks. The

aim is to use this data to investigate models of crustal evolution for eastern Australia, the nature of the Precambrian basement rocks and their role in Palaeozoic crustal deformation, and to establish relations between the basement and the sedimentary cover rocks. This work will place constraints on crustal accretion models and provide a more up to date geological base for mineral exploration in

SE Australia.

! 'DR Gray APPLICATION OF QUARTZ VEIN ISOTOPES 30,000

Dr R T Gregory TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHIC TERRANE ANALYSIS OF PALAEOZONIC GONDWANALAND

■fonash University The proposed research will extend to Tasmania, New South Wales and New Zealand and the results of our previous work on the Lachlan fold belt where we showed that the processes

involved in the formation of quartz veins are uniform over 20,000 km2 sized terranes and related to the structural history of each terrane. Using new 18 0/16 0 data on quartz veins from deformed Gondwana margin rocks, an improved understanding of the accretion of the eastern margin of Australia should be possible.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Structural Geology and Regional Geology & Tectonic

Dr L B Harris "PAN-AFRICAN" (600-400MY) EVENTS IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO ORE DEPOSITS

University of Western Australia This project aims at documenting 600-500 million year deformation and metamorphic events in SW Western Australia discovered during recent field mapping: previously all events were thought to have been at least 500 million years older! Their documentation is important: (i) to understand the plate tectonic movements responsible - this is required by all workers attempting global plate tectonic reconstructions, especially for relating SW Australia to Antarctica and other Gondwana fragments and is therefore of

international scientific interest; (ii) as preliminary investigations have shown the possibility of gold, copper & vermiculite mineralization controlled by faults formed during these events, mapping of these structures may open the way for mineral exploration in a region which does not have an operating mine.

Assoc Prof R A Henderson DEVONIAN - CARBONIFEROUS TERRANE RELATIONSHIPS AND TECTONICS OF THE NORTHERN NEW ENGLAND OROGEN

James Cook University of North Qld The northern New England Orogen is a major tract of complex bedrock in the geological fabric of eastern Australia. This project seeks to re-evaluate its nature and history. It will improve understanding of the orogen as a whole and the

geological processes responsible for its formation. The tectonic context of important ore deposits, in particular gold-bearing systems, will be clarified with significant implications for on-going mineral exploration.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Structural Geology and Regional Geology Si Tectonic

Dr R J Holcombe TECTONIC TRANSECT AND TERRANE ANALYSIS Dr C R Fielding ACROSS THE YARRAMAN, ESK & D'AGUILAR Dr S K Dobos BLOCKS, SOUTHEAST QUEENSLAND

Queensland University To determine the nature and orientation of the major tectonic boundaries, and the internal tectonic history of the discrete blocks in a transect extending from west of Kingaroy through to Gympie. The project is initiated in response to problems raised by a recent deep seismic profile to the south across the same terranes but in an area of much poorer basement exposure.

32,33

30,00

33,52

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Structural Geology and Regional Geology & Tectonic

Professor E C Leitch PATTERNS OF BASIN EVOLUTION IN THE Dr C G Skilbeck TASMANIDBS OF NEW SOUTH WALES Dr B J Franklin

University of Technology Sydney The crust of eastern Australia formed in zones of geological activity similar to those rimming the Pacific today. Sediment and volcanic rocks accumulated in subsiding tracts

that were later compressed and heated. The diverse processes set in train also produced concentrations of gold and other metals. Knowledge of these processes and crustal

patterns will enable better prediction of the location of ore deposits.

Professor G S Lister STUDIES IN CONTINENTAL EXTENSION Professor A J Gleadow TECTONICS Dr G A Houseman

Monash University Most of the raw materials on which mankind depends are hosted in environments related to continental extension tectonics. New concepts of crustal extension recognize

large horizontal movements on detachment faults, and a fundamental revision of the subject of continental extension tectonics is necessary, as proposed in this program. We examine the rifted margins of Australia, where extension has now ceased, and at the same time, terranes now actively extending, in the Solomon Sea, East Africa, and the Aegean

Sea. In addition, the nature of orogeny in two ancient extended terranes is reconsidered, and we use numerical techniques and analogues to re-examine the mechanics of continental extension.

Professor G S Lister THE DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF REACTING MULTI-PHASE SYSTEMS

knash University This project will investigate the relationship between deformation and metamorphism, and represents a bridging between two subjects which are often treated separately. We

feel that there is much to be learned using analogue materials in see-through deformation experiments where the precise nature of the interaction of mechanical and chemical processes can be observed. The interaction of second phase

fluids and/or melting and deformation are of equal importance in the understanding of deep crustal processes and will be investigated in a similar way.

40,000

100,000

38,000

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Structural Geology and Regional Geology < f Tectonic

Assoc Prof C M Powell TECTONICS AND PALAEOMAGNETISM OF PALAEOZOIC AUSTRALIA

University of Western Australia This program seeks to examine the tectonics and palaemagnetism of rocks in the Tasman Fold Belt of Eastern Australia formed between 570 and 245 million years ago.

Using this information, the position on the earth of ancient island arcs, marginal seas, and mountain belts, now exposed as eroded relics in the Australian continent, will be estimated. The resulting reconstructions of ancient palaeogeography will provide an improved basis for exploration for the important Palaeozoic base-metal, gold,

platinum, oil, coal and natural gas deposits.

Assoc Prof A Stolz MONITORING CRUSTAL MOTION IN PAPUA NEW Dr P J Morgan GUINEA USING THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

University of N.S.W We aim to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine crustal motion in Papua New Guinea. This region is part of a buffer-zone between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates which are converging at a rate in excess of

10 cm/a. The area is characterised by structural complexity, a high level of seismicity, and rapid evolution of small plate boundaries. By using GPS to establish baselines that straddle the major tectonic elements in the region, it is possible to directly observe the kinematics of plate convergence, intra-arc strain and back-arc spreading. Direct observations of this kind will improve our understanding of the earthguake cycle of Papua New Guinea as well as determining a strategy for mineral and hydrocarbon

exploration.

Dr G R Taylor THE USE OF THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY FOR Dr P G Lennox TECTONIC ANALYSIS AND MINERALISATION Assoc Prof P R Evans

University of N.S.W The Texas-Coffs Harbour Megafold is a most significant feature in the understanding of the history of the New England Orogen. So far its form and position have been inferred from stratigraphic data. We intend to use new, high resolution satellite imagery to define its position and relationship to other tectonic features. We will characterise tectonic domains by their fracture patterns and verify the existence of exotic terranes.

49,021

65,000!

1 5 , 6 4 5

Assoc Prof J J Veevers GONDWANALAND CONTEXT OF PHANEROZOIC Assoc Prof C M Powell AUSTRALIA

Macquarie University Australia was the eastern province of the supercontinent Gondwanaland until breakup in the later part of the Mesozoic 160 to 95 Ma ago. Setting the chief geological events in Australia in the context of Gondwanaland and its subsequent breakup is a first step towards understanding the tectonic

and environmental bases for the accumulation and distribution of the energy and mineral resources of Australia.

Dr S A Wilde THE JACK HILLS METASEDIMENTARY BELT, Dr A C Duncan NORTHERN YILGARN BLOCK, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Curtin University of Technology The Jack Hills Metasedimentary Belt contains zircon crystals with ages up to 4.27 Ga, the oldest crustal fragments yet identified on Earth. The belt is one of tie most critical

areas in the world for investigating the earliest formation of the Earth's crust. The aim of the project is to carry out detailed field, petrographic, geochemical ad isotopic studies to help define the nature and evolution of Early Archaean processes. From these studies, it may be feasible

to predict possible locations where samples of this early crust still reside in the north of Western Australia.

Dr C J Wilson GEOPHYSICAL PROFILES TO EVALUATE Dr D R Gray DEEP CRUSTAL STRUCTURE IN VICTORIA

Professor A J Gleadow (PILOT PROJECT)

The University of Melbourne This is a pilot project to investigate the feasibility of undertaking seismic reflection profiling with a range of other geophysical techniques, as the principal means of detailing crustal structure in an east-west transect through the Victorian segment of the Lachlan Fold Belt. The project would evaluate different data sets, evaluate methods of

acquisition and set up procedures to be adopted in interpretation. It would provide vital data necessary to erect tectonic models, and an explanation for the different mineral deposits of this portion of southeast Australia.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Structural Geology and Regional Geology & Tectonic

27,640

9,387

30,0.00

Solid Earth Geophysics

Dr F H Chamalaun GEOMAGNETIC VARIATION STUDIES OF THE AUSTRALIAN CRUST AND IONOSPHERE

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Flinders University The project capitalizes on the magnetometer development at Flinders and proposes to set up an array of 50 such magnetometers across the Australian Continent. The results will improve the Australian Geomagnetic reference field used

in mineral exploration, improve the accuracy with which aeromagnetic surveys can be carried out, provides a model for the daily variation current system in the ionosphere, and determines the gross thermal structure of the Australian Continental Crust.

Assoc Prof J R Gilliland DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE GEOID HEIGHTS IN THE AUSTRALIAN REGION

S.A.I.T. The determination of a geoid model for the Australian region using a combination of terrestrial gravity data and geopotential coefficients is proposed. This information will enable orthometric heights to be determined from Global

Positioning System (GPS) derived data which should be beneficial to mapping and exploration industries.

Assoc Prof Μ T Gladwin BOREHOLE EARTHQUAKE STRAIN MONITORING OF THE DALTON - GUNNING REGION

Queensland University This project provides for fabrication, deployment and analysis over three years of two borehole tensor strain in the Dalton-Gunning-Oolong zone 60 km north of Canberra. Bureau of Mineral Resources staff in 1978 identified large horizontal stress at shallow depth with an east/west axis of minimum compression. The project will document this

abnormal stress field and examine its stability with time in an attempt to determine the tectonic implications.

Dr P J Morgan CRUSTAL MOTION DEFORMATION IN THE

SOUTH-WEST SEISMIC ZONE OF WEST AUSTRALIA

Canberra College Of Advanced Education The South-West seismic zone of West Australia is the only region in Australia where significant ground faulting has occurred in recent times. The region is traversed by a number of geodetic networks which have the potential to define the kinematics of the region. Simulation studies show that significant gains can be made by reducing the available data with a single model incorporating velocity terms. The project aims to move from the simulation models to real data in an attempt to determine the type of movement present and to correlate this movement with earthquake models.

30,000

28 , 161

26, 075

13,00®

Karine Geology and Geophysics

Dr A V Arakel IMPACT ON THE GREAT BARRIER REEF OF 27,118

Dr J Piorewicz JOHNSTONE RIVER DETRITUS Dr D M McConchie

Queensland University of Technology This project aims to establish the nature, sources and budget of eroded sediment and nutrients in the Johnstone River estuary, N. Queensland. By linking these to measured hydrological behaviour of the estuary, and estimating the nutrient load added to open coast, it should be possible to

assess the baseline and enhanced nutrient levels in inshore waters, for rational development of management strategies for the Great Barrier Reef Region, tropical estuarine resources and coastal agricultural work.

Dr A P Belperio STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF KANGAROO 18,079 Hr R B Flint ISLAND'S CONTIGUOUS SEDIMENTARY BASINS - A SEISMIC PROFILING APPROACH

S A Department of Mines and Energy High resolution, shallow seismic profiling will supplement, in a non-destructive way, traditional geological and geophysical methods in unravelling the sedimentary and

tectonic history of Kangaroo Island and adjacent continental Shelf. This will provide a sound scientific basis for future location of earth resources and understanding of earth processes such as earthquakes and sea level

fluctuations.

Dr R A Binns SUBMARINE VOLCANOGENIC MINERAL 10,430

DEPOSITS, WOODLARK BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA

CSIRO

Three PACLARK cruises (1986-88) confirm the Woodlark Basin as a close modern analogue for ancient volcanogenic massive sulfide orebodies on land. Multidisciplinary research on PACLARK materials and preparation for a fourth cruise will create more effective exploration methods for old VMS ore deposits and will provide new fundamental knowledge on how oceanic spreading axes propagate into continental regimes.

Dr L B Collins QUATERNARY GROWTH HISTORY OF THE 42,763

Dr K H Wyrwoll HOUTMAN ABROLHOS CARBONATE PLATFORMS Dr B G Hatcher

Curtin University of Technology The study will describe the pattern, and identify the causes, of growth of a small (=400 km2) group of coral reefs. The Houtman Abrolhos provide a direct income of $40k km-2yr-l (more than half of which is foreign exchange) while the scientific research cost to direct benefit ratio is only

0.3lcent/$ (Compared to $3.7k km-2yr-l and 4.lcent/$ for the Great Barrier Reef). The coral reefs of the Abrolhos are ... Cont/.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Marine Geology and Geophysics (Contd)

changing to algal-covered limestones, and both the causes, and the effects on their commercial and conservation value, are unknown. The research is necessary to put the processes

of change in these high latitude reefs in a sound geological context, as a basis for future management.

Dr P De Deckker QUATERNARY MARINE PALAEOCLIMATIC AND Dr A R Chivas PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL RECORD OF THE AUSTRALIAN REGION

Australian National University We propose to study the marine Quaternary palaeoclimatic record of the Australian region through intensive analyses of deep-sea cores using variations in mineralogy, marine biota (forams, ostracods, radiolarians and diatons), stable

isotopes, trace-elements (Mg, Sr, Cd) of biogenic carbonates, pollen, phytoliths and aeolian dust.

Thus, changes in the oceans around Australia during the last 2 million years will be documented and correlated with those which occurred on the Australian continent. This information should be of global, as well as of local,

significance, and may help predict future climatic and environmental changes.

Dr V A Gostin SEDIMENT DISTRIBUTION, SEA-LEVEL Dr A P Belperio CHANGE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF GULF ST. VINCENT DURING THE QUATERNARY

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Adelaide University This marine vibrocoring project will provide previously unavailable sea-floor geological data along several transects across Gulf St. Vincent. Such information is directly useful in laying seafloor pipelines, constructing oil-exploration platforms and testing submarines. Various

sedimentary, radiocarbon, and microfossil analyses will allow sea-level and environmental changes to be assessed, and will provide a model for the past.

Dr D P Johnson DEPOSITION IN TWO AUSTRALIAN Professor C C Von Der Borch CARBONATE SLOPE TO CLASTIC BASIN ENVIRONMENTS

James Cook University of North Qld The GLORIA system produces maps of the seabed on the same scale as satellite images of the land. These maps are essential for the proper management of Australia's marine extended economic zone (EEZ). They show steep slopes and slumps on the seabed, as well as providing information on currents and sediment type covering the bottom. This project focuses on the patterns of sedimentation seaward of the Great Barrier Reef.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Karine Geology and Geophysics (Contd)

Dr J B Keene THE EVOLUTION OF A LINEAR SANDBANK

Dr P T Harris FIELD, MORETON BAY, QUEENSLAND Dr C B Pattiaratchi

S y d n e y University

The proposed project aims to test two seperate theories for the evolution of a linear sandbank field by means of sandbank coring and current meter deployments. The model resulting from the project would be of wide interest geologically but would also be directly applicable to the

management of ongoing shipping channel dredging and aggregate extraction operations in Moreton Bay specifically, and in general to all other Australian harbours and estuaries subject to tidal sedimentation.

Invert. Palaeontology, Palaeobotany & Stratigraphy

Dr N W Archbold HIMALAYAN - AUSTRALIA PLATE TECTONIC RELATIONSHIPS DURING THE PERMIAN USING PERMIAN BRACHIOPODA.

I h e University of Melbourne This project will provide critical data for testing Permian plate-tectonic reconstructions of the pre-breakup relative positions of the Indian and Australian continental blocks.

Interpretation of the geological evolution of the northern and eastern margins of India and the western margin of Australia, the latter two margins being regions of major importance for economic hydrocarbon deposits, requires

accurate control on these pre-breakup reconstructions.

Or W E Boyd BOTANICAL PALAEOCECOLOGY AND RESOURCE UTILISATION AT THE ROONKA ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA

northern Rivers CAE The aim of this project is to investigate plant fossil evidence from archaeological sites at Roonka, S.A., to establish a palaeoenvironmental setting for the 20,000 years of occupation and to examine resource utilisation at the

site. This project will investigate aspects of mortuary practice (i.e. use of plants in burials) at this important site, and will contribute important palaeoecological data in a region previously not studied.

i

35,462

25,000

14,000

II

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Invert. PalaeontologyPalaeobotany & Stratigraphy

Dr C F Burrett RECONSTRUCTION OF EARLY PALAEOZOIC GONDWANA - BIOGEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF AUSTRALIAN AND ASIAN TERRANES

University of Tasmania Examination of 500 million year old fossils and rocks in S.E. Asia has shown very close similarities to those in Gondwana (particularly Australia) proving that these areas were then adjacent. Studies in China, Vietnam and Nepal will be carried out to test the hypothesis that they were

also part of the Gondwana supercontinent. Determination of past continental positions and movements is important in understanding the formation of mineral and hydrocarbon deposits within Australia and southern Asia.

Dr D C Christophel BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEOBOTANY OF EASTERN AUSTRALIAN TERTIARY FLORAS.

Adelaide University This project is significant in its use of plant megafossils as biostratigraphic indicators. Studies of Eocene plant fossils have demonstrated that specific groups of plants are sensitive to both the environment and to particular depositional situations. They have also shown that megafossils are more locally sensitive than fossil pollen.

By extending the study into the Miocene, the chronological limits of these fossils can be determined and actual biomarkers selected. Such biomarkers should be of use not ’ only to the scientific community, but also to the mineral

exploration industry.

Dr R Helby Assoc Prof J J Veevers

Macquarie University The project will provide much finer subdivision of Callovian to Valanginian dinocyst sequences. Equivalent data on dinocysts from the classical molluscan sequences of the

Indo-Pacific region and those associated with calcareous and siliceous microfloral groups in ODP sections will be integrated. More precise correlation, an outline of provinciality and palaeoecology as well as recalibration of major tectonic events and sequence stratigraphy analyses will result. The taxonomic contributions will at least

treble the number of species previously described from this interval in Australasia.

CALLOVIAN TO VALANGINIAN DINOCYSTS: ZONATION, CORRELATION, PROVINCIALITY AND CALIBRATION OF MAJOR TECTONIC EVENTS AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY

4 3,117

30,000

44,500

Invert. Palaeontology, Palaeobotany

) r J B jago A COMPARISON OF THE BIOSTRATIGRAPHY 10,430

AND PALAEOECOLOGY OF THE CAMBRIAN FAUNAS OF TASMANIA AND NORTHERN VICTORIA LAND, ANTARCTICA

i.A.I .T. Richly fossiliferous Cambrian sequences occur in the formerly adjacent areas of Tasmania and northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. This project will determine the age and palaeoecology of faunas from both areas. Accurate age determinations are essential for determining the overall

geological framework of the two areas; this is particularly significant in western Tasmania where most of the major mineral deposits are associated with Cambrian rocks.

> r R J Jenkins LATE PROTEROZOIC BIOTAS OF CENTRAL 25,000

) r M R Walter AUSTRALIA AND THEIR BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC SIGNIFICANCE

idelaide University New studies show that the late Proterozoic stratigraphy of central Australia is poorly understood despite reasonably abundant fossil remains which are likely to give a fresh

insight on correlations. The work will contribute to international efforts to define a so-called "terminal Proterozoic System" (Vendian, Ediacaran, Ediacarian, etc.).

;ROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

> r A P Kershaw QUATERNARY HISTORY OF EASTERN 32,333

) r J A Peterson AUSTRALIA

tonash University The analysis of pollen and other components of accumulated organic sediments are used to reconstruct the vegetation and environmental history of eastern Australia. The record to

date is one of the longest and most continuous in the world. It is being used to help understand the status of rainforest, the impact of Aboriginal and European people on the landscape, and the evolution and stability of the tropical coastal plains and to provide a biostratigraphy for the region.

r R Mawson CORRELATION OF AUSTRALIAN LATEST 46,935

ssoc Prof J A Talent SILURIAN TO EARLY CARBONIFEROUS r J S Jell SEQUENCES

acquarie University For improved discrimination, within Australia of the smallest recognisable time-intervals (stages and zones) for the 70 million year 'time-slice' Late Silurian through ; Devonian into Early Carboniferous, we are seeking precise

data on time-ranges of conodonts and other fossils, especially brachiopods and corals. Having tightened the time-frame, we will produce a much improved correlation ... Cont/.

Invert. Palaeontology, Palaeobotany & Stratigraphy

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

chart for the numerous rock sequences in this time interval. Data obtained will help decipher the pattern of marine transgressions and regressions. Greater precision and

confidence in basin analysis will then be possible for this interval.

Dr J R Richardson SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION OF AUST. BRACHIOPODS SINCE THE LATE CRETACEOUS

Museum Of Victoria Geographic position and physical character have made Australia a stable and isolated land since separation from Gondwanaland in the Cretaceous. It has also resulted in 1. the evolution of a group of living brachiopods which are

strikingly different in habitat and life style from those in any other region; 2. a virtually continuous record of this group from their origins in the Late Cretaceous. These faunas provide the first opportunity to relate fossil with

living species.

Assoc Prof B D Webby PALAEOZOIC STROMATOPOROID FAUNAS OF EASTERN AUSTRALIA

Sydney University In Eastern Australia, Silurian and Devonian (430-360 million year old) sponge-like stromatoporoids occupied mainly the warm, near equatorial shallow-water marine shelf margins of

the Gondwana continent. They grew to become important frame-building constituents of carbonate banks and reefs, which in other parts of the World, like North America, not uncommonly have oil and gas reservoir developments. The project aims to complete the documentation and assessment of

the geological and biological usefulness of these organisms.

Vertebrate Palaeontology

Assoc Prof M Archer DEVELOPING A NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CORRELATION OF THE TERTIARY MAMMAL-BEARING DEPOSITS OF NORTHERN AUSTRALIA

University of N.S.W Progress on the Riversleigh Project 1987-88 included: discovery of significant new fossil deposits and different local faunas; discovery of more than three new families and many new species of Australian Tertiary animals, publication of in excess of 18 research papers and books based on this research; and an increase in involvement by Australian palaeontologists to 15 colleagues and 15 postgraduate students. Financial limitations are now, however, restricting the vital research on Riversleigh's fossil bats

... Cont/.

12,000

42,272

77,772

;ROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Vertebrate Palaeontology (Contd)

- the primary key to biocorrelation of the Australian local faunas with those from the rest of the world.

’ rofessor K S Campbell EVOLUTION OF EARLY GNATHOSTOME 57,255 ) r R E Barwick VERTEBRATES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

mstralian National University The Devonian rocks of Australia contain by far the best vertebrate fossils found anywhere in the world. These have been used by us and other workers to develop hypotheses

about the ways in which evolution occurred in the sea, and as the marine animals migrated to the land. Techniques now allow us to examine fine details of the peripheral nervous system and we expect to be able to generalise from our data to an understanding of how this system can be used to

recognise relationships.

) r P V Rich INTRARIFT BIOTA, SEDIMENTARY 40,677

) r T H Rich SUCCESSIONS, AND CLIMATES OF

AUSTRALIA'S SOUTHERN MARGIN IN THE LATE MESOZOIC

lonash University Early in the Cretaceous, the Australian and Antarctic continents were pulling apart. The rock sequences emplaced in two of the basins, the Gippsland and Otway, created by

this fission, contain a varied and unique polar, terrestrial biota, including dinosaurs. The first goal of this project is to reconstruct and understand this unusual environment by determining palaeotemperatures, provenance of source rocks,

structure and development of the basins of deposition, and the nature of the soils and sediments. The second is to analyse the fauna itself, including its systematics, biogeography, and palaeoecology.

I r W D Ride PALAEOMAMMALOGY OF THE SOUTHEASTERN 39,000

HIGHLANDS

-ustralian National University The sites under investigation cover the transition from the giant Pleistocene marsupial mega faunas to faunas characteristic of modern times. They are likely to throw

light on the extinction of the mega fauna, its chronology, and climatic events in the highlands. They are also likely to document the process of faunal impoverishment that has

taken place in the last 7 ka. Indications are present that the area may even yield Tertiary faunas that would greatly increase knowledge of mammalian palaeogeography.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Vertebrate Palaeontology (Contd)

Dr S Turner PALAEOZOIC BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND INTERNATIONAL CORRELATIONS BASED ON MICROVERTEBRATES

Queensland Museum Australian microvertebrates (fish, scales, teeth, spines etc) have proved useful biostratigraphic tools aiding the dating of rocks in the absence of, and with the advantages of, other microfossils. Their great worth is their ability to be preserved in a range of environments, assisting correlation of Palaeozoic rocks from different facies. Fish can have a wide geographic distribution and a short time

range and thus make good zone fossils. This project will enhance understanding of Australian geology and Palaeozoic rocks worldwide.

Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology

Dr W D Erskine RIVER RESPONSE TO INTERBASIN WATER Assoc Prof R F Warner DIVERSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SNOWY MOUNTAINS HYDROELECTRIC SCHEME

University of N.S.W The significance of this project is that it will provide an understanding of why and how rivers respond to either flow augmentation or flow abstraction. Discharges competent to erode the channel boundary will be defined and releases from regulating dams should be maintained below these critical values. Furthermore, the need for, and effect of, channel

stabilisation works will be determined and therefore, the effectiveness of future works will be improved.

Dr R J Loughran THE MEASUREMENT OF HILLSLOPE EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPE CAESIUM-137'

Newcastle University It is of national importance to ascertain the degree of soil erosion, especially in areas of intensive use, such as the Hunter Valley, N.S.W. Five typical Hunter Valley hillslopes on a range of soil types and subject to different usage, will be studied. The environmental isotope CAESIUM-137 will be used to quantify soil loss and accumulation. Sediment budgets will be constructed for each slope, and related to environmental conditions at each site.

30,24?

30,000

5,211

Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology (Contd)

3R0UP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

\ssoc Prof G C Nanson QUATERNARY CHANGE IN AUSTRALIAN )r C D Woodroffe RIVERINE AND ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTS Dr B G Jones

fcllongong University This project has three broad aims. The first is to compare and contrast stratigraphic evidence of climate and flow regime changes in the tropics with those in the arid,

semi-arid, and humid-temperate zones during the last 400,000 years, paying particular attention to the period beyond the range of 14C dating. The second is to compare our fluvial

and related estuarine stratigraphies and chronologies with global sea-level and climatic oscillations which have been independently determined and provide a check of our dating procedures. The third is to use this evidence for past climate and environmental change to predict possible future effects of climate change on the diverse Australian continent.

Dr C R Twidale GROUNDWATER - BEDROCK INTERACTIONS AT THE WEATHERING FRONT

Adelaide University Weathering is an essential precursor to erosion. It is responsible for the shaping of substantial parts of the land surface, for the formation of much of the regolith and soil,

and for the disintegration of building stones. Yet little is known about the processes and controls involved in the initial breakdown of rocks. Once water penetrates, alteration proceeds, but how does it enter massive rocks?

This investigation is intended and designed to elucidate this problem and to trace the earliest stages of rock disintegration and decay.

Dr J A Webb THE LATEST CAINOZOIC HISTORY OF THE

Dr B L Finlayson BUCHAN KARST

Da Trobe University Professor M A Williams LATE CAINOZOIC ENVIRONMENTS: 5 MILLION Dr D A Adamson YEARS AGO TO PRESENT

Honash University Using evidence from various sources (eg river, lake and wind-blown sediments, fossils and geochemical signals, and historical records) we aim to reconstruct the environmental

changes in Australia, India, Africa, and Antarctica that have occurred from five million years ago until the present. The chief practical outcome of this research will be a substantially increased understanding of the pattern and tempo of global climatic change. Such understanding is vital if Australia is to respond appropriately to

significant current environmental problems - particularly ... Cont/.

62,000

36,000

8,344

84,980

Geomorphology and Qua ternary Geology (Contd)

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

drought, salinisation, and climate change due to the 'Greenhouse Effect'.

Dr C D Woodroffe SEA-LEVEL CHANGE, GEOMORPHOLOGY AND Professor R F McLean LATE QUATERNARY DEVELOPMENT OF COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS: DARWIN'S ATOLL

Wollongong University Cocos, the only atoll that Charles Darwin visited, was central to his theories of coral reef development. We have discovered excellent paleo- and contemporary-sea level markers and storm deposits on a preliminary drilling field

trip. We propose detailed mapping, drilling, coring and radiometric dating on Cocos to (i) reconstruct Holocene sea level history and storm chronology for this part of the Indian Ocean; (ii) develop a model of late Quartenary reef growth and sedimentation; (iii) for management purposes, predict responses of the atoll to alternative scenarios of

future global sea level change in relation to sediment production and storm events.

Soil Science (Physical Aspects) and Hydrology

Dr J M Bowler MODELLING CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND Professor T A McMahon WATER BUDGETS OF CLOSED LAKES, AUSTRALIA AND CHINA

Museum Of Victoria Human induced global changes in climate are now matters of urgent economic and social concern. Our ability to identify, monitor and predict such changes is hampered by the short term nature of the instrumental record. Lakes in western Victoria and western China which provide that longer

record have fallen mysteriously over the past century. They are still falling in response to a change in climate as yet not understood. This project analyses those changes," identifies causes and predicts future trends.

Dr D J Chittleborough INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHATE AND TILLAGE ON Professor C W Rose THE MOVEMENT OF ORGANO-MINERAL COLLOIDS FROM HILLSLOPE SOILS

Adelaide University Phosphate is widely used in Australia to increase productivity but much is entering streams and polluting water storages. Phosphate appears to increase the mobility of clay and organic colloids. The effect of phosphate and tillage on movement of colloid from soils will be measured. Whether the loss is primarily via overland flow or throughflow will be determined and a model devised to explain the flow pattern. The results have implications for

land management practice, e.g. the timing and form of phosphate application, the effectiveness of buffer strips as ... Cont/.

23,000

3 1 , 0 0 0

1 5 , 6 4 5

Soil Science (Physical Aspects) and Hydrology (Con

a means of preventing soil loss.

Dr D J Chittleborough DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE FOR SEPARATION OF VERY FINE PARTICLES AND MACROMOLECULES

Adelaide University Sedimentation field flow fractionation is a new analytical technique that has the promise of separating a wide variety of colloids, micelles, particulates and soluble macromolecules of biological and pharmaceutical interest.

It is superior to other techniques in general use, such as chromatography, insofar as it offers the prospect of very high resolution, versatility, non-destructive separation and ease of use. It is proposed to build a high speed field

flow fractionation centrifuge, test its capability for separation and compare its usefulness with other techniques.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Professor J M Oades ORGANOMINERAL COMPLEXES IN SOILS AND WATERS

Adelaide University Interactions of organic materials with clays stabilize the structure of soils, stimulate transport of clays to water, complicate clarification and disinfection of waters, control the rate of cycling of C, N and P in soils and catchments. The properties and origins of organomineral complexes are

fundamental to understanding soil structure, erosion and water quality.

Professor C W Rose DYNAMICS OF SOIL EROSION PROCESSES Dr G C Sander Dr W L Hogarth

Griffith University Soil erosion is a dynamically changing process which ' responds to time variation in rainfall and runoff rates. This project aims to develop new theory which unites mathematical modelling and experimental data on soil erosion

dynamics. This new theory will provide a sounder basis than that currently available for the design of soil conservation practices.

36,000

29,204

32,707

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Organic Geochemistry (including fossil fuels)

Dr B D Batts CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF IMMATURE

CARBONACEOUS SEDIMENTS

Macquarie University The structures of several recent organic sediments, particularly those of algal origin are to be determined by selective chemical degradation. The petroleum exploration industry relies on information re sediment structure in predicting the likely yield of petroleum. Much of the current knowledge of such structures is not relevant in Australia. It has been gained from studies of Northern Hemisphere material set down in an environment vastly different from that prevailing in Australia at the time of

sediment deposition.

Dr D M McKirdy PETROLEUM GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE OTWAY AND DUNTROON BASINS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Adelaide University

Exploration Geophysics

Assoc Prof S A Greenhalgh MULTICOMPONENT SEISMIC IMAGING OF ORE BODIES

Flinders University Ore bodies and associated structures (e.g. faults) present elusive seismic targets. This project will study the problem by means of numerical and physical scale models. The goal is to develop the next generation of triaxial

signal processing architecture with which to sparse array image 3D structures by shooting in a limited number of boreholes or the extremities of a deep mine. The results will have both scientific and economic value.

Other (Earth Sciences)

Assoc Prof R J Blong NATURAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT IN AUSTRALIA FOR THE INTERNATIONAL DECADE OF NATURAL HAZARD REDUCTION

Macquarie University The project aims to investigate the consequences of geological and meteorological hazards in Australia using spatial data analysis and Geographic Information Systems techniques to develop a national inventory of hazardousness. These assessments of risk form essential input for an Australian contribution to the International Decade of Natural Hazards Reduction scheduled by the US National

Research Council to begin in 1990.

30,000

12, 500

20,860

52,150

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Other (Earth Sciences) (Contd)

Dr R A Gas MINERALISED SUBMARINE FELSIC VOLCANIC

SUCCESSIONS: ERUPTIVE PROCESSES, PRODUCTS AND ENVIRONMENTS

M o n a s h University Current exploration models for volcanic hosted massive sulphides (VMS) are based on deep marine (~4 km), highly explosive volcanic centres as hosts to mineralisation as proposed for Japanese (Kuroko) deposits. Deep water explosions at 4 km are theoretically not possible due to pressure constraints. This project has been evaluating the

origin of fragmental volcanic rocks in VMS volcanic successions in Japan and Australia to refine exploration models for VMS, a major source of base metals in Australia and worldwide.

Ms H A Cleugh MODELLING LOCAL AND REGIONAL SCALE EVAPORATION FROM HETEROGENEOUS SURFACES

Macquarie University This research is directed to the problem of estimating evaporation from non-homogeneous surfaces. This is an important input to regional and global scale climate models

- used to predict the impact of land-use or climate change on water resources. It aims firstly to test two evaporation models developed for crops. The second aim is to evaluate two models that have been proposed as methods for

integrating surface variability, and simulating areal evaporation. The field observations and model results will provide insight into the validity of these approaches to estimating evaporation.

Dr J R Dodson CHANGING HUMAN IMPACT ON THE

ENVIRONMENT OF SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA

University of N.S.W The properties and content of lake sediments is strongly influenced by processes in their catchments, including human activity, fire regime and environmental change. This project examines selected fossils and chemical and physical properties of lake sediments through time for several sites

in southern Australia. The aim is to establish the differences and rates of change of environmental processes to investigate impacts resulting from European occupation.

32,000

31,500

30,000

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Other(Earth Sciences) (Contd)

Dr R A Eggleton THE PROCESSES, PRODUCTS AND

Dr G Taylor VARIABILITY OF DEEP BASALT WEATHERING

AND SOIL FORMATION IN EASTERN AUSTRALIA

Australian National University Basalts in eastern Australia first erupted during the early Tertiary, and continued until very recently. Their weathering has produced soil in many agricultural areas, as well as industrial mineral deposits. Weathering processes

involved have occurred over a huge climate range and over 60,000,000 years. These weathered rocks can give important information about climate change, mineral formation in the regolith, and element migration and fixation during weathering; information vital to understanding soil

fertility, clay formation, and geochemical prospecting.

Professor L A Frakes AUSTRALIAN CENOZOIC CLIMATES: COUPLED OCEAN - ATMOSPHERE MODELING

Adelaide University The northward movement of the Australian continent over the last 60 million years is now well understood but the generation of climates due to this migration across climatic zones of the earth is not understood, due to a scarcity of data on past climates and our imperfect knowledge of how the climate system has functioned in the past. In this study, new computer models and the technology to run them at Pennsylvania State University will be used in a cooperative programme to stimulate past Australian climates, particularly major fluctuations in the last 2 million years, to determine what implications those have for future climate, and hence on major problems such as agriculture and the life of the Great Barrier Reef.

Professor D H Green OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM GEOSCIENCE Dr D Varne RESEARCH (FACILITY SUPPORT)

University of Tasmania The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) is an international geoscientific venture involving drilling sediments and rocks from the world's ocean basins and continental margins in order to develop our understanding of global geological history and fundamental geological processes. It is of prime importance, especially to maritime nations, both for economic and for strategic scientific reasons. This grant provides partial support for Australian access to and use of the ODP drill-ship.

30,000

26,075

644,000

Other (Earth Sciences) (Contd)

Professor A Henderson-Sell CLOUD CHARACTERISTICS FROM SURFACE AND SATELLITE DATA

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Macquarie University This project will identify those surface-observed cloud characteristics which compliment satellite-retrieved data and define the relationships between them. Satellite retrievals alone cannot fully describe the Earth's clouds and surface-based observations offer a complementary data base which is both extensive and fundamentally sound. The

significance of adding surface-based cloudiness information to satellite retrievals is that the combined view comes closer to capturing the full three-dimensional nature of the cloud scene.

Professor A Henderson-Sell IMPROVING LAND SURFACE SCHEMES IN CLIMATE MODELS

Macquarie University We plan to develop, implement and validate a new land surface component for global climate models This will improve climatic prediction at the continental surface which

is where mankind lives, grows food and collects water. The research builds upon existing international collaboration with U.S. and other overseas scientists and develops links between the Bureau of Meteorology and University research.

It is a first critical step towards interactive climate/vegetation modelling. Results are likely to benefit greenhouse, agricultural and climatic impact studies.

Dr G A Houseman CHAOTIC THERMAL CONVECTION IN THE

EARTH'S SILICATE MANTLE

Monash University This project is an investigation of chaotic thermal convection in a fluid layer representing the Earth's convecting silicate mantle. Three-dimensional numerical experiments will be carried out using computer programs previously developed by the author and run on

supercomputers. The calculations will permit the time-dependent behaviour of the convecting system to be characterised and understood in the context of chaos theory. The results will be used to help interpret the long term geological evolution of plate tectonics and the thermal history of the Earth.

31,443

61,000

25,000

Other (Earth Sciences) (Contd)

Dr T J Lyons OPERATIONAL YIELD FORECASTING

Murdoch University The sensitivity of crop yields to climate is well established, but most simulation models require complex meteorological information that cannot be provided in a

standard seasonal forecast. This project addresses the development and validation of a crop weather analysis model based on the level of information available in a seasonal forecast. As such it represents a dynamic decision making model that could enhance the economic information available

to the agricultural sector.

GROUP - Earth Sciences (Contd)

Dr T J Lyons TOPOGRAPHICALLY INDUCED WIND SHEAR

Murdoch University Mountains and ridges induce waves in the atmosphere leading to maximum wind speeds on the lee slope and associated wind shear aloft. If such terrain irregularities are near

airports, this has implications for aircraft operations and safety. Consequently, detailed observations of flow over the Darling Scarp, Perth, associated with numerical model studies, are proposed to develop a predictive model of topographically induced wind shear.

Professor P Schwerdtfeger WATER AND SALT BALANCE OF THE COOPER Dr J M Hacker CREEK - COONGIE LAKES SYSTEM

Flinders University In the "driest state in the driest continent" - the second largest known surface water resource has barely been investigated in the 140 years since its discovery by Capt Sturt, in spite of the potential requirements for water by S.A.'s significant petroleum industry nearby and the governmentally acknowledged environmental significance of the area. Flinders' airborne measurement technology overcomes the problems of remoteness and accessibility.

10,000

57, 000

15, 645

3R0UP - Eng. & App. Sciences

Civil Engineering (General J

issoc Prof R Q Bridge BUCKLING OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS WITH 49,016 Professor N S Trahair CIRCUMFERENTIAL WELD SHRINKAGE Dr J M Rotter DEPRESSIONS UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION

Sydney University The project investigates the strengths of practical thin silo structures under the pressures and drag forces from the contained stored solids. The proposals to be checked are already in use in Australia in the design of large storage

structures (eg Port Kembla grain terminal), an area in which Australia arguably leads the world. This project should lead to more efficient and cheaper silo designs, and allow greater flexibility in their use. Ultimately, it will

increase the potential for Australian materials handling to be used as an export or an export assistant, as it is currently being used in wheat sales to Egypt.

Dr G L Hutchinson EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF TORSIONAL 42,048 COUPLING IN DYNAMICALLY EXCITED STRUCTURES

The University of Melbourne -

It is essential that Australian engineers become familiar with earthquake resistant design as it is now required in Australia and in all neighbouring countries. A well advanced theoretical program, and observations in practice,

have established the inadequacy of building codes, around the world, in dealing with the complex torsional response of buildings in earthquakes. Code modifications have been proposed and this project will verify these proposals using

a sophisticated shaking table facility at the University of Melbourne.

Assoc Prof S Kitipornchai BEHAVIOUR OF TRANSMISSION TOWERS 38,000

Queensland University To develop a technique for predicting the structural behaviour of transmission towers comprising asymmetric thin-walled angle sections. Analytical technique accounts

for joint eccentricity and flexibility, inelastic behaviour with elastic unloading, large displacements, imperfections and residual stresses. The method will simulate tower behaviour and failure modes, thus reducing the need to

proof-load or full scale test. The project is of practical significance and national interest and will contribute positively to real economic benefits of Australia.

Civil Engineering (GeneralJ (ContdJ

Assoc Prof S Kitipornchai STABILITY OF BEAMS AND BEAM-COLUMNS

Queensland University To investigate the stability and nonlinear (geometric and material) behaviour of I-beams and beam-columns under general loading, support and restraint conditions. The

inelastic behaviour including elastic unloading, imperfections, residual stresses, and cross-sectional distortion are included in the theory using finite element. The method is applicable to a variety of I-sections including sections of tubular flanges. Full scale tests are planned to verify the theory. The project is of practical significance and national interest.

Dr R Kohoutek FULL SCALE TEST OF SEMI-RIGID JOINTS FOR STEEL FRAMES UNDER DYNAMIC LOAD

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Wollongong University An application of dynamic loading of frames occurs in high rise buildings, but more specifically on the service floors of these buildings, due to the machinery for building

services. Further application is in mining and petrochemical plants; in coal washeries, ore plants and compressor foundations. Some of those plants experience serious problems affecting personnel as well as machinery maintenance. A better understanding of those problems will

not only eliminate problems from future designs, but could also provide some remedial measures to existing structures.

Dr Y C Loo PUNCHING SHEAR FAILURE OF CORNER AND

EDGE-COLUMNS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLAT PLATES WITH SPANDREL BEAMS

Wollongong University In a pilot study at the University of Wollongong, a half-scale model of reinforced concrete flat-plate slab with spandrel beams was tested in which punching shear failure occurred at both corner-and-edge-column positions. Based on the experimental results and previous data (Ref 2) a prediction procedure was proposed (Ref 3). Comparison of results indicates that the correlation of the predicted and test results is good, and that the new Australian Standard AS3600 over estimates the shear strength of connections with

realistic spandrel beams. The aim of the proposed study is to conduct additional model tests to further verify the significant findings of the pilot study at Wollongong.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Civil Engineering (General) (Contd)

Dr I D Moore COLLAPSE OF BURIED FLEXIBLE STRUCTURES

Newcastle University A theoretical study is needed of collapse mechanisms for buried flexible structures to replace the empirical models currently used with rigorous theoretical concepts of

structural behaviour. It should then be possible to understand what causes failures, and to ensure adequate performance of flexible structures such as corrugated metal culverts and buried plastic pipes. Measurement of soil modulus is also needed for typical backfill materials.

Professor N W Murray DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL Mr R H Grzebieta VERIFICATION OF DESIGN TECHNIQUES FOR ASSESSING AND/OR DESIGNING A PASSENGER VEHICLE FOR ROLLOVER SAFETY

Monash University In 1988 an Australian Design rule (ADR) was introduced requiring the approval of large passenger vehicles with regard to the strength of such vehicles subjected to rollover can only be assessed by carrying out expensive experimental tests. This project will attempt to devise a

simple, reliable and inexpensive theoretical method for determining this strength.

Professor N S Trahair BIAXIAL BENDING IN STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES

Sydney University The three dimensional nature of steel structures causes the individual members to be twisted. However, it is very difficult to predict their inelastic behaviour accurately,

and so designers must make simplifying assumptions which either ignore some effects altogether (unsafe) or which may be unnecessarily conservative (uneconomic). This project

aims to solve this previously intractable problem, so that more rational design procedures can be developed.

Professor R F Warner DESIGN OF SLENDER REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS AND FRAMES

Adelaide University Current procedures for the practical design of slender concrete columns in building frames use highly idealised, simplified concepts which, in effect, ignore interactive

frame action. The aim of this project is to investigate the safety and adequacy of these simplified methods and, as necessary, to propose either modifications or alternative procedures so that design practice is neither unsafe nor overconservative.

35,000

32,294

25,000

30,500

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Soil and Rock Mechanics

Dr R N Chowdhury SLOPE STABILITY AND RISK ASSESSMENT

Wollongong University Probabilistic models will be developed to assess slope stability and different modes of failure progression will be incorporated in these models. This research will contribute to improved understanding of slope behaviour. The role of progressive failure will be highlighted. As a consequence of this research, procedures for risk assessment can be

facilitated, slope engineering practice improved and landslide hazards mitigated.

Dr P J Moore EVALUATION OF MOUNTINGS FOR

Mr J R Styles MEASUREMENT OF GROUND VIBRATIONS

The University of Melbourne In order to properly assess damage from blasting operations, to evaluate problems related to vibration transmission and to be confident about the quality of earthquake records for seismic design purposes it is essential that reliable means of ground vibration measurement are available. Theoretical studies have shown that the mountings which support the vibration transducers may interact with the ground in such a way as to reduce the accuracy of vibration measurement

particularly for high frequency vibrations. An experimental checking of these theoretical studies is the basis of this project.

Dr V Murti NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

OF DAMAGE PROPAGATION IN FRACTURED ROCK UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING

University of N.S.W Although various systematic approaches based on damage mechanics under static loading have been introduced, analysis of DAMAGE PROPOGATION especially under dynamic

loading is not at all established. At present, sophisticated dynamic non-linear Finite Element (FE) modellings related to damage propagation phenomena cannot be performed satisfactorily due to the inability of the FE system to readily dissipate or extract the associated energy sink (equivalent to Griffith's surface energy concept) when damage propagates. Damage propagation model equipped with such a mechanism will be developed.

34,000

45,000

26,000

Soil and Rock Mechanics (Contd)

professor H G Poulos EFFECT OF SEAFLOOR INSTABILITY OF OFFSHORE PILE FOUNDATIONS

Sydney University Instability of the seafloor may be caused by gravity, wave or earthquake forces. If a pile-supported offshore structure is located in an area subject to such instability, the piles may be subjected to severe additional forces and bending moments and may fail, with disastrous consequences

to the structure. This project aims to define the circumstances under which seafloor instability may occur, and to develop a soundly-based design procedure for offshore

piles in unstable areas, with particular reference to Australian seafloor sediments.

Dr S D Priest THE DETERMINATION OF ROCK MASS Professor J B Evans STRENGTH FOR ENGINEERING DESIGN

Adelaide University The safe construction of mines, tunnels, slopes and other structures in rock requires that the loads placed on the rock mass do not exceed its strength. Most rocks are

significantly weakened by the presence of fractures and other natural defects. The proposed research will, by means of site measurements, laboratory testing and computer modelling, seek to quantify this weakening effect. The

research will lead to safer and more economic designs for structures in rock.

Or S W Sloan STABILITY ANALYSIS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

Newcastle University Geotechnical engineering involves the study of structures which are comprised of soil and rock and subject to various load conditions, e.g. foundations for buildings, dams,

tunnels and retaining walls. For the purposes of design, geotechnical engineers need to know the maximum load their structures can sustain before collapsing. This type of

calculation is known as stability analysis the stability of geotechnical problems. These techniques, which employ finite elements and linear programming, will initially be

used to investigate the stability of tunnels.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

6 4 , 7 0 0

3 0 , 0 0 0

3 0 , 0 0 0

i

Mechanical Engineering (General)

Professor K J Bullock THE DESIGN OF VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES FOR INDUSTRIAL AND TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS OPTIMISED BY THE USE OF IMPEDANCE MATCHED COMPONENTS

Queensland University The application of a generalised impedance matching theory for the design of variable speed transmissions with and without energy storage elements. The conceptual design

leading to patents of very fast response, very efficient, infinitely variable speed transmissions, utilising minimum sized components capable of instantaneous power application or absorption. These systems are for use in high powered robots, steel rolling mills, trains, ships, remote area power generating sets, mine hoists, road and mining vehicles. To facilitate a whole new Australia high technology industry.

Professor Z A Parszewski DYNAMIC OPTIMISATION OF MACHINE Dr J M Krodkiewski SYSTEMS CONFIGURATION

The University of Melbourne Machine systems dynamics (hence reliability) optimization will be based on the novel approach in Dynamics; in the system configuration or layout parameters, as opposed to the

usual approach in frequency or speed domain. Inhomogenous hyperstatic non-linear systems, with applications eg to energy machines, are of prime interest. Major influence on systems dynamics is envisaged and important scientific and

industrial impact.

Prof W J Plumbridge RESIDUAL STRESS EFFECTS ON FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH IN STRUCTURAL STEELS

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Wollongong University Reliable design of structures is of paramount importance for safety and economy. Due to wave motion, off-shore structures and prone to environment assisted fatigue failure. The presence of residual stresses impedes efficient design, and this proposal addresses that problem. Residual stresses will be measured by standard and novel methods and their effect on fatigue crack growth will be determined. Subsequent modification of crack growth rate equations will provide more precise estimations of endurance and improved design procedures should result.

iicofessor A W Roberts HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION OF BULK „; eoc Prof A J Chambers MATERIALS

liwcastle University The cost to Australian primary and secondary industries for bulk handling operations is about 40% of GNP. Small efficiency gains can lead to substantial cost savings;

savings that can give an economic edge. Improvements in handling efficiencies will only be gained through a better understanding of material physical and flow properties. A number of theories for quasi-steady bulk materials flow were developed prior to 1970 and have been refined in the past 18 years. The application of these theories to industrial

needs has provided safer, more cost efficient and reliable materials handling systems. There is a need to initiate a programme of research aimed at developing theories to account for 'unsteady' or transitory flow phenomena and to

provide solutions to many problems of importance to industry where the present theories are inadequate.

,ROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

echanical Engineering (General J (Contd)

•plied Mechanics

' ■ R R Huilgol AERODYNAMIC AND AEROELASTIC EFFECTS IN

PANTOGRAPH DESIGN

unders University The pantograph collects the electric current from the overhead cable to run an electric train and has to perform this task under gusty winds and varying cable heights. Currently, there is a world wide need for the design of a

'robotic' pantograph which can maintain its contact with the cable for trains running at speeds in excess of 250 km/hr. Numerical simulation, wind tunnel testing mathematical modelling will play a major role in this research.

1 D W Kelly POST-PROCESSING PROCEDURES TO ASSESS ‘ afessor C Patterson THE ACCURACY OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

diversity of N.S.W The project is concerned with the development of robust procedures for the analysis of structures to determine deflections and stresses, and to predict failure. The

finite element method is now used universally for design analysis but the method is approximate. It is the aim of this project to develop an a-posterior error analysis capable of providing adequate quality control. These post-processing algorithms to assess the accuracy of finite element solutions for mechanical and civil engineering

structures will enhance the reliability of the final design and guard against failures.

49, 313

2 5 , 0 0 0

32 , 2 9 0

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Applied Mechanics (ContdJ

Dr E M Kopalinsky Professor P L Oxley A THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATED PROCESSES

OF SLIDING FRICTION, WEAR, ABRASION, GRINDING AND MACHINING

University of N.S.W The processes of sliding friction, wear, abrasion, grinding and machining are of great practical importance. Somewhat surprisingly our present understanding of the basic mechanics of these interrelated processes is far from perfect. The chief investigators, supported by ARC grants,

have developed mathematical models for these processes and have shown good agreement between the predictions made from these models and experimental results. The work is at present concentrating on sliding metallic friction and wear and the basic mechanisms of lubrication. The work is arousing world-wide interest in both academic and industrial circles.

Professor Z A Parszewski CRACK DEVELOPMENT DIAGNOSTICS Dr J F Williams Dr R T Waechter

The University of Melbourne The aim is to develop a method of detecting cracks growing in the rotors of large rotating machinery, e.g. turbo-electric generators before they cause catastrophic

failure despite the presence of monitoring equipment. Our research plan will develop a sophisticated monitoring procedure based on sound theoretical principles.

The project is significant because it will develop a new, combined stress, stress-strain law, incorporating the important bulk stress dependency terms (in relation to damage prediction), from existing uniaxial, state variable theory which will be vastly superior to currently used Prandtl-Reuss classical plasticity theories for use in the assessment of multi-axial, cyclic fatigue damage.

Dr J F Williams Dr R Jones

AN ELASTIC - PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE RELATION FOR MULTI-AXIAL, CYCLIC MATERIAL RESPONSE

The University of Melbourne

Manufacturing Processes

Dr E J Armarego PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND 42,386

Kr A J Smith PREDICTION OF MULTIPOINT TOOL

OPERATIONS FOR ADVANCED MANUFACTURING

The University of Melbourne The need for comprehensive, reliable and predictable machining performance information, essential for economic computer-based manufacturing, is internationally recognized.

This project is aimed towards satisfying this pressing need and builds on the mechanics of cutting approach for performance prediction developed by the investigators. Force, power, dimensional accuracy and tool failure detection models will be developed for multipoint tool operations favoured in flexible automation.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Professor B J Garner PROTOTYPICAL KNOWLEDGE FOR AUTOMATED 32, 077 KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION

Deakin University Expert systems technology has wide application potential in industry, commerce and Government by bringing the knowledge of specialists (as computer programs) to diagnostic evaluation tasks, planning functions and decision support. The acquisition of knowledge from human specialists is,

however, difficult and time-consuming, The key objective of this project is to automate the knowledge acquisition process through the synthesis of prototypical knowledge bases (ie. knowledge about model prototypes in the particular world of

interest) .

Dr T Li PARALLEL SYMBOLIC PROCESSING FOR 2 5 , 0 0 0

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Monash University The proposed project concentrates on breaking the bottle neck of traditional sequential execution of expert systems. Traditional approach is based on (sequential) computational considerations and lacks psychological evidence. There is

no reason that we must follow that approach. The approach we take will bring concurrency into expert systems execution and will simulate the parallel inference in the brain. Our

project will bring the research in this area to the international forefront. We have already established some theoretical results in the parallel execution of frame-based system. We will further develop methodology for the parallel execution of frame-based system. This project will

foster the development of high quality researchers in Australia.

Manufacturing Processes (Contd)

Professor D R McNeil EXPERT SYSTEM FOR STATISTICAL DATA Dr P L Leung ANALYSIS AND GRAPHICAL DISPLAY

Macquarie University Modern statistical packages can produce results from research investigations, but a highly trained statistician is usually needed to select the method of analysis and to correctly interpret the results. The project aims to build the statistician's knowledge into a computer "expert"

system, so that the scientist is guided towards statistically correct conclusions.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Professor R I Tanner STUDIES IN RHEOLOGY Professor D J Nicklin Dr N Phan-Thien

Sydney University The flow of powders and granular solids is important in many industrial processes. It would make for much more efficient processing if we could handle these solids in much the same way we handle liquids - but there are some very real problems in doing this and they have proved costly in the past. In this project we aim to investigate some of the complex flow phenomena associated with the up-flow and down-flow of solids, with a view to making chemical plants

safer, more reliable and cheaper.

Dr N C Ruck THE DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION OF A

Assoc Prof W G Julian SKY MODEL WHICH REPRESENTS THE Mr S N Hayman PREDOMINANT SKY IN AUSTRALIA FOR THE PREDICTION OF DAYLIGHT IN BUILDINGS

University of N.S.W The use of an intermediate (partly cloudy) sky as a design sky in Australia, or elsewhere where these sky conditions are prevalent, has been inhibited by the lack of an ’ appropriate sky model and a scarcity of measured data. This project is of significance worldwide as its aim is to develop a theoretical concept by measurement and verification to predict daylight quantities in buildings. The provision of comparative data during the International Daylight Measurement Year in 1991 is also a contributing

factor.

jjlOUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

fluid Mechanics

irofessor R A Antonia TRANSFER PROCESSES IN TURBULENT )r L W Browne SHEAR FLOWS

Newcastle University Coherent structures are recognised, albeit in different strengths, shapes and degrees of organisation, in different turbulent shear flows. There is a real prospect of

exploiting these structures by interfering with them: some of the resulting long term benefits should be a reduction in drag and therefore substantial savings in energy, an improvement in heat transfer and more efficient pollution

dispersal.

Professor R W Bilger BIOGEOCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN , TURBULENT FLOWS

Sydney University In many environmental and geophysical flows, the all-important rates of chemical and biological transformation are controlled as much by fluid dynamic

factors as by chemical and biological factors. This project is studying the effects of turbulent mixing on biogeochemical reactions, such as those that occur in photochemical smog, the ozone layer, lakes, estuaries and ocean upswellings. It will give Australia leading access to improvements expected in technology in this area, both here and overseas.

Dr Μ K Bull STRUCTURE OF THE FLAT-PLATE

TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER

Adelaide University The work proposed is an attempt to establish the inter-relationships amongst a number of different forms of organised structure which have been previously identified in

turbulent boundary layers. It is aimed at increased fundamental understanding of the mechanics of boundary layer turbulence, an understanding which it is generally believed will eventually lead to a variety of technological

advantages which would follow from the ability to control and modify such flows.

Dt Μ K Bull TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS IN AXIAL AND ftofessor R E Luxton YAWED FLOW OVER LONG CYLINDERS

Adelaide University Features have been discovered in axisymmetric irbulent boundary layers on long cylinders which indicate that the processes of turbulence generation in these layers may be

dramatically different from those in flat-plate boundary layers. Experimental identification of differences and similarities between the two ypes of boundary layer is expected to lead to clarifica cion of the basic mechanism of turbulence production.

102, 919

35, 892

55 , 0 0 0

4 0 , 0 0 0

Fluid Mechanics (Contd)

Dr M S Chong TOPOLOGY OF FLOW PATTERNS

The University of Melbourne .

The use of Taylor series expansions will provide an insight into the properties of the Navier-Stokes equations and may lead to a viable computational scheme. Hence, this study is important in the understanding of flow separation and drag of bodies such as aircrafts, ships, missiles and rockets and

fluid flow machinery such as fans, pumps and turbines.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Professor R H Grimshaw LARGE AMPLITUDE WAVES

University of N.S.W Breaking waves are an important phenomenon in a variety of physical contexts. Most familiar are breaking water waves with important practical consequences for coastal

engineering, satellite imagery of the sea surface, and turbulence generation in the layer of the ocean. Less familiar are breaking interfacial waves with consequences for the mixing of water masses, and coastal current meanders

and filaments with implications for nutrient distribution and sea-surface temperature anomalies. This project exploits a common theoretical base to develop a numerical model of the processes leading to wave breaking.

Dr A F Houwing ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS OF HYPERVELOCITY Dr R J Sandeman FLOWS

Dr J P Baird

Australian National University High enthalpy hypervelocity flows with chemical relaxation and of increasing importance with the worldwide renewal interest in hypervelocity flight vehicles. The project studies the detailed distribution of molecular species, vibrational temperatures and velocities using advanced

laser and non-linear optical techniques in the world's sole existing laboratory facilities (Australian) for producing such flows.

Prof J Imberger MIXING IN DENSITY STRATIFIED Dr J Taylor FLOWS

Dr G N Ivey

University of Western Australia Mixing in a lake and the ocean is controlled by the turbulence in a random array of small patches and boundary layers throughout the water column. This project aims to

investigate the fundamentals of the mixing within the small patches and also the statistical distribution of these patches through a series of laboratory experiments. The work will find application in the important questions of

recreational use of lakes and reservoirs, water quality modelling in estuaries, lakes and the ocean and lastly, in ... Cont/.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Fluid Mechanics (Contd)

assessing the response of the ocean and lakes to strong wind stresses.

Dr E D Jancauskas AN INVESTIGATION OF THE JOINT ACCEPTANCE FUNCTION IN THE CROSS-WIND EXCITATION OF BLUFF BODIES BY TURBULENCE

James Cook University of North Qld This project is directed towards furthering our knowledge and understanding of the 'buffetting' mechanism as it relates to the cross-wind excitation of bluff structures

exposed to a turbulent flow. The results will have direct application to the wind loading of structures such as bridge decks and tall buildings but will also give a valuable insight into all situations involving the flow-induced

vibration of structures whether they be in the atmosphere, in the ocean or inside industrial machines.

Professor P N Joubert TURBULENCE IN ROTATING FLOWS

The University of Melbourne The aim is to study the effects of system rotation on turbulent flows. One aspect looks at developing side wall boundary layers and their interaction with Ekman layers. These types of flow occur in rotating machinery. A second i C project studies the forces on a sphere in swirling flow as

part of the question on how particles are lifted from a surface in turbulent flow.

Professor P N Joubert EXTRA STRAIN RATES IN TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS

The University of Melbourne Turbulent flows have a wide application in the fields of transport, meteorology, engineering and most aspects of human activity involving fluids. To be able to understand

their complex behaviour and thus predict and design will make aircraft, ships and road vehicles more efficient as one example of likely benefits. Special conferences are held )7 annually with many scientists and engineers discussing

aspects of turbulent flows. These conferences may be sponsored by ship builders, government scientific organizations, defence establishments or by the scientific community. Consequently turbulent flows are recognized by

wide and diverse groups as of extreme importance.

29,000

33,115

45,000

Fluid Mechanics (Contd)

Professor R E Luxton THE FLUID MECHANICS OF AND COMBUSTION 34,000 Dr M Zockel IN THE PRECESSING JET

Dr G D Tansley

Adelaide University A new family of fluid flows has been discovered (Nathan, 1988; Nathan and Luxton, 1988) which has significant application in combustion systems of all types, in ejectors,

eductors and submerged mixers. In one form a jet may be deflected through over 60o without baffles or other external intervention. Patents covering this "generic" technology have been applied for (Luminis Pty Ltd., Luxton and Nathan,

1987) and strong commercial interest has been generated. Although the gross mechanics of the flows have now been deduced and practical devices can be designed empirically, very little is yet known of the basic fluid mechanics of this new class of flows. The present project seeks to

establish the basic data and to develop predictive models for the flows.

Dr Μ E Mackay FUNDAMENTAL RHEOLOGY OF 25,000

FLEXIBLE, SEMI-FLEXIBLE AND RIGID MACROMOLECULES

Queensland University Rheological or flow properties of polymer solutions and melts are very complicated. These properties need be understood to aid in the design and feasibility of operation

of polymer processing equipment. This project will study the influence of the individual polymer molecules structure on its rheological properties. Proper understanding of the individual molecules behaviour will help in comprehending

their properties in concentrated or bulk form.

Dr Μ E Mackay INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA IN POLYMER MELT 41,192 RHEOLOGY AND PROCESSING

Queensland University The ability to manufacture materials from polymers (plastics) quickly is of utmost importance and due to the volume of manufacturing end products a slight increase in throughput represents tremendous savings and a more competitive price. Recent research has indicated that production rates for packaging films can be increased by over three fold using a different material of construction

for the shaping die. This project is aimed at understanding the influence of the interface between the materials of construction and polymer melt and the subsequent effect on the flow properties of polymers. Knowledge gained from this project will have implications in all polymer processing applications.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

professor W H Melbourne AERODYNAMIC INSTABILITIES, LOADING AND RESPONSE OF BLUFF BODIES IN A TURBULENT FLOW

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

fluid Mechanics (Contd)

Monash University The broad aim of the project is to determine the true interaction processes between a turbulent fluid flow and a bluff body and from this to develop analytical models of wind loading on structures. Much of the data will be

obtained through wind tunnel studies. The immediate application of these fundamental studies is towards the determination of wind loading on structures and the wind-wave loading on off-shore structures. Applications

have already influenced the design of major structures in Australia and overseas, and load reductions resulting in the saving of millions of dollars have been achieved in recent years.

Dr J C Patterson UNSTEADY NATURAL CONVECTION IN CAVITIES

University of Western Australia This project will continue a study of natural convection heat transfer in cavities. The study will emphasise a conjunctive numerical and experimental approach to determining the important features of the flow development

from an initially steady state, and the influence of these on the net heat transfer across the cavity. The transition to turbulence will play an important role.

Professor A E Perry TURBULENCE STRUCTURES - PHASE III

The University of Melbourne The structure of turbulence is the singular unsolved problem of classical physics today. An understanding of the random (turbulent) eddying motings in a fluid is basic to the understanding and prediction of drag on bodies such as

aircrafts, ships, and rockets of the performance of fans, pumps and turbines or the heat transfer characteristics of heat exchangers and chemical reactors, etc. The aim of this project is to establish a sufficient number of physical laws of behaviour of turbulence to enable engineering predictions to be successfully carried out in the design of high speed vehicles and flow machinery.

41,329

61,797

132,782

I

GROUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Fluid Mechanics (Contd)

Dr D I Pullin NUMERICAL STUDY OF THREE DIMENSIONAL Dr Μ N Macrossan HYPERVELOCITY AERODYNAMICS WITH CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Queensland University The calculation of a hypersonic, chemically reacting flow around an aerospace plane is a formidable task. We have developed a new method, avoiding the conventional problems, which has been successful in simpler applications. We will

extend the method to make it a valuable design tool for the aerospace planes which are being planned by NASA, British Aerospace and others.

Dr D I Pullin STUDIES IN VORTEX INTERACTION

Queensland University Fluid dynamic turbulence remains one of the great unsolved problems of classical physics. Also an understanding of fundamental turbulence phenomena is central to many area of engineering and science. The study of the mechanics of

fluid-dynamic vortices has continued to elucidate many aspects of turbulence structure.

Professor R J Stalker HIGH DENSITY HYPERVELOCITY Dr J M Simmons AERODYNAMICS

Queensland University The aim of the project is to study the process of mixing, combustion and thrust generation with a hydrogen fuel jet in a hypersonic flow field. Its significance is associated with the economic advantages which would flow from the use of airbreathing propulsion in space transportation vehicles,

such as Earth orbital launchers, orbital plane change vehicles, or orbital transfer vehicles.

Professor E 0 Tuck STUDIES IN HYDRODYNAMICS

Adelaide University This project aims to continue in fundamental hydrodynamics theory and in the following areas in particular: in slender ship wave resistance theory, in free surface flows, in the study of trailing edge flaps and of leading edge stall.

Dr G J Walker BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION IN

Dr J P Gostelow TURBOMACHINERY FLOWS

University of Tasmania This project will improve basic physical understanding of laminar-turbulent transition processes, with particular reference to flow over aircraft gas turbine blades, the aerodynamic forces they experience, and heat transfer to the blade surfaces. Computer-aided-design of turbine blading is

... Cont/.

2 5 , 0 0j(

31,401

145,42

30,00

59,00

currently limited by inability to predict the transition process. Australian fuel usage and transportation cost are particularly sensitive to aircraft engine performances and will be improved by enhanced understanding of transition.

; rOUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

fluid Mechanics (Contd)

Beat and Thermodynamics

Dr M Behnia A STUDY OF MIXED AND NATURAL 29,000

Dr J A Reizes CONVECTION IN ROOMS

Dr E Leonard!

University of N.S.W The distribution of velocity and temperature in air I conditioned rooms are of importance to architects and engineers, and to the managers and occupants of rooms, all

of whom are concerned with both comfort and operating costs. Our work is directed to developing an improved method for predicting the turbulent air movements and temperature distribution in a room which is ventilated and subjected to heating or cooling loads through the walls.

Professor R W Bilger COMBUSTION/TURBULENCE INTERACTION 66,791

Sydney University Computer simulation of turbulent flow is becoming a very important design and development tool for many products and industrial processes, particularly those involving combustion where testing and measurements are time consuming

and expensive. Combustion modifies the turbulent transport processes and the turbulence in turn modifies the combustion ) rates. This project uses advanced laser-diagnostic techniques - laser-Doppler anemometry, and laser-Rayliegh,

-Mie and -Raman scattering - in combustion experiments designed to develop new models for these combustion/turbulence interactions.

Professor M R Davis OPTICALLY DERIVED TURBULENT COMBUSTION 31,000 FEEDBACK

diversity of Tasmania Diffusion flames show a tendency to exhibit coherent structures in the turbulent mixing of fuel and oxidant gases and are susceptible to excitation. This project seeks to build on extensive experience in optical detection of mixing

fluctuations to develop feedback techniques for the control \ of coherent large disturbances and for the enhancements of mixing in combustion. Optical methods provide remote sensing of mixing and sensitivity to coherent flow

disturbances and are thus superior to probe based point sensors inside or external to the turbulent flame.

Heat and Thermodynamics (Contd)

Assoc Prof J H Kent SOOT REACTIONS IN FLAMES

Sydney University This project seeks to quantify flow and chemical effects on soot formation and burn-out in flames and combustors. Soot formation dominates radiation heat transfer in furnaces and fires. Failure to burn out soot results in emissions from diesel engines and incinerators which are harmful to health and from defence aircraft which makes them easy to detect. This project ensures Australia of leading access to

improvements in technology expected in this area, both here and overseas.

Professor R E Luxton A DIFFERENTIAL SIMULATION FOR Dr A Shaw OPTIMISATION OF FLOW AND ENTHALPY

TRANSFER IN DEHUMIDIFIER COILS

Adelaide University Existing air conditioning design methods are based on false premises, such as presuming air flow through a dehumidifier coil to be turbulent. An existing data base of coil performance will be selectively expanded to provide a sound basis for development of a differential simulation model suitable for optimisation and interfacing with existing building load simulation models. The work will form the basis of an expert system for design of both chilled water and direct expansion air conditioning plant.

Dr H C Watson FLAME-KERNEL FORMATION AND GROWTH IN Dr T J Chalko A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE: LASER

DIAGNOSTICS, MODELLING AND CONTROL

GROUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

The University of Melbourne Reduction in cyclic variability in S.I. engine combustion has the potential to simultaneously improve engine efficiency and reduce NOx emission and idle roughness. Our recent 2-D studies identify several types of flame kernel growth which significantly influence combustion variability. Through 3-D holographic measurement, computer modelling and the use of alternate ignition configurations including the pulse jet plume we expect to identify the relative

importance of the thermodynamic and flow phenomena that influence the growth of the kernel and thus recommend improvements in the design of the ignition process.

Mechanical Engineering (General)

> r R G Morgan PILOT STUDY FOR ULTRA HIGH VELOCITY 58,020

FREE PISTON EXPANSION TUBE

lueens land University- Future progress in space exploration and development will require the use of atmospheric transport at speeds greatly in excess of those currently used today. To realise this, new ground testing facilities will be required which can create flows in the range of 15-20 km/sec. For Australia to retain its lead in high speed testing technology, this problem must be addressed. It is the aim of this project to perform a feasibility study of a technique which can

theoretically meet this requirement.

;rOUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Industrial Engineering

IT P K Agarwal FUNDAMENTALS OF IGNITION AND 45,000

COMBUSTION OF COAL IN FLUIDIZED BEDS: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION USING THERMAL IMAGE ANAL

lelaide University Technological advances relating to mineral processing and coal are of importance to the Australian economy. This project deals with refining the fundamental understanding of phenomena occurring during fluidized bed combustion. This understanding will be of importance in predicting performance changes consequent new coal feeds. The novel

instrumentation to be developed as a part of this project > will be valuable in understanding other high temperature multi-phase reactor systems.

r B V King THE MODIFICATION OF SOLID SURFACES 25,000

tofessor R J MacDonald BY RECOIL IMPLANTATION

ewcastle University Many of the problems in the usage of modern materials are associated with the significant problems, consuming large quantities of resources in their prevention or reduction.

Ion implantation is one relatively new technique which offers the possibility of modifying surfaces to advantage. Recoil Implantation from thin films on the surface of the material of interest offers one method of improving the surface properties of large areas of materials, at possibly lower cost than other processes.

Electric Power

Dr D J Hill Dr I M Mareels

Newcastle University The project aims to devise advanced techniques for analysis and stabilisation of angle and voltage dynamics of power systems in the presence of large disturbances. This demands use of nonlinear simplified models. Modern nonlinear

systems theory provides new opportunities. The stabilisation schemes will reduce the tendency of complex power systems in industrialised societies to suffer widespread blackouts. With the recent greater

interconnection in Australia, this issue is of concern (as it has become dramatically in Europe, Japan and USA).

GROUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

ANALYSIS AND STABILISATION OF POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS

Dr A K Tieu SUPERLAMINAR FLOW IN HYDRODYNAMIC

THRUST BEARINGS

Wollongong University Various turbulent theories cannot predict accurately the performance of hydrodynamic bearings in the transition regime, due to the fact that they are based on flows which do not resemble the combined Couette and Poiseuille flow in bearings. In this project, measurement of thrust bearing performance will be carried out on different size bearings to determine the separate influence of the shear flow and pressure induced flow in the superlaminar regime. These experimental results obtained in a high speed bearing test rig will be compared with a numerical simulation of the three-dimensional flow in bearings, as well as to the other turbulent theories.

Communications

Dr L T Berry A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF

MULTIDESTINATION TRAFFIC ON COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK PERFORMANCE

Bond University In future telecommunications networks that portion of the traffic load which is broadcast from a single source to multiple destinations will increase significantly. Voice messages, electronic mail and other new data and video

traffic will compete for resources on an integrated network. This project will determine methods for efficiently providing adequate resources (channels, switching equipment) for each class of service by means of probabilistic modelling.

[ROUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Xmunications (Contd)

r B Boashash TIME-FREQUENCY SIGNAL ANALYSIS: STAGE 31,684 2. DIGITAL TIME-FREQUENCY FILTER DESIGN AND AUTOMATIC SIGNAL DETECTION USING THE WIGNER-VILLE DISTRIBUTION

ueensland University The Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) is used as a tool for Time-Frequency Signal Analysis of non-stationary signals, and for Time Frequency filters using the inversion formula of the WVD is investigated. These filters which allow 2D processing of time-varying signals are expected to enhance the possibilities of signal detection and identification using the WVD of the signal on a reference pattern. The means of comparison is a two dimensional correlation between

the cross WVD of reference and observed signal, and the WVD of the reference signal. Estimators of the Evolutive Spectrum (or Wigner-Ville Spectrum) of non-stationary random signals are developed and applied to simulated and real data

analysis and coherence estimation. The corresponding algorithms are optimised in terms of speed, efficiency and ease of implementation.

s s o c Prof K S Chung CONCEALED ANTENNAS FOR FUTURE 30,000

UNIVERSAL PORTABLE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM (UPCS)

urtin University of Technology Portable transceivers for future UPCS capable of providing integrated personal wireless communications in offices and homes are expected to employ concealed antennas for compactness and better mechanical protection. This project will study the performance of small antennas operating in

close proximity to a human body, which absorbs electromagnetic energy and causes severe disturbance to the radiation pattern. Innovative adaptive tuning techniques will be developed to maintain the efficiency of these

antennas operating in a constantly varying operating environment.

W G Cowley SPEECH CODING FOR SATELLITE MOBILE 49,000

'rofessor M J Miller SERVICES

i - A . I . T .

The project will investigate the best methods of processing speech signals for transmission in a satellite mobile network. These investigations are necessary because (a)

very little existing work has concentrated on finding speech coding and error correction techniques which give the best overall performance on this type of communications channel and (b) Australia is about to develop the world's first domestic satellite mobile service.

Communications (Contd)

Dr N Phan-Thien BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS FOR NONLINEAR Dr C J Coleman PROBLEMS IN ELASTICITY AND VISCOELASTIC FLUID MECHANICS

Sydney University The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is an effective computational tool for solving engineering problems of a linear nature. Its main advantage is a saving in computer requirement through a reduction in dimensionality. Although the method can be extended to nonlinear problems, current approaches have several drawbacks. This project seeks to develop a new BEM that overcomes these difficulties. The resulting technique will be applicable to problems that arise in the deformation and flow of engineering materials. Consequently, the work should be of direct benefit to Australian manufacturing industry.

Dr F F Ruhl POLARISED OPTICAL FIBRE AMPLIFIERS Dr R A Betts FOR ALL-OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Assoc Prof P L Chu

University of N.S.W The full potential of optical communication systems can only be realised with the use of wideband optical amplifiers instead of conventional electronic repeaters. High performance coherent optical systems are polarisation

sensitive. This project aims to develop polarised optical fibre amplifiers instead of conventional electronic repeaters. High performance coherent optical systems are

polarisation sensitive. This project aims to develop polarised optical fibre amplifiers suitable for high performance optical communication systems

Dr H Spencer DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATIC, MULTI- Dr C J Kikkert CHANNEL SMALL-ANIMAL RADIO TRACKING SYSTEM EMPLOYING HYPERBOLIC RADIO­ NAVIGATION PRINCIPLES

James Cook University of North Qld Assoc Prof R E Volker SIGNIFICANCE OF DENSITY DIFFERENCES IN Dr A J Johnston TIME DEPENDENT MASS TRANSPORT IN GROUNDWATER

James Cook University of North Qld Groundwater is an important component of water supply. Waste products and residues from both primary and secondary industries are increasing the potential for pollution. Our

ability to predict where and how fast pollutants move is currently limited especially when the polluted water has a density different from that of the surrounding groundwater. Laboratory and computer models will be used to develop better methods for making these predictions which are vital to proper management of aquifiers.

GROUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Ommunications (Contd)

SSOC Prof T B Vu LOW-COST MOBILE LAND/AIR TERMINAL 27,000

FOR AUSSAT'S MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICES

diversity of N.S.W This project aims to design low-cost mobile terminals (either airborne or earthbound) capable of two-way voice communication to be used for Aussat's mobile satellite

services in 1991. At this stage, we aim to restrict ourselves to the RF section in which monopulse radar techniques will be used to track the satellite. Since the

RF section must be compact and should present a low profile, an integrated RF section is envisaged where the microstrip antenna will be integrated with the low-noise amplifier and steering circuitry.

I [ B S Vucetic RELIABLE AND EFFICIENT CODING 30,000

Iqofessor D J Skellern TECHNIQUES FOR SATELLITE CHANNELS

!/dney University

Electronic Devices and Circuits

i s N W Bergmann A DYNAMICALLY RECONFIGURABLE ARRAY OF 31,000 BIT-SERIAL ARITHMETIC OPERATORS FOR USE IN HIGH-SPEED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS

ieensland University This project aims to investigate the design of an existing new class of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) called dynamically reconfigurable logic cell

arrays. Such ASIC's are already being marketed by a US company for general logic circuits. This project aims to design such circuits for a specific application area:

digital signal processing. The outcome, after 3 years, would be a prototype IC, ready for development by Australian industry into a viable commercial product.

: W S Blackley ARCHITECTURES FOR VERY HIGH SPEED 25,000

5 : C C Lim GALLIUM ARSENIDE PROCESSING

: K Eshraghian ENGINES FOR MATRIX BASED COMPUTATIONS

ielaide University Newly emerged gallium arsenide technology offers a major speed power advantage over conventional silicon technology. It is highly suited to the ever increasing demands for high

speed, real-time signal processing and control algorithms. We propose a gallium arsenide signal processing element for matrix based computations. We aim to study and develop a

serial/parallel architecture suitable for gallium arsenide VLSI implementation. This will involve the detailed design of the gallium arsenide components and their fabrication at a remote foundry.

ROUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

II

Electronic Devices and Circuits (Contd)

Professor M A Green THIN FILM CRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS

GROUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

University of N.S.W Recent theoretical work by our group has shown that silicon solar cells can convert focused sunlight to electricity with a conversion efficiency much higher than previously thought possible. Prerequisites are that the cells be thin and that they take advantage of schemes to trap light within the cell. The aim of this project is to demonstrate these theoretical predictions experimentally by demonstrating 30% cell energy conversion efficiency in a cell of less than 10 microns thickness, most probably at a sunlight concentration

ratio of around 1,000 suns.

Professor M A Green HIGH EFFICIENCY RADIATION RESISTANT SILICON SOLAR CELLS FOR SPACE SYSTEMS

University of N.S.W The aim of this research is to greatly improve the energy conversion performance of silicon solar cells used to power spacecraft. These cells form an integral part of the majority of space missions of any duration. Of Australian

activities relevant to space technology, it is difficult to identify areas where such a clearly defined technological advantage has been demonstrated as is the case in the silicon solar cell area. With a strong local manufacturing base already existing for terrestrial cells, the unique performance levels expected from the present work are expected to offer opportunities for expansion of local activities into this area.

Professor M A Green EFFECT OF OXYGEN ON SILICON SOLAR CELL Dr S R Wenham PERFORMANCE

University of N.S.W Although the silicon used in microelectronics is one the purest of engineering materials, some oxygen is always incorporated during its preparation. While this can be used to advantage in high density integrated circuits, it is deleterious to the performance of solar cells fabricated

from such silicon. The aim of the project is to understand why the oxygen acts in this way and to develop techniques which prevent it from degrading the performance of silicon solar cells. Improved cell performance and economics are the anticipated outcomes.

ROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

electronic Devices and Circuits (Contd)

r D W Griffin MONOLITHIC MICROWAVE INTEGRATED 38,000

CIRCUIT ANTENNAS: A STUDY OF ELEMENTS AND ARRAYS CONSTRAINED TO BEING AN INTEGRAL PART OF A MMIC GAAS WAFER

delaide University This research aims to produce solutions to the problem of integrating antenna elements into monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) so that a major impediment to the realisation of the advantages of MMICs in large antenna

systems for communications and radar is overcome. This research proposes to develop and exploit a new method of measuring on-wafer microwave components formulated by the Chief Investigator. Benefits arise from the commercial

relevance of the new measurement equipment and gaining of design advantages in an important field of application of new technology, namely MMICs.

rofessor Η B Harrison GROWTH AND CHARACTERISATION OF ULTRA 32,350 T Y T Yeow THIN GATE DIELECTRICS PRODUCED BY

RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

iriffith University l r P Horan A SOFTWARE TOOL TO SUPPORT THE DESIGN 15,918

OF ASYNCHRONOUS SYSTEMS USING TRACE THEORY

teakin University This research is to develop a software tool to support the designer in the conception of an asynchronous delay insensitive logic module by implementing an algebra of events, by monitoring conditions for delay insensitivity and by translating the completed specification into a form

suitable for driving a VLSI CAD suite.

’ rof A G Nassibian INVESTIGATION OF DEEP LEVELS IN 55,100 l r L Faraone CADMIUM MERCURY TELLURIDE (CMT)

diversity of Western Australia Cadmium Mercury Telluride (CMT) is potentially the most attractive semi-conductor for the fabrication of infrared (IR) photodetectors. This project will investigate deep

levels in CMT with the aim of characterizing and modelling generation-recombination noise and 1/f noise, and the degradation of IR detector responsivity due to the presence

of deep level traps. These studies have important implications for the development of opto-electronic materials and devices.

Electronic Devices and Circuits (Contd)

Dr D R Sweet INVESTIGATION OF THE NUMERICAL

PROPERTIES OF NEW PIVOTING SCHEMES FOR TOEPLITZ MATRICES WITH A VIEW TO DEVELOPING RELIABLE TOEPLITZ SOFTWARE

James Cook University of North Qld Toeplitz matrices are special matrices whose entries are constant along NW to SE diagonals. They arise in many applications of engineering and mathematics. In some applications, the matrix is indefinite, and in this case existing Toeplitz solvers can break down or give inaccurate results. A pivoting technique is proposed which can avoid this breakdown or loss of accuracy. The aim of this project

is to develop this technique further so that it works reliably on any Toeplitz matrix, and to submit any software developed for inclusion in some widely-circulated mathematical software package.

Dr S R Wenham INTEGRATED THIN FILM POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELL MODULES

GROUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

University of N.S.W The trend in solar cell development is for bulk silicon substrates to be replaced by thin film polycrystalline layers. With such an evolution, great advantages in cost, reliability and simplicity can be obtained in module construction through the introduction of appropriate novel

solar cell structures specifically designed for implementation in thin film form. These potentially require no metallization for interconnection, and may include additional circuitry for module output regulation and bypass diodes. This project involves the analysis, design and demonstration of such structures.

Control and Systems

Professor G C Goodwin ROBUST CONTROL AND COMMUNICATION Dr R H Middleton SYSTEMS

Professor R J Evans

Newcastle University Control and Communication Systems are central to advanced technological societies. Our group is one of the strongest research groups in the world in this area. Our work ranges

from basic theory concerning signal processing and control system design through to the implementation of these theories in novel control and communication systems for industry. A measure of the success of the group in developing new design paradigms is that 8 books are currently being written by members of the group. Also, several patents are held and many industrial control and communication systems in Australia have elements designed by members of our team.

GROUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Control and Systems (Contd)

Dr I R Petersen RICCATI EQUATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF ROBUST CONTROL SYSTEMS

University of N.S.W This project will involve research into the theory of uncertain linear systems, Such systems are used as the basis of a procedure for designing robust control systems

for industrial and military processes. That is, the research in this project will be applied to the problem of designing feedback control systems for the case in which the plant to be controlled is known only approximately. Advances in this area of research are expected to provide

significant improvements on the methods currently available to control system design engineers.

Computer Science and Engineering (General)

ijir L Allison COMPUTER ALGORITHMS FOR THE ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF DNA STRINGS AND OF OTHER MUTABLE STRINGS

lonash University String algorithms are important in Computer Science and the most difficult area involves strings that mutate or for which exact data is not known. The project involves

algorithm design and analysis in this area.

tesoc Prof Y Attikiouzel APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL fr R Togneri NETWORKS TO AUTOMATIC SPEECH fr E Lai RECOGNITION

hi University of Western Australia The Artificial Neural Network approach will be applied to the automatic speech recognition using real speech data.

The successful application of this approach to speech recognition at various levels means that a single framework can be developed to represent knowledge of speech from the acoustic-phonetic to linguistic levels. Our studies have

shown that a network with a set of artificial neurons, a set of hidden units and a set of output units is best suited for this application. Furthermore our studies of the non-linear

two-dimensional model of the basilar membrane will provide insights into the application of non-linear techniques to the Artificial Neural Network.

26,370

31,449

39,499

Computer Science and Engineering (General) (Contd)

Professor R E Bogner IMPROVING MULTI-DIMENSIONAL IMAGE 30,000 CLASSIFICATION BY THE USE OF TEXTURE

Adelaide University The work seeks to improve the accuracy of classification of multi-dimensional images by incorporating newly developed measures of texture. The research plan encompasses

fundamental aspects of the determination of texture parameters, and means for incorporating these with other data for classification. The work has applications in remote sensing, robotics, quality control and medical

imaging.

Dr T I Dix ALGORITHMS FOR DNA RESTRICTION SITE 56,125

MAPPING WITH EXPERT SYSTEM ASSISTANCE AND STRING SIMILARITY

Monash University Analysis of DNA is fundamental in biochemistry but experimental results are error prone. Inexact data for combinatorial problems of the size encountered in restriction site mapping and string similarity make the problems very difficult to solve. New algorithms in Computer Science which apply rigorous error analysis and allow for mutations are necessary. Additional assistance can be given by using an expert system and graphics. Advances in algorithms within Computer Science and practical procedures for experimenters will result.

GROUP - E n g . & A p p . S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Dr N Y Foo ADAPTIVE KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING 39,00C

Sydney University True machine intelligence must involve rational recovery from mistakes. Our proposal is to investigate knowledge-based systems for error recovery which are securely grounded in logic. Proofs of correctness will then be possible and algorithms can be validated. If successful, the resulting systems will be able to evolve without human intervention.

Dr R S Francis

La Trobe University Shared memory multiprocessors will be the basic configuration for the next generation of computing systems. This project will derive optimum implementations of a programming model based on multiple execution threads co-operating within a single process context, (THREADS project 1985). Issues examined will include hardware

... Cont/.

INVESTIGATION INTO MACHINE DESIGNS AND 42,95! SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATIONS FOR HIGH SPEED EXECUTION OF MULTITHREADED PROGRAMS ON LARGE SHARED MEMORY MULTIPROCESSORS

Computer Science and Engineering (General) (Contd)

support, systems software strategies, synchronisation and locality effects. The result will be strategies for realizing the processing speed of this machine class on general applications.

Dr D Fraser IMAGE GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION USING 33,000 Dr T I Hobbs PARALLEL SCAN-LINE PROCESSING

University of N.S.W The project is to carry out research and development for a parallel system for interactive scan-line and column processing of images, with geometric transformation as the main aim. The project builds on existing image processing

hardware and software, currently being developed under a CSIRO Collaborative Programme, for a network of low-cost computer workstations. The significance of the project lies in the development of fast, near real-time geometric

transformations of image data, to allow interactive visual analysis of two- and three-dimensional data sets. The results could make a strong contribution to the Australian Information Technology industry.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Professor R A Jarvis INTELLIGENT SENSORY-BASED ROBOTICS 43,000

Monash University Intelligence in robots, as in humans, has partly to do with the capability of planning before action through reasoning about a varying world environment perceived through sensory mechanisms. There are many tasks in manufacturing industry, mining, space exploration, medical treatment and in the

household environment where such a capability is vital to support automation, particularly where robots are concerned. This project is about bringing sensory based intelligence and robotic action together in a working relationship of considerable importance in terms of scope of application.

°r D R McKenzie ION ASSISTED DEPOSITION OF THIN FILM 37,000 D J Cockayne HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS °r G B Smith

Sydney University The aim of the project is to produce high temperature superconductor thin films which do not require high temperature annealing in oxygen after deposition. This annealing is required in current thin film deposition methods and makes the superconductor films incompatible with microelectronic applications. Ion beams containing oxygen will be directed at the film during deposition.

Computer Science and Engineering (Generai) (Contd)

Dr J P Pieprzyk DESIGN OF AN 128-BIT CRYPTOGRAPHIC Professor J R Seberry ALGORITHM

University of N.S.W Since the Data Encryption Algorithm (DBA) is Australian Standard and is believed to be insecure, there is an urgent necessity to design its substitute. The future encryption algorithm should operate on longer keys. We intend to consider two possible approaches to designing such an algorithm. The first would involve selection of replacement substitution blocks while keeping the same general structure of the original DBA. The second approach would rely upon the

selection of suitable algorithmic functions. The proposed algorithm should be extensively assessed using standard statistical tests, searching for possible weakness.

Professor J R Quinlan INDUCTIVE KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION TECHNIQUES FOR RAPID DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERT SYSTEMS

Sydney University Inductive methods attempt to discover general rules from analysis of examples. Such methods, often based on my ID3 algorithm, have proved useful aids in formalising the large amounts of knowledge needed for expert systems. This project addresses potential advances that would enhance the power and utility of these methods. By reducing knowledge acquisition costs, this research could foster wider use of expert systems technology in Australia.

Dr K Ramamohanarao MACHINE INTELLIGENCE PROJECT: A LOGIC Dr R W Topor PROGRAMMING SYSTEM WITH SUPPORT FOR Dr L Naish LARGE KNOWLEDGE BASES

The University of Melbourne The aim of this project is to design intelligent computer systems for storing, processing and retrieving knowledge simply and efficiently. This is a necessary foundation for the development of the next generation of computer applications. These will answer questions posed in English, make deductions from imprecise or incomplete information and provide expert advice in fields such as medicine, law, and engineering. These applications will be extremely important

for the economic and social development of post-industrial nations, and it is vital that Australia continue to develop its expertise in this area.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Computer Science and Engineering (General) (Contd)

Dr R Sacks-Davis INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS FOR VERY 48,123 Dr K Ramamohanarao LARGE DATABASES

R.M.I.T. This project is concerned with the retrieval of information from very large databases containing millions of documents. These documents can contain both formatted as well as free

text data. The design of new methods with faster access times and smaller storage overheads is being investigated. These new methods are based on the use of descriptors and superimposed coding technigues.

Dr W Zhao THE CONTROL IN MULTI-VERSION 37,000

Dr C C Lim COMPUTATION SYSTEMS

Adelaide University The next generation of computer systems must be able to handle applications that are large and complex and exhibit intelligent behaviour. A salient feature of these

intelligent applications is that they often have several strategies encoded to solve a given problem. At the execution time, a proper control scheme is needed to select the most suitable strategy, depending on the operation conditions. The control schemes for today's computer

systems are inadequate to deal with this kind of applications. This project aims to design, analyse, evaluate, and implement the new control schemes for the computer systems with the multi-strategy applications. A prototype of distributed operating system will be developed

to implement the new control schemes.

GROUP - Eng. & Ap p . Sciences (Contd)

Computer Hardware

’Professor C J Barter EVALUATION OF CACHE COHERENCE IN 29,000 Or C D Marlin SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEMS ' Hr P j Ashenden

Adelaide University Multi-processor computer systems critically depend on local cache memory to reduce accesses to shared memory, thereby allowing a greater number of processors to be

interconnected. This project investigates the strategies for maintaining data consistency between shared memory and cache memories in an experimental multiprocessor computer. It is expected that the project will provide hard evidence

for the design of multi-processors with significantly improved performance, generating economic benefit through collaboration with local industry.

Computer Hardware (Contd)

Dr J Rosenberg A MASSIVE MEMORY SUPERCOMPUTER

Newcastle University Supercomputers usually have complex and expensive processor designs, or consist of many interconnected microprocessor, which are extremely difficult to program. We propose to

achieve supercomputing speeds by attaching a massive main memory (several gigabytes) to a MONADS-PC processor (with very large virtual addresses). This method, which is both cheaper to build and easier to program, will gain its speed

by (a) allowing the processor to execute continuously without being delayed by disc accesses, and (b) where appropriate using table look-ups rather that calculating functions. Major application include scientific computing, expert systems and database systems.

Professor A H Sale HIGHLY PARALLEL COMPUTER ARCHITECTURES Mr A S Partridge -DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION

University of Tasmania The research involves one of the most important areas of current computer science research. The three basic research topics within the area of highly parallel processing are expected to lead to commercial exploitation after prototyping. Australian science and industry should benefit

from prior knowledge and access to high speed graph reduction engines (combinator machine) and high speed FFT computations (bit-serial architectures).

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Computer Software

Professor C J Barter PERSISTENT HYPER-OBJECT SYSTEMS Dr C D Marlin

Adelaide University The aim of this project is to investigate the software engineering issues in constructing large-scale persistent object systems. The system will provide the framework for a

large number of objects, such as text, graphics and images, linked together in a variety of ways, to provide a persistent generalization of the hyper-text concept. We expect to be able to demonstrate these tools in the construction of computer applications with superior performance and functionality.

Computer Software (Contd)

Professor T Downs STUDIES IN SOFTWARE TESTING AND 35,250

SOFTWARE RELIABILITY

Queensland University This project is concerned with the study of the processes involved in testing computer software. This study has two specific objectives. One is to develop mathematical models of the testing process in order to assist with the problem of reliability assessment prior to the release of a software

system. The second objective is to develop tools that can assist with the problem of reliability assessment prior to the release of a software system. The second objective is to develop tools that can assist with the testing process. Four such tools are currently being developed, three of them . being specifically targeted at software for life-critical

applications.

Dr A Goscinski THE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST 50,000 Dr G W Gerrity BED FOR THE STUDY OF DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEMS

University of N.S.W We know how to design an operating system for a centralised computer system. On the other hand, the study of distributed operating systems is in its infancy; their

design and construction is still an open problem. Indeed, only the critical problem areas have been identified, and there is little agreement among researchers about appropriate solutions. The project is an attempt at a

uniform attack on this problem. The main goal of the project is to design and construct a test bed for investigating and comparing alternative structures and

methodologies for implementing the components of a distributed operating system.

fc K A Robinson THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM FOR 30,793

Dr D A Carrington ASSISTING THE REFINEMENT OF Dr P A Lindsay SPECIFICATIONS TO PROGRAMS

University of N.S.W Formal, mathematically based methods have been developed for the specification of computing systems. A calculus has been developed for the refinement of specifications to

implementations, but the application of the calculus is impracticable without the assistance of computer based tools. The project involves 1) The implementation of a prototype refinement editor

that supports the refinement calculus and records the design decisions that occur in the development of a system. 2) The extension of the refinement calculus in combination with the Z schema calculus for managing large

specifications.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Computer Software (ContdJ

Dr J Staples IMPROVING QUALITY CONTROL IN

Dr P J Robinson SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH '

VERIFICATION METHODS AND TOOLS

Queensland University The worldwide software market is enormous and is growing rapidly. The Australian software industry is competitive and potentially a large exporter. Throughout the world, the software industry's main problem is quality control. This project will research and develop software quality control methods and tools, capable of improving significantly the Australian software industry's competitiveness and export performance. Better software quality is also becoming more important socially, as computing systems are increasingly used for life-critical and safety-critical purposes.

Prof J Welsh MODULARITY IN THE DERIVATION OF Dr I J Hayes VERIFIED SOFTWARE

Dr D A Carrington

Queensland University Software development by rigorous mathematically-based methods is now feasible for small software systems. This project investigates the scaling up of such methods to

large-scale software development, and their interaction with other engineering factors involved.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Dr A L Wendelborn EFFICIENT MULTIPROCESSOR IMPLEMENTATION OF SISAL PROGRAMS

Adelaide University The aim of this research is to build an efficient implementation, on a multi-processor parallel computer, of an advanced programming language in which parallelism is expressed implicitly and at a higher level than in conventional languages. Some of the problems to be addressed are the automatic partitioning of the problem into tasks for the machine, efficient implementation of data structure operations, scheduling of tasks, and the provision of useful debugging tools for use in a parallel programming environment.

Dr M J Wise EPILOG: A PARALLEL INTERPRETER FOR

Assoc Prof T B Hintz LOGIC PROGRAMS

Sydney University The aim of the EPILOG project is to investigate the factors affecting the implementation of the computer language Prolog on parallel computer systems. Prolog is one of the

languages of choice for implementing programs in Artificial Intelligence applications, eg expert systems. Such problems ... Cont/.

Computer Software (ContdJ

C-ROUP - Eng. & A pp. Sciences (Contd)

typically require enormous computer power, so one solution is to perform the computations in parallel. However, this involves a completely new paradigm to the one underlying

conventional computers. The project will lead to a far better understanding of how Artificial Intelligence languages and systems might be implemented on

multiprocessors in the future.

Mathematics of Computing

Dr L Caccetta TOWARD AN IMPROVED NETWORK DIAMETER Assoc Prof W F Smyth ALGORITHM

Curtin University of Technology A network is a set of points joined by lines. Networks represent numerous real world objects, such as communications/transportation networks, computer networks,

and engineering structures. The diameter of a network is an important measure of the time or cost required to use the network. It is therefore important, given a network, to be able to determine its diameter, but there exists no fast algorithm to do this. This project will shed light on the relationship between diameter and connectivity, establish

sharper bounds on the diameter, and contribute to the development of a faster diameter algorithm. The implications for analysis of physical systems representable by networks are significant.

Dr K E Forward MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF REAL-TIME Professor T S Dillon MULTIPLE COMPUTER SYSTEMS

La Trobe University The aim of our research is to develop mathematical models of ultra highly reliable computer systems. These systems will continue to compute correct results even when there are

faults in the system. Mathematical models are used because the real systems do not fail frequently enough to observe the failure rate experimentally. The results of our research are used in the design of computer systems.

30,500

32,000

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Applied Physics

Dr D J Cockayne DEFECT STRUCTURES IN STRAINED SEMICONDUCTOR HETEROSTRUCTURES

Sydney University When a series of layers of different semiconductors is made into a semiconductor device, the device can have properties of great technological importance. In some of these

systems, the differences in lattice spacings between the layers result in defects being introduced which can destroy or greatly diminish the properties of the device. This project aims to characterise the defects with a view to reducing their deleterious effects.

The use of optical fibres is now widespread in communications and sensing systems. A wide range of new applications in switching and optical signal processing is

also emerging using nonlinear effects. However there has been no systematic approach to fibre design principles. This project will examine the underlying design principles for optical waveguides, use these to find fundamental limits on light propagation properties and then look specifically

at criteria for design of waveguides exploiting nonlinear effects.

Prof. Emeritus R Street AN INVESTIGATION OF HIGH COERCIVITY Assoc Prof P G McCormick MECHANISMS IN HIGH ENERGY PERMANENT MAGNETS

University of Western Australia Highly efficient permanent magnets made of alloys containing neodymium, iron and boron for use in a wide variety of commercial applications such as the production of novel electric motors, loudspeakers and fixed magnetic field assemblies for magnetic resonance imaging have been discovered and extensively investigated in the last four years. The aim of this project is to study the mechanisms responsible for the high magnetic quality of existing materials as a guide to the development of new materials and methods of production for commercial exploitation in Australia.

Professor C Pask Assoc Prof R A Sammut THE DESIGN OF OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN NONLINEAR OPTICS

University of N.S.W

(ROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

caustics and Noise Control

[ C D A Bies SOUND PROPAGATION IN CURVED DUCTS 28,000

[ c C H Hansen

jielaide University This request is for funds to construct experimental apparatus to verify, and where appropriate modify, a newly developed theoretical description of sound propagation in ducts of arbitrary curvature. Higher order modes are

included with the fundamental plane wave propagation. The understanding of sound propagation in curved ducts is an essential prerequisite to its minimization. Results from this investigation will have application to air conditioning ducts and industrial air handling systems noise control.

Μ K Bull ACOUSTIC NOISE GENERATION BY VORTEX- 45,000

: : D A Bies WAKE/BODY INTERACTIONS

I : J M Pickles

Helaide University A better understanding of the basic mechanisms of noise radiation resulting from the interaction of fluctuating wakes with solid bodies can be expected to lead to

improvements in the acoustic design of such items as fans, circular saws, control valves, heat exchangers and duct discontinuities.

> C H Hansen OPTIMIZATION OF DUCT LINERS FOR NOISE 26,000

> D A Bies CONTROL

plelaide University This request is for funds to construct apparatus to investigate the limits of theoretical analyses developed by the investigators for optimising the design for and predicting the attenuation of sound propagating through a

duct lined on the inside with sound absorbing material.

- '.omechanics

• C D Bertram MECHANISMS OF KOROTKOV SOUNDS 38,627

1 iversity of N.S.W The project investigates errors in the non-invasive measurement of blood pressure by means of experiments which allow the sources of those errors to be identified. It is

intended to use the results to design an automatic system which will have greater accuracy by virtue of using extra information derived from a blood velocity measurement to calculate corrections to the apparent blood pressure as measured directly by the cuff method.

Biomechanics (Contd)

Assoc Prof P Swannell THE PROPAGATION AND ATTENUATION OF Dr R Neal IMPACT FORCES APPLIED TO THE HUMAN

BODY

Queensland University The objective of this interdisciplinary project is the development of an anatomically and dynamically sound mathematical model of the human body as a basis for

prediction of the distribution and attenuation of forces throughout body structures. This model will accommodate situations in which the body is exposed to impulsive loads (eg. impact with the ground during running and jumping) and when active forces are generated by the muscles to propel

the body. This research will improve understanding of the causes and mechanisms of injury and will lead to the design of floor surfaces and mats that reduce the potential for injury to the human body.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Surveying and Earth Resources

Dr J F Arnold PILOT STUDY OF DATA REDUCTION

Dr M C Cavenor TECHNIQUES FOR REMOTELY SENSED DATA Professor J A Richards

University of N.S.W This pilot study aims to study the use of data reduction techniques on information to be obtained from the next generation of remote sensing instruments. The volume of data to be obtained from these instruments is immense and will greatly tax the facilities of receiving stations and

the user community. Techniques need to be found which reduce data volume without changing its intelligibility. Techniques used by the applicants in the study of TV image bandwidth reduction will be used as a starting point for

this study.

Dr J J Cannon LANGUAGE AND KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS Dr G Butler FOR MODERN ALGEBRA

Sydney University The project aims to provide an intelligent mathematical assistant in the area of algebra. To do this it must utilise as much knowledge as possible, such as known catalogues of examples, user's insight into the problem, theorems, and algorithms which compute algebraic facts. The difficulty is to integrate all this knowledge so the system can reason how to effectively derive an answer: does it look up a database, does it reason from a theorem, or does it compute using an algorithm (and of course combinations of these)

iROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

u.rveying and Earth Resources (ContdJ

[;A K Milne SATELLITE MAPPING OF BUSHFIRES AND 32,016

| ; D Williamson VEGETATION BIOMASS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUEL LOAD MODELS AND A REGIONAL SYSTEM OF FIRE REPORTING

liiversity of N.S.W The purpose of this investigation is to utilise information contained in the spectral record of the NOAA-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to locate and map the distribution of bushfires in a regional context and to

correlate estimates of biomass derived from the satellite with ground measurements in order to determine fuel models and identify potential fire risk areas.

iofessor J A Richards ASSESSMENT OF FOREST DYNAMICS AND 27,292 1 : A K Milne STAND CHARACTERISTICS USING SPACEBOURNE RADAR REMOTE SENSING

diversity of N.S.W An international team has been assembled to study forest properties and dynamics using imaging radar techniques from spacecraft. Use of radar has a number of advantages

including its immunity to cloud cover and the ability to select radar properties to allow information to be derived separately on canopy biomass, timber volume and understorey.

The Australian experiment, to be carried out with cultivated and natural forest stands in Victoria, the Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales, is a major component of the study being undertaken with colleagues in the United States, Canada, West Germany, Japan and South America. It is directed towards understanding how radar

energy interacts with forest stands, and with determining the value of radar mapping as a tool in global exosystem investigations.

I : M R Shortis PATTERN RECOGNITION AND IMAGE ANALYSIS 28,000 FOR CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY

■ie University of Melbourne Digital imagery from CCD and video cameras have the advantages of speed of processing and the possibility of image enhancement. For these systems to be used by close range photogrammetry for precise metrology, pattern

recognition and automatic correlation techniques must be applied to the digital images to accurately locate discrete targets on multiple photographs. The aim of the research is to obtain a fundamental understanding of these techniques in the context of close range photogrammetry.

Surveying and Earth Resources (Contd)

Prof J C Trinder APPLICATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTELY SENSED DATA FOR MAPPING AND LAND INFORMATION SYSTEMS

University of N.S.W High resolution satellite data such as that derived from the French satellite SPOT will provide significant new information on physical nature and shape of the terrain

features which will be of use to mapping and geographic information systems. This project aims to derive methods for height determination from overlapping digital images, extraction of features, and the incorporation of the data

into a geographic information system.

GROUP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Other (Engineering and Applied Sciences)

Professor C J Barter CONCURRENT PERSISTENT INFORMATION Dr C D Marlin SYSTEMS ON CLOSELY COUPLED

MULTIPROCESSORS

Adelaide University This project investigates how to combine three important directions in the design of high performance computer systems. The first is called "Persistent Information Systems", which promises significant improvements in programmer productivity and system performance; the second

is based on research which shows how concurrent access may be provided to such systems; the third is the emerging importance of multi-processor computers. If successful, it will provide the technology for the construction of economic

and reliable software systems for local use and export.

Other (Engineering and Applied Sciences)

Professor D V Boger APPLICATION OF NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID MECHANICS IN THE PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

The University of Melbourne The proposal seeks to broaden an existing knowledge base of international standing in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and to co-ordinate this knowledge in the solution of practical problems in the Australian Processing Industries. Successful applications have been demonstrated in the oil and minerals industries where the work on the transportation of waxy crude oils with Delhi Petroleum and ICI Australia, and in the minerals industry with ALCOA of Australia, has contributed significant economic benefits for Australia. Applications to be developed during the term of research are

in the development of coal-water slurry fuels with the Victorian Coal Corporation and CSIRO - Division of Fossil Fuels, in the processing of stabilised zirconia green form ... Cont/.

Other (Engineering and Applied Sciences) (Contd)

products with ICI Australia and Z-Tech Pty Ltd, and in the production of a new generation waterborne paint with Dulux Australia. The proposal seeks support for the fundamental research in viscoelastic fluid mechanics - the hub from which all applications are derived

3R0UP - Eng. & App. Sciences (Contd)

Building Science and Architecture

Professor J S Gero BUILDING DESIGN CODES AS EXPERT SYSTEMS

Sydney University Building design codes are the community's primary communication tools and control mechanisms for the construction industry. The functionality and safety of buildings and the built environment is dependent on the proper understanding and administration of these codes.

However, these codes are very bulky and contain very complex logical connections. This project takes expert systems technology and reformulates the building design code for use as an expert system and develops means to allow a formal communication between this expert system and CAD system. This provides the long-term potential to have building

designs automatically checked against the code with resultant savings in time and cost.

Dr G Bunnens ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION OF TELL 31,290

AHMAR (ANCIENT TIL BARSIP) IN SYRIA

The University of Melbourne (1) First archaeological excavation, after 57 years, in an area of primary historical significance with respect to the spread Mesopotamian influence to western countries.

(2) An innovative project, linking the archaeological study of an ancient site with the study of a modern but still traditional community on the same site. (3) Of immediate benefit to Australia is the quite exceptional provision that some of the objects and works of

art discovered will be granted to the institution supporting the project.

Professor A Cambitoglou THE EARLY BRONZE AGE SETTLEMENT ON THE 36,505 Hr J Papadopoulos LEKYTHOS OF TORONE, CHALKIDIKE, GREECE

Sydney University The aim of the investigation of Torone was to obtain information about the occupation of the site in antiquity and to place the city in the broader context of ancient Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean. Trial excavation in

1986 on the Promontory called "Lekythos" revealed part of a settlement of the Early Bronze Age and more particularly of the period ca. 2800-2200 B C. Further investigation of this settlement is important because the period is little understood in Greece in general, especially in Macedonia. The discovery provides a unique opportunity to investigate a

significant early settlement in N. Greece using modern techniques.

Dr J Carington Smith KOUKO EXCAVATION CHALKIDIKE 20,000 GREECE

5R0UP - H u m a n it ie s

Classical Studies and Classical Archaeology

University of Tasmania Kouko is a Dark Age site in the Chalkidike, northern Greece. It has both cemetery and settlement, rare in this little-known period, which was ancestral to Greek classical civilisation. Its geographical position exposes it to

influence both from Macedonia and the Aegean. Its excavation will thus contribute both to the prehistory of Macedonia, an under-researched area, and to knowledge of Dark Age Greece as a whole. The excavation provides

archaeological opportunity for students from Tasmania and elsewhere. It has just had a very successful first session.

Professor G W Clarke JEBEL KHALID ON THE EUPHRATES Mr P J Connor NORTH SYRIA

Australian National University Jebel Khalid, a large fortified town guarding a strategic crossing on the Euphrates, appears to have been established as a military colony early in the Seleucid era. Excavation will reveal how the immigrant Greek colonists settled down

to live with the native population. It will reveal much about Greek town-planning; about adaptations of Greek architecture to local conditions; about civic and religious life, as well as about economic and trading contacts, on the borderlands of Mesopotamia. Important control should be established over dating Hellenistic pottery (black and red

glazes) as well as locally produced fabrics and Parthian wares.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Classical Studies and Classical Archaeology (Contd

Dr J Descoeudres GREEKS AND NATIVES IN SOUTHERN ITALY Mr B A Gollan Mr E G Robinson

Sydney University Excavation of this settlement in Southern Italy dated ca.1400-600 BC will, above all, examine the influence of Greek culture abroad. The project responds to an invitation

from Italy, issued in the wake of the First Australian Congress of Classical Archaeology held in Sydney in 1985 with the theme "Greek Colonists and Native Populations." The I Fani excavation will be part of an international project to address the fundamental questions of early Greek trade and colonization: why did the Greeks go to Italy, and what changes did they induce in the economy, society and material culture of the native Italians?

Professor J B Hennessy ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT PELLA (TABAQAT FAHL) IN JORDAN

Sydney University Dr C A Hope THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION OF

Dr R G Jenkins ISMANT EL-GHARAB IN THE EGYPTIAN SAHARA, AND THE EDITING OF ITS GREEK AND COPTIC TEXTS

The University of Melbourne Ismant el-Gharab is an ancient town site (I-IV AD) of remarkable significance. Superbly preserved, it was an urban centre of some regional importance in its day, and offers the opportunity to resolve numerous questions concerning the history of civilization in the Dakhleh Oasis.

Finds of papyri have already been notable, and there is the promise of numerous yet more remarkable finds to come. There are fine wall-paintings and excellent examples of ecclesiastical and other architectures.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Classical Studies and Classical Archaeology (Contd

professor E J Jory ROMAN POPULAR THEATRE: ITS NATURE, Assoc Prof J R Green DISSEMINATION AND IMPACT

University of Western Australia The grandiose theatre-buildings of the Romans reflect the key role they played in the social life of the Empire. The theatre also served to disseminate Roman culture in

provincial areas (analogous perhaps to American cinema and television in the 20th century), a function reinforced for political purposes by the central government. Performances were immensely popular, yet since they were non-literary,

they are difficult to visualise and assess. This study aims to be the first to combine literary, epigraphic and archaeological evidence to clarify their nature and impact.

Professor M J Osborne ATHENS IN THE THIRD CENTURY B.C.: RECONSTRUCTING HISTORY FROM STONE INSCRIPTIONS

La Trobe University In the third century B.C. Athens was politically turbulent and a focus for exciting intellectual development; it also witnessed the emergence of a multicultural society, as it

attracted and absorbed increasing numbers of foreigners. Study has been neglected, because (unusually) the major sources of information are not literary but the fragments of stone inscriptions. This project assembles, reconstructs and interprets these unique sources and uses their evidence to write a history of this period.

Dr S R Pickering THE EDITING OF SELECT GREEK PAPYRI IN THE PAPYRUS COLLECTION OF MACQUARIE UNIVERSITY

Macquarie University Decipherment and interpretation of a range of Greek papyri in the Macquaries collection, to prepare editions of the texts for publication in the inaugural volumes of a series The Macquarie Papyri. The project's social usefulness is by way of its educational value: using original ancient

documents, it will contribute knowledge of fundamental data and techniques of importance for the practice and content of historical studies in Australia.

25,000

27,381

39,924

Dr A G Sagona ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE Dr E Pemberton GUMUSHANE PROVINCE, NORTH-EASTERN TURKEY

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Classical Studies and Classical Archaeology (Contd

The University of Melbourne Our aim is to examine ancient human occupation in the Bayburt region of the Gumushane province, north-eastern Turkey, through an intensive archaeological field survey and the excavation of a site (Buyuk Tepe). The survey will enable us to determine the change of settlement patterns through time, the excavation will provide a stratigraphic sequence of material cultures of various periods from an

important site.

Dr F Sear ROMAN THEATRES - AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND

Mr Z Kapelis ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH PROGRAM

Adelaide University Theatre studies now play an important role in university courses and research programmes. The importance of the ancient theatre and its influence upon later theatre is

increasingly recognized. This project aims to clarify problems related to theatre design and to supply documentation on important well-preserved theatres where no accurate plans exist and the architectural development is

incompletely understood. It is also important nationally to support Australian involvement in Mediterranean archaeology and participation in large international projects like that at Carthage where Australia is not so far represented.

Professor R G Tanner ORIENTAL INFLUENCES ON GRECO-ROMAN Dr B F Curran RELIGION

Dr C E Penglase

Newcastle University Since work at Alalakh and Ras Shamra before the 1939 War it has been clear that Greek Material Culture derived much from Anatolia and Mesopotamia. Research is required to establish the degree of influence and elucidate aspects of Greek and Roman culture so far obscure, especially in the area of Religion and incorporal culture.

Asian Languages and Literature

ASSOC Prof A D Crown A CRITICAL EDITION OF THE SAMARITAN

Sydney University There have been several attempts in the last century to produce a critical edition of the Samaritan Hebrew Pentateuch. The most successful covered only the book of Genesis. All the other attempts failed because of their poor scholarly methodology. The discovery of Samaritan text

type materials in the Qumran (Dead Sea) Caves has meant a renewal of comparative critical work drawing on the Samaritan Pentateuch. This work is unreliable because of the need for a new critical version of the Samaritan Pentateuch. I aim to provide the new critical text.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Dr N R Twine JAPAN'S LANGUAGE POLICY IN THE

TWENTIETH CENTURY: LANGUAGE PLANNING AND INTERNATIONALIZATION

Queensland University This project will evaluate the effectiveness of past government language policies in shaping the Japanese language of today and will assess what can be learned from

the Japanese experience with language planning by English-speaking nations such as Australia which are just embarking on formulating language policies. It will also examine the implications for other countries including Australia of the current push to internationalize the

Japanese language.

English (including Australian&American Literature)

Assoc Prof P F Alexander A BIOGRAPHY OF ALAN PATON

University of N.S.W The project will produce for publication the first full-scale biography of Alan Paton, the modern novelist, poet, biographer and politician.

Prof. Emeritus J F Burrows COMPUTER-ASSISTED STUDIES IN THE Dr D H Craig ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE

Dr C W Mckenna

* Newcastle University We wish to refine a new method of comparing styles of writing, discovered by the 1st Chief Investigator, and to test applications for it. Our published findings are

gaining widespread recognition among those concerned to distinguish between writings of different eras and literary forms and between genuine texts, revisions and imitations. Applications of more general interest include "forensic"

... Cont/.

20,500

20,000

25,000

19,573

testing of forgeries and plagiarisms and tracing a writer's changing mental states in documents like letters. Here, too, our results are promising.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

English (including Australians;American Literature)

Dr S M Gunew THE IMPACT OF MULTICULTURAL (NON

ANGLO-CELTIC) LITERATURE ON AUSTRALIAN LITERATURE

Deakin University The project comprises a systematic analysis of the impact of Multicultural Literature on Australian Literature. Multicultural will subsume such terms as migrant, ethnic,

and non Anglo-Celtic, that is, will focus on those groups usually excluded from the predominantly Anglo-Celtic make-up of Australian culture. Aboriginal writings will be excluded

as they are considered to be a major and very different cultural category. The study will examine the impact of cultural difference on Australian Literature in ways parallel to recent reconsiderations of Australian Literature

in relation to gender issues.

Dr K J Hart JUDGEMENT AND REVOLUTION: SAMUEL

JOHNSON AS AN EXEMPLARY FIGURE IN THE DETERMINATION OF ENGLISH LITERARY CULTURE

Deakin University This study has a threefold significance. In taking Samuel Johnson (1709-84) as an exemplary figure in the determination of English literary culture, it will show how cultural property is formed and circulated; it will therefore cast new light on relations between canon

formation and nationalism, a problem with continuing pertinence. It will mark a methodological advance by linking deconstruction with socio-literary analysis, making connections between literary theory and legal judgements. And it will advance C18th studies by bringing that new methodology to bear on one of its most durable figures.

Professor Η P Heseltine THE REPRESENTATIONS OF THE VIETNAM WAR Dr J G Grey IN AUSTRALIA 1962-1988

Mr J C Doyle

University of N.S.W The project will provide a multi-disciplinary study of the Vietnam War in Australia from 1962 to 1988 by locating the literary and media representations of the soldier and warfare, within the broader context of historical and political issues posed by the war and its aftermath. No such study has been undertaken. By filling that gap the project will offer a number of conclusions about the effects

... Cont/.

of the war to date and prospective analysis of what the Vietnam War is likely to mean to future Australians.

Ms J Hooton AN INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF 20,860

AUSTRALIAN AUTOBIOGRAPHIES

University of N.S.W An analysis of over 2,000 Australian autobiographical narratives, published and unpublished, of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. As they are difficult to locate and

there is no bibliographical guide, many of these narratives are currently ignored by literary critics, cultural commentaries and historians. A descriptive bibliography, summarising the content of each narrative, is indispensable

for the further study of autobiography in this country.

Professor S T Knight A SOCIAL HISTORY OF AUSTRALIAN CRIME 20,000 FICTION

The University of Melbourne The riches of Australian crime fiction remain almost unknown to scholarship and criticism. By identifying, assembling and analysing a wide range of texts, this study will show

the varieties and development of Australian crime fiction, and also the social and cultural attitudes embodied in this important genre. Ultimately the study will provide a new

perspective from which to view culture and society in Australia over the last two hundred years.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

English (including Australian&American Literature)

Dr D A Lawton THE MAKING OF TRADITION: 16,000

THE INVENTION OF ENGLISH LITERATURE 1350-1500

Sydney University This project examines the nature of literary tradition, showing in detail how two different bodies of poetry in the late medieval period - the alliterative and the Chaucerian - brought rival notions of translation to bear on its

formation. The project shows how the Chaucerian eventually became the dominant English literary tradition, which has a history in space as well as time. The making of literary tradition is an important cultural model of exploration: as Chaucer mapped his world, so Mitchell mapped Australia.

Ms J M Lee COMPILATION OF AN ANTHOLOGY OF ESSAYS,

Mr P S Mead POETRY AND FICTION FROM MEANJIN,

TOGETHER WITH ARCHIVAL AND INTERVIEW MATERIAL

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

English (including A ns trailan&American Literature)

The University of Melbourne This volume will provide an essential reference tool for students, researchers and general readers with an interest in Australia's postwar history. It will bring together in accessible form a selection of highly influential Australian writing that has been practically unavailable for many years, together with a selection of previously unpublished material from the Meanjin Archive, which is widely

recognised as being the best archival collection of its kind in Australia.

Professor E D Lemire A SOHO-TYPE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE WORKS OF WILLIAM MORRIS

Flinders University A descriptive, analytic and historical account of the publications of William Morris, this is a compilation and description of the "original educations," i.e. works published in the author's lifetime. It is planned to provide sufficient detail of physical make-up to support analysis of editions, issues, and states, and demonstration of their reception in the market-place. Besides describing and analysing the Morris books, this project examines the relations between Morris and his publishers, and the conditions - economic, technical and contractual - of late Victorian publishing (1858-1896).

Dr B J Muir AN EDITION OF EXETER, DEAN AND CHAPTER

MS 3501 (THE EXETER BOOK), WITH ANNOT­ ATED TEXTS, TRANSCRIPT, AND HISTORICAL AND CODICOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION

The University of Melbourne This edition is of an anthology of Old English poetry dating from ca. 960, and probably written at either Exeter or Crediton. The manuscript comprises 130 poems on 246 pages.

It is the most important collection of poetry to have survived from Anglo-Saxon England, and has not been fully edited in over fifty years, during which time a vast amount of criticism, literary and textual, has been written. The new edition will bring recent critical views in codicological and linguistic scholarship to bear on the texts.

IRdUP = Humanities (Contd)

>ro£. Emeritus G H Russell a CRITICAL EDITION Of THE Cl· VERSION 30,000 OF PIERS PLOWMAN

1.9 University of Melbourne This edition is the third part of a critical edition of the poem; the first two parts are already published. It will provide an edited text, a full apparatus, an introduction explicating the apparatus, the process of editing and the

nature of the text itself.

tnglieh (including AuntralianSAmarican Literature)

■rotes sor K K Ruthven THE PSEUDO-AUTHENTIC TEXT AS A 2S,000 LITERARY CRITICAL PROBLEM

'he University of Melbourne This project will examine, in the light of recent developments in critical theory, problems posed for literary studies by texts variously designated as 'fakes',

'forgeries' and 'hoaxes'. It will also investigate changing conceptions of pseudo-authenticity in earlier studies of the phenomenon, and provide lexicographical analyses of key terms and their usages, The project will be a contribution

to the study of discursive representations, a subject of common interest to people working in the humanities here and overseas.

I G J Tulloch AN EDITION OF SIR WALTER SCOTT'S 20,000

1VANHOE WITH FULL EXAMINATION OF THE TEXT AND ANNOTATION

Unders University Ivanhoe was a crucial novel In the development of the • historical novel and our perceptions of the past. There has never been a full critical edition of Ivanhoe, This edition

of Ivanhoe will form part of a major new edition of Scott's complete novels and provides an opportunity for a significant Australian input into an internationally important project.

isoc Prof C K Wallace-Crab NARRATIVE GEOGRAPHY $ REAL AND 1-1,000 IMAGINARY PLACES IN AUSTRALIAN LITERATURE

te University of Melbourne Much recent study has concerned itself with space, discovery, naming and mapping and the- filling of presumed blank spaces in Australia and in its developing culture. This project is to approach such phenomena as they manifest

themselves in our literature, to.look at how writers of fiction (and sometimes poets) have limned real and imaginary places in Australia, Reader response shows that we read for mixed fact and fiction# I want to explore this mixture,

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

English (including Australian&Aaerican LiteratureJ

Assoc Prof E Webby PUBLICATION OF AUSTRALIAN FICTION DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

Sydney University This project aims to arrive at a more reliable understanding of the amount and kind of original fiction published in Australia during the nineteenth century. Much of this

fiction was serialised in local newspapers and magazines but, because commercial book publishing was not yet established in Australia, never published in volume form. The project will make a significant contribution to our knowledge of nineteenth-century Australian fiction and of the careers of various authors.

Professor G A Wilkes A CRITICAL EDITION OF THE POEMS AND PLAYS OF FULKE GREVILLE, LORD BROOKE

Sydney University An edition of the poems and plays of Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke for the Oxford University Press. Greville is the only significant Renaissance poet not available in a critical edition, and the corpus of his manuscripts provides a unique opportunity to study an Elizabethan poet at work. The project is an instance of Australian participation in

international scholarship.

European Languages and Literature

Assoc Prof Clunies-Ross THE RECEPTION OF EARLY SCANDINAVIAN POETRY & POETICS FROM THE 17TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURY, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD

Sydney University During the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries modern European societies developed cultural and national identities. Among other things, they rediscovered their medieval literatures and pre-Christian religious beliefs.

In Scandinavia, Germany and the English-speaking world Old Icelandic (Old Norse) literature, especially poetry, was the main witness to an early Teutonic society. This project traces the history of the modern rediscovery of Old Norse poetry and its reinterpretation in the light of modern intellectual movements.

ROUP - Humanities (Contd)

'uropean Languages and Literature (Contd)

[tier Prof R G De Bray A NEW MACE DON I AN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 20,860

ustralian National University There must be some half a million Macedonian migrants in English-speaking countries, including Australia, and there are no good dictionaries of Macedonian into English. This

is a request for continuing support for a long-term project which is being carried out single-handed on the English speaking side for want of suitability qualified English-speaking partners. A good third of the work has

already been completed, and a system of setting out the information, suitable to the language and easily comprehensible to English speakers and Macedonian has now been perfected.

I : E Gauntlett COMPILATION AND CRITICAL ANNOTATION OF 19,770 1 : D Paivanas A FULLY DOCUMENTED CORPUS OF VERBAL Mi A Chatzinikolaou TEXTS OF REBETIKA (A GENRE OF GREEK URBAN FOLK SONG) FOR PUBLICATION

he University of Melbourne A plethora of recent publications on the genre and its social context attests to the belated recognition of the significance of rebetika songs as a manifestation of

twentieth century urban Greek culture, and of the scope it offers for the study of the interaction of oral tradition and commercial recording. Research on all aspects of the genre is currently vitiated by the deficiencies of the

published sources of rebetika texts. The project aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable textual basis for research and to indicate desirable directions for it.

Ό C G Grawe AN INVESTIGATION OF CM WIELAND'S 25,000

JOURNAL DER TEUTSCHE MERKUR ( 1773 - 1810)

ie University of Melbourne The project will evaluate and make accessible to the public the 18th century journal Der Teutsche Merkur, a compressed socio-political history of 18th century Germany which, as a unique expression of the concerns of the emerging German middle classes of the time and as a reflection of the growth

of German as a language of international prominence, represents a crucial contribution to our understanding of the modern German social and political consciousness.

European Languages and Literature (Contd)

Assoc Prof K Kwiet THE GERMAN-JEWISH EXPERIENCE IN Prof J Milfull CULTURE AND SOCIETY

University of N.S.W The German-Jewish experience represents at one and the same time one of the most remarkable successes, and one of the greatest tragedies, in the history of acculturation of minorities. The investigators believe that many insights on

the most vital issues facing Australia and other countries (assimilation, acculturation, cultural pluralism and national identity, nationalism and internationalism) can be derived from an interdisciplinary study of this exemplary case.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Prof B Moloney THE DISCONTINUOUS TRADITION: DEVELOP­ MENT OF THE NOVEL IN ITALY, FROM THE 18TH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT

Wollongong University The project aims to produce a history of the novel in Italy in the context not only of the literary traditions of that country but also of the way in which the rapidly changing

social and political conditions prevailing in the peninsula have affected and are expressed in literature. The novel has been the genre through which the country has attempted to create its sense of identity and to come to terms with its problems, often in advance of work done by historians and social commentators.

Lin gu is tics

Assoc Prof B J Blake FUNCTION FORMS IN LANGUAGE Dr P Austin Dr E L Bavin

La Trobe University This is the first large scale study that attempts to examine the ways languages develop systems to forms to express grammatical functions. Such a study is fundamental to our knowledge of language. A understanding of the evolution and loss of such forms is essential in the development of language maintenance programmes and form-s part of the basis for hypotheses about language history which in turn forms a part of the contribution of Linguistics to pre-history and history in general.

tOUP - Humanities (Contd)

inguistics (Contd)

[: J G Breen PRINCIPLES OF ARANDIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE NATURAL WORLD

listitute for Aboriginal Development Languages differ in the ways in which objects in the world are classified. This project will study classification and naming in the Arandic languages and will attempt to discover

the underlying structures of language in general and will also clarify issues in cross-cultural communication.

issoc Prof M G Clyne ENGLISH AS A LINGUA FRANCA IN AUSTRALIA, ESPECIALLY IN INDUSTRY

bnash University This project will be based on communication in English , J | between people of different non-English-speaking backgrounds, mainly in five Melbourne companies.

Communication breakdown and its resolution will be studied. Results may assist training programs and contribute to more efficient communication and more harmonious relations.

kofessor R M Dixon SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THE AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGE FAMILY

kstralian National University To undertake a full study of the Aboriginal languages of Australia, establishing their locations and dialects; their phonetic and grammatical systems; and their core

vocabularies. On the basis of this data, to establish what the interrelations were between these languages, and whether there is any provable link with languages outside the continent. Also to investigate cultural inferences derivable from linguistic comparison and reconstruction concerning the origin and way of life of the first Aborigines, routes which they spread through the continent,

etc.

r N R Evans NON-PAMA-NYUNGAN LANGUAGES OF NORTHERN AUSTRALIA: DESCRIPTIVE, GRAMMATICAL, COMPARATIVE AND SOCIOLINGUISTIC INVESTIGATIONS.

he University of Melbourne This project will provide the first detailed descriptions of a number of Aboriginal languages of Northern Australia, several of which will disappear within the next decade as their last speakers die. We will explore some significant challenges that their complex verbal structure poses for

linguistic theory, and carry out detailed historical reconstruction for Kimberley and western Arnhem Land language families. For the more viable of these languages, our descriptive work will underpin a detailed analysis of conversational interaction.

I

20,860

31,017

81,913

20,000

Linguistics (Contd)

Dr L A Hercus COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ABORIGINAL Dr H Koch LANGUAGES OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA

Dr D G Nash

Australian National University This study will compare some 15 languages of Central Australia, describing similarities in vocabulary and structural features. The network of interrelations that are

found will be explained in terms of historical factors such as common origin and mutual influence through cultural contact. We expect to learn a lot about earlier stages of the languages, details and principles of their change

through history, the cultural factors behind the changes, and appropriate methods for describing historical relations between traditional Aboriginal languages.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Dr B M Horvath COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF AUSTRALIAN AND Mr T A Johnston OTHER DEAF SIGN LANGUAGES - ESTABLISHING THE UNIVERSALS OF SIGN LANGUAGE GRAMMARS

Sydney University Linguistic fieldwork in the Australian deaf community collecting natural sign language, analysing and describing the grammar of the language (called Auslan) and testing the proposition that sign language grammars are not universal through comparative analysis. Significance is threefold-first, no detailed or comprehensive grammar has ever been written of Auslan; second, it will provide valuable data (and itself draw conclusions) on the nature of the grammars of sign languages and thus contribute to our knowledge of language universals; and thirdly, it will inform the learned community, especially those that train professionals who work with the deaf, of the grammatical

features and linguistic status of Auslan.

Ms Y D Maley FORENSIC DISCOURSE:

INSTITUTIONAL DETERMINANTS OF LANGUAGE VARIATION

Macquarie University A court is a natural language situation but probably no one ever speaks quite naturally there. Typically, discourse is constrained by such institutional factors as the law of evidence and the use of traditional forensic strategies. The resulting fragmented exchanges, with truncated responses, imply that explanation, for example, needs redefinition there. The issue then arises of the potential

for communicative and consequent legal disadvantage for some participants.

5R0UP - Humanities (Contd)

linguistics (ContdJ

prof P Muhlhausler ATLAS OF LANGUAGES ON INTERCULTURAL 30,000 COMMUNICATION IN THE PACIFIC AREA

Bond University The Atlas is a detailed survey of linguistic and other resources for intercultural communication in the Pacific. The numerous links between speakers of different local

languages and the intrusion of non-local ones are crucial in reconstructing the linguistic past of the area and in understanding the changes in the language ecology subsequent to European penetration. By focusing on languages and other forms of communication as both a resource and obstacle

to development, the maps will be of considerable value to social, linguistic and economic planning in the area.

Dr B E Murdoch PHYSIOLOGICAL ACOUSTIC AND PERCEPTUAL 19,000 Dr J Ingram FEATURES OF DYSARTHRIA

Ms H Chenery

Queensland University Currently there are few effective therapeutic interventions for individuals with dysarthria. A major reason for this is that our understanding of the physiological effects of various types of brain damage on the speech production mechanism is meagre, at best. By determining how select

neuromotor disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease; cerebellar disease) influence the individual motor subsystems of the speech mechanism, this project aims to enhance the accuracy of clinical speech diagnosis and provide better guidelines

for planning speech therapy treatment programs.

Dr M Pienemann UNIVERSALS AND SEMANTIC STRUCTURE IN 25,000 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

Sydney University This project will generate and empirically test hypotheses about the nature of second language acquisition (SLA) processes from two different branches of linguistics

(semantics and formal grammar) and explore the interaction of these levels of analysis, in order to extend the scope of an existing explanatory theory SLA. The project is based on a large existing data collection which is stored electronically and has been prepared for an automatic

linguistic analysis. A wide range of practical applications in language teaching and testing will follow from this project.

Linguistics (Contd)

BE W I Ramson EXPANSION op AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL Miss J M Hughes DICTIONARY BATA-BASI, WITH FOCUS ON REGIONALISMS AND OCCUPATIONAL TERMS

Australian National university The AND data-base, a 'bank' of Quotations documenting the use of Australian words, is a unique resource continually updated from 'standard' sources, books and metropolitan newspapers. The project seeks to expand the data-base from an additional range of sources, regionally oriented newspapers, focusing on regionalize and occupational terms. The usefulness of these sources has been established in a preliminary study. The up-dated and expanded data-base has many applications, the study of regionalisms its own

intrinsic interest and soeio-historical importance,

Dr A Wierzbleka EMOTIONS ACROSS CULTURES

Australian National university I want to write a book devoted to the semantic analysis of emotion terms and emotion constructions in several different languages, I believe that such an analysis can play a decisive role in the current debate on the fundamental issue ©f to what extent are emotions features of "human nature" and to what extent they are "cultural artefacts", This question is widely regarded as one of the most pressing and

important current issues across human sciences.

GROUP = Humanities (Contd)

Music and Fine Arts

Dr R Charteris CRITICAL EDITION OF MUSIC OF GIOVANNI GABRIELI

Sydney University Giovanni Gabrieli is the most important composer of the Venetian school of the High Renaissance, The edition which I am preparing will be used by many scholars, music students and performers, especially as the series in which the edition is to be published is acquired by numerous

libraries and individuals throughout the world, Besides making available a considerable quantity of music, much of it not previously available in modern editions, the critical edition, thematic catalogue and journal articles published and in preparation will provide an important body of

information about the music and its sources,

IROUP - Humanities (Contd)

iiistc and Fine Arts (Contd)

I f A Galbally PATRONAGE IN AUSTRALIAN ART. AN 18,000

HISTORICALLY BASED INVESTIGATION BY BOTH GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SOURCES 1788-1982

'he University of Melbourne A large scale historically-based Investigation of the mechanics of art patronage across all the states of Australia, The research will provide a comprehensive

coverage of how and by whom the visual arts have been supported in Australia over the past 200 years - from the colonial period to the opening of the Australian National Gallery in Canberra in 1982. The final study will provide a

sound and useful basis for future Government decision making in this area.

r M G Gillies GRAINGER LETTERS 1914-61 33,323

ha University of Melbourne Percy Grainger was one of the leading Australian musicians and eccentric personalities of the early twentieth century. This project will result in a volume of correspondence,

from the years 1914-61, to complement the existing volume of earlier focus. In the proposed volume many of Grainger's highly individual ideas about piano playing, composition, the arts, war, race and sex will be revealed, through

letters mainly housed in the Grainger Museum, Melbourne. The volume will contain detailed annotations.

r M J Kartomi INDIGENOUS CLASSIFICATIONS OF MUSIC IN 15,000 JAMBI AND SOUTH SUMATRA

onash University The aims are to complete the first ethnographic study of the musics of two provinces of Sumatra, Indonesia: to develop a theoretical approach to the editing and interpreting of

indigenous classification schemes in a comparative cross-cultural framework; and processing and placing In the Monash University Music Archive field materials (tape-recorded music, videos, photographs and musical .

instruments) gathered. The outcome will be; (i) the publication of articles, records, a book and a catalogue of the tape-recorded musical items recorded; (ii) use of field materials in undergraduate and graduate courses on Asian Music at Monash University; and

(ill) the preparation of a teaching kit on Indonesian Music for use in the Non-Western Music course of the Victorian Certificate of Education.

II

Music and Fine Arts (Contd)

Assoc Prof E J Kerr DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALIAN ARTISTS, VOLUME ONE: NINETEENTH-CENTURY PAINTERS, PHOTOGRAPHERS AND ENGRAVERS

Sydney University From the amateur bush sketcher to the professional city painter, this project provides biographies and descriptions of the work of all known colonial artists in the above media

(already over 3000). With individual contributions from experts throughout the world and much additional material compiled from original sources, the dictionary will be an authoritative foundation for a full history of the visual arts of Australia.

Professor M Manion ART, WORSHIP AND THE BOOK IN MEDIEVAL Dr V Vines CULTURE

Ms C O'Brien

The University of Melbourne This integrated study of 4 types of liturgical and devotional illuminated manuscripts: missals, choirbooks, breviaries and Books of Hours, explores the dynamic relationship between artistic expression, public ritual and private devotion. It will advance our knowledge of the role of the book in Medieval Culture.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Dr A J Marett WONGGA SONGS OF NORTH EAST AUSTRALIA: AN ETHNOMUSICOLOGICAL STUDY

Sydney University Despite the centrality of song in Australian Aboriginal culture, ethnomusicology remains a comparatively neglected This studyearililthdmpAbeeiginal Studies. Aboriginal song-genre. the first comprehensive study of an

include: musical Aspects of wongga to be investigated song-text, dance and structure and its relationship to visual media; song composition and of music in ceremony; relationship of

land.

transmission, the role songs to people and

Assoc Prof J V Megaw EARLY CELTIC ART: A SUPPLEMENT TO PAUL JACOBSTHAL'S EARLY CELTIC ART (OUP, 1944)

Flinders University The late Paul Jacobsthal's Early Celtic Art (OUP, 1944) is recognised internationally as the key study of the nature and development of continental European pre-Roman Iron Age Celtic art. The present project will provide a revision of, and addition to, this study, which it is hoped will also become a standard text in the field.

Music and Fine Arts (Contd)

Dr J Morlet-Hardie THE ROMAN RITE IN SPAIN 1490-1550: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MUSIC FOR HOLY WEEK

N.S.W. Conservatorium Of Music This project is internationally regarded as a major initiative in renaissance musicology, and dovetails with similar projects being undertaken in the United States,

Eastern Europe and Canada. Its aims are twofold: 1) to locate and catalogue a working collection of Spanish liturgical sources; and 2) to work towards a "liturgico-musical map" of practice on the Iberian peninsula through a series of interpretative studies of the music for Holy week.

Professor Μ M Plant ART GUIDE TO PLACES IN AUSTRALIA Mr L Astbury

Monash University To establish a comprehensive (and ongoing) index to sites, places and regions treated in Australian art since the foundation of white settlement. To publish the material in

a full form that is cheap and accessible. To publish an edited, scholarly format as an Oxford Art Guide.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Dr K G Pont THE NOTATION OF BAROQUE MUSIC

University of N.S.W Despite the increasing popularity of baroque music (c.1600 - 1750), there exists no comprehensive guide to the notation and musical terminology of the period. The researcher proposes to develop a computer-based census of the elements

and basic combinations of baroque notation and terminology, to provide a more scientific foundation for the interpretation, performance, editing and evaluation of this great body of music and the multi-million dollar industry

based on it.

Dr T Radio A HISTORY OF MUSIC IN AUSTRALIA

EMPHASIS ON USE AS EMPIRE, NATIONALIST AND CLASS PROPAGANDA: ABORIGINAL, TRADITIONAL, POPULAR AND HIGH ART MUSIC

Monash University The only other scholarly history of music in Australia appeared 22 years ago. Performance, composition and research have since greatly expanded and altered shape. The value of music to national cultural and economic life has

risen markedly. A $1.5 billion a year industry has evolved, employing 60,000 (to the clothing and footwear manufacturing industry). With 22 years widening of the perspective, this project will supply scholars, teachers and

students, particularly in Australian Studies, with a much ... Cont/.

15,700

25,000

42,048

25,000

Music and Fine Arts (ContdJ

needed tool. Class focused, it will address previously unexamined economic, political and social issues related to music here.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Philosophy

Dr R M O'Donnell THE PHILOSOPHY OF JM KEYNES AND ITS RELATIONS TO HIS ECONOMICS AND POLITICS

Macquarie University The project is the first fundamental study of Keyne's philosophical writings and their influence on his economics and politics. Central to his thought is a general theory of rationality embracing stances in probability, ethics, epistemology, economics and politics. The expected outcomes are at least three further books and several journal papers.

The anticipated benefits are (i) deeper understanding of Keynes's intellectual framework, and (ii) contributions towards more rational economic and social policies.

Anthropology and Prehistory

Professor F J Allen THE SOUTHERN FORESTS ARCHAEOLOGICAL Ms N Stern PROJECT, TASMANIA

La Trobe University A 1988-89 ARC Pilot Project has demonstrated Pleistocene human sites in upland South Central Tasmania. Three sites occupied 30,000 years ago extend the known occupation of Tasmania by 8,000 years and emphasise the early spread of humans both into and through Australia. The spectacular degree of preservation in these sites designates them a rare cultural resource at a world level. The continued

investigation of this region is desirable on cultural grounds and necessary in order to make informed judgements on proposed 1 ^ging and other developments in the area.

Emer Prof R M Berndt AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL STUDIES, Dr C H Berndt FOCUSING ON MYTHOLOGY AND RITUAL, ORAL LITERATURE AND SONG-POETRY; TRADITIONAL AND CHANGING PERSPECTIVES

University of Western Australia The two applicants have amassed an immense amount of socio-cultural anthropological material during field research in Aboriginal Australia since 1939 (RMB) and 1941

(together). This is being written up in terms of topics for publication and for future generations of scholars. Most of it consists of unique information that is no longer ... Cont/.

Anthropology and Prehistory (Contd)

obtainable. It is vital to understanding changes taking place in contemporary Aboriginal life and thinking, as it is for the wider Australian society.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Professor S Bowdler PREHISTORIC RESOURCE UTILIZATION AND 10,430 ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AT SHARK BAY, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

University of Western Australia This project aims to investigate the prehistoric Aboriginal occupation of the Shark Bay region, W.A. The distribution of occupation sites, and the utilization and distribution of

specific types of stones needed for making stone artefacts will be studied. It appears that between 7000-4500 years ago there were extensive stands of mangroves here which were exploited by Aborigines. The effect on humans of the

disappearance of mangroves 4500 years ago will be investigated.

Professor G E Connah AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE 30,000 ORIGINS OF COMPLEX SOCIETIES IN SOUTHERN AND WESTERN UGANDA

University of New England This project aims to locate and investigate archaeological sites in southern and western Uganda, that are capable of throwing light on the origins of complex societies known to have existed by the nineteenth century A.D. Surface collection of cultural material and test excavation of

selected sites, together with a series of radiocarbon dates, will be used to identify the technological, economic and social developments that led to the emergence of these distinctive societies. The archaeological evidence obtained

by this research will also be examined in the context of the rich oral traditions of the area.

Dr I Davidson PREHISTORIC ABORIGINAL HERITAGE IN THE 15,645 SELWYN REGION, NORTHWEST QUEENSLAND

University of New England The project will: study the antiquity and nature of the colonisation of the arid zone, including the chronology of art traditions networks; contribute to growing international interest in the relations between fisher-gatherer-hunter technology and the market; contribute to understanding of the theory of relationships between archaeology and ethnohistory and between different aspects of material culture. Finally the project has immediate relevance in the production of predictive models for the interpretation of environmental impact statements and in developing public

awareness of the richness of Aboriginal heritage.

Anthropology and Prehistory (Contd)

Dr D Dragovich CHRONOLOGY OF ROCK COATINGS AND ABORIGINAL ROCK ENGRAVINGS IN THE BURRUP PENINSULA (PILBARA, WA)

Sydney University Chemically different coatings, present on rock surfaces and within some aboriginal rock engraving, may have different ages and could represent evidence for past environmental change. A relative chronology for rock coatings would also provide a chronology for the engravings. Absolute dating of coatings would contribute to understanding of temporal changes in both the physical environment and aboriginal occupance in the Pilbara.

Dr P P Gorecki VANIMO: AN INVESTIGATION OF Assoc Prof J B Campbell ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL Dr M C Mabin CHANGES ON THE NORTHERN COAST OF

GREATER AUSTRALIA

James Cook University of North Qld Most of the earliest human history of coastal Greater Australia in unknown, as evidence for this has been inundated by rising sea-levels. However, in some unique

sites uplift of the coast has outpaced sea-level rise, thus preserving this important archaeological data. Vanimo is such an uplifted area. It offers great potential to improve substantially our understanding of (1) the archaeology of coastal Greater Australia, (2) the geomorphology of the only uplifting margin of the Australian continental block, and

(3) the massive cultural changes and adaptations to the new and dynamic environment.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Dr H J Hall THE MORETON REGION ARCHAEOLOGICAL Mr P D Hiscock PROJECT (MRAP) STAGE II

Queensland University Initial archaeological investigations (MRAP Stage I) into the prehistory of the Moreton region of S.E. Queensland have yielded remains of past Aboriginal cultures stretching back

some 22000 years. Recent discoveries point to dramatic changes in the archaeological record during the past 2000 years which may well relate to a shift in the basic organization of Aboriginal society in this region from

simple hunter-gatherers to more specialized and complex fishers and plant-food processors. The proposed research will analyse numerous stone artefact collections in order to ascertain the exact nature of these changes with a view to understanding Aboriginal cultural development during the last two millennia.

Anthropology and Prehistory (Contd)

Assoc Prof N Kanawati EXCAVATIONS AT AKHMIN AND SAQQARA, 75,875 EGYPT

Macquarie University This project excavates and records two cemeteries of great importance during the Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period (approximately 2400 B.C. -2140 B.C.). Akhmim was the main administrative centre of Upper Egypt while Saqqara was

the cemetery of Memphis, the capital of Egypt. The aim is to study the administrative system of the period, the causes which led to the collapse of the Old Kingdom, and the unrest and civil war which ensued. The project also studies the

interaction between the capital, Memphis, and Akhmim as a provincial centre, particularly in the field of art and architecture. It also focuses on the religious importance of Akhmim as the cult centre of the fertility god Min, and

on the provincial manners and customs of the time.

Dr A Kondos CLASS AND CASTE IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR 25,075

Dr V Kondos OF NEPALS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

University of N.S.W -

This is an empirical research project which examines, by means of 'document research', 'interviewing' and 'participant observation', the intersection between class and caste within the Nepalese emerging industrial context. Whilst the project is a continuation of the chief

investigators' previous work in documenting the impact of industrialisation on the only extant Hindu Kingdom, it is also, the first time that the relationship between class and caste is being addressed through empirical research.

Dr M J Norwood THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF ABORIGINAL ART IN 18,500 SOUTHEAST CAPE YORK

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

University of New England The project is concerned with the archaeology of Aboriginal art in S.E. Cape York. It will be the first to use a multi-disciplined assessment of the natural and

environmental context of an Australian rock art body as a means of inferring its function and significance in prehistory. Assessment will include faunal and floral surveys, terrain unit analysis, archaeological surveys and

the analysis of a range of excavated material. Changes in rock art content and context will be related to site-specific, regional and Australian patterns of technological, economic and social change.

-

Anthropology and Prehistory (Contd)

Dr C Pardoe ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE DARLING HEADWATERS BURIAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND SKELETAL BIOLOGY IN NORTHERN NEW SOUTH WALES

Australian Institute Aboriginal Stud, Archaeology of the Darling Headwaters is a project that will examine burial archaeology and skeletal biology over the last few thousand years in northern NSW, The northern tributary system of the Darling River Basin has had little archaeological and no biological research. In this project

I will continue my interest in combining cultural and biological aspects of archaeology, The Darling Headwaters is crucial for understanding prehistory of the Southeast, including the River Murray, In a social context, this project has a great deal to offer in the role of archaeology

in southeastern Aboriginal Australia,

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Dr G B Samuel POLITICS & SOCIAL ORDER AMONG EASTERN TIBETANS; AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF VALUES AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE GESAR EPIC

Newcastle University This project is centred around anthropological fieldwork in Eastern Tibet in communities containing performers and composers of Tibetan epic poetry. The overall aims are to

investigate attitudes to authority and government within and outside epic poetry and to study contemporary forms of social and political organization in this region of the Chinese People's Republic,

Dr J R Specht SETTLEMENT HISTORY, RESOURCE USE AND Dr C H Gosden THE DEVELOPMENT OF PREHISTORIC SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS IN WEST NEW BRITAIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA

The Australian Museum This programme combines archaeology, vegetation history and the earth sciences to study the history of human settlement in West New Britain, Papua New Guinea, over 30,ODD years, It analyses social and environmental changes together with local and regional trading links in two adjacent areas. The results will provide a better understanding of the historical background of Australia's Pacific neighbours,

Anthropology and Prehistory fContd)

Dr Μ K Stivens MODERNITY AND THE MALAY MIDDLE CLASS: 17,000 FAMILY, WORK AND CLASS IN THE EMERGING MIDDLE CLASS OF MALAYSIA

The University of Melbourne The object of this project is to explore the relationship between family, work and class in the rapidly growing Malay middle class in contemporary Malaysia. The research is,

first, of theoretical significance, challenging many of the models of work and family in transition to modernity. It is, second, of practical importance, providing data on a highly significant development in the Australasian region,

the emergence of local middle classes as potent political and economic forces.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Dr P J Sutton THE CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN 31,347

CAPE YORK PENINSULA: AN ABORIGINAL KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM

S.A. Museum The applicant seeks relief from other duties in order to write a book that analyses the Aboriginal geography of western Cape York Peninsula. This is the culmination of major but interrupted research carried out between 1975 and

1986. Its chief significance lies in its unusual ethnographic depth, focus and detail, combined with its theoretical contribution to studies of relationships between Aboriginal society, landscape and the politics of culture.

The regional focus is of vital importance at the present time.

Dr J P White PREHISTORY AND ZOOGEOGRAPHY IN 28,400

Dr T Flannery NORTHERN NEW IRELAND

Sydney University Large-scale excavations will be made in Balof rockshelter, which contains a wide range of cultural materials (food bones, shells, stone and bone artefacts, pollen), deposited

during the last 14000 years. The modern mammal fauna, barely known previously, will be surveyed, The project will demonstrate that a) the Pacific islands were settled from this area, b) faunal and obsidian exchange systems have been

operating over long distances for more than 10000 years and provide the technological basis for this settlement. It will also help determine the biological relations of New Ireland animals ( and perhaps the contacts of its peoples),

and develop challenges to current theories of island biogeography.

Anthropology and Prehistory (Contd)

Dr N G White ARAFURA WETLANDS HUMAN ECOLOGY PROJECT TERRITORIALITY, SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS AND ECONOMY OF NORTHEAST ARNHEM LAND ABORIGINES.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

La Trobe University The proposed project is expected to help in our understanding of: (a) how social and local organization, demography and genetic differentiation, are influenced by culture and the natural environment:

(b) Aboriginal subsistence in a changing world. A major aim here is to extend our research into plant species of economic importance to Aborigines- as food, medicine and craft; species which may have wider economic and biological applications.

(c) the natural and cultural significance of the Arafura Wetlands.

Australian History

Dr E M Andrews ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN RELATIONS DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Newcastle University This amalgamates work on the press and public opinion, government and politicians, and economic and diplomatic relations between the two countries with case studies of Australian soldiers on the western front. Historians in the past have concentrated on their own speciality which has led

to distortion. This interdisciplinary study should throw new light on Australia in the war. A popular subject for the media, since 1988 is the 70th anniversary of the armistice, the time is right to perform this task.

Dr V N Burgmann A DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF AUSTRALIAN Dr A J Milner POLITICAL AND CULTURAL RADICALISM, 1880-1990

The University of Melbourne For the first time, this project will provide a substantial collection of documents and source material relating to the development of Australian political and cultural radicalism over the past 110 years, especially in the areas of socialism, feminism, radical nationalism, Aboriginal politics, and recent social movements such as the environmental, anti-nuclear and student movements. It will be published as a book that will be valuable both in itself and as a resource for teaching and further research.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Australian History (Contd)

Mr P Carter THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON THE

FORMATION OF AUSTRALIAN CULTURE 25,000

The University of Melbourne The significance of this project lies in its hypothesis that migration is the central condition of Australia's cultural formation. Developing a conceptual framework more

appropriate to our history, it aims to explore the creative, improvisational dimension of the migrant condition. It will enable us to understand our creative past better, as well as having clear aesthetic implications for current literary and

artistic practice.

Prof A Curthoys A HISTORY OF THE :FREEDOM RIDE" OF 30,000

1965

University of Technology Sydney The "Freedom Ride" of 1965 was a key event in the history of the relations between Aboriginal and other Australians, especially in New South Wales, but also nationally. The publications from this investigation will provide a basis

for a clearer understanding of the historical processes through which a strong Aboriginal political movement emerged in the 1960s and thereafter. They should also aid understanding of the nature of the reasons for changes in community attitudes and government policies and practices

relating to Aboriginal people.

Dr R P Davis CRITICAL EDITING AND SURVEY OF PRIMARY 37,207 Dr R G Ely AND SECONDARY MATERIALS RELATION TO

Mr G P Chapman TASMANIAN HISTORY

University of Tasmania The project aims to produce (i) annotated guides to all materials relating to Tasmanian history; (ii) the initial edition of W. S. O'Brien's Tasmanian journal, and a register

of all Irish convicts transported to Tasmania; and (iii) edited transcripts of official despatches between Hobart and London (and return), after 1828. Each sub-project should be of vast assistance to future research as well as being of

integral scholarly value.

Professor A D Gilbert AN ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIAL COMPOSITION 20,000 Dr R G Prior AND BATTLE EXPERIENCE OF THE AIF

Dr J G Grey 1914-1918

University of N.S.W This project has been proceeding with ARCS/ARC support since early 1987. The vast statistical records of the 1914-18 Australian Imperial Force (AIF) encompassing all 331,000 men who served abroad in the Great War, constitute one of the

... Cont/.

i

Australian History (Contd)

most comprehensive and potentially revealing bodies of social statistics available on any aspect of Australian history. The records are too extensive to permit global statistical analysis except via computer processing. This project thus seeks to make extremely important historical evidence accessible in the form of a computer database, as well as to begin the task of analysis.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Dr P A Grimshaw HISTORICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF POOR AND Dr M Lake WORKING CLASS RURAL & URBAN AUSTRALIAN

Dr M Aveling WOMEN OF EUROPEAN AND ABORIGINAL ORIGIN 1850 TO 1950

The University of Melbourne The project has as its goal the writing of a detailed, comprehensive history over a hundred years of poor and working-class Aboriginal and white Australian women. It will explore similarities and differences in these women's

lives created by the contexts of city and country, of domestic and paid labour, of religious and racial identity. This study will offer a critique of gender, class and race relevant to modern Australian society and its public policy priorities.

Professor S C Hill HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGY- CULTURE RELATIONSHIPS IN AUSTRALIA

Wollongong University This project will establish the cultural/economic context of core technological changes in Australia's history, the conditions of constraint and encouragement of local

innovativeness, and subsequent cultural impact of change. Major theoretical outcomes are expected on the general relations between culture and technology (when integrated with the Chief Investigator's 'contemporary' studies).

Results will therefore be significant as a basis for policy and management concerning technology productive cultures.

Dr J B Hirst ARGUS INDEX PROJECT

La Trobe University The Argus Index Project is creating an index to the ARGUS, the leading quality newspaper in Victoria, from 1859-1909 . For the years 1846-1858 and 1910 to 1949 indexes already exist. Once the index is complete, scholars will have immediate access to what will always be a central source for Australian history and they will have less need for research

assistants. By providing dates of occurrences, the index will also guide scholars to material in other newspapers. At present there is no major Australian newspaper with a continuous index.

Australian History (Contd)

ysoc Prof R Howe AN HISTORICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE 15,645 )r s L Swain TREATMENT OF SINGLE MOTHERS AND THEIR ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN IN VICTORIA

Deakin University A study of single mothers and their children is relevant to social administration. Most children dealt with by the state's welfare departments were illegitimate as were the majority of children in other agencies and institutions. A

study of the history of illegitimacy will contribute to an understanding of the development of child welfare administration in the public and private sectors.

Dr S F Macintyre CONSTRUCTING A NATIONAL PAST 27,163

A STUDY OF HISTORICAL SCHOLARSHIP AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEFINITION OF AUSTRALIAN NATIONHOOD

The University of Melbourne This project is concerned with how Australians established a national historical tradition, and how they drew on this past to define Australian nationhood. It concentrates on the seminal historians of the nineteenth century and early Commonwealth period, and situates their concerns within a broader cultural context. An exploration of the processes

that turned experience and memory into statements of national identity can inform contemporary debates.

Dr J Mccalman "COLLEGE PEOPLE": A SOCIAL HISTORY OF 16,000 THE MELBOURNE MIDDLE CLASS, 1914-1980

The University of Melbourne The project is to be a book of c. 120,000 words titled "College People: A Social History of the Melbourne Middle Class, 1914-1980" . The book will break new ground - both in

subject-matter and in methodology. It will do something to fill an astonishing gap in our knowledge of ourselves.

‘Dr J A Moses BEARERS OF KULTUR: GERMAN CULTURAL 20,000

MAINTENANCE POLICY (DEUTSCHTUMSPOLITIK) IN AUSTRALIA 1890 TO 1939/45

Queensland University As an exercise contributing to the better understanding of Australian national self-perception it is necessary to investigate the reception and treatment of the German

settlers/migrants 1890-1939. This is because they were perceived as representatives of a dangerous rival empire which since the German naval build-up from 1900 posed an existential threat to Britain as the protective power for Australia. The German government did pursue a policy of

cultural maintenance among the German-Australians and this ... Cont/.

3R0UP - Humanities (Contd)

Australian Bistory (Contd)

served to heighten Australian fears and led to the rigorous internment policy in both World Wars.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Mrs A V Moyal REV. WILLIAM BRANWHITE CLARKE: A SCIENTIFIC BIOGRAPHY AND SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE

Private - Moyal The Reverend W.B. Clarke FRS (1798-1878) looms significantly in Australia as a founder of geology, a major geological and paleontological researcher, and a central figure and scientific communicator for 40 years. The W.B. Clarke Papers, deposited in the Mitchell Library, form a rich storehouse of letters and materials that touch the life of the Colonial scientific community from his arrival in 1839 until his death and forge important links with major scientists in Britain, Europe and America. His place as a founder, a gold discoverer and surveyor, a scientific leader and populariser is widely recognised by geologists and historians of science. A critical and evaluative scientific biography of this complex and interesting man will form an

important study in the history of Australian science. A volume of his scientific correspondence will furnish a fertile source book for researchers.

Dr T M Perry A HISTORY OF AUSTRALIAN CARTOGRAPHY C.1780 TO 1830

The University of Melbourne Very few studies have been made of the maps made by, and used by, Australia's discoverers and explorers, although publication in map form was an important part of the dissemination of knowledge about the continent. The compilation of a history of Australian cartography (with a catalogue of maps published in books to supplement existing catalogues of sheet maps) will enable a more reliable

interpretation to be made of the early exploration and settlement of Australia.

Assoc Prof R Pesman A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLISHED AUSTRALIAN Dr D Walker ACCOUNTS OF OVERSEAS TRAVEL, ANNOTATED Mr R White WITHNOTES ON INDIVIDUAL TRAVELLERS, THEIR ITINERARIES AND PERSPECTIVES

Sydney University The annotated bibliography would meet four specific needs: establishing the hitherto neglected genre of Australian travel literature; providing a resource for Australian cultural history and tourism studies; offering a stimulus to overseas programmes of Australian Studies; and promoting Australia's cultural profile.

Australian History (Contd)

I Dr S Piggin AUSTRALIAN EVANGELICALISM: A BICENTENNIAL HISTORY

Wollongong University- Evangelical religion is a constituent of Australian character and 'habits of the heart'. A survey history of this movement will explore the involvement of evangelical Christians in missions and evangelism, politics and social concern, including aborigines and the women's movement, culture, literature and national character. The projected book will synthesise a large body of recent research, meet a

need for a general history of Australian Protestantism, and suggest hypothesis and new directions for future research.

Dr T Sheridan INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN THE MENZIES YEARS, 1950-1965

Adelaide University The prosperous but polemic Menzies years are of the greatest importance to the development of Australian industrial relations. They established the basic format of the

national arbitration system which operates even after Hawke's 1988 'reforms'. They represented the longest single period in which penal sanctions have been applied to restrain unions. They witnessed the single biggest split in

the industrial labour movement. They saw the emergence of } tripartite 'corporatism' at the federal level.

3R0UP - Humanities (Contd)

Dr W Vamplew VIOLENCE IN AUSTRALIAN SPORT: AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Flinders University This project will provide an historical dimension to the current concern about sports violence on and off Australia's playing fields. It will assess whether Australian sport

today is more violent than in earlier times and will suggest possible means to combat the problem.

British and European History

Ms B Caine THE WOMAN QUESTION IN ENGLAND

1880-1945

Sydney University The changing situation of women in England in the late 19th and early 20th centuries has obvious relevance for Australian women at that time and now. By attempting to

show the discrepancies between images of women and literary debates about them on the one hand, and their actual situation on the other, this project will explore the

complex range of problems which accompanies any change in ... Cont/.

British and European History (Contd)

the situation of women.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Assoc Prof P Jalland A BOOK ON DEATH, GRIEF AND MOURNING IN THE VICTORIAN FAMILY, 1840 TO 1920

Murdoch University The aim is to research and write a book on 'Death, Grief and Mourning in the Victorian Family from 1840 to 1920', based on over sixty family manuscript collections. It analyses

the role of the family in coming to terms with death and dying, the therapeutic value of religious beliefs and mourning rituals in mitigating grief, and explains the changes in responses and rituals in the early twentieth

century. This book will increase our understanding of death, grief and mourning in society today, by providing a historical context of relevance for Australia as well as Britain, given the substantial influence of our Victorian

ancestors.

Professor E M Johnston THE NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE IRISH PARLIAMENT IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

Macquarie University The contribution made to Australia's early government, the establishment of her legal and educational system, of her public libraries, the planning of her cities and the

formation of her society by the men whose ancestors sat in the Irish parliament has long been overlooked. This study will broaden and deepen our knowledge of Australian society today. At the same time the project is an international one, analysing problems of providing social infra-structure

in an underdeveloped country, coping with racially divided societies, terrorism and social alienation. It is of particular relevance to all governments established on the 'Westminster model', particularly on issues such as the

development of nationalism and the adjustment of the system to meet local requirements.

Professor R M Macleod NATURAL SCIENCE AND LIBERAL EDUCATION IN VICTORIAN CAMBRIDGE

Sydney University Specialisation and professionalisation, in teaching and research, are hallmarks of the modern university system. In the last century and a half, academic life has been profoundly affected by the advent of new subjects, and by

factors arising outside the universities themselves. Traditional values have been threatened or overtaken and new values accommodated. This study examines the impact of the natural sciences, and the consequent pressure for government

intervention, on the concept and practice of liberal ... Cont/.

British and European History (Contd)

education in Britain. It explores in particular the choices taken by Cambridge - and, by implication, universities influenced by Oxbridge models - in opening to the demands of the community and the influence of the State. The issues have not lost their relevance for our time, or for

Australia.

’ rofessor W D Rubinstein COMPILATION OF BIOGRAPHICAL REGISTER 25,000 OF BRITISH WEALTH-HOLDERS, 1809-1899, COMPLETION OF

leakin University This project aims to compile a biographical register of all persons leaving 100,000 or more in Britain between 1809 (when the records begin) and 1899, based upon the British probate records. Three years of work have successfully been

done, and the project is proceeding successfully but is not yet completed. Britain's economic elite of the last century, including the Australian links of its major entrepreneurs, will be charted in far greater detail than

ever before.

; rOUP - Humanities (Contd)

Asian and Pacific History

)r P L Burns MARITIME AND CERAMIC ARCHAEOLOGY 141,635

ir J Green IN ASIA

!r J S Guy

Adelaide University Dr D J Munro ASPECTS OF LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE 11,473

PACIFIC

Bond University In tracing the course of labour migration from the Gilbert Islands through its various stages, this project addresses a recurring theme in Pacific history. The migration of Gilbertese for overseas work had a distinctive character, and so our findings should modify existing interpretations of the Pacific labour trade, which are based on examples

from a particular area (Melanesia). Our concern with comparative perspectives should offer a wider view on the integrated nature of the labour trade in the Pacific generally.

Aslan and Pacific History (Contd)

Dr B J Terwiel MAINLAND SOUTHEAST ASIAN Dr A V Diller CALENDRICAL SYSTEMS

Dr J C Bade

Australian National University- Over fifteen dating systems were used by mainland Southeast Asian peoples before Western contact, and several remain in current use. The project will analyse their structures and

interrelations through establishing computerized correlations. Several systems incorporate complex astronomical data. After interpretation, this will lead to

firm dating. Results will enable more accurate chronologies for indigenous historical materials and also will lead to a better understanding of how time has been culturally organized by Southeast Asian peoples.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Other Fields of History

Dr C M Hall THE SIGNIFICANCE OF J MUIR'S TRAVELS

IN AUSTRALASIA 1903-1904: AN EXAMINAT­ ION OF THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSERVATIVE THOUGHT.

Northern Rivers CAE Dr P R Proudfoot SYMBOLISM AND AXIALITY IN CANBERRA'S ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING

University of N.S.W In Canberra, Walter Burley Griffin realised an axial plan akin to the Cardo/Decumanus of ancient Rome. The new Parliament House, by Romaldo Giurgola, responds both to this axiality and to the genius loci of Rome. Griffin, a Theosophist, made the sign of the cross over Canberra emulating Constantine in Rome. The writing of a comprehensive history of the design and construction of the Parliament House may align Canberra with the most powerful symbols of Western culture.

Dr L L Robson A HISTORY OF THE VARIETIES OF OFFICIAL Dr D Merwick HISTORY

Dr A Gilmour-Bryson

The University of Melbourne The analysis of official histories or the way in which dominant groups within Society attempt to present or influence the presentation of their history is extremely revealing of both the nature of that society in general and of the relationship between the officials and articulate

individuals within that particular society. This study of a number of different examples offers an extremely broad basis for comparison.

Other Fields of History (Contd)

I&SSOC Prof G W Trompf A HISTORY AND ANALYSIS OF MODERN 18,500 WESTERN THEORY CONCERNING CYCLES AND RECURRENT PATTERNS IN THE HUMAN PAST

Sydney University Why are human institutions subject to fluctuation, decay, or recurrent patterns of change? How can social equilibrium or regenerative human activity be maintained at length? These

are among the most significant questions facing political societies and all forms of collective human life. This project considers how these questions have been addressed over the last four centuries, in preparation for offering

answers in the twenty-first century.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Dr S G Wheatcroft THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SOVIET HISTORY 15,000 IN THE USSR

The University of Melbourne The object of this project is firstly to comprehend and describe the way in which Soviet Society is learning to face up to its own history and is gaining confidence in challenging the dogma of the past. The second object is more complex, and that is to begin the process of analysing

and explaining the reasons behind these developments and to consider their significance.

Education/Humanities

Dr A F Ashman A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF STUDENTS WITH 27,415

Professor J Elkins LEARNING DIFFICULTIES Dr C Van Kraauenoord

Dueensland University Over three years the study will examine the relationship between cognitive, social-emotional factors and the academic achievement of students with learning difficulties in

remedial and regular classrooms. This study will be the first Australian study to evaluate the effectiveness of selection and placement procedures for children considered to be educationally 'at risk'. The aim of the project is to establish a methodological foundation for a major

longitudinal study of the value and effectiveness of remedial education.

1

Education/Humanities (Contd)

Professor B J Fraser IDENTIFYING FACTORS LINKED WITH SCHOOL SCIENCE ACHIEVEMENT THROUGH SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL DATA BASE

Curtin University of Technology Currently in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve student achievement and attitudes in school science, especially among girls. In order that change attempts might be guided by high-quality research information,

"secondary analyses" would be conducted using data from the $5 million Second International Science Study (SISS), whose Australian data consists of a stratified random sample of over 12,000 10-year-olds, 14-year-olds and Year 12 students.

Based on the Chief Investigator's prior work on "educational productivity", factors linked with school science achievements and attitudes would be identified and separate implications would be drawn for boys and girls about how to improve out-comes by optimizing factors empirically linked with learning.

Professor S Kemmis EDUCATIONAL REFORM IN AUSTRALIA, 1972­ 1988

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Deakin University This study investigates the history, nature and impact of recent major initiatives in educational reform in Australia. It analyses relations between changing economic, social and cultural conditions, the policies and practices of education agencies, and the concerns of a variety of local and special

interest groups. The analysis has direct implications for education reform practice, theory and policy, and for the achievement of national social and economic objectives through education.

Dr I Moses STAFF CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTITUDES TO Dr P Ramsden TEACHING AND RESEARCH IN UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGE ENVIRONMENTS

University of Technology Sydney Research and teaching are the main functions of university academic staff. In colleges, once regarded as teaching institutions, research is increasingly common and becoming mandatory. In universities academics have been selected on

the strength of their research performance; colleges still have many staff who were selected on their professional experience. This study will help to show the relationship between staff's actual work and (a) their background and

aspirations, and (b) departmental and institutional expectations of academic staff. Results of this study will be available to institutions for use in their endeavours to create a work environment in which creative teaching,

scholarship and research can flourish.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Education/Humanities (Contd)

(Dr A Rotem ENHANCING THE CLINICAL LEARNING 21,173

Ms G D Hart ENVIRONMENT FOR RECENT NURSE GRADUATES

University of N.S.W The project will provide information about the organizational climate and learning environment of clinical settings as experienced by recent nurse graduates. It will offer new graduates the support of a peer learning group, the opportunity to analyse professional practice and review

their role within a specific clinical area. It offers a model for the provision of continuing education that focuses on immediate experience and activates the learner. It will suggest strategies for improving the recruitment and

retention of registered nurses, facilitating the transfer from college studies to clinical practice and increasing the job satisfaction of recent nurse graduates.

Assoc Prof G E Sherington YOUTH POLICY IN AUSTRALIA SINCE THE 35,000 Assoc Prof T H Irving SECOND WORLD WAR Dr D Maunders

Sydney University This project provides explanations for the growing importance of youth policy for Commonwealth and State governments, for voluntary youth organisations and for young people. It traces the changing directions of policy in the

light of the interaction of these three spheres since World War II, the effects of growing government intervention, the constraints of different bureaucratic arrangements and the impact of the changing social construction of youth.

Law

0

Assoc Prof T Carney LIMITS OF THE LAW IN ADDRESSING 17,246

SOCIAL ISSUES

Monash University Recently law has occupied a large place in new areas such as health, child welfare, drugs and the needs of intellectually disadvantaged people. Different States adopt different

approaches when enacting laws to shape programmes, or in establishing tribunals to protect individual rights. This project compares and evaluates legislative styles to determine the limits and the best form of laws, by reference to benchmarks such as economic cost, ethical standards, and

administrative efficiency.

.

I

j

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Law (Contd)

Professor S D Clark FRANCHISE AGREEMENTS FOR MAJOR 20,000 Prof B M Crommelin AUSTRALIAN JOINT VENTURE DEVELOPMENTS

The University of Melbourne Major development projects are often established by special agreements between developers and governments and ratified by special Acts creating rights and duties very different

from the general law. By revealing and analysing these differences and fundamental problems with the status and enforceability of franchise agreements the project will create guidelines for their future use by policy makers, governments and developers.

Mr R J Fowler PASTORALISM: LAND TENURE AND THE 25,000

PASTORAL INDUSTRY IN AUSTRALIA

Adelaide University This project examines recent debate and reforms in relation to pastoral land tenure and traces the evolution of such tenures from temporary licences to their present form. It also investigates who owns pastoral lands and evaluates the economic costs and benefits of pastoralism as an industry.

Its findings are highly relevant to ongoing policy debate concerning the appropriateness of entrenching pastoralism as a land-use through the land tenure system.

Prof M Neave THE ADEQUACY OF LUMP SUMS AWARDED AS 18,000

COMMON LAW DAMAGES FOR MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS

Adelaide University In all Australian States the escalating costs of liability insurance are forcing re-examination of compensation systems, but reform proposals are criticized because they do not provide "full restitution". This study examines whether common law damages achieve this aim including the extent to which injured people "double dip" by reliance on social

security and other forms of welfare.

Mr G C Rowe THE LEGAL STATUS OF EXISTING TOXIC AND 17,276

HAZARDOUS WASTE DUMPS AND OTHER DISPOSAL SITES IN AUSTRALIA

University of N.S.W Like most industrialised countries, Australia has a large number of sites where, over a century or more, toxic and hazardous wastes have been dumped or otherwise disposed of.

Many of these sites continue to contain such substances. They pose very substantial health and environmental risks with serious economic significance. The lines of legal responsibility for damage caused and preventive measures of

removal and containment and of relocation of affected ... Cont/.

1

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

law (Contd)

populations are not clear, or inadequate. These must be determined and reformed to minimise the potential risks and costs associated with these sites.

Dr C A Saunders INVESTIGATION, EVALUATION AND REFORM 25,000 OF THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE POWER

The University of Melbourne The Australian constitutional system assumes that the Executive is responsible to Parliament. There are important circumstances, however, in which the Executive acts without parliamentary authority. This project will examine the present scope and significance of executive action and its

consistency with the theories and practice of modern parliamentary government. It will propose changes to the scope of executive power or to the way in which Parliament monitors executive action.

Dr R Tomasic LEGAL CONTROL AND OWNERSHIP IN AUST 17,000

Mr B D Pentony LISTED PUBLIC COMPANIES: FIDUCIARY Mr S Bottomley OBLIGATION IN CORPORATE MANAGEMENT

Canberra College Of Advanced Education The responsibility of the corporation and of its officers is a matter of substantial contemporary concern in Australia. Little systematic research has been undertaken here into the

relationship between the legal obligations of corporate officers and how these operate in practice. This empirical study seeks to provide a national perspective on this phenomenon and to examine the impact of fiduciary obligations upon the conduct of senior corporate management

in a sample of Australian listed public companies.

Mr J M Waincymer GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION OF TRADE: 15,000 EFFECTIVENESS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROCESSES IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER

Monash University This project examines and contrasts the dispute settlement processes under the GATT and under domestic GATT inspired anti-dumping and countervailing legislation. The aims are to identify the conceptual underpinnings of the system; the nature and legitimacy of various attitudes of different countries; to consider the adequacy of the procedural rules

at the international level; examine alternate models from domestic and international fora, and ultimately to test the hypothesis of whether smaller countries like Australia can expect meaningful protection against breaches of trade rules by major trading blocks, through international rule-based

... Cont/.

Law (ContdJ

systems and dispute settlement process.

Dr C R Williams EVIDENCE- A DEFINITIVE TEXTBOOK OF THE AUSTRALIAN LAW OF EVIDENCE

Monash University Although the Law of Evidence is of crucial importance to all practitioners and students of the law, there does not presently exist an Australian text on the subject. The need

for such a treatise is made compelling by the fact that the Law of Evidence in this country is incredibly complex, each State and Territory having its own variations on almost every point. It is proposed to write a definitive Australian treatise stating, analysing and critically

evaluating all the existing Australian caselaw and statutory material.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Political Science

Dr G J Gill THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET

UNION AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR CHANGE IN SOVIET SOCIETY

Sydney University The aim of this project is to investigate the adequacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as an instrument for bringing about change in the post-Stalin USSR. It will

focus on the internal structure and processes of the party, and particularly the relationship between national and lower level leaders. As well as contributing to our theoretical understanding of single parties and the reform process, it will assist our understanding of current changes in the USSR. These are of great relevance for the immediate

future.

Assoc Prof B W Head POWER AND PUBLIC POLICY IN BRISBANE Dr G C Davis Professor P M Weller

Griffith University This project examines the policy dynamics and distribution of power in the Brisbane region - the first major Australian study of 'community power' structures. Selected policy areas are studies across all three levels of government responsibility - city, state and Federal - to identify patterns of co-operation and conflict, and to evaluate the efficiency of policy outcomes in a multi-layered public policy environment. The project will proceed via linked case-studies of government/business relations and intergovernmental relations in key fields, leading to conclusions about patterns of power and about which level of government seems most effective in specific areas of regulation or service delivery.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

Political Science (ContdJ

Mr J H Miller ELECTRONIC DATA-BASE ON SOVIET 18,774

POLITICAL ELITE

La Trobe University The project is to store on computer a large body of career information on contemporary Soviet politicians and bureaucrats. Electronic storage will facilitate rapid

answers to questions on Soviet personnel policies and practices and on political alliances, of use to our understanding of communist government, of current developments in the USSR, and to policy making.

Dr M J Painter FEDERALISM AND PUBLIC POLICY MAKING IN 15,645 AUSTRALIA

Sydney University Federalism embodies overlapping jurisdictions and centres of competing power. Some argue this inhibits effective policy making and produces undesirable distortions in outcomes.

Others argue it promotes diversity and facilitates political access for a multiplicity of groups. What have been the consequences of federalism for policy-making in Australia? Has federalism helped or hindered governmental responsiveness and effective policy in sectors of government

activity that impact on national development and the public welfare?

Dr F C Teiwes FACTIONALISM IN CHINESE ELITE 36,980

POLITICS SINCE MAO

Sydney University The project examines the nature and extent of factionalism in Chinese elite politics in the Maoist and post-Mao periods. It assesses the significance of 'factional' considerations in relation to bureaucratic and policy

tendency influences in determining political outcomes in China. Several publications analysing specific instances of factional politics and hypothesizing comprehensive patterns are anticipated. These will contribute to a better understanding of the political process in one of Australia's most significant regional partners.

GROUP - Humanities (Contd)

International Relations

Dr J R Angel Professor D M Schreuder Dr J Y Wong

AUSTRALIA AND THE THIRD WORLD THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, AFRICA AND AUSTRALIA IN CRITICAL, HISTORICAL AND POLICY PERSPECTIVE

Sydney University Since the publication of the Harries Report (1979) on Australia's relations with the Third World, the importance of those regions - especially the Asia-Pacific region - has become ever more important to Australian development and world standing. This project will make a critical

reappraisal of that set of vital relationships over the formative decade since 1945. The aim is to provide a study of value to both the Australian government, business and society.

This research analyses patterns of Japan's leadership on international issues. It identifies and analyses patterns of foreign policy leadership, and focuses especially on Japan's actions in foreign aid. It is significant because

it seeks to reveal more about Japan's capacity to adopt leadership roles. The project will also critically assess Japan's so-called international "low profile", and the capacity of the Japanese system to define (and not just

follow) international policy agendas.

Professor A G Rix JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLICY LEADERSHIP

Queensland University

Theoretical Physics

Dr A J Bracken REPRESENTATION THEORY OF SIMPLE LIE 37,101

Dr M D Gould SUPERALGEBRAS: STRUCTURE OF TENSOR OPERATORS, WITH APPLICATIONS TO SUPERSYMMETRY IN PHYSICAL SYSTEMS

Queensland University Superalgebras underlie the versatile new concept of supersymmetry already appearing in nuclear, particle and condensed matter physics (e.g. superconductivity). It is therefore important that Australia be involved in their development. The project aims to build up supertensor operator techniques and those related aspects of

superalgebras representation theory especially suited for physical applications.

Professor R Delbourgo GRASSMANN VARIABLES AND UNIFIED MODELS 35,000 Dr P D Jarvis

University of Tasmania Gauge theories have in recent years become the paradigm for describing elementary particle physics; however the current description has too many adjustable parameters. The project

aims to exploit the fact that schemes with extra grossmannian coordinates entail only finitely many degrees of freedom and severely constrain the number of particles and their interactions. In this way it should be possible

to identify realistic force unification models.

GROUP - Physical Sciences

Professor D Elliott APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR SINGULAR 40,452 Dr D F Paget INTEGRAL EQUATIONS

University of Tasmania Singular integral equations, by which we mean those possessing either a Cauchy principal value or Hadamard finite part integral, are of fundamental importance in

subjects such as hydrodynamics, aerodynamics, fracture mechanics and elasticity to mention but a few. During this project we propose to develop further, both algorithms for i their approximate solution and the analysis of these

algorithms. Such work should be of great importance to applied scientists and engineers.

Dr C J Hamer EXPANSION METHODS IN FIELD THEORY AND 35,829

Assoc Prof J Oitmaa STATISTICAL MECHANICS

University of N.S.W Lattice models are useful for many physical systems, ranging from magnets to quarks inside a proton. We aim to analyse such systems using refined series expansion methods. Thus we can study the structure of fundamental particles such as

the proton, and predict the properties of the new exotic particles known as "glueballs".

Theoretical Physics (Contd)

Dr P D Jarvis Dr M D Gould

University of Tasmania A common theme in recent developments in particle physics (string theory), statistical mechanics (two-dimensional critical systems) and nonlinear differential equations is the role played by certain underlying infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and superalgebras. The project will develop aspects of the structure and representation theory of the latter using hitherto unstudied characteristic identities,

in order to refine and extend their physical applications.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

INFINITE-DIMENSIONAL ALGEBRAS AND FIELD THEORY APPLICATIONS

Dr G C Joshi STUDIES IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

The University of Melbourne Unification of the laws of nature help us to understand the creation of the Universe. Standard model of the structure of elementary particles is the first step toward this Unification. This model predicts that at the scale of 1 TeV

- new phenomenon must exist. In this project we attempt to investigate these phenomena and also study a mathematical framework of strings in which all laws of nature may be unified.

Dr G C Joshi EXOTIC GENERATIONS

The University of Melbourne Unification of the laws of nature help us to understand the creation of the Universe. Standard Model of the structure of elementary particles is the first step towards this unification. In this project we attempt to investigate the extension of the Standard Model.

Assoc Prof B G Kenny UNIVERSAL PROPERTIES OF ROUTES TO CHAOS THROUGH A STUDY OF TWO DIMENSIONAL MAPS

University of Western Australia In the physical world, non-linear phenomena are the rule rather that the exception. Despite this, to a large extent, such systems have been ignored by physics and mathematics because they are not solvable by traditional mathematical techniques. With the advent of inexpensive high speed computers, there has been an increasing tendency to

investigate such phenomena using simple model, such as non-linear maps in one dimension. Such models exhibit quite complex behaviour which mimic the transition to turbulence in certain fluid flows, both quantitatively and qualitatively. This project will focus on two dimensional maps which are expected to throw light on the transition to chaos in still more complex physical systems.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Theoretical Physics (ContdJ

Dr A W Lun THE INVESTIGATIONS IN GENERAL

Dr C B McIntosh RELATIVITY

Monash University The aim of the project is twofold. One part is to develop and implement computer algebra programs to aid in the finding of exact real solutions of Einstein's equations by

finding real slices of exact complex solutions. Work in this area extends to perturbation of exact solutions. The other part is to investigate analytic techniques in solving Einstein's equations and in interpreting solutions to examine gravitational radiating solutions from bounded

sources, such as stars. This is also relevant to the general theory of non linear partial differential equations which arise in other areas.

iProfessor B H McKellar STRUCTURE AND INTERACTIONS OF HADRONS AND LEPTONS

The University of Melbourne One question that people have asked for at least 2000 years is "what is the ultimate structure of matter". Our present view is that matter is made of quarks and leptons. I propose to study in more detail the way in which the quarks

interact to produce protons, neutrons and atomic nuclei, and the weak interactions between these particles. The weak interactions revealed the existence of very massive particles, which were until recently beyond the reach of our accelerators. The fine details of the weak interactions can be used to expose, or limit the properties of even more massive particles that can be produced directly only by the

next generation of accelerators.

Dr G J Milburn FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS TO OPTICAL COMPUTERS

Queensland University This project aims to find the fundamental physical limitations to optical computing machines with regard to accuracy, speed and energy consumption. As similar studies of mechanical machines in the nineteenth century had

implications both fundamental (development of thermodynamics) and practical (design of efficient engines) so should this project contribute to our knowledge of information processing in general and the design of optical computers.

42,000

126,000

15,000

Theoretical Physics (Contd)

Dr P A Pearce EXACTLY SOLVABLE LATTICE MODELS 50,

Dr A J Guttmann Professor C J Thompson

The University of Melbourne The project aims to elucidate the mathematical structure of exactly solvable models using inversion identities and ideas of conformal invariance. Related hard-core models with competing interactions showing modulated structures and various self-avoiding walk models will also be studied using

a variety of exact, numerical and analytical techniques.

Dr R J Protheroe HIGH ENERGY RADIATION FROM ASTROPHYSIC 72, AL SOURCES & SIMULATIONS FOR GAMMA-RAY & NEUTRINO ASTRONOMY

Adelaide University New developments in telescopes for detecting high energy gamma-ray and neutrino emission from astrophysical sources mean that in the next few years compact objects such as X-ray stars and active galaxies will be observed in many different energy ranges. The emission processes involved will be studied to help understand how the objects function

and simulations will be made of the response of ground-based and underground detectors to help in the design of experiments and interpretation of data.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Dr C M Savage QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS 16,

OPTICAL CAVITIES

Australian National University The interaction between light and matter is an important subject in both pure and applied physics. It encompasses some of the most stringent tests of the fundamental ideas of quantum mechanics, and it is the basis for optical communications and optical computers. This project will study this interaction when the matter is a single atom and the light is a single photon. The interaction is enhanced by trapping the light between the mirrors of an optical cavity. The study of such a simple system promises to deepen our understanding of the nature, utility and limitations of interacting light and matter.

Assoc Prof P V Smith THE APPLICATION OF SEMI-EMPIRICAL 35,82 TECHNIQUES TO THE DETERMINATION OF THE SURFACE RELAXATION AND/OR RECONSTRUCT­ ION OF METALS AND COVALENT SOLIDS

Newcastle University Many of the important properties of materials are determined by their surface characteristics. As a result, this project is directed towards developing semi-empirical techniques

... Cont/.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Theoretical Physics (Contd)

incorporating total energy algorithms which can serve as reliable determinants of the surface electronic structures and topologies of metals and covalent solids. The successful development of such semi-empirical schemes would enable the treatment of more complex systems than is

currently possible with existing techniques.

Acoustics and Optics

REFLECTION AND PROPAGATION OF 10,000 IMPULSE NOISE

Dr C G Don Dr A J Cramond

Chisholm Institute of Technology Sound levels are markedly altered be wind and temperature gradients as well as the type of ground between the source and receiver, and often predicted values are grossly in error. This study uses short duration acoustic impulses to

investigate the interaction of these variables, with the aim of improving the theoretical models. The way rainwater alters the impedance of soils, and hence the sound levels,

and shielding by finite barriers, such as garden fences, is also being investigated.

Dr C J Hearn Dr J R Hunter Dr B G Hatcher

NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CIRCULATION IN CORAL REEF LAGOONS: 3-D APPROACHES AND THEIR APPLICABILITY TO FLUXES OF ECOLOGICALLY SIGNIFICANT MATERIALS

Curtin

1

I

University of Technology Australian expertise in numerical modelling is utilised to predict the movements and exchanges of water, and the biological materials it carries, in a commercially important

group of coral reefs. Recent advances in computer capabilities to allow the development of models which will contribute directly, and cost-effectively, to the management

of high-yield fisheries and marine pollutants in the Houtman Abrolhos reefs of W.A. In contrast to most coral reefs, the Abrolhos support intensive fisheries ($30 million export earnings per year). The reasons are unknown, yet research

investment is only 0.31 per $ earned.

Professor H Hora

1 1University of N.S.W Electric double layers (DL's) were treated very exceptionally only since 1929 in plasmas because they were (wrongly) assumed to be space charge neutral. A recent years come-back of DL's arrived at UNSW at the most general hydrodynamic derivations in laser produced plasmas. This result - funded by the ARCS and published in prestigious journals (Phys.Rev.Lett 53, 1650; Phys.Rev. 31A, 3473) - led ... Cont/. DOUBLE LAYERS IN LASER PRODUCED

PLASMA AND RELATED PROBLEMS IN LASER FUSION

35,000

35,829

Acoustics and Optics (ContdJ

to a basically new concept of plasmas with the discovery of extremely high internal (dynamic, longitudinal) electric fields, the surprising appearance of surface tension, a new strong resonance mechanism, electron acceleration etc.. The project pursues the new area opened by the just discovered

new important field.

Dr K A Nugent THREE DIMENSIONAL X-RAY AND OPTICAL IMAGING

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

The University of Melbourne The ability to determine the three dimensional structure of biological tissue is of great interest to biological and medical researchers. In this project we aim to develop and

demonstrate some new techniques in high resolution 3-D microscopy using both visible light and X-rays.

Dr M G Sceats UPCONVERSION OPTICAL FIBRE Dr S B Poole (COMMERCIAL-IN-CONFIDENCE)

Sydney University Fibre optic lasers operating in the visible region, using upconversion of infrared radiation from diode lasers will have a wealth of commercial applications. In this project

fundamental research will be pursued into the materials science required to realize the design of the optical fibre.

Dr R C Tobin ROOM TEMPERATURE METAL VAPOUR LASERS

Monash University The broad aim of this project is to develop and investigate new metal. Vapour is produced on demand by gas discharge sputtering with no warm-up time. Particular emphasis is placed on the 200-300nm range of the ultraviolet because of

its technical importance for applications and the dearth of suitable lasers, particularly those emitting continuous wave. There are significant and extensive applications for such lasers in the biomedical field.

Nuciear and Particie Physics

Dr I R Afnan INTERMEDIATE ENERGY NUCLEAR THEORY

Flinders University Recently it has been established that the neutron and proton have an internal structure described in terms of quarks. To examine the effect of this internal structure on the properties of nuclei, we have formulated a theory for light nuclei in which the neutron and proton can be excited to higher energies. We propose to test our theory by comparing its prediction with experiments involving pion and photon beams.

25,000

50,001

39,963

... Cont/.

iROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Nuclear and Particle Physics (Contd)

)r K Amos MOMENTUM SPACE STUDIES OF NUCLEAR 35,000

REACTIONS

The University of Melbourne Studies of nuclear reaction initiated by elementary particle probes of quite high energy provide information about the ;haracter of the (weak, electromagnetic and hadronic) funda d£ nature. To date, computation convenience in part, meant forces

that such data was analysed using particle position (coordinate space) techniques of analyses. Particle motion (momentum space) techniques are more potent and less

problematic and now are feasible because of modern computers,

Professor A G Klein EXPERIMENTS IN NEUTRON OPTICS 60,000

Professor G I Opat

The University of Melbourne The aim of this project is to continue our experiments in neutron optics which, with the support of the ARC, have brought our group into a prominent position in this field. The significance of this is that it allows:

a) Tests of fundamental propositions in quantum mechanics; b) Measurements of the fundamental properties of the neutron and its interactions; c) Development of new techniques for use in neutron beam research; and d) Development of

sophisticated optical devices.

Dr I Morrison MODELS OF NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND 49,884

II REACTIONS

The University of Melbourne This project aims to model the behaviour of complex quantum systems aighbnacailly by extension of a new developed at the University. Initial successes in technique description of the systems that bind encourage us to the the model to a wider range of applications including extend challenging higher order corrections and the scattering the

or reaction pro

the direct benefits are (i)the refinement and extension of knowledge and (ii) the teaching and education of postgraduates, increasing the scientifically skilled population. That the support of basic science is of national significance can hardly be challenged.

Nuclear and Particle Physics (Contd)

Assoc Prof L S Peak SOLAR NEUTERING AND UNDERGROUND PHYSICS Mr A M Bakich LABORATORY

Sydney University This proposal involves the establishment of an underground physics laboratory at Broken Hill. This unique Australian facility will allow various exciting programs to be pursued.

These programs include the measurement of neutrinos coming from the core of the sun (important in understanding the fusion in the sun and the properties of elusive neutrinos), and the detection of neutrinos from collapsing stars (such as the supernova of 1987).

Dr G N Taylor EXPERIMENTS IN RADIATIVE MUON Professor B M Spicer CAPTURE Dr G G Shute

The University of Melbourne The weak nuclear interaction is precisely understood at the level of the fundamental quarks and leptons. Modifications of the simple quark interactions are caused by the strong

forces which bind the quarks within the observed protons and neutrons. This experiment will study these effects by a detailed measurement of the radiative capture of muons by free protons.

Professor A W Thomas THEORETICAL NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Adelaide University Our aim is to understand better the structure of the building blocks of matter (the neutron and proton) and how they are assembled in the atomic nucleus. It is impossible to say what long term benefits could flow from such an improvement in our basic knowledge of how the world is put together.

Dr Μ N Thompson PHOTONUCLEAR STUDIES OF THE SHORT-RANGE NUCLEON-NUCLEON POTENTIAL

The University of Melbourne Commissioning of the unique high energy (250 MeV) photo-nuclear facility at the University of Saskatoon in Canada allows our established study of the fundamental nature of the nuclear force to be extended to a critically important energy region. Our first PhD student in this program will determine the energy and preferred angle of emission of protons from a nucleus of carbon bombarded with these high energy gamma rays. The results will lead to a better understanding of the inner structure of light nuclei.

The expertise developed by our PhD students in detector design and construction, computer aided data acquisition, ... Cont/.

F

Nuclear and Particle Physics (Contd)

and working at a state-of-the-art laboratory will benefit both them and national development.

; rOUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

atomic and Molecular Physics

Xssoc Prof C A Croxton STATISTICAL MECHANICS OF COMPLEX 29,000 MOLECULAR SYSTEMS

Newcastle University The prediction of the configurational properties of polymers in the form of linear chains, rings, stars, etc. is made on the basis of theoretical techniques. These determinations

are of fundamental importance in a wide variety of areas including biology, biochemistry, physics and chemical engineering. The theory is also being extended to the prediction of protein structure.

Dr L R Dodd SELF-CONSISTENT ONE-GLUON EXCHANGE 34,928

AND PIONIC CORRECTIONS IN SOLITON BAG MODELS OF HADRON AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

Adelaide University The project involves the calculation of properties of soliton bags or "energy lumps" describing how quarks bind together to form nuclear particles. The aim is to further our understanding of the connection between the fundamental

theory of strong forces and the structure of the observed particles of nuclear physics.

Dr A D Klemm THE USE OF STATIONARY QUANTUM STATE 5,000

METHODS COUPLED WITH A SUITABLE COMPLETE EXPANSION IN FEW BODY SCATTERING PROBLEMS

Deakin University There has been a marked increase in interest in three particle scattering in recent years due in no small way to developments in catalytic "cold" fusion, a three-particle exchange collision process. Our approach to scattering is

the only one involving hyperspherical harmonics (the expansion basis), which emphasises desirable permutation properties of the system and couples scattering theory and statistical mechanics.

Atomic and Molecular Physics (Contd)

Professor I E McCarthy ATOMIC SCATTERING AND REACTION THEORY

Flinders University The aim is to develop and test methods for understanding and calculating reactions in atomic physics. The consequent understanding of the many-body problem will be helpful also

in nuclear and solid state physics and in quantum chemistry. Reactions between electrons atoms and ion occur for example in the upper atmosphere, in lasers and in possible future controlled nuclear fusion reactions that cannot be measured.

Professor J A Piper GAS LASER PHYSICS

Macquarie University The program aims to develop a variety of gas laser systems through investigation of the basic physical processes involved in their operation. The program concentrates on various forms of metal vapour lasers which give high powers

at wavelengths covering the spectrum from ultraviolet through the visible to the infrared. The devices have the potential for application in science, medicine and industry. In fact laser systems already developed are now in

commercial production in Australia for export overseas and are used in medical treatments including vascular surgery and cancer phototherapy. New lasers under development will find application in medical diagnosis and various forms of surgery, optical communications and detection of chemicals in industrial processes.

Dr M C Standage ELECTRON AND PHOTON INTERACTIONS Dr W R MacGillivray WITH ATOMS Dr C J Webb

Griffith University The investigation of collision processes between electrons and atoms continues to be a research field in which there is both a fundamental and applied scientific interest eg. more efficient lasers about the physical mechanisms involved and the adequacy of existing collision theories. This project will use laser techniques to open up a new regime of collisional studies in which collision processes between electrons and highly excited atoms will be investigated using techniques which give, in principle at least, complete

information about the scattering processes and provide critical tests of theory.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Atomic and Molecular Physics (Contd)

Dr A T Stelbovics THEORY OF ANGULAR CORRELATIONS IN 33,163 professor J F Williams ELECTRON-ATOM SCATTERING

Murdoch University A theoretical study is proposed of the electron-impact excitation of atoms (hydrogen in particular) to completely determine the density matrix elements of the n=2 and n=3

excited states. The data can be interpreted in terms of the size, shape and rotation of the atomic charge cloud which can be related to properties of materials containing hydrogen, such as silicon hydride of use in solar cells, energy storage devices, and the reactivity of hydrogen containing molecules of biophysical importance.

Dr A T Stelbovics NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF ELECTRON-ATOM 25,000 SCATTERING PROCESSES

Murdoch University State-of-the-art calculations exhibit major discrepancies with existing experimental results for differential cross-sections and angular correlations at intermediate

energies over a range of electron-atom scattering processes. Recent analytic work has shown pseudo-state expansions have slow convergence rates. The present project will solve the close-coupling equations with basis sets (N~30) large enough to achieve convergence and give rigorous bounds for residual

errors.

Dr P J Teubner LASER STUDIES IN ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR 144,0.00 PHYSICS

Flinders University Electron scattering processes drive the active media in metal vapour and gas discharge lasers. In most cases the cross sections for the fundamental mechanisms of these

devices are unknown and cannot be calculated. This project is aimed at both measuring these cross sections and by using laser technology to test and stimulate theoretical work in the field. The molecular cross sections which we will measure are of direct interest to the physics of the upper

atmosphere.

Professor E Weigold ELECTRONIC COLLISION PROCESSES 146,390

' Flinders University The main aim of the project is to develop and apply the technique for electron momentum spectroscopy to the study of the structure of atoms and molecules. The technique, first developed at Flinders University, allows one to determine

the motion of electrons in their various orbits. It provides the basic information needed to understand the quantum chemistry of molecules. Other aspects of the work ... Cont/.

Atomic and Molecular Physics (Contd)

involve using a polarized electron source to study magnetic materials and electron collision processes. A tunable dye laser is being used to study excited atoms and molecules.

Professor J F Williams THE ELECTRON SCATTERING AND ELECTRON Dr J L Robins MOMENTUM SPECTROSCOPY

Dr R A Anderson

University of Western Australia An experimental study of electron scattering effects will be applied to inert gases and solids. A special feature will be the use of the (e, 2e) coincidence technique to probe

electronic states in atomic hydrogen and in solids of relevance to high temperature superconductivity, high field magnets and the electronics industry.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Discharge and Plasma Physics

Professor Μ H Brennan ALFVEN WAVE HEATING OF A TOKAMAK Dr R C Cross PLASMA

Dr I S Falconer

Sydney University In the tokamak form of a fusion reactor a large current is induced, this heating the plasma in the tokamak. This heating is not sufficient to reach the required operating temperature and so supplementary means of heating must be devised. This project is concerned with investigating one of the methods of heating using waves viz. slow Alfven wave heating. The aim of the project is to investigate the basic physics of the process, and, using realistic powers, to

investigate the heating, to maximise its efficiency and to minimise any deleterious effects caused by it.

Dr J Fletcher INVESTIGATION OF THE PROCESSES OPERATING WITH HIGH ENERGY DISCHARGE

Flinders University A knowledge of the behaviour of electron and ion swarms moving through a gas is of basic importance to an understanding of plasma physics, astrophysics, space physics, high voltage power transmission, switchgear etc. The project will study the transient voltage pulses produced between the electrodes of a drift chamber when electron-ions swarms are in transit between the electrodes. These measurements will reveal data on the drift velocity,

diffusion coefficients and the ionization and attachment rates of the electrons and ions in the swarm.

3R0UP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Discharge and Plasma Physics (Contd)

Professor S C Haydon NANOSECOND TIME RESOLVED STUDIES 30,000 Dr W N Hugrass OF RADIO FREQUENCY PLASMAS

University of New England Radio-frequency (r.f.) plasmas are critically dependent on extremely rapid accumulations of charged particles. These create highly localised electric fields which, in turn, control the production of certain reactive species and other

significant properties of r.f. discharges. This investigation monitors how , when and where these rapidly changing phenomena are occurring, making use of nanosecond "snapshots" of the intensified images of the evolving plasma recorded with computer-aided imaging techniques. R.f. plasmas are widely used for dry-etching and for depositing

thin films in the electronics industry.

Professor S C Haydon OPTO-GALVANIC INVESTIGATION OF TRACE 56,000 Dr Μ P Fewe11 IMPURITY EFFECTS IN IONIZED GASES

University of New England Opto-galvanic phenomena, induced by dye-laser perturbation techniques, will be used to establish the influence -exerted by electronically excited metastable particles and/or highly vibrationally excited ground state molecules on the

electrical behaviour of very pure samples of N2. Dramatic changes are observed with ppm levels of impurities and these will be examined. It is vitally important to understand the phenomena because many applications arise in laser

technology, control and switchgear operations and many atmospheric, ionospheric and soil fixation phenomena involving atmospheric nitrogen.

Professor I R Jones ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD STUDIES 95,000

Flinders University The controlled release of nuclear energy from the fusion of light nuclei promises an almost limitless source of energy for future generations. This process should not be confused with the nuclear fission of heavy nuclei fission of heavy

nuclei such as uranium which forms the basis of present-day nuclear reactors.

In the search for controlled nuclear fusion, a device known as the tokamak is the international front-runner as far as scientific performance is concerned. However, the tokamak suffers from engineering and economic drawbacks associated t with its pulsed mode of operation and its use of magnetic

energy.

1 .

This project studies means of overcoming both these obstacles in an Australian-designed apparatus known as the rotamak. Radio-frequency techniques are used to ensure continuous operation of this machine.

Discharge and Plasma Physics (ContdJ

Dr A L McCarthy CURRENT DRIVE IN TOROIDAL PLASMAS BY TRAVELLING WAVES

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Flinders University Current drive in toroidal geometry is now one of the 'hot' topics in plasma physics. This is because: "The concept of a tokamak reactor operating with an inductively generated plasma current, and therefore as a pulsed device, has major drawbacks related to the fatigue stress produced by thermal cycling. These problems could be ameliorated by a non-inductive current drive system, which in principle would make continuous operation feasible.* In this project we pursue the goal of non-inductive current drive using moving

RF fields in helical windings.

* DF Start in "Tokamaks", John Wesson, Clarendon, Oxford (1987)

Condensed Matter Physics

Dr Z Barnea ACCURATE X-RAY BRAGG INTENSITY

MEASUREMENTS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION IN TERMS OF GENERALIZED STRUCTURE FACTORS

The University of Melbourne Accurate measurements of x-rays reflected from crystals are to be carried out both in Australia and in an overseas high-intensity x-ray source. These measurements will yield

fundamental information about the arrangement of electrons in simple solids and the details of the temperature motion of their atoms. Experience will also be gained in the use of a new type of x-ray source and its associated

instrumentation.

Dr S J Campbell MOSSBAUER STUDIES OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS

University of N.S.W The aim of this project is to study the structural and magnetic properties of a range of materials using Mossbauer spectroscopy. The combination of the results from a microscopic technique such as Mossbauer spectroscopy with

the information available from bulk techniques such as x-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements, provides powerful tools for the detailed study and understanding of the properties of condensed matter. Interest is centred on the properties of magnetic metals and alloys and embraces problems of both a pure and applied nature. Materials of technological relevance for investigation include metal hydrides and magnetic amorphous alloys.

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

' >ir V Sarafis 3D INVESTIGATION OF PLANT CELL ) STRUCTURE AND PROCESS IN VIVO BY

CONFOCAL SCANNING LIGHT MICROSCOPY

The University of Western Sydney Artefact free 3D reconstruction of dynamic plant cell processes will focus on the structural elements involved in three key physiological plant activities:

a. chloroplast photosynthetic surfaces and their comportment with their associated nucleoids in differing ecological conditions.

b. stomatal dynamic morphology during opening and closing. c. the transformations of. the "resting" nucleus through mitosis. Confocal microscopy will be promoted in Australia by the

provision of "image" fellowships by the Hawkesbury Agricultural College.

Dr L H Schmitt A STUDY OF GENETICAL & MORPHOLOGICAL Dr D J Kitchener VARIATION OF MAMMALS IN INDONESIAN Dr R A How ISLANDS TO INVESTIGATE THE AUSTRALIAN

ORIENTAL BIOGEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARY

1 University of Western Australia This collaborative project with the Indonesian Government is to document the genetical structure of mammals from the islands immediately to the north of Australia. This will

enable (1) a contemporary appraisal of Australia's past and present regional biogeography; (2) a resolution of some Australian and Oriental mammalian systematic problems and (3) an examination of relationships between genetic and

morphological variation and ecological parameters such as species diversity, time of isolation and geographic distance.

5R0UP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

I Dr G N Stevens THE TAXONOMY & BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE LICHEN GENUS USNEA IN AUSTRALIA

Queensland University This project aims at understanding the reason for the chemical and morphological variation that occurs in this quite common but least understood lichen genus. The array of acids produced by the different species is very complicated; usnic acid, produced by all members of the group is an acknowledged antibiotic. In S.E. Asia several pendant Usnea species are used in folk medicine. The biogeography of such species and their correct

identification is important. Only by having a sound taxonomic base can researchers in biology proceed with certainty.

I

81,000

25,000

27,000

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Professor I W Thornton STUDIES ON EARLY PHASES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TROPICAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM ON THE VIRGIN ISLAND ANAK KRAKATAU

La Trobe University The project will provide some understanding of the way a tropical forest ecosystem develops on an initially sterile island, by examining in particular, the role of animals in early stages of this process. Such stages are uniquely available for study on Anak Krakatau. In the context of global warming, and the part played by tropical forests in global ecology, such knowledge would be relevant to consideration of forest reinstatement programmes.

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Dr J K Volkman FATTY ACIDS OF MICROALGAE USED IN Dr S W Jeffrey MARICULTURE

Division of Oceanography Microalgae are an important feedstock in the mariculture industry for growing fish, molluscs and Crustacea. Significant losses in animal production through poor growth rates can result if the feedstock'does not contain required dietary factors such as essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. New species of microalgae will be screened to identify those better suited for mariculture operations . Culture conditions will be varied to optimise the lipid content of species in present use. The influence of diet on growth rates of prawns and oysters will be tested in feeding trials.

Professor R G Wales COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE METABOLISM OF PREIMPLANTATION EMBRYOS

Murdoch University Sheep embryos undergo extensive development prior to implantation and thus serve as an excellent model to study biochemical changes associated with development. This project aims to study the availability and utilization of

substrates by sheep embryos and to determine their use for the synthesis of essential components. The results should further our understanding of early differentiation and may offer some insight into early embryonic mortality.

Other (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Emer Prof D Walker RECENT TROPICAL RAINFOREST DYNAMICS THROUGH REFINED POLLEN ANALYSES OF SEDIMENTS AT LAKE BARRINE, QUEENSLAND

Australian National University Informed conservation and utilization strategies for rainforest need information on natural variations in numbers of individual trees of important species. This cannot be obtained by direct observation because of the trees'

longevities. The project will reconstruct the histories of such species at decadal intervals through the last 3000 years by the application of refined pollen analysis at Lake Barrine surrounded by a well-recorded tropical rainforest.

It will also expose the effects of any climatic fluctuations on the forest during the period. ) Assoc Prof M Westoby EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF HUMMOCK

GRASSES

GROUP - Biological Sciences (Plant and Animal Biology) (Contd)

Macquarie University Hummock grasses dominate more than a quarter of Australia. They are a distinctively Australian growth form, and are adapted to low soil nutrients, drought, and fire, the three dominant forces in Australia's plant ecology. The project

aims to deepen understanding of their ecology. Immediate objectives are to find out why they set so few seed in relation to the number of flowers, and how they direct their wind-transported pollen to their own species.

0

3 5 , 0 0 0

3 2 , 0 0 0

I1

-

Chemical Energetics

Dr G T Hefter HEAT CAPACITIES OF ELETROLYTES IN NONAQUEOUS SOLVENTS

Murdoch University Nonaqueous electrolyte solutions are becoming increasingly important in areas such as chemical process engineering, hydrometallurgy, and battery technology, but our knowledge

and understanding of their properties is rather limited. This project aims to use heat capacity measurements on nonaqueous electrolyte solutions of theoretical and technological significance with a view to developing

relationships between solution phenomena and the measured heat capacities. The understanding and information so obtained will be of considerable benefit in the above areas.

Dr M A Hitchman SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES

GROUP - Chemical Sciences

University of Tasmania The relationship between the electronic and molecular structures of transition metal complexes will be investigated, in particular by studying the spectral behaviour of simple copper(II) complexes which change their

geometry as a function of temperature. The theoretical models used to interpret the data should help to explain the central role of copper in many biological systems, and in the newly discovered "warm" superconductors.

Professor B J Orr LASER-INDUCED MOLECULAR ENERGETICS AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY

Macquarie University

We are studying how molecular internal energy is transferred, either spontaneously or by collisional interactions, from one quantised state to another. Such processes are relevant to chemical reaction mechanisms and

to laser-induced photochemistry. A combination of advanced laser spectroscopic and molecular beam instrumentation is used for this work, thereby developing novel physical techniques and providing training opportunities for graduate

students in areas of laser-based technology relevant to Australian industry.

Assoc Prof Μ N Paddon-Row THROUGH-BOND INTERACTIONS AND LONG RANGE INTRAMLOECULAR ELECTRON TRANSFER IN RIGID POLYCHROMOPHORIC SYSTEMS

University of N.S.W We seek to explore the factors that govern electron transfer, a process of fundamental importance to the biological world (photosynthesis, for example), and also to

the new technological fields of molecular optics and liquid crystals. One aim of this project is to build systems that ... Cont/ .

16,000

25,000

81,000

56,000

Chemical Energetics (Contd)

may have applications to these fields.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Chemical Binding

Professor B N Figgis THE CHEMICAL BOND IN TRANSITION METAL 98,000 Assoc Prof G S Chandler COMPLEXES

University of Western Australia Knowledge of how atoms are held together by the interactions of their electrons to form molecules is central to chemistry and through that to materials science. Conventionally this chemical bonding is studied by spectroscopy, but our novel approach using x-ray and polarised neutron diffraction gives the spatial distribution of the valence electrons, paired and unpaired. Uniquely detailed information results which we use to test and improve theories of the chemical bond.

Transition metal complexes are specially suitable for the diffraction techniques.

Dr E N Maslen ELECTRON DENSITY IN STRATEGIC AND 36,000

ARCHETYPAL MATERIALS

University of Western Australia The electron density in crystalline materials is functionally related to physical properties such as bonding energy. The objective is to measure that density accurately via diffraction experiments, and to clarify the functional relationships via archetypal cases, in order to predict properties for a series of related compounds. Equipped in this way, we will be better placed to explore the special characteristics of cases with commercial significance such as catalysts and superconductors, which are central to this project. The techniques for relating the diffraction experiments to physical properties will be developed in a

form suitable for application in other laboratories.

Dr J B Peel PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES 60,000

OF WEAK MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS

La Trobe University Weakly bound gas-phase cluster of atoms and molecules represent a state of matter in transition between the gaseous and condensed states. The structure and properties of both neutral and ionic clusters are to be investigated using visible laser photodissociation and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic techniques. The data should provide valuable insight on the nature of liquids and solutions at the submicroscopic level.

Chemical Binding (Contd)

Professor R S Smart REACTION OF OXIDE FILMS WITH SILICA

S.A.I.T. Reaction of oxide films on nickel and brass surfaces with silica at low temperatures has been shown to produce a silicate layer highly resistant to corrosion. Extension of

the method to aluminium, mild steel, zinc and copper surfaces will be tested. The mechanism of reaction will be defined for optimisation of the passivating layer.

Application to large-scale treatment of metals for corrosion and wear resistance will be assessed.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Professor C Wentrup REACTIVE INTERMEDIATES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. NEW MOLECULES AND PROCESSES

Queensland University Reactive intermediates are short-lived species involved in numerous chemical reactions. Knowledge of them is of both fundamental and industrial importance since it leads to new

insight and to the discovery of new molecules and processes. We plan to investigate a number of such reactions of fundamental significance in organic chemistry.

Mechanisms of Reactions

Professor J H Bowie NEGATIVE ION CHEMISTRY USING ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE

Adelaide University An understanding of the mechanisms of chemical reactions is as fundamental in chemistry as a knowledge of sub-atomic particles is in physics. Experimental gas phase ion

chemistry (ie chemistry in the absence of solvent), considered in concert with high level theoretical calculations, provides vital information concerning the

mechanism of chemical reactions, and the intrinsic reactivity of reagents. This information can be applied directly to improve the manufacture of chemicals; the basis of the chemical industry, an industry vital to the nations economy.

R Cooper REACTION RATES OF IONIC AND NEUTRAL

SPECIES IN IONISED GASES

The University of Melbourne

This project aims to measure the rates of basic processes occurring in ionised gases. The rate of recombination of simple ions will be examined over wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results will test the predictions of

several different three-body mechanisms for the first time. The results will also provide unique data to enable accurate modelling of electrical discharge phenomena and ... Cont/.

18,000

43,000

45,000

35,000

Mechanisms of Reactions (Contd)

upper atmosphere electrical phenomena. The light output from ionized gas system will be studied to provide fluorescence yield from systems of known chemistry.

Dr R Cooper DYNAMICS OF ENERGY

AND CHARGE TRANSFER IN SOLIDS

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

The University of Melbourne We aim to generate and assay defects produced in solids by electron beam irradiation. Charge transport (conductivity), trapping and recombination, control the mechanisms of electrical properties, catalysis and thermoluminescence in

solids. Pulsed electron beams will be used to initiate transient ionisation in solid oxides. The intensity and rate of light emission produced from this will be studied by ultrafast spectroscopy; a novel microwave conductivity

system will be built to detect the fast conductivity changes occurring on nanosecond timescales. Application to thermoluminescent personal Radiation Dosimeters will be made.

Dr C J Easton FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION AND REACTIONS OF AMINO ACID RADICALS

Adelaide University The principle aim of this project is to examine and exploit factors affecting freeradical reactions of amino acid derivatives. Reactions of this type are involved in numerous aspects of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of proteins and other peptides. It is expected that the results of the work will be used to effect synthesis of modified peptide antibiotics, and to improve the quality of wool fibre.

Professor B F Gray THEORY OF COUPLED OSCILLATING REACTIONS

Macquarie University Professor L Kane-Maguire KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF METAL CARBONYL CLUSTER REACTIONS

Wollongong University There has been considerable recent interest in metal carbonyl clusters as potential catalysts for a range of industrial processes. However, our ability to exploit their potential is currently limited by the lack of quantitative mechanistic information.

A systematic kinetic and spectroscopic investigation is therefore proposed of a range of typical cluster processes, with emphasis on reactions believed important in the Fischer-Tropsch conversion of syngas (C0/H2) to gasoline. The establishment of these fundamental behaviour patterns

and parameters should considerably assist the rational ... Cont/.

Mechanisms of Reactions (Contd)

design of improved homogeneous catalysts.

Dr K D King VERY-LOW PRESSURE PYROLYSIS STUDIES 30,000

OF UNIMOLECULAR REACTIONS

Adelaide University The aim is to carry out experimental and theoretical studies of the rates and pathways of selected thermal unimolecular gas reactions at high temperatures and low pressures. Thermal unimolecular reactions of complex molecules and the

reverse recombination reactions of atoms, radicals and molecules play an important role in such complex reaction systems as combustion, oxidation, flame processes and aerochemistry. Kinetic data and mechanistic information are

in high demand for the interpretation and computer modelling of these systems eg knowledge of the relative reaction rates of the different pathways occurring in the

thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons is essential for the understanding and modelling of high temperature thermal cracking and combustion operations using feedstocks derived from oil and coal.

Dr W Kitching MECHANISTIC AND SYNTHETIC STUDIES IN 33,000 AND ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY

Queensland University Organometallic derivatives of silicon, tin and mercury are of towering importance in synthetic organic chemistry because of their structural variety, mechanistic diversity

and stability. Especially important are allylic derivatives and this project seeks to extend our knowledge of them and related derivatives and their use in acquiring compounds and ring systems e.g. spiroketals, medium ring derivatives etc. of potential biological utility.

Assoc Prof A E Knight SPECTROSCOPY AND DYNAMICS OF 40,000

ORGANOSILANE REACTIONS RELEVANT IN MICROELECTRONICS FABRICATION

Griffith University The proposed research is directed towards advancing the understanding of thermal and photochemical reactions that are of practical relevance in microelectronics for the

fabrication of solid state thin films on surfaces. In particular, we shall investigate the fundamental chemical mechanisms that lead to the deposition of amorphous silicon when organosilane vapours are subjected to intense UV or IR

irradiation, or to the photo-chemical etching of silicon. Use will be made of new laser techniques to characterise the properties of gas-phase reactant and product species important in surface related technologies involving etching

or deposition, and to extend these diagnostics wherever possible to explore the nature of gas-surface reactions explicitly.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Mechanisms of Reactions (Contd)

Dr P A Lay VERY FAST ELECTROCHEMICAL

Professor J K Beattie INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE STUDY OF CATALYTIC REACTIONS AND ELECTRON TRANSFER THEORIES.

Sydney University Electron transfer is a ubiquitous part of life processes including respiration and photosynthesis. In addition, many aspects of our technological society (chemical catalysis, batteries, corrosion, etc.) are influenced directly or

indirectly by redox processes. This project entails the construction of state-of-the-art instrumentation that will be used to study electron transfer problems that are not amenable to study using commercial equipment. This equipment is to be utilized in the development of commercially viable catalytic systems for the production of chemicals of economic importance and for the development of theories of electron transfer.

Assoc Prof S F Lincoln THE INCLUSION CHEMISTRY OF Dr J H Coates CYCLODEXTRINS AND THEIR MODIFIED FORMS Dr C J Easton

Adelaide University In the centre of a cyclodextrin molecule is a hole into which other smaller molecules can fit and be retained, but only if they are of the correct size to fit neatly. In this

project we intend to make and study new improved cyclodextrins which will exactly fit a range of useful molecules including drugs, but not other similar molecules. These new cyclodextrins will be used to separate wanted

from unwanted molecules and to deliver drugs where they can act effectively in the body.

Assoc Prof J C Mackie THE ROLE OF COAL HETEROATOMS IN THE RELEASE OF NOX AND POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON POLLUTANTS IN THE COMBUSTION OF COAL

Sydney University Australian coals have a high nitrogen content. Large-scale burning of these coals leads to the emission of significant amounts of oxides of nitrogen and of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants. By developing an understanding of the mechanisms of the chemical reactions leading to the formation of these pollutants, improved strategies for combustion of coals can be devised, thereby promoting a safer and increased usage of Australian coals both domestically and overseas.

25,000

30,000

25,000

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Mechanisms of Reactions (Contd)

Dr P A Tregloan KINETIC STUDIES OF HOMOGENEOUS Dr J I Sachinidis CATALYTIC PROCESSES FOR LIGHT Dr A F Masters TO HEAVY OLEFIN CONVERSION

The University of Melbourne This project is aimed at understanding the molecular mechanism of operation of a new homogeneous catalyst for the highly efficient conversion of light olefin hydrocarbons to

speciality chemicals and liquid fuel grade material. From studies of the precursors and intermediates generated in the reaction, using a range of spectroscopic, kinetic and computer modelling techniques, we expect to optimise the operation of the catalytic conversion and open routes to new conversion catalysts and conditions.

Dr D J Young A NOVEL ORGANOMETALLIC REACTION

EMPLOYING "RING STRAIN"

Griffith University Organometallic chemistry has revolutionized the synthesis of organic compounds by providing highly specific methods for forming carbon-carbon bonds. This project will examine the mechanism and synthetic potential of a relatively unexplored

organometallic reaction which makes use of the considerable strain inherent in three carbon rings. A number of biologically important compounds could be made by employing this reaction. These include antibiotics, insect pheromones

and inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis.

Determination of Chemical Structures

Professor Μ I Bruce CRYSTAL STRUCTURE STUDIES Dr E R Tiekink

Adelaide University Determination of molecular and crystal structure of chemical species by X-ray diffraction gives insight to their properties and to the way they are formed. The present proposal plans to utilise a central facility in which a professional crystallographer can service groups with

interests in diverse areas such as the chemistry of metal clusters, the design of new drug delivery systems and catalysts, the interaction of metals with biological materials, processes for strengthening wool fibres, the

development of properties and minerals in both an effective and desirable manner.

25,000

25,000

32,000

Determination of Chemical Structures (Contd)

Professor D M Doddrell CHEMICALLY-SELECTIVE NMR MICROSCOPY, IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Queensland University A high resolution high field NMR microscopy system is to be constructed which will enable the acquisition of images with pixel resolution of 100*100 micrometres squared and slice thickness of less than 1mm. Techniques for spectral editing combined with volume selection will be used to selectively observe the 1H spectra of metabolites. The development of this technology will have application for the study of brain and tumour metabolism in very small samples of tissue.

Dr L D Field TRANSITION METAL ACTIVATION OF

Dr K J Cross HYDROCARBONS

Sydney University Professor H C Freeman STRUCTURES OF METALLOPROTEINS Dr M Guss

Sydney University The aim of the research is to determine accurately the structures (atomic arrangements) of "metalloproteins" - a class of proteins which contain one or more atoms of a metal

in each molecule. Each metalloprotein to be studied has an important biological function for which the metal atoms are essential. A detailed understanding of the way in which each protein carries out its biological function awaits a determination of the molecular structure, especially the immediate surroundings of the metal atoms. The methods to be used in the research belong to the biotechnology revolution. They include state-of-the-art synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements, massive computations, and 3-dimensional computer graphics.

Dr K P Ghiggino STUDIES USING FOURIER TRANSFORM Dr R B Johns INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

Dr P J Thistlethwaite

The University of Melbourne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the elucidation of chemical structures. The aim of this proposal is the application of FTIR spectroscopy to three separate projects:

(1) the photodegradation of polymers; (2) detection of functional groups on the surface of coal; (3) the structure of monolayers at the air-water interface.

41.000

66.000

76,000

40,000

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Determination o f Chemical Structures (Contd)

Dr E N Maslen SINGLE CRYSTAL X-RAY FOUR CIRCLE Assoc Prof A H White DIFFRACTOMETER FACILITY UPGRADE, CRYSTALLOGRAPHY CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA

University of Western Australia The Crystallography Centre at UWA is a major international resource for the precise determination and interpretation of small molecule structures by single crystal X-ray methods, both in terms of data collection facilities, computer

software development and project execution. Funding is to enable upgrading of the diffractometer facilities with continued increased demand for its services, to cope

particularly in the area of high precision, low temperature studies.

Professor S Sternhell HELICAL MOLECULES Dr L D Field

Sydney University Although organic biopolymers, notably DNA and segments of proteins, often assume helical structures, little is known about properties of small (non-polymeric) helical compounds.

We plan to synthesise two series of novel helical molecules and investigate their chirptic and physical properties, especially spectroscopy and inversion dynamics. We also plan to develop novel liguid crystalline materials based on

small helices for use in optical display devices.

Dr P J Thistlethwaite STABILITY AND STRUCTURE OF LANGMUIR- Dr F Grieser BLODGETT FILMS STUDIES BY FLUORESCENCE METHODS.

The University of Melbourne

The aim of this project is to use fluorescence measurements to study the homogeneity and stability of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. The technique consists of transferring a single layer of organic molecules floating on the surface of water onto a solid substrate. LB films have great potential as the basis of thin-film and electro-optic devices in communications, chemical and biochemical sensors, and electronics. The realization of this potential has been delayed by difficulties in achieving homogeneity and

stability of the LB film. This study deals with the surface chemistry underlying these problems.

80,000

sought

35,000

25,000

Determination of Chemical Structures (Contd)

A s s o c Prof A H White STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY

University of Western Australia Single crystal X-ray structure determination is the most widely applicable, powerful and sophisticated high precision technique generally available for the definition of the relative dispositions of atoms in the solid state and

is the concern of this project, which participates in endeavours ranging from 'pure' to 'applied' science across the dimension from geology to biochemistry, exemplified by the determination of crystal structures of minerals, potentially catalytic organometallic compounds, and natural product toxins and mutagens.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Inorganic and Metal Chemistry

Professor Μ I Bruce ORGANOMETALLIC & CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

Adelaide University This project will investigate the synthesis and reactivity of compounds containing organic molecules attached to three metal atoms, thus resembling molecules absorbed on metal

surfaces. These studies will enable a better understanding of the reactivity of hydrogen and other small molecules with several metal atoms to obtained; such multisite

attachment is a key in the activation of these molecules towards further reactions.

Dr A J Canty ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY OF PALLADIUM AND ITS CONGENERS

University of Tasmania Palladium is important in the synthesis of organic compounds and in metal based industrial catlysts. Compounds with a chemical bond between metal and carbon atoms are formed temporarily in some processes using palladium catalysts. We have prepared the first organopalladium compounds of oxidation state +IV, although such compounds have been known

for 80 years for platinum, which is also important in catalysis. Oxidation state +IV may be important in the role of palladium as a catalyst, so that studies of palladium (IV) compounds with carbon will develop palladium chemistry, and in particular, will aid the understanding of existing applications of palladium and possible lead to new ones.

73,001)

4 5,000!

37,601

3R0UP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Inorganic and Metal Chemistry (ContdJ

}r R Colton STUDY OF REDOX PROCESS OF LABILE AND 40,000

professor A M Bond INERT INORGANIC COMPLEXES OVER TIME DOMAIN VIA VOLTAMMETRIC. NMR AND ESR TECHNIQUES

The University of Melbourne A combination of NMR and ESR spectroscopies and variable temperature/variable time domain voltammetry should lead to a detailed understanding of the nuances of inorganic redox

reactions. Inorganic redox reactions from the basis of many biologically important processes, catalytic processes and photochemical reactions and a more fundamental understanding of the nature of the processes and photochemical reactions

and a more fundamental understanding of the nature of the chemical intermediates and products of inorganic redox processes is therefore important.

Dr D Dakternieks ORGANOMETALLIC CLUSTERS AS 22,000

INTERCALATES IN COMPOSITE CLAY CATALYSTS

Deakin University

Zeolite cracking catalysts are used extensively in oil refineries however the available pore size range limits their use in applications such as the conversion of high molecular weight hydrocarbons of the type found in heavy

crude oils. This project aims at development of new catalysts based on naturally occurring clays which have been interlayered with suitable robust chemical pillars. Pillared interlayered clays with appropriate properties are

certain to find a specialised niche within the zeolite catalyst market, estimated at U .S.$703 million for 1990.

Professor I G Dance METAL OXIDES AND CHALCOGENS 56,000

University of N.S.W This project will advance the molecular engineering of metal-oxide molecules, through the investigation and development of new synthesis of new compounds. Condensation

of these molecules to non-molecular compounds, using supramolecular chemistry, will be investigated as a synthetic technique. These compounds are relevant to

bioinorganic chemistry, electronic and conducting materials, and catalysis.

Inorganic and Metal Chemistry (Contd)

Dr G B Deacon RARE EARTH CHEMISTRY

Monash University

The rare earth elements are of increasing importance as shown by their involvement in the new warm superconductors. This project focuses on the synthesis, reactions, complexes

and use in organic synthesis of the highly active rare earth organometallics, organoamides, alkoxides and aryl oxides. The high reactivity (e.g. to air and water) poses challenges in synthesis and handling, but also offers prospects of exciting new reactions and uses as catalysts, microelectronic dopant and surface coating precursors.

Assoc Prof R S Dickson VOLATILE ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUND OF Professor B 0 West MERCURY, CADMIUM TELLURIUM AND Dr G B Deacon MANGANESE - IMPORTANT PRECURSORS TO SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS

Monash University

Mercury cadmium telluride, and the manganese doped material, are important semiconductors for use in optoelectronic devices that will be used in mid-infrared optical fibre transmission systems. Wafers of the semiconductor material are produced by the MOCVD technique with ultra-high purity and volatile feedstocks. We intend to develop better syntheses of the usual feedstocks, to prepare and study

adducts of these materials, and to investigate potential new feedstock materials containing >2 of the required metals in the same compound.

Dr D P Fairlie TOWARDS ARTIFICIAL ENZYMES - Professor R N Warrener REACTIVITY OF METAL IONS IN Prof D Butler HYDROPHOBIC ENVIRONMENTS

Bond University This project is aimed at developing artificial metallo-enzymes: simple complexes which have many characteristics of more complex naturally-occurring biological catalysts. By reproducing extremely rapid and

selective chemical reactions which proceed naturally in biological systems, we plan to (1) develop superior chemical catalysts for industrial application, and (2) understand the mechanisms by which some natural metallo-enzymes function.

GROUP - Chemical Sciences (Contd)

Condensed Matter Physics (Contd)

A s s o c Prof J D Cashion A STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC 25,000 Dr R J Pollard PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS USING THE MOSSBAUER EFFECT

Monash University The materials being studied are all of current or potential importance. The present phase includes the determination of metallic (particularly gold) absorption mechanisms on

activated carbon, identification of chemical phases in brown coal precipitator and in the hydroliquification of brown coal, the study of magnetic microparticles and glassy magnetic metals for application in recording and

transformers respectively and study of dental amalgams.

Assoc Prof D H Chaplin APPLICATION OF NMRON TO SOLID STATE 88,945 Dr G A Stewart PHYSICS

Professor G V Wilson

; University of N.S.W New and sensitive techniques have been developed to determine the technologically important properties of magnetic materials. The magnetic samples are cooled and the

radioactive emissions. Highly accurate resonance techniques were pioneered by the research group. Improvements, by extending the measurements to even lower temperatures, are planned.

'

: i Dr K J Duff ELECTRONIC AND VIBRATIONAL SPECTRA 70,000

Professor P Fisher OF SOLIDS Dr C A Freeth

1 Wollongong University Semiconductors play a key role in current high technology. An understanding of their fundamental properties is essential to the proper applications of these materials. In

this respect, the behaviour of the electrons and the motion of the atoms are important. Optical spectroscopy is probably the most powerful technique for studying these. Both bulk and thin layered semiconductors are vital in

devices; studies of both forms are to be carried out. The study of impurity states in bulk material could lead to tuneable infrared detectors while the quantum-well investigations could produce solid state lasers for fibre optics telecommunications.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Condensed Matter Physics (Contd)

Dr P Goodman THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPERCONDUCTING CERAMICS AND THEIR PRECURSORS

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

The University of Melbourne Superconducting oxides of relatively complex chemistry have been identified during 1988-1989, with a diversity of superconducting characteristics. Our interest is in analysing as wide a range of these as possible irrespective of Tc value, using high resolution electron microscopy and other techniques. This differs in emphasis from GIRD-funded projects in seeking basic information on common properties of synthesis and structure.

Assoc Prof P J Jennings SURFACE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS USING VERY Dr S M Thurgate LOW ENERGY ELECTRON DIFFRACTION

Murdoch University We have recently completed the development of the theory and the apparatus required for this project. Results obtained so far indicate that it has the potential to become a powerful and effective approach for surface structural

studies of chemisorption of metal surfaces and the surface structure of semiconductors.

Dr F C Klebaner POPULATION DEPENDENT BRANCHING PROCESSES

The University of Melbourne This project studies models for growth of a population where the reproductive behaviour of individuals is influenced by the population size and is subjected to random fluctuations.

Individuals can be of different types, so that these models can find an application in various fields of science: in cell kinetics (and consequently in cancer growth), population genetics, epidemiology, demography and others. This project will contribute to the advancement of applied probability and potentially will be of great benefit in applications in various fields of science.

Dr R Leekey SILICON-BASED MOLECULAR BEAM GROWN Dr J D Riley SCHOTTKY BARRIERS & HETEROJUNCTIONS STUDIED BY ANGLE RESOLVED PHOTOEMISS­ ION & SCANNING TUNNELLING MICROSCOPY

La Trobe University Understanding the properties of the interface between a metal and a semiconductor or between two semiconductors is essential for the design of all high speed electronic devices. This project involves the construction of a

scanning tunnelling microscope which will be used to investigate details of the structure of such interfaces. It complements another ARCS funded project which is concerned ... Cont/.

Condensed Matter Physics (Contd)

with the electronic properties of metal-semiconductor interfaces.

Dr R Leckey ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF MULTIPLE 47,000

Dr J D Riley QUANTUM WELLS AND THE EFFECT OF STRAIN

ON THE BANDSTRUCTURE OF SEMICONDUCTORS

La Trobe University It is now possible to fabricate novel electronic devices by growing a semiconductor crystal atomic layer by atomic layer. The electronic behaviour of such entirely new materials will be investigated using synchrotron radiation

photoelectron spectroscopy. This is a necessary step before designing novel devices.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Professor R J MacDonald ION SOLID INTERACTIONS 104,300

Dr D J O'Connor Dr B V King

Newcastle University Many of the problems in the usage of modern materials are associated with the properties of their surfaces. Wear and corrosion are significant problems, consuming large

quantities of resources in their prevention or reduction. This project is aimed at determining the atomic structures of surfaces by studying the scattering of low and medium energy ion beams. The modification, and improvement of the

properties of surfaces by the implantation of ions is also to be experimentally studied.

Dr D J Miller INDIRECT EXCHANGE INTERACTION BETWEEN 34,023 LOCALISED MOMENTS: THE ORDERING OF NUCLEAR SPINS IN METALS & ELECTRON SPINS IN SEMICONDUCTORS

University of N.S.W The main feature of the project is the calculation for realistic band structures of the indirect interaction between localised moments and the consequent magnetic order.

The results will be compared directly with experiment: notably, the three antiferromagnetic arrangements of nuclear spins in Cu and the ordering of electron spins in dilute magnetic semiconductors. The principle benefit of the

project will be in the fundamental understanding of the interactions and ordering of spins in metals and in dilute magnetic semiconductors which have exciting practical applications.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Condensed flatter Physics (Contd)

Assoc Prof D Neilson EXOTIC ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF THIN ELECTRON LAYERS IN CERAMICS AND SEMICONDUCTORS

University of N.S.W It is now technologically possible to confine conducting electrons to an extremely thin layer only a few atoms thick. Such electrons have radically different properties from conducting electrons in a conventional solid. This project

investigates some of the novel properties of these electrons, in particular (i) the possibility that all the electrons are strongly coupled to each other in a unigue state, (ii) possible pairing mechanism for high Tc superconductors and (iii) the likelihood that the impurity scattering with the thin Base layer of a Planar Doped Barrier transistor is increased by this effect, thereby reducing the switching efficiency of these devices.

La Trobe University The adhesion of thin metallic films to semiconductors is improved not only by bombardment with (MeV) ions and (keV) electrons, but also by (several/few eV) ultraviolet and visible irradiation. This has enabled substantial progress

in identifying the (electronic) mechanism responsible, and has also indicated the importance of surface contaminants. Further electronic and surface-analysis studies are needed to fully-characterise the process, which has obvious implications to the manufacture of electronic semiconductor devices.

University of N.S.W The recent discovery of materials which are superconducting at temperatures up to 100 degrees Kelvin has generated a vast research effort around the world, aimed at understanding and exploiting these materials. The

fundamental physical mechanism, which gives rise to this phenomenon, is not yet understood. This project aims to explore some properties of strongly correlated electron systems, and may help in the development of a consistent microscopic theory of high temperature superconductivity

Dr G L Nyberg Professor J S Williams Dr J Gazecki

IRRADIATION-INDUCED ADHESION AND INTERFACE CHANGES OF THIN METALLIC FILMS ON SEMICONDUCTORS

Assoc Prof J Oitmaa MICROSCOPIC THEORY OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

3R0UP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Condensed Matter Physics (Contd)

ilssoc Prof J M Pope MICRO NMR IMAGING 93,870

kssoc Prof G J Bowden

University of N.S.W We propose establishing a micro NMR (Nuclear magnetic Resonance) imaging facility to exploit a number of potential applications of magnetic resonance imaging and spatially

resolved spectroscopy which are only just beginning to receive attention. Initial effort will be focused on a number of inter-disciplinary projects with applications in agriculture and food processing, fossil fuels, materials

research and the biosciences.

Professor T M Sabine THE CORRECTION OF SEVERE EXTINCTION 10,000 EFFECTS IN THE BRAGG SCATTERING OF NEUTRONS AND X-RAYS BY SINGLE CRYSTALS

University of Technology Sydney The determination of the relation between the atomic arrangement in condensed matter, and its biological and chemical properties is of great importance in the design of new materials. X-ray and neutron diffraction are powerful techniques for the determination of crystal structure. This project is intended to improve the accuracy with which the

structure can be found.

Professor E R Smith STOCHASTIC SIMULATION OF SUPERDENSE 31,000 Dr I K Snook COLLOIDS

Dr W Van Megen

La Trobe University A vast range of industrial, chemical and biological processes rely on the behaviour of colloids or suspensions of fine particles. We have little fundamental understanding

of the random motion which such suspended particles show and so have little scientific understanding of how to predict the properties of suspensions, especially when they are in

motion. Our program of simulation is designed to provide the necessary theoretical understanding.

Dr A E Spargo HIGH VOLTAGE HIGH RESOLUTION 25,000

Dr L A Bursill ELECTRON MICROSCOPY Dr G J Wood

The University of Melbourne At its present development the high voltage resolution electron microscope has the potential to reveal the detailed structure of crystalline and quasi-crystalline material at

an atomic level. This work is aimed at the development of experimental and theoretical procedures to realise this potential routinely and thereby allow examination of the atomic structure of lattice defects and other imperfections

that affect the properties of important advanced materials. ... Cont/.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Condensed Matter Physics (Contd)

Professor J S Williams PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN ION BOMBARDED 40,000 Dr R G Elliman AND ANNEALED SILICON

Dr Η K Wagenfeld

R.M.I.T. This study examines the physical and chemical processes occurring during bombardment and annealing of ion irradiated silicon. These processes include:

(a) the crystalline to amorphous phase transformation, (b) solid phase epitaxial crystallization, (c) impurity induced amorphous to polycrystalline phase transformation, and

(d) the formation of buried compound layers. Research carried out in this project will result in new or improved processing steps being incorporated into device and circuit fabrication.

Physics of Ocean, Atmos., lonos. and Magnetosphere

Dr J A Bennett NUMERICAL AND ANALYTIC RAY TRACING 34,496

Dr P L Dyson PROGRAMS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF

IONOSPHERIC RADION PROPAGATION

Monash University Ionospheric ray tracing is important for the interpretation of ionospheric radio soundings and in applications such as remote sensing and telecommunications. There is a need for new computer programs for two reasons, because existing programs do not calculate all the quantities required in modern applications, and because they are too slow. A

single new program can not meet both these needs. Improved numerical programs will meet the former and improved analytic programs the latter.

Dr M A Box APPLICATIONS OF PERTURBATION THEORY 34,928

TO PROBLEMS OF RADIATIVE TRANSFER

University of N.S.W Man is altering the balances of his planet in many competing ways, with consequences as yet undetermined. To guard against a disaster, we must build more sophisticated models of the atmosphere, which incorporate many more of these changes. Radiative perturbation theory is a new tool with the potential to aid the inclusion of more of the essential physics in these models. In this project, a number of potentially useful applications will be developed starting with a study of shortwave radiative effects of atmospheric.

physics of Ocean, Atmos., Jonos. and Magnetosphere

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

professor K D Cole APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF PARTIALLY 33,163 AND FULLY IONISED GASES IN SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS

La Trobe University The project will deal principally with theoretical problems ionosphec^/thermiepheod^namics of the The problems to be researched amegafetosphere system, central to modern day research on the the forefront of and partially ionised envelopes of the ionosphere and the planets and the Sun. The project is atmosphere of the other

Solar-Terrestrial Energy Programme central to the upcoming conducted by the Scientific Committee on (1990-1995) being Physics in ICSU. Solar Terrestrial

Professor K D Cole Dr E C Butcher Dr P L Dyson

COUPLING BETWEEN THE EARTH'S IONOSPHERE AND THERMOSPHERE 40,000

La Trobe University During the period 1990-1995 the next maximum of the sunspot cycle, predicted to be one of the largest maxima on record, will occur. Dramatic changes in the ionosphere, the region

of charged particles in the thermosphere responsible for distant HF communications, will certainly occur over the Australian region. These effects, associated with local aurora and large magnetic storms, will be studied and

consequences for HF systems, such as over-the-horizon radars will be determined.

Assoc Prof B J Fraser PROPAGATION STUDIES OF ULF AND ELF 75,000

Dr F W Menk WAVES

Newcastle University Naturally occurring ultra-low frequency (ULF; 0.01-5Hz) and extremely low frequency (ELF 3-3000Hz) waves in the earth's magnetoshpere and ionosphere will be studied using data

from magnetometer stations established in Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica. Particular studies include hydromagnetic field-line resonances, ion cyclotron wave instabilities and ELF wave propagation in the magnetosphere, and Schumann resonances below the ionosphere.

A high frequency Doppler sounder will monitor the interaction of these waves with the ionosphere.

Physics of Ocean, Atmos., Ionos. and Magnetosphere

Dr F Jacka STUDIES ON THE DYNAMIC OF THE UPPER 29,000

Dr R A Vincent ATMOSPHERE AT MAWSON, ANTARCTICA

Adelaide University Improved measurements of winds and temperatures in the height range 60-250 km will be used to assist current models of the general circulation and of the tides in the upper

atmosphere, and to identify the dominant sources and significance of gravity waves at various heights in the southern auroral zone.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Professor B R Morton CUMULUS CONVECTION 39,111

Monash University Convective clouds, from cumulus to cumulonimbus, bring significant rainfall and severe weather. Entrainment of ambient air is vital in cloud dynamics, but mechanisms of entrainment are poorly understood. Field observations cannot resolve these mechanisms but provide the data to validate and operate numerical models. We are studying two new and potentially important mechanisms using laboratory and numerical models and the data base from the Island Thunderstorm Experiment over Melville Island. Each of the

laboratory, numerical and field components will contribute to our study of the basic mechanisms.

Astronomy and Cosmic Pays

Dr D K Aitken INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY AND 53,654

SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS

University of N.S.W These observations, using unique infrared instrumentation, give information on many properties of astronomical objects, such as their chemistry, state of ionisation and the presence of magnetic fields. This in turn leads to greater understanding of fundamental processes like the formation of dust grains, cloud collapse and star formation in the Galaxy. At present there is a unique opportunity to continue observations of the nearest supernova for 300 years.

Dr I Barton THE ACCURATE DERIVATION OF SEA SURFACE 5,000

Dr A J Prata TEMPERATURE FROM SATELLITES: GEOPHYS­ ICAL VALIDATION OF ATSR PRODUCTS & AIR -SEA INTERACTION STUDIES

Division of Atmospheric Research CSIRO is a joint partner in the Along Track Scanning Radiometer project and has prime responsibility for the geophysical validation of the ATSR products in tropical

... Cont/.

Astronomy and Cosmic Rays (Contd)

oceans. CSIRO is also taking a leading role in the science and applications of ATSR data. The initial project in 1989 will use AVHRR data to develop validation skills and techniques in tropical areas. The major component of the

project will take place in 1990 with continuing activities in 1991.

Dr D G Blair PRECISION OF VLBI RADIO ASTRONOMY 44,572

Professor M J Buckingham ON AN AUSTRALIA WIDE BASELINE

University of Western Australia Very Long Baseline Inteferometry enables coordinated, widely spaced radio telescopes to make measurements of stars, galaxies and quasars of unprecedented precision. Applied

to the earth, they can measure continental drift, which ultimately should lead to improved earthquake prediction. The project, part of an Australia-wide collaboration between five institutions will combine the European Space Agency

antenna at Perth, and the ultra-stable sapphire clock developed at the University of Western Australia, to make the first ever measurements on an Australia wide baseline, to study a range of key objects in the Southern skies,

including the enigmatic nucleus of our own galaxy.

Dr P S Cally FORCE AND ENERGY BALANCE IN MAGNETIC 33,115

STRUCTURES IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

Monash University A class of numerical methods for calculating 2D and 3D thermal and hydromagnetic equilibria with pressure boundary conditions has been developed by the applicant. It is

proposed to further develop and extend these methods and to apply them to various emergent field structures in the solar atmosphere, such as the network and coronal loops and arcades. It is important to understand the effects of

localized magnetic structure if we are to comprehend the overall energy balance in the solar atmosphere, and interpret our observations of it correctly. Spin-offs for fusion research are anticipated.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Dr R W Clay VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA RAY ASTRONOMY 75,200

Dr A G Gregory Dr J R Patterson

Adelaide University A research program in the promising new field of very high energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy will begin at Woomera in 1988 when the University of Adelaide Bicentennial Gamma-Ray

Telescope is commissioned. By study of Supernova 1987A, X-ray stars and pulsars we hope to learn how nature produces radiation at energies beyond the capabilities of man-made accelerators and to enhance Australia's international reputation in Astronomy.

. .. Cont/.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Astronomy and Cosmic Rays (Contd)

Dr R W Clay EXTENSIVE AIR SHOWERS AT PEV ENERGIES

Adelaide University Extensive air showers are the cascades of secondary particles produced when primary cosmic ray particles are

This project continues work carried out at the Buckland Park air shower array to search for point sources of cosmic gamma rays, to study conditions at the particle sources through

the magnetic fields in our galaxy and to study conditions at the particle sources through the energy spectra of the particles.

Professor L E Cram OBSERVATION OF COSMIC RADIO EMISSION Dr J G Robertson Dr Μ I Large

Sydney University The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is one of the largest and most sensitive radio telescopes in the world. Operating at 843 MHz, MOST gives a point on the electromagnetic spectrum which is of great importance in

helping to understand the physical processes at work in many celestial objects. Through its observations of radio emissions from galaxies and other cosmic sources MOST makes

a key contribution to Australian excellence in Astronomy, it helps us understand better our place in the cosmos, and it offers opportunities to test fundamental physical theory in unusual conditions.

Prof J Davis VERY HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION STELLAR Dr W J Tango INTERFEROMETER PROGRAMME

Sydney University The new stellar interferometer, funded by the ARGC/ARC and the University of Sydney, has greater angular resolving power than any existing or proposed instrument anywhere in the world. The new instrument, due to be commissioned in

1990, will be used in a wide range of fundamental astronomical programs including studies of the atmospheres, structure and evolution of stars and to improve the calibration of the distance scale of the universe. Many of these studies are not possible by any other means.

31,812

incide

120,000

100,000

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Astronomy and Cosmic Rays (Contd)

Dr K B Fenton COSMIC RAYS IN THE HELIOSPHERE 31,000

Dr J E Humble Dr A G Fenton

University of Tasmania The variation of cosmic ray intensity with time will be recorded, not only to advance knowledge about the origin and propagation of cosmic rays, but also as a unique probe of

the heliosphere, the region of space permeated by the solar wind - a high speed outward flow of low density ionised gases from the sun, carrying magnetic fields with it. This

project is a contribution to a major international study of the sun-earth environment. It has implications for radiation levels at spacecraft such as the Aussat communication satellites.

Dr K B Fenton ENERGETIC PARTICLE DETECTOR FOR AUSSAT SPACECRAFT 80,756

University of Tasmania The objective is to study the energetic particles in cosmic rays, solar flares and geomagnetic storms by continuously observing from the AUSSAT C-l satellite and to correlate

spacecraft anomalies with the fluxes of these particles. The study is part of the basic research on the nearest natural accelerators, the Earth's magnetosphere and the Sun,

and the applied research on the effects of energetic particles on spacecraft electronics.

I ,

Dr - Dr

Hamilton McCulloch

OBSERVATIONS IN RADIO ASTRONOMY 118,532

1 University of Tasmania The project will study the distribution of, and the emission by, pulsating radio sources (pulsars) in this and other galaxies. It tackles an area of fundamental physics

(generation of electromagnetic radiation) and two basic areas of astro-physics (stellar evolution, diffuse matter between stars). The techniques used are of wider interest in signal processing.

Dr D I Olsson-steel br W G Elford STUDIES OF AND COMETS

EARTH-APPROACHING ASTEROIDS 44,237

Adelaide University There are believed to be many thousands of large primeval bodies in space (asteroids and comets) which cross the Earth's orbit, occasionally colliding with us to cause widespread destruction (e.g. the demise of the dinosaurs). These objects will also be the source of raw materials for

space engineering in the next century. This project will increase our understanding of asteroids and comets by performing a search for unknown objects in the southern sky, ... Cont/.

Astronomy and Cosmic Rays (Contd)

and also investigating their origin and evolution: involvement in NASA/ESA missions is planned.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Dr D E Rees MAGNETIC STRUCTURES OF THE SOLAR

Dr C J Durrant ATMOSPHERE

Dr D J Galloway

Sydney University The magnetic field on the surface of the sun is inferred from polarization measurements in solar spectral lines. This information, coupled with numerical simulations of solar magneto-hydrodynamic processes, will elucidate the structure and energetics of solar active regions and aid the prediction of explosive phenomena such as solar flares which

impinge directly on the terrestrial environment. Such studies also increase our understanding of plasma-magnetic field interaction, a process central to the development of controlled nuclear fusion.

Instruments and Techniques

Professor M J Buckingham APPLICATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN Dr D G Blair ULTRA HIGH STABILITY MICROWAVE

SOURCE

University of Western Australia The available precision in time and frequency measurement is the limiting factor in many areas of space technology, geophysical sensing, radio astronomy and even earthquake

forecasting; also in experimental access to fundamental areas such as general relativity and gravitation. This project, supported by grants since 1985, has already led to the successful development of an ultra stable source now available. It is expected that further advances will permit, for the first time under controlled laboratory conditions, important experiments previously only possible

in high flying aircraft or satellites.

Professor A J Guttmann QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS AND THE POTTS MODEL

The University of Melbourne QCD is the theory of strong interactions that bind nuclear matter. At extremely high temperatures and pressures a phase transition from a confined (localized) state to a deconfined (unlocalized) state occurs. This transition is of fundamental importance to e.g. the structure of the early universe, heavy-ion collisions. Its nature is controversial. By studying the related Potts model in 3 dimensions we hope to resolve this controversy. Additionally, many new results and applications of the Potts model are expected. The Potts model has wide application to

... Cont/.

solid-state physics (structural transitions, liquid crystals etc) .

' GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Instruments and Techniques (Contd)

Dr T J Hicks MAGNETISM AND DIFFUSE NEUTRON 83,788

SCATTERING

Monash University Of the three particle probes of materials (electron x-ray) the neutron is the only one sensitive to local magnetism. Analysis of the polarisation (which way their magnetic moments point) of neutron scattered from magnetic materials

isolates the magnetic component. This is particularly important for disordered magnetic materials and the magnetic neutron scattering can be directly compared with bulk magnetic measurements.

Professor J C Kelly LASER BEAM ACTIVATED ION SOURCE 34,523 Professor H Hora

University of N.S.W High power laser pulses generate highly charged ions from solids. We have patented a method of using them as an ion source for accelerators and ion implanters to greatly

increase the energy and versatility of these machines. Recent Russian work supports our predictions and we now have a suitable accelerator to work with. This project, to build such an ion source on our accelerator, will add considerably

to the knowledge of basic laser-solid interactions and should result in a commercial ion source with an international market.

Dr G J Legge MICROANALYTICAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME: 90,181

1. BASIC DEVELOPMENT (ION OPTICS, BEAM INTERACTIONS, IMAGING)2. APPLICATIONS (BIOMED, MINERALS, MATERIALS ANALYSIS)

The University of Melbourne Basic research in ion optics, beam interactions and imaging, leading to continual development of a microanalytical research programme in biomedicine, minerals, materials analysis and microelectronics, as well as providing a unique

analytical service to Australian industry and an export industry in which the export dollars for a single sale exceed the total request for this 6 year grant.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

instruments and Techniques (Contd)

Dr K A Nugent NEAR-FIELD FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY 45,000

The University of Melbourne This project will investigate the possibility of constructing a new form of optical microscope that will be able to image the distribution of fluorescent molecules with

far greater resolution than previously possible and with a minimum of interference with the sample.

Professor C J Sheppard THREE-DIMENSIONAL MICROSCOPIC 50,000 RECONSTRUCTION

Sydney University Confocal microscopy is rapidly gaining importance in biomedical, materials and semiconductor device studies. This is primarily because of its capability for forming three-dimensional images. However, there are still difficulties in interpretation of confocal reflection

images. The aim of this work is to extend the applicability of confocal methods for biomedical imaging and industrial inspection by combining laser imaging and digital processing, and to develop new instrumental techniques based on these methods.

Other (Physical Sciences)

Professor M J Buckingham EXPERIMENTS IN GRAVITATIONAL 142,716 Dr C Edwards RADIATION DETECTION

Dr D G Blair

University of Western Australia The detection of gravitational radiation, predicted by Einstein, but not yet observed, posed one of today's major challenges to physics. This project is part of a world wide network of laboratories taking up the challenge. It

involves the development of a niobium antenna, and of ultra sensitive superconducting microwave motion sensors, and associated vibration isolators, sapphire frequency stabilisation devices and ultra-low noise amplifiers. The research, while leading to improved sensitivity and ultimately to the development of gravitational radiation astronomy, will also lead to greatly improved devices relevant to various other areas of advanced technology.

w

Other (Physical Sciences) (Contd)

ir J R Laeter ISOTOPIC ANOMALIES IN INTERSTELLAR Ir K J Rosman METEORITIC MATERIAL

lurtin University of Technology The recent discovery that well-preserved interstellar grains exist in primitive meteorites - in diamonds, silicon carbide and amorphous carbon phases - provide the opportunity to examine the nucleosynthetic processes which have produced

solar system material. An international consortium from Chicago, California, Curtin and the Open University will measure the isotopic composition of a number of elements to define isotopic anomalies which can identify specific

astrophysical and cosmochemical processes.

;ROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Professor F D Stacey GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE LAW 3r G J Tuck OF GRAVITY

Queensland University Measurements of the constant in Newton's law of gravity are being made on scales between 10m and many kilometres to check the possibility that the value which is effective at

large mass separations differs from the value measured in laboratories. The measurements provide tests for a postulated fifth fundamental force in Nature or for a quantum theory of gravity.

Dr W Van Megen PARTICLE DYNAMICS IN CONCENTRATED DISPERSIONS

R.M.I.T. This project aims to use laser light scattering to study the dynamics of particles in concentrated dispersions composed of near micron sized spherical particles dispersed in a

liquid. These laboratory prepared prototype dispersions not only present a model for the more complex industrial and naturally occurring colloidal dispersions, but also serve as model fluids in which phase transitions can be observed in

real time.

Dr C 0 Weiss NONLINEAR DYNAMICS IN SINGLE AND Dr N R Heckenberg MULTIMODE LASER SYSTEMS Dr B S Frost

Queensland University Chaos (deterministic yet unpredictable behaviour) poses a major problem in our understanding of nature and can be more easily studied in lasers than in more complex systems like

turbulence fluid flow or economics. Experimental studies of a laser system already shown by one of us to exhibit the dynamical properties of the Lorenz model of fluid turbulence will help clarify the relationship between mathematical models and real systems, especially in the presence of external disturbances. Studies of more complex multi-mode

... Cont/.

50,000

63,726

17,000

65,000

Other (Physical Sciences) (Contd)

systems will build on this and lead to an understanding of spatial pattern dynamics.

Professor L R White FRACTAL PHENOMENA AND INTERFACIAL 44,11! Dr D Y Chan CONTINUUM MECHANICS

Dr B D Hughes

The University of Melbourne

A1 gebraic Structures

Dr R A Bryce THE SUBNORMAL STRUCTURE OF A SOLUBLE 16,001

Dr P J Cossey GROUP

Australian National University An important aspect of the study of groups concerns their so-called subnormal subgroups. This is of particular importance in the theory of soluble groups because of the wide range of methods available for studying them. Much work has been done on groups whose subnormal subgroups have bounded defect. However this invariant does not seem to

sufficiently limit the structure of the group. Recently another invariant, the so-called Wielandt length, has been shown to effect other structural properties much more directly. It warrants much more detailed investigation.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Professor G M Kelly APPLICATIONS OF ENRICHED CATEGORIES 118,90: Dr R F Walters AND BICATEGORIES TO ALGEBRA, GEOMETRY AND LOGIC

Sydney University Category theory is the most recent and most successful aspect of the logic of mathematics, whose purpose it is to clarify and simplify the learning, use, and development of mathematics, and which is guite essential to rational

progress in the science. Our research group is involved in applying the new generation of category theory - much of which we have developed here at Sydney - to important problems in algebra, geometry, logic and computer science. The health of mathematics in Australia is essential to our health in science generally; moreover, computer science is now calling heavily on the insights provided by category theory.

JROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

algebraic Structures (Contd)

Professor C E Praeger GROUPS, COMBINATORIAL STRUCTURES, AND 3r T Penttila COMPUTATION

jniversity of Western Australia The project addresses several fundamental unsolved problems in the fields of permutation group theory and finite geometry, for example classification problems for primitive

permutation groups and for ovoids in projective space. It also aims at developing new techniques for studying certain classes of designs and graphs. The solutions to some of these problems are expected to require extensive calculations by computer. Studies of this kind have highlighted the need for new efficient computational

techniques for working with groups on computers. The investigators aim to develop and implement some new algorithms and to improve some existing algorithms for machine computations with groups.

Computational Algebra, Mathematical Computer Science

Dr M W Bunder COMBINATORS, TYPES AND APPLICATIONS.

Wollongong University This project aims at joint research between three of the world's most expert workers in the areas of combinatory logic, lambda calculus and type theory. Combinatory logic

and lambda calculus form the basis for applicative computer languages such as LISP, Miranda and ML. Type theory can be built on either theory and is used as part of the modern languages as well as a verification tool. We expect valuable advances thanks to the participants common, as well

as complementary, expertise in these areas. Extensions of applicative languages to allow for parallel computing are also to be considered.

functional and Harmonic Analysis

rofessor M G Cowling ASYMPTOTICS OF OSCILLATORY INTEGRALS

University of N.S.W Oscillatory integrals arise in many areas, including Fourier analysis and differential equations in mathematics, and optics and quantum mechanics in physics. They are integrals of the form ... exp(i...f(x)) g(x)dx, where x is a real variable or a vector variable. When the "phase function" f

is very simple, it is possible to establish approximate formulae for the value of the integral for large values of the parameter ... . This project aims to give information about the behaviour of these integrals for more complex phase functions.

. .. Cont/.

15,000

15,000

20,000

functional and Hazwonic Analysis (Contd)

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Assoc Prof A G McIntosh MULTILINEAR OPERATORS AND APPLICATIONS TO PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Macquarie University This project concerns the use of multilinear operators to prove the L-p boundedness of certain singular integral operators and to solve other problems arising from partial differential equations. These equations include those describing the temperature distribution inside irregular shaped bodies, and the equations include those describing the temperature distribution inside irregular shaped bodies, and the equations of elastostatics for such bodies. The estimates obtained imply that if the temperature (say) on the surface of the body is known approximately but not precisely, then the errors obtained on computing the temperature inside the body are only small.

Professor W Moran C*-ALGEBRAS AND GROUP ACTIONS Professor C A Hurst Dr A L Carey

Adelaide University A fundamental problem in all application of mathematics to physics is that of predicting, given the state of cophysical system at the present time, what state it will evolve to in the future. This project aims to study the aspects of this dynamical problem for a variety of mathematical systems which relate: (i) electrical conductivity and related

properties of crystals; (ii) the description of magnetic properties of matter; (iii) the properties of mathematical models of elementary particles.

Dr I Raeburn ALGEBRAIC METHODS IN MODERN ANALYSIS Dr C E Sutherland

University of N.S.W We propose to apply algebraic techniques to problems in analysis involving high degrees of symmetry; such questions frequently arise, for example, in the mathematical formalism of quantum physics. This project will involve ideas from several different branches of mathematics, and we expect the results to enhance substantially the mathematical exploitation of symmetry in topology and ergodic theory as well as analysis.

w

C-ROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Humber Theory

Assoc Prof J M Mack EFFECTIVE ALGORITHMS FOR ALGEBRAIC C-r J J Cannon NUMBER FIELDS

Sydney University Successful completion of this project will produce a versatile, high-quality algebraic number field (ANF) facility within a general computational algebra system

equipped with a high-level programming language (being developed with ARC support) designed for algebraic computing. This practical combination of features will enable the system to be applied to significant problems in many area, including some where progress is delayed by a

lack of efficient computational ability in ANFs.

Differential Equations, Geometry and Topology

Dr I Aitchison JONES/WRITTEN POLYNOMIALS AND 3-MANIFOLDS: TOPOLOGY AND GEOMETRY OF 3-MANIFOLDS, AND INVARIANTS FROM QUANTUM FIELD THEORY

The University of Melbourne A soap bubble wobbling in a breeze represents a 2- dimensional form, which can take a perfect spherical geometric shape. Thurston has conjectured that all

3- dimensional forms are made from pieces which also have natural geometric shapes. Witten, using remarkable techniques of elementary particle physics and models of high temperature Superconductivity, has associated numbers to

3-dimensional forms. We investigate how these relate to the possible shapes of 3-space, and what they tell us of the structure of space and time.

Dr N R 0'Brian NON-LINEAR MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER Dr M J Field GRAPHICS

Dr D J Galloway

Sydney University The project is a numerical and theoretical investigation of turbulent and pre-turbulent phenomena in non-linear systems. An essential part of the project is the development, in collaboration with local research and development enterprises, of high resolution graphics and image processing techniques for the experimental study of

turbulence and the representation of 3-dimensional images. The project will make a major contribution to the study of non-linear systems in Australia, and has a number of possible commercial applications.

37,000

36,000

55,000

Statistical Theory and Applications

Dr p Hall COMPUTER INTENSIVE STATISTICAL METHODS Dr T J Oneill IN REGRESSION

Dr A H Welsh

Australian National University The aim of the project is the practical implementation, confirmation and extension of recent theoretical advances in Computer Intensive Statistical Methods in Regression. The project will span several contemporary areas using the bootstrap method as a common thread. The procedures which we develop will utilize both the computational and graphic power of the modern workstation.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Professor P G Hall COMPUTER INTENSIVE STATISTICAL Dr G K Eagleson METHODS IN CURVE ESTIMATION Professor R Kohn

Australian National University The project will develop a common visitors' programme in curve estimation, bringing together two geographically separated research groups at ANU and AGSM. The questions under investigation provide invaluable insight into contemporary problems in statistical estimation and

smoothing, including construction of confidence bands, adaptive smoothing, efficient algorithms and outlier detection. The visitors' programme will promote collaborative work on these problems.

Asst Professor Η M Hudson STATISTICAL ALGORITHMS FOR IMAGE Dr L G Harney RECONSTRUCTION FROM PROJECTIONS Mr B F Hutton

Macquarie University We develop a technology necessary for the improvement in quality of computer images of internal body structure which are obtained from CAT scans and related medical imaging

systems.

Professor A T James STATISTICAL MODELLING OF

INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM

Adelaide University Mitochondria generate the aerobic power in the cells of plants and animals. From experiments whose data is analysed on the computer by statistical methods, formulae are sought

for the potential (analogous to voltage) and flux (analogous to current) of the power, and its distribution within the cell according to immediate priorities. Formulae are also sought for the rates of fuel and Oxygen consumption and the

fluxes and concentrations of intermediates. Quantitative mitochondrial performance is fundamental to most sciences involving plant, animal or human physiology. ... Cont/.

Statistical Theory and Applications (Contd)

3R0UP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

professor R Kohn Dr S J Sheather

University of N.S.W This project will devise and implement efficient methods for identifying outliers and points of high leverage in regression models, time series models, and nonparametric

regression models. Such models are extensively used in a number of fields including finance, marketing engineering and the biological sciences and the purpose of the proposed diagnostics is to identify those data points that are far

from the model or have an undue influence on its fit.

DETECTION OF OUTLIERS AND LEVERAGE POINTS IN REGRESSION, NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION AND TIME SERIES MODELS.

Optimisation, Control Theory, Numerical Analysis

Dr R S Womersley THE ANALYSIS OF COMBINATORIAL AND Dr L Qi NONSMOOTH OPTIMIZATION AND OPTIMAL

Dr J M Murray CONTROL PROBLEMS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTATIONAL METHODS.

University of N.S.W Optimization and optimal control problems are concerned with finding the "best" choice of parameters or variables in a problem subject to whatever limiting constraints are

involved. Such problems arise every day as management and technical decisions in engineering and commerce, and often involve yes/no decisions. They have a broad range of

applications including engineering design, investment portfolio management, resource allocation, factory location and management. This project deals with the analysis of such problems, and the development of computational methods

for solving them.

Applied mathematics

Professor Μ N Barber PHASE FIELD MODELS OF SOLIDIFICATION

Australian National University Solidification is the basis of many processes in metallurgy and materials science. This project aims to mathematically analyse a class of models of the evolution of solidification

fronts. The major objectives are to increase our understanding of the physical factors controlling the dynamics of solidification and to generate mathematical and computational models capable of application to situations of practical metallurgical interest.

i i

16,000

55,000

46,000

Applied mathematics (Contd)

Professor L Bass QUANTIFICATION OF BIODYNAMIC FLUXES Dr A J Bracken

Queensland University Fluxes of molecules exchanged between blood and organ tissues are modulated by I, manifolding of blood through capillary beds, II, binding to circulating plasma proteins, and III, membrane transport. Clinically applicable quantification of the fluxes, by mathematical modelling of

I-III, in physiological settings, are proposed, involving novel developments in applied mathematics. The resulting predictions, checked on published data from normal cases, will test the validity and applicability of old and new

theories of the modulations.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Professor R B Potts DISCRETE CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS

Adelaide University Robots are being increasingly used in industry, for welding, machine assembly, spray painting and (possibly in the future) sheep shearing. The project is aimed to help design computer control systems which will enable robots to operate economically and efficiently.

Ma thematics (Other)

Dr B M Brown COMPUTATION & CONVEX OPTIMIZATION

IN STATISTICS

University of Tasmania Computational problems have been the predominant influence in the development of statistics ever since its beginnings early this Century. The traditional least-squares normal theory methods were computationally possible in pre-computer days; extensions in post computer days to other, such as

robust and distribution-free methods, remain governed by the formation of well-posed, regular mathematical optimization problems. Programming and computation assistance is requested to develop several lines of associated research, with diverse and significant applications.

Professor G Brown TRIGONOMETRIC SUMS AND APPLICATIONS

University of N.S.W When a complex trace on an oscilloscope can be analysed as a sum of pure (trigonometric) wave patterns, the components may flag impurities in a coal sample or identify the cause of an abnormal ECG. Here we assume knowledge of the components and established mathematical inequalities for the resultant trigonometric sums. The immediate applications are to general spectral analysis and we have a particular interest

... Cont/.

35, 000

24,155

36,406

36,736

Mathematics (Other) (Contd)

in investigating the links with ultrasound technology.

professor G Brown DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBERS AND 26,000

Professor J H Loxton PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS Professor W Moran

University of N.S.W This investigation combines the methods of number theory and functional analysis to uncover properties of the distribution of numbers and the arithmetical characteristics of digital sequences generated by automata. Such studies

are fundamental to information technology and numerical applications of mathematics.

Professor G Brown DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND INDUCTIVE 62,323 Dr I Raeburn STRUCTURES

Dr C E Sutherland

University of N.S.W Dynamical Systems are mathematical models of the time evolution of physical configurations. This is the formalism required to describe quantum physics, the onset of turbulence in liquids, or chaos in biological populations.

In this project we analyse the structure of complex dynamical systems which can be well approximated by simple ones. This should unlock some of the mysteries of mathematical ergodic theory and in consequence the physics

it models.

Professor T C Brown STATISTICAL APPROACHES TO IMAGE 29,000

ANALYSIS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EDGES

University of Western Australia The problem of analysing visual or other images is of fundamental importance in many fields, such as robotics, medical diagnosis, understanding human vision and use of

satellites in agriculture and mineral exploration. The images are encoded as a lattice of numbers. The project uses mathematical models which have provided spectacular new methods of image reconstruction, as well as deepening understanding of existing methods. This project concentrates on edge detection algorithms and their properties and on statistical and geometric properties of the reconstructed images.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Mathematics (Other) (Contd)

Dr A L Carey INDEX THEORY AND APPLICATIONS

Dr R J Crewther Dr M G Eastwood

Adelaide University The use of invariants of operators particularly the index and n-invariant, in quantum field theory and solid state physics, has proved a powerful method of describing a variety of phenomena. This project has grown from

suggestions in the recent literature of applications to low temperature conductors (the quantum Hall effect) and to theoretical analysis of polymers. Our aim is to initially understand some questions in a mathematical context where

the techniques are better understood and then to consider physical applications.

Professor M G Cowling HARMONIC ANALYSIS ON PARTICULAR LIE Dr A H Dooley GROUPS

Professor G I Gaudry

University of N.S.W Lie groups generalise continuous symmetries, such as rotations, shears, and translations. Harmonic analysis aims to resolve complex phenomena, such as planetary motion, into superpositions of simple and understandable phenomena, such as circular motions. This project aims to improve our understanding of how to resolve complex phenomena in the presence of symmetries into simple phenomena reflecting those symmetries.

Dr P G Dodds NON-COMMUTATIVE BANACH FUNCTION

SPACES

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Flinders University The project seeks to extend the well known duality theory for rearrangement invariant Banach function spaces to the non-commutative setting. The significance of the project

lies in that it will not only provide a direct and unified treatment of, but will also yield considerable insight into, many results in the literature concerning trace ideals on one hand and rearrangement invariant spaces on the other, at

a level of generality that has been made possible by earlier work supported by ARCS, and it will establish a basis for the further study of positive operators on non-commutative Banach function spaces.

Hathematics (Other) (Contd)

Dr M G Eastwood TWISTOR THEORY ON COMPLEX HOMOGENEOUS SPACES AND CONFORMAL GEOMETRY

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Adelaide University Twistor Theory on Complex Homogenous Spaces: Twistor theory was introduced by Roger Penrose about twenty years ago as a reformulation of some of the fundamental building blocks of modern physics. This approach has scored notable successes

in mathematical physics but has also had a considerable impact on pure mathematics. This project mainly concerns the interaction between twistor theory and the representation theory of complex semisimple Lie groups. Cross fertilization between different disciplines, in this case mathematics and physics, has always been crucial in

scientific development. It is important for Australia to be involved.

Ir J A Eccleston OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN FOR NEIGHBOUR METHODS

Bond University The most significant advance in recent times in the analysis of crop variety field trials has been the development of neighbour methods. These methods are specific examples of a general class of model with time of spatially related data, and is proposed to investigate these with regard to field trials. Further it is intended to develop optimal designs

for neighbour methods. This research should be important to the agricultural industry and also for experiments with time or spatially related data, in general.

Professor R H Grimshaw NON LINEAR HYDRODYNAMIC STABILITY Dr P j Blennerhassett

University of N.S.W Understanding the transition to turbulence is one of the most important topics in current fluid dynamics research. From the engineering point of view, large amounts of power

could be saved if transition to turbulence could be controlled. This project seeks to derive amplitude equations for actual fluid flows, so that a quantitative comparison of theory and experiment can be made in the

region of the transition to chaotic fluid motion. Initial studies will consider Rayleigh-Benard convection in finite containers, and three dimensional effects in fluid flows.

15,000

8,000

33,163

i

Mathematics (Other) (Contd)

Dr J M Hill INTEGRAL FORMULATIONS AND BOUNDS FOR 29,000

HEAT DIFFUSION MOVING BOUNDARY PROBLEMS

Wollongong University Moving boundary problems occur in many practical problems. For example casting thermoplastics or metal, freezing or thawing of foods and the production of ice. In chemical engineering the flow of a fluid through a packed bed of chemically reacting particles is a common process and a moving boundary problem occurs within each particle (usually

assumed spherical). The number of exact solutions to such problems is limited and therefore some approximate procedure is necessary. The proposed research will develop simple upper and lower bounds by means of integral formulation of

the problem.

Dr G Huisken A NUMERICAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF 26,075

Dr J Hutchinson MODELS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF INTERFACES Dr S G Roberts

Australian National University We propose to study theoretical and numerical aspects of the evolution of surfaces under forces determined by the curvature of the surface and by an exterior field. Such problems arise in mathematical models of physical processes

such as crystal growth; the project aims to develop a better understanding of observed natural phenomena, such as fingering, through mathematical analysis coupled with computer simulations in two and three dimensions. Therefore we are seeking funding for the equipment necessary to calculate and graphically display these simulations essential to our project.

Professor R Kohn CONSTRUCTION OF EFFICIENT FILTERING 16,000 AND SMOOTHING ALGORITHMS FOR STATE SPACE MODELS

University of N.S.W The proposed research will develop efficient and general algorithms for filtering and smoothing in state space models. These algorithms will then be applied to model time series data by both maximum likelihood and by Bayesian methods, to smooth data non-parametrically by spline smoothing, and also compute efficiently p-values for the Durbin Watson test statistic and similar locally best invarient test statistics. The key to our approach is the unified nature of the algorithms we propose and their application to a large number of problems.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Mathematics (Other) (Contd)

ASSOC Prof C A McGilchrist ANALYSIS OF REPEATED MEASURES IN 17,000 SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENTS

University of N.S.W Repeated measures are observations on the same experimental unit at successive times. They occur in the study of growth of plants and animals, in the patterning of plant yield in a

field. They also occur in medical studies as response to a stimulus or as successive failure times when patients may have more than one failure (illness). In such data, both the deterministic effects and the random between and within unit variability are to be modelled.

Dr P K Pollett METHODS FOR APPROXIMATING THE 36,874

BEHAVIOUR OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES AND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Queensland University We shall develop approximation techniques for analysing statistical models of a variety of chemical and ecological processes. In addition to being of theoretical interest,

they will be appropriate for determining reaction rates and reactant concentrations in chemical processes as well as determining the extent of random fluctuations in the size of animal populations. The methods will be of use in pathology, for example in decreasing the time taken to

perform various diagnostic tests, in the study of populations of insect parasites, in wildlife management and in the management of fish stocks.

Professor J H Rubinstein PIECEWISE LINEAR CURVATURE AND THE 16,688 Dr I Aitchison STRUCTURE OF MANIFOLDS

The University of Melbourne Recently we have developed new polyhedral theories of minimal surfaces and curvature of manifolds. Both theories have important implications for the structure and

classification of manifolds.

One of the major aims of this project is to investigate if general 3-manifolds can be decomposed into pieces admitting polyhedral geometric structures. The other is to develop efficient algorithms for describing normal and PL minimal

surfaces, with a solution of the recognition problem for the 3 -sphere as an end product.

I

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Mathematics (Other) (Contd)

Professor I H Sloan NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR INTEGRALS, INTEGRALS EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS

University of N.S.W This program is concerned with the development and analysis of innovative numerical methods for some of the great problems of science and engineering. Many such problems are

"boundary-value problems" for a smoothly varying quantity such as temperature or electric field. Many others involve numerical integration, sometimes with respect to many variables. New methods for such problems have been discovered, and are now under active investigation. Ultimate applications could include problems such as the calculation of stress in structures; the flow of air around supersonic aircraft, the diffusion of neutrons in a reactor; and the interaction of molecules in a laser.

Professor A P Street ADVANCED COMBINATORIAL DESIGNS

Queensland University Combinatorial designs have applications in the transmission of information and in the planning and layout of experiments in agriculture and medicine. They are also of theoretical

interest in relation to both algebras and finite geometry. This project aims at studying the construction and properties of such designs.

Professor A J Van Der Poort ARITHMETIC, AUTOMATA AND POWER SERIES

Macquarie University The interplay between arithmetic and analysis inherent in the present studies is of fundamental and classical interest and helps to retrieve the essential unity of the subject. Results in the theory of diophantine approximation - where one studies problems subject to arithmetic constraints - pertain to an inner understanding of the nature of numbers per se and apply to a wide range of mathematical and physical questions. Finite automata, which manifest themselves as algebraicity, provide insight into the realm of dynamical chaos. Formal languages, which had their genesis in biological studies, appear as an interpretation of power series. Related complexity results are of interest

in abstract computer science.

GROUP - Physical Sciences (Contd)

Mathematics (Other) (Contd)

Professor G E Wall ALGEBRAIC ALGORITHMS AND THEIR Dr J J Cannon APPLICATIONS

Dr G Butler

Sydney University The project has two main aims: (i) The design and implementation of efficient computer algorithms for certain critical tasks in higher algebra. (ii) The application of

these algorithms to study and solve certain problems in the theory of groups and related areas.

The algorithms are widely available to teachers, scientists, engineers, and researchers as part of the Cayley system, and have real-world applications to coding theory, data encryption, communication network design, and solid state physics.

Dr G P Whittle THE CRITICAL PROBLEM FOR MATROIDS AND DOWLING GROUP GEOMETRIES

University of Tasmania The critical problem for matroids provides a natural and unified setting for a broad range of extreme combinatorial problems. The chief investigator has recently related the

study of the critical problem to the class of Dowling group geometries. The critical problem has applications in the theory of graph colourings, coding theory (the study of the efficient transmission of data through a "noisy" channel),

network flows, statistics and percolations. Progress in this problem can therefore have important consequences.

u

40,464

42,306

t

GROUP - Social Sciences

Personality and Social Psychology

professor N T Feather STUDIES OF HUMAN VALUES

Flinders University This project is a continuation of a programme of research into basic human motives and values. It is concerned with how values can be classified in relation to different domains (e.g. achievement, social power, restrictive conformity) and with how values and motives influence behaviour (e.g. job-seeking among the unemployed). The project will also explore variables that relate to

goal-direction in the use of time and characteristics of the Type A personality (achievement striving, anger-irritability) that may influence behaviour and health in organizational and laboratory settings.

Assoc Prof J P Forgas UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL EVENTS

University of N.S.W Effective social behaviour is dependent on our ability to correctly understand and interpret social events around us. This project seeks to discover the information processing strategies and skills used by people to construct a mental model of a social event. The proposed experiments address

two related issues: (1) the cognitive principles underlying event representations, and (2) the influence of the characteristics of an observer, such as attitudes, values, and feelings on event comprehension.

Dr C Gallois Assoc Prof V J Callan

Queensland University As Australian colleges and universities encourage more overseas students to study here, we need to prepare these students, as well as Australian students and economic staff,

for the communication problems that can occur in countries between people from different cultural backgrounds. This project examines the expectations and rules about speech and non-verbal communication that Australian students,

lecturers, and overseas students hold, as well as how they react to each other's communication. The project will contribute significantly to the further development of communication skills programmes currently run by Australian universities and colleges for new overseas students.

THE COMMUNICATION-BASED PROBLEMS OF OVERSEAS STUDENTS IN AUSTRALIA: THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH AUSTRALIAN ACADEMIC STAFF AND STUDENTS

42, 0 0 0

20,000

3 3 , 4 2 6

!

Personality and Social Psychology (ContdJ

Dr M A Hogg GROUP SOLIDARITY: BELONGING AND

LIKING IN SOCIAL GROUPS

The University of Melbourne People derive a sense of identity from belonging to a group, and generally like fellow members. While we know that identity, liking solidarity and cohesiveness characterise groups we are unsure of the psychological relationship between these features. For example, does liking generate

identity or is it vice versa? What psychological processes intervene? Is there a qualitative difference between liking close friends, and liking fellow group members? In exploring these questions, and the social psychological

nature of group membership in general, the project will have immediate relevance for attempts to foster harmony and improve group atmosphere, productivity and efficiency within

groups as diverse as work teams and ethnic groups.

Dr J M Innes POLITICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THE STRUCTURE AND EXTREMITY OF POLITICAL BELIEFS: THE ROLE OF AFFECTIVE AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN THE FUNCTION OF ATTITUDES

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Adelaide University The role that knowledge plays in influencing the extremity of the expression of political opinion is in doubt: knowledge may act to intensify or to moderate expression. This project seeks to identify features of the social

situation, the personality of the person and the nature of the political issues and values involved which may mediate the intensity of expression of political beliefs and behaviour.

Dr J J Lokan A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CIRCUM­

SCRIPTION AND COMPROMISE PROCESSES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADOLESCENTS' OCCUPATIONAL INTERESTS & ASPIRATIONS

Aust Council For Educational Research In our technological society the 'wastage' of human potential in mathematical and scientific areas resulting from persistent sexstereotyping in occupational aspirations is a matter of concern. This study will incorporate both cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects to probe the interplay of family and personal factors, together with school and schooling factors, in the formation of young people's educational and vocational goals.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

personality and Social Psychology (ContdJ

Dr P D Renshaw AN INTEGRATIVE STUDY OF GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INDICES OF PEER RELATIONSHIP PROBLEMS

Murdoch University- Peer relationship problems during childhood predict later adult adjustment problems, particularly when the childhood problems are severe and stable. The factors which maintain the stability and severity of the problem during childhood

include individual characteristics and group characteristics. Research has focused predominantly on individual characteristics. This study focuses on group characteristics and examines the extent to which certain children are locked into negative peer relationships by the

effects of reputation and the hierarchical structure of the peer group. An increased understanding of these issues will enable educational and social agencies to assist many at risk children. : ■

Professor W A Scott ADJUSTMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR FAMILY RELATIONS

Australian National University Among the questions addressed in this investigation are the following: Under what conditions do students' academic performance and attitudes toward school reflect the

attitudes of their parents? What kind of family relations — for example, nurturant, punitive, or permissive -­ maximise the correspondence? Are the relationships between student adjustment and family patterns found in two

Australian school settings (Canberra and Brisbane) replicated in other countries -- USA Canada, Hong Kong, Taipei, Japan, and Germany? Do cross cultural differences in student adjustment parallel cross-cultural differences in

family relations?

Dr M C Sheehan A PREDICTIVE STUDY OF SOCIAL AND Dr J M Najman PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Dr V Siskind YOUNG DRINK DRIVERS

Q u e e n s l a n d University This project examines whether it is possible to predict later drink driving from personal and social characteristics measured at the pre-driving or early driving stage. Such

information would be of particular benefit to Australian and Overseas workers in designing and implementing drink driving re-education programmes.

13, 000

17, 000

20 , 6 0 0

Personality and Social Psychology (Contd)

Professor P W Sheehan HYPNOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND MEMORY DISTORTION IN HYPNOSIS

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Queensland University This project studies the factors affecting peoples' recall of events when they are questioned about them in ways that are misleading, or suggestive. The research parallels

situations that may occur in actual legal, investigative settings. The contribution of personality factors such as susceptibility to suggestion is studied, and research focuses on situations that vary in the explicitness with which misleading information is communicated. Research of

this kind into witness testimony given in hypnosis is urgently needed to provide impending legislation in this country with a sound empirical base for the guidelines that have to be drawn.

Learning, Memory and Perception

Prof B Abernethy STUDIES OF HUMAN MOVEMENT Dr R Neal

Queensland University In order to perform virtually all their day-to-day activities humans must continually regulate and time their movements on the basis of perceptual information. This project attempts to determine firstly what specific visual

features of the optic flow field humans used in order to time skilled actions and secondly how this attunement to environmental features alters as the human develops. By systematically examining how the processes of perception and action are linked it is hoped to ultimately produce

information which is of use in enhancing the performance of all visually-based timing actions.

Dr P J Broerse LOCAL AND GLOBAL ASPECTS OF FIGURE- GROUND SEGREGATION AND CONTINUOUS TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE VISUAL ARRAY

Queensland University Psychophysical measurement techniques will be used to investigate aspects of local and global processing and figure-ground segregation within the context of two theoretical approaches. One approach has its origins in the mathematics of continuous transformation geometry (i.e. Lie Transformation Groups), the other in the neurobiology of vision. The outcomes have potential implications for the elaboration of principles underlying human visual perception and its application to machine pattern recognition.

Dr B Brown THE PERCEPTUAL BASIS FOR MOBILITY

Hr K J Bowman

Queensland University of Technology We aim to examine some significant variables underlying the perception of movement and velocity, and to determine their effects on mobility. The experiments will make a

contribution to the understanding of the perception of velocity and how velocity information is used to guide young and older subjects in the visual world. These data will be important in assessment and assistance of elderly drivers

(who are over-represented in accident statistics), and in assessment of the capabilities of the visually handicapped.

Mr M J Collins VISUAL DISPLAY TERMINALS AND Dr B Brown ACCOMMODATION/VERGENCE EFFICIENCY Dr D A Atchison

Queensland University of Technology Visual display terminals have been rapidly introduced into the Australian workplace during this decade. There have been many studies reporting high rates of visual symptoms in VDT users compared with control subjects. Many suggestions

have been proposed to account for these apparent differences in symptoms caused by VDT use. We propose to investigate the accuracy of the accommodation (focusing) and vergence (eye movement) systems of the eye when a range of VDT task parameters are varied. The on-line measurements we propose

to make will provide unigue information regarding vision and visual displays.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

learning, Memory and Perception (Contd)

Professor B Crassini PROCESSING OF COLOUR AND FORM IN THE Dr P Flanagan HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM: INTERACTION Dr W R Webster BETWEEN COLOUR-ALONE AND COLOUR-FORM MECHANISMS

Deakin University The importance of colour in visual perception is reflected in its use to code important information, and the rigorous tests for colour vision that apply in certain occupations. The recent claims that have been made that there are

separate mechanisms for processing colour and form have important consequences for our understanding of how colour and form are processed together. The aim of this project is to investigate these claims by studying the interaction of colour-alone and form-alone mechanisms. A further aim is to explore the possibility that in addition to colour-alone and

form-alone mechanisms, there are colour-form mechanisms.

20,000

3 2 , 7 5 0

2 6 , 0 0 0

Professor R H Day PROCESSES IN ILLUSORY AND VERDICAL PERCEPTION

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

learning. Memory and Perception (Contd)

Monash University Perception guides the greater part of human behaviour. The processes involved in human perception are still far from being fully understood. One approach is to isolate and characterize the processes by means of stimulus patterns which generate perceptual illusions. In this sense

illusions provide a short-cut to an explanation of perception in its normal mode of operation.

Assoc Prof J P Forgas AFFECTIVE INFLUENCES ON SOCIAL ' COGNITION AND BEHAVIOUR

University of N.S.W Everyday emotional states may have an important influence on the kind of information people remember, the way they perceive and interpret social information, and the kind of

judgments and decisions they make. This project contains a series of experiments assessing the nature and extent of emotional influences on memory, thinking, social judgments and decisions. Methods of counteracting affective distortions in decision making and judgments, for example by personnel selection committees, will also be explored. The research will also lead to a better understanding of such clinical conditions as depression.

Professor B J Gillam THE STIMULUS DETERMINANTS OF STEREOSCOPIC DEPTH PERCEPTION

University of N.S.W Stereoscopic vision is the ability a number of species have to judge depth differences and three-dimensional surface properties by analysing the differences between the images

in the two eyes. The proposed research will investigate the degree to which this is done, not by analysing positional differences as is usually supposed, but by analysing higher order differences such as those of orientation, curvature, spatial frequency and deformation. This is an important

issue for modelling the physiology of vision, and particularly for computer vision and robotics.

Dr J H Hogben SUPPRESSION OF VISIBLE PERSISTENCE

University of Western Australia The duration for which a briefly displayed stimulus remains visible after the offset, called the duration of 'visible persistence', is considerably reduced or suppressed under conditions where the stimulus is presented within a sequence of stimuli. The purpose of this project is to examine the conditions under which suppression of visible persistence occurs and to clarify the mechanisms underlying suppression.

... Cont/.

Learning, Memory and Perception (Contd)

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

An important theoretical issue which will receive further examination is whether activity of the human motion system is necessary for suppression of persistence.

Dr S R Oldfield MECHANISMS OF SOUND LOCALISATION: Mr S Parker OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Deakin University The human observers capacity to tell the location of a sound source on the basis of auditory information alone is a fundamental perceptual process. It underlies our capacity

to concentrate on auditory events in a noisy environment and to be alerted to significant sounds in our auditory world. The present project aims to investigate the basic mechanisms underlying these processes and their development in infants. The modifications to incoming sound made by the external ear play an important part in this process and will be a focus of interest.

Dr J Predebon FAMILIAR SIZE AND DISTANCE PERCEPTION

Sydney University The ability to perceive the distance of an object is a fundamental perceptual skill. This project examines one likely source of information used by the visual system,

especially under restricted visual conditions (eg, night-time viewing). Specifically, the project evaluates whether our knowledge of the typical size of familiar objects produces a perceptual impression of distance as

distinct from helping us to infer the object's distance.

Professor J Ross QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF INHIBITION AND OF MOTION BY MEANS OF IMAGE ■ PROCESSING

University of Western Australia This project will test a model for feature detection. If successful it will shed light on how the brain analyses visual images to single out significant features. It will

also lead to more efficient methods for machine vision in industrial and other applications.

^Ssoc Prof D A Siddle EFFECTS OF STIMULUS PREEXPOSURE AND CONTEXT CHANGE ON OMISSION PRODUCED DISHABITUATION IN HUMANS

University of Tasmania When humans encounter a novel or unexpected event, they ; usually pay attention to that event; they display what is known as an "orienting response". The response consists of

easily observed behaviour such as head turning as well as less obvious changes such as an increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin. The project aims to further our ... Cont/.

28, 161

21,000

3 5 , 1 1 5

2 8 , 3 7 4

Learning, Memory and Perception (Contd)

understanding of attentional responses. Such knowledge may­ be important for our understanding of psychopathologies thought to involve an attentional deficit.

Assoc Prof D A Siddle BIOLOGICAL PREPAREDNESS, SENSITIZATION Dr P F Lovibond AND COGNITION IN HUMAN PAVLOVIAN Assoc Prof N W Bond CONDITIONING

University of Tasmania Severe fears and phobias impose considerable economic and social burdens. An important theory of the development of social and small animal phobias asserts that people are biologically prepared to associate certain events

(inter-personal stimuli such as facial expressions in the case of social phobias and snakes and spiders in the case of small animal phobias) with unpleasant outcomes. By examining this theory, our research will lead to a better understanding of the aetiology of phobias, more effective

treatment techniques, and possibly to methods of prevention.

Dr D M Thomson ASPECTS OF PERSON RECOGNITION: THE PROCESSING OF FACE, VOICE, OTHER FEATURES AND THEIR INTERACTION

Monash University The proposed research investigates factors likely to underlie person recognition, namely, facial features, voice, movement, gestures, context, the response of the person being recognised, and the inter-relationship of these

factors. The assumption underlying the proposed program of research is that each of the above factors interact and that faces may be "recognised" on a new-visual basis. The

findings will have significant theoretical implications and practical implications in the area of identification procedures in the criminal law system.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

34,000I

16,00C

Dr P M Wenderoth ANOMALOUS ILLUSIONS OF 4 0 , OOC

VISUAL DIRECTION

Sydney University Visual illusions give clues to the nature of brain mechanisms underlying visual perception. Until recently, only some illusions have been explicable in terms of known

low-level brain processes in monkeys. Now, higher level mechanisms have been discovered which may account for hitherto unexplained (or anomalous) illusions. Evidence for this has been obtained from Human observers' judgements of the apparent tilt of lines embedded in textured displays; and a new theory has been proposed which is directly testable. This project aims to discover mechanisms of human perception and may help delineate conditions necessary and sufficient for confusion and error-free perception.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

learning, Memory and Perception (Contd)

Dr R F Westbrook THE ROLE OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IN Dr J Greeley MODULATING BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS OF MORPHINE

University of N.S.W The circumstances of drug taking typically entail a contingent relation between particular stimuli, eg the taste of an alcoholic drink, and the effects produced by that drug. Accordingly, it is reasonable to suppose that such

stimuli acquire their significance, at least in part, through classical conditioning and that this process plays some role in persistent drug taking. The general aim of the project is to examine how classical conditioning modulates

the behavioural effects of morphine in the rat. The significance of the project rests, in the short term, in its potential for elucidating one of the mechanisms for behavioural tolerance, and, in the long term, in its contribution to understanding the phenomenon of relapse.

Comparative and Physioiogical Psychoiogy

Dr D M Atrens THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF ENERGY BALANCE

Sydney University There are few health issues of more general interest than obesity. However, as yet there is no good way to lose weight because metabolic compensatory mechanisms largely defeat diets and perhaps exercise regimens as well. This project

seeks to elucidate the brain mechanisms which maintain energy balance, in particular involuntary energy expenditure. Until these mechanisms are modifiable, attempts

at weight loss are doomed to failure.

Dr D R Badcock A RECEPTIVE FIELD PROFILE MODEL OF THE Professor W J Lovegrove SUSTAINED AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE PROPERTIES OF VISION IN NORMAL AND SPECIFICALLY DISABLED READERS

-he University of Melbourne A new model of the mechanisms operating at the earliest stages of the visual system is proposed. The aim is to validate this new model on people with normal vision and

then to use it to describe the unusual visual processing of people with specific reading disabilities. The theory underlying the model will then be used to produce a

computerized system that modifies text so that it will appear normal to reading disabled people. If successful this will provide both a more adequate model of the visual system and also the basis for a new remediation technique

for reading disabled people.

24, 000

61 , 0 0 0

2 4 , 5 0 0

Comparative and Physiological Psychology (ContdJ

Professor M G King ENTRAINMENT OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS BY Dr Η P Pfister BODY TEMPERATURE CONDITIONING: Professor G Singer APPLICATION TO SHIFT WORKERS

Newcastle University We have developed a technique in the rat for psychological conditioning of long-term changes in deep body temperature which over-ride the circadian rhythm. We predict that other

rhymes eg. activity/inactivity, can be entrained to the conditioned temperature change. In this event parallel conditioning procedures in shift workers could eradicate circadian dysrhythmia and as a consequence of this should result in better quality sleep at the conclusion of the

shift.

Professor M G King BEHAVIOURAL CONDITIONING OF IMMUNITY Professor A J Husband

Newcastle University Until recently mainstream Immunology for the most part treated the immune system as a "stand alone" system. Research in Psychoimmunology has shown that there is

intercommunication between the brain and the immune system which enables each to modify the other to some degree. This intercommunication raises the possibility that some psychotherapies may have some use in some immune dysfunctions.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Dr J A Trinder REGULATORY AND HOMEOSTATIC ADJUSTMENTS IN THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM DURING SLEEP ONSET: THEIR ROLES IN DISORDERS OF SLEEP

The University of Melbourne At sleep onset there are abrupt regulatory adjustments in the brain's control of physiological functions. Homeostatic responses are then activated to achieve the conditions

specified for sleep. A theory is proposed which specifies the nature of the regulatory adjustment in the respiratory system and predicts the homeostatic responses. It also predicts that these responses can fail, producing respiratory instability and insomnia. The merit of the theory is that it specifies the psychological conditions and a physiological mechanism which interact to produce respiratory failure and insomnia.

16,110

42,000

24,000

Comparative and Physiological Psychology (ContdJ

Dr R F Westbrook THE ROLE OF INCENTIVE PROCESSES IN Assoc Prof G Paxinos MODULATING EFFECTS OF CENTRALLY- ADMINISTERED MORPHINE IN THE RAT

University of N.S.W This project has two aims. The first is to investigate the hypothesis that psychoactive drugs, such as heroin, gain control over an organisms behaviour by activating an

appetite motivational system (Stewart,de Wit & Eikelboom, 1984). The second aim is to examine the claim that the appetitive properties of opiates are mediated by the release of dopamine into terminal fields of forebrain by opiate

action upon receptors, interalia, in the ventral segmental area (Wise, 1984). The general significance of this research rests in its attempt to clarify the motivational processes engaged by opiates and in the light which it may shed on the mechanisms that support persistent drug abuse and promote

relapse in detoxified addicts.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

isychopharmacolo gy

Dr S M Armstrong MELATONIN, THE PINEAL GLAND AND Dr J R Redman SYNCHRONIZATION OF MAMMALIAN CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS

Da Trobe University Disturbances to the human circadian sleep-wake cycle are found under such conditions as jet lag, rapidly rotating shiftwork schedules, some forms of sleep disorder and some

forms of affective disorder (depression). A pharmaceutical preparation capable of minimizing or re-setting or stabilizing disturbed rhythms would be of considerable

importance to the clinical practitioner. We have shown that i the pineal hormone, melatonin, can synchronize rat circadian rhythms and appears to alleviate jet lag. However, there are many unanswered questions on the specificity of

melatonin action and these need clarification.

J D Greeley THE ORGANIZATION OF ENDOGENOUS PAIN R F Westbrook REGULATION: EFFECTS OF NALOXONE AND PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING

' University of N.S.W The present experiments are aimed at understanding some of the processes by which chronic exposure to naloxone comes to produce analgesia. The significance of the project lies in

its attempt to explain this puzzle and, thereby, to ; contribute towards a deeper understanding of how the brain regulates behavioural reactions to pain. The specific aims are to determine:

a) whether contextually-controlled analgesia is mediated by an opioid system;

26,000

32,500

20,000

... Cont/.

Psychogharmacology (Contd)

b) whether acquisition of naloxone-induced analgesia is dependent upon a contingent stressor; c) whether naloxone acts upon an opioid or a nonopioid system.

Assoc Prof D H Overstreet PHARMOCOLOGICAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL· Dr A D Crocker GENETICS OF THE CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM

Flinders University Both genetic factors and increased sensitivity to cholinergic agonists have been implicated in human depressive disorders. The present project seeks to determine the genetical characteristics of cholinergic sensitivity in rats. Selectively bred and inbred rats and their genetic crosses are studied after the administration of drugs

influencing the cholinergic system and a biometrical genetic analysis of the data is carried out. Biochemical studies of brain cholinergic receptors and receptor responses are then carried out.

CROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Experimental Psychopathology

Dr P F Lovibond COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN ANXIETY

University of N.S.W The project investigates the role of threat appraisal in normal and abnormal anxiety, using psychophysiological procedures. The first series of experiments examines threat appraisal in high trait anxious and control subjects in several procedures involving ambiguous occurrence of electric shock. The second series evaluates a laboratory model of the positive feedback loop postulated to underlie

acute anxiety episodes. The research is relevant to the basic understanding of cognitive and psychophysiological processes in anxiety, and also to the treatment of anxiety disorders.

Neuropsycholo gy

Dr J L Bradshaw THE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF TACTUO-MOTOR Ms J M Pierson SELECTIVE ATTENTION IN NORMALS AND Dr N C Nettleton THOSE SUFFERING FROM HEMINEGLECT

Monash University The spatial location where attention is focused is not determined by gaze direction alone; the position of the active hand(s) is no less important, though hitherto almost

ignored. We will use the vibrotactile reaction time technique, which we have pioneered, to quantify such tactuo-motor attentional processes, in normals and in brain-damaged patients with unilateral spatial neglect. We will study the spatial and temporal properties of nonvisual

... Cont/.

30,000

18,883

24,000

lieuropsychology (Contd)

spatial attention when it is focused at one location, divided or shifted, and advise on the diagnosis, assessment and rehabilitation of neglect patients.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Professor M Coltheart SENTENCE COMPREHENSION IN APHASIA: THEORY AND THERAPY

Macquarie University A common consequence of stroke, head injury or other form of damage to the brain is that a person is left with major difficulties in using or in understanding language. Such

patients can be studied by attempting to relate their impaired language behaviour to what psychologists have learned about the processes by which we normally use or understand language. This research extends our knowledge of how language is normally processed, yields insights into the many ways in which language can be disturbed by brain

damage, and provides guidelines for rational treatment programmes for such patients.

Dr D C Finlay ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIOURAL Dr D L McElwain STUDIES OF VISUAL PERCEPTION Mr M L Manning

Newcastle University The aim of the project is to investigate motion/apparent motion behaviourally and electrophysiologically. The work will supplement, using humans, neuro-physiological and

anatomical studies on other animals which have provided some clues about the various regions of the brain responsible for motion perception. The project will help elucidate the processes underlying motion/apparent motion and will be

important in clinical applications of neuro-psychology.

Professor G M Geffen THE INTERACTION AND SPECIALIZATION OF Dr C R Clark THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES IN HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING

flinders University This project studies the relative capacity of the two cerebral hemispheres for temporal processing. The development of a psychophysically-based, event-related potential technique which investigates whether simultaneity

judgements can be made in either cerebral hemisphere and which quantifies the extent of the transfer of information between the two hemispheres may provide a non-invasive test which will assist in the early detection of diseases

involving damage to the cortical association fibres, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

37,000

32,000

41,720

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

■Til

Neuropsychology (Contd)

Professor S Schwartz EVOKED POTENTIAL INDICES OF ATTENTION 14,883 IN ATTENTION DEFICIT AND LEARNING DISABLED CHILDREN

Queensland University Children who are inattentive and lack concentration may be suffering from attention deficit disorder. This disorder, which is also known as minimal brain syndrome and

hyperactivity causes problems at home as well as at school. The research aims to provide a more precise definition of the condition using measures of brain electrical activity

known as event-related potentials (or ERPs). When linked with behavioural observations, ERPs may help to predict a child's response to different treatments.

Evaluation & Psychometrics

Professor D Andrich INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRE- 27,000 ADOLESCENT AND ADOLESCENT CHILDREN FROM PSYCHOMETRIC AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVES

Murdoch University Understanding intellectual development is central to enhancing children's learning, and thus creating an intellectually advanced society. Recent developments in guantitative methods in the social sciences permit measurements of intellectual abilities to be of a kind that

are the same, in principle, as measurements in the physical sciences. These new techniques of measurement will be applied in order to chart more accurately than has been possible hitherto, the intellectual development of children as they pass from middle childhood and through adolescence.

Dr L I Dalgleish COMPUTER INTENSIVE STATISTICAL 20,000

INFERENCE IN DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS; A MONTE CARLO STUDY TO COMPARE THE BOOT­ STRAP AND JACKKNIFE METHODS.

Queensland University Discriminant analysis is used when a researcher collects many response variables on a number of groups of individuals. The project systematically compares two recent computer intensive methods, the bootstrap and the jackknife,

that promise to help researchers to express confidence in their interpretations statistically rather than using the current naive 'rules of thumb'. The importance lies in the practical recommendations for use and the theoretical

implications for these methods.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

ΐvaluation & Psychometrics (Contd)

Dr G N Masters MEASURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF 22,000

UNDERSTANDING

The University of Melbourne This project is developing and studying a methodology for measuring students' levels of conceptual understanding. The purpose is the development of better ways of assessing

understanding of basic concepts in a range of subject areas. The methodology uses phenomenography to investigate conceptions of phenomena in specific contexts and to construct ordered levels of understanding for each context.

Item Response Theory is used to construct measures. The methodology is being applied to the learning of concepts associated with projectile motion.

Professor R P McDonald THEORY AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR 38,000 MODELS FOR MULTILEVEL MULTIVARIATE DATA

Macquarie University The project will provide a statistical computation package for the analysis of causal (structural) relations between measurements at several levels of sampling -- eg random

students from random classes from random schools, or macroeconomic measures characterising national economies plus microeconomic measures from subsystems within them. The package should find many applications in education,

psychology, sociology and economics.

Dr P E Pattison MODELS FOR BINARY DATA 21,000

Dr R C Bell

The University of Melbourne The project aims to develop procedures for fitting several classes of models for psychological data that have previously been difficult to assess. The models include those appropriate to the analysis of behaviour profiles in educational and psychological settings and to the description of some types of knowledge structures.

-

i .

Cognitive Processes

Professor M Clynes INHERENT CONVERSION BY THE CNS OF SOUND INPUT TO MOTOR OUTPUT: HOW MUSIC PULSE MICROSTRUCTURE CONTROLS THE FINE STRUCTURE OF RHYTHMIC MOTOR RESPONSES

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

The University of Melbourne Everyone knows that music incites movement. How this link occurs between the sound input perceived by the nervous system and its control of motor output is in itself quite unknown. Music can be seen to contain melodic and rhythmic elements. The latter partake of the repetitive phenomenon of the musical pulse, or beat. The pulse itself, apart from melodic content, predisposes towards particular kinds of motor output patterns. We can now for the first time attempt a precise study of this relationship which is fundamental to music as well as to dance. While this application is for basic research, its outcome may also have eventual therapeutic benefits in the design of music that would generate health-beneficial patterns of motor output (different types of motor output tend to have different kinds of emotional and physiologic effects).

Dr J R Coney THE ROLE OF THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES

IN NORMAL AND IMPAIRED READING

Murdoch University This project aims to discover the relative contributions made by the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain to the reading process. The principal social and economic benefits

likely to arise from this project will stem from improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of severe reading difficulties in dyslexic and hearing-impaired children.

Dr J Edwards THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS ON STUDENTS OF Assoc Prof R B Baldauf CONTINUING EXPOSURE TO THE CORT THINKING SKILLS PROGRAM

James Cook University of North Qld A group of students were exposed to intensive thinking skills training in their last year of primary school, with very impressive academic results. This project completes a

long-term study comparing these students, during their first three years of secondary schooling, with untrained students. The students are now being instructed in the use of their thinking skills in the traditional academic disciplines. This will provide insight into the value of incorporating the direct teaching of thinking skills into the school curriculum.

20,000

1 4 , 3 0 1

2 5 , 0 0 0

i

Cognitive Processes (Contd)

professor G T Evans DEVELOPMENT OF A PROFILE TO ASSESS 24, Dr J Butler SKILLS INSTRUCTION, AND TESTS OF

Prof B Abernethy RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ASPECTS OF SKILLS LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS AND PERFORMANCE

Queensland University This project will result in a descriptive profile to assist in the evaluation and development of skill learning environments. Dimensions to be studied include initial characteristics of students, criteria and standards for

final assessment,curriculum design characteristics, learning processes of students, learning environment, provision of feedback, individualization, and transfer effects. Two TAFE groups, in each of two skill areas, chosen on the basis of

learning processes used, will be compared on these dimensions.

Dr B Fenelon COGNITIVE DEFICITS, EVENT-RELATED 20,

Dr D B Dunlop POTENTIALS (ERP) AND READING Dr M Hunter RETARDATION

Newcastle University The aim of this study is to investigate the neurophysiology and neuropsychology of cognitive and information processing deficits in specific classes of reading disorders. Using a

number of information processing paradigms, event-related potentials will be used to develop diagnostic criteria reading disabled children classified as either dysphonetic

or dyseidetic. The derived discriminative function will be assessed in a blind study.

Professor D Glencross PARAMETRIC SPECIFICATION AND THE 40, Mr N Barrett ADAPTABILITY OF PROGRAMMES OF ACTION Mr C T Ball IN HUMAN MOTOR CONTROL

Curtin University of Technology Human skills involve the integration and organisation of complex sequences of movements. How do we perform such complex patterns, how do we learn them and what happens when they 'break down'? The project looks at how the brain constructs automatic programmes of action which once

initiated run their full course. This work will lead to a better understanding of the teaching and training of skills, as well as to rehabilitation after injury.

Dr R F Gunstone IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LEARNING OF 40, Professor P J Fensham SCIENCE Professor R T White

Monash University Much evidence exists to show that many students enter, and even leave, science courses with shallow understanding, and that they frequently perceive science as boring and mechanical. Consequently, many either choose not to study

. .. Cont/.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

000

500

000

000

I

Cognitive Processes (ContdJ

it, or when they do, develop antipathy towards it. Our purpose is to remediate both shortcomings. The project addresses questions of national and international

importance: How attain better quality of learning of science? How make science more attractive to learners? We aim at a richer theory of learning of science, and at directly applicable recommendations for its teaching.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Dr J Lawrence SOCIALLY CONSTRAINED DILEMMAS IN Professor A J Wearing PROFESSIONAL LIFE. Ms A Dodds

The University of Melbourne This research will investigate how professionals solve dilemmas that arise in the work-place because of human interactions. Social constraints on ideas and plans affect technological development, and individuals' adaptive strategies will be examined in the ways that nurses and rural advisors deal with difficult problems. Authority, gender-related and consumer factors of these two fields

indicate that models developed within them will be applicable for other fields and for training in adaptive strategies.

Dr B D Mackenzie THE USE OF INSPECTION TIME METHODS Mr P Ball TO MEASURE UTILIZATION OF

Mr J R Alexander COGNITIVE RESOURCES

University of Tasmania The time required to make a simple judgement about a pair of stimuli (eg. which of two lines is longer) is called inspection time, and has a surprisingly high correlation with IQ. In this project we will measure inspection time with slightly harder problems (eg. judging whether two words

are synonyms or not). The results will enable us to estimate how much mental effort goes into different kinds of problems. Correlations with IQ will then suggest which mental processes are most heavily used when we try to measure intelligence.

Dr Η M Mansfield IDENTIFYING STUDENTS' MISCONCEPTIONS IN GEOMETRY AND DEVELOPING TEACHING STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE CONCEPTUAL CHANGE

Curtin University of Technology There is a growing awareness that students' existing conceptual frameworks often prevent them from constructing the learning outcomes intended by their mathematics teachers. The study would document the conceptual frameworks that high school students have about a number of topics in geometry and develop teaching strategies to bring about conceptual change. The results would have

... Cont/.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Co gnltive Processes (Contd)

implications for improving the teaching of mathematics in Australian schools.

Dr K M McConkey DELUSION AND AWARENESS IN HYPNOTIC SUBJECTS

Macquarie University The project will construct and evaluate a model that explains the firm belief of hypnotized individuals in the genuineness of their suggested experiences and the

alterations in awareness that are associated with those experiences. The focus of the project on the development of false beliefs and the processing of information outside

awareness will provide information also about the cognitive processes that are associated with some types of psychopathology.

Dr J E Pegg STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF GEOMETRIC IDEAS IN THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

University of New England The aim of the project is to explore student cognitive growth in Geometry. The emphasis of the study will be on identifying levels of understanding and modes of functioning of a sample of students in Years 11 and 12 and first year at University. The study is of value because information about

student understandings can form the basis for decisions by curriculum planners and teachers on how to make senior school mathematics accessible, understandable and useful to more students.

Dr J A Slee AN INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES APPROACH TO ANALOGUE AND PROPOSITIONAL CODING OF VISUAL INFORMATION

Australian National University The project's aims are

i) to test a theory being developed by the Chief Investigator regarding the universality, or otherwise, of dual-coding of visual information in analogue and ii) to eppcbpoeitlhenal formats and

The project has the context of propositional Kosslyn and

characteristics of the analogue code, considerable theoretical significance in a long-standing debate on analogue and formats, the main antagonists being Stephen Zenon Pylyshyn.

30,000

19,000

17,935

Cognitive Processes (Contd)

Dr G A Smith MODELS OF COGNITIVE SLOWING WITH AGE 24,000

AND IDENTIFICATION OF A TYPICAL DECLINE

The University of Melbourne Cognitive slowing comes with ageing but the extent depends on the task. We will identify aspects of cognitive tasks that are affected dis-proportionally by age, leading to a conceptual model of ageing. Such understanding of normal ageing will let us select tasks which can identify people at risk of progressive dementias (eg Alzheimer's type) and allow efficient behavioural and drug interventions for this

increasingly extensive problem.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Dr H W Stanislaw EFFECTS OF DIVIDING ATTENTION BETWEEN 18,300 VISION AND AUDITION: PRACTICE EFFECTS AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

University of N.S.W Performance problems may arise when humans divide their attention between vision and hearing. This study asks whether such problems vary in magnitude from person to

person, and whether they vary with practice. These issues must be considered when designing highly-instrumented environments (such as aircraft cockpits), and when training operators to use such environments. They are also of great theoretical interest, since they provide insight into the degree to which cognitive processing is centralised.

Dr L Stankov AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN INTELLIGENCE, 25,000 ATTENTION, AND SPEED OF THINKING.

Sydney University The aim of this research is to study the role of cognitive variables in the aging of human intelligence. My previous work has shown that changes in intelligence with age may be due to changes in the ability to maintain attention. The present study focuses on critical features of attentional tasks. In particular, we wish to study the ability to resist irrelevant distractions, the ease with which subjects cope with paced nature of task presentation, and the extent to which individuals experience problems when there is a need to switch attention. We also propose to study the role of speed of thinking in aging and intelligence.

Cognitive Processes (Contd)

Prof Associate J Sweller PROCESSES INVOLVED IN PROBLEM SOLVING

University of N.S.W When students solve problems in mathematics or science they use normally a means-ends strategy which is efficient in attaining the problem goal but inefficient as a means of

learning. It has been hypothesised that this ineffectiveness of a means-ends strategy may be due to its heavy demands on cognitive resources. The first series of experiments of the project is designed to investigate the mechanisms by which a means-ends strategy imposes a heavy cognitive load. The

second series investigates techniques for reducing this load thus freeing resources for learning.

Professor A J Wearing EFFECTIVE DYNAMIC DECISION MAKING: Dr P E Pattison A REAL TIME STUDY OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN COGNITION AND EMOTION

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

The University of Melbourne The proposed research will use a computer-simulated fire-fighting task to investigate the interaction of thinking and emotion in complex, sequential decision-making

situations such as fire fighting, air traffic control etc. It is anticipated that the research findings will have both (a) theoretical implications for our understanding of dynamic decision making and (b) practical implications for training.

Developmental Psychology

Dr K Bussey CONCEPTION AND EXPRESSION OF GENDER- TYPED BEHAVIOUR

Macquarie University This research will chart the development of children's personal standards for gender-related conduct and provide much needed information on the relative influence of gender

conceptions and gender-related standards on gender-typed behaviour. It will also contribute towards understanding the gender segregation of children's play that emerges at approximately 30 months and continues to increase in the middle childhood years. This segregation has important

implications for many of the gender differences observed in adulthood, particularly segregation in the workforce. This study has ramifications for social policies promoting equality between the sexes.

30,500

25,000

33,200

Developmental Psychology (Contd)

Dr K Durkin CHILDREN, CRIME AND THE MEDIA: A

DEVELOPMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION

University of Western Australia The mass media, especially television, provide children's primary source of information about crime. Yet the media are known to distort the presentation of crime and to emphasise violent crime. This project investigates the ways in which children interpret and learn from media crime content and

the implications for their views of society, its legal processes and institutions.

Dr G C Elias THE NATURE AND SOURCE(S) OF TEMPORAL

PATTERNING IN MOTHER-INFANT VOCAL ENGAGEMENTS

Brisbane College Of Advanced Education Identification of the nature and source(s) of temporal patterning in the engagements of mothers with non-handicapped infants provides information relevant to theoretical accounts of early communication development. Such accounts have implications for the design of

intervention programs aimed at the development of communicative competence in young disabled infants.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Dr R Galligan THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUDITORY PERCEPTION AND NEUROLOGICAL FUNCTIONING

Australian National University Both language development and the ability to process auditory information are dependent on changes in brain functioning. In the present project, the relative involvement of each brain hemisphere in processing critical aspects of speech will be assessed. The gaining of a more detailed understanding of how brain functioning underlies

language development in normal children should eventually allow earlier detection of children at risk for later language difficulties.

Professor J J Goodnow FAS WORK RELATIONSHIPS IN THE HOUSEHOLD

Macquarie University Work in households contributes to the national economy, influences family well-being, and serves as a child's first introduction to the ethos of work and to concepts of responsibility. The present series of studies explores how work is arranged and exchanged among family members, with Particular attention to the principles that underlie

arrangements, that promote flexibility in the face of changed circumstances, and that represent what one ... Cont/.

3R0UP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Developmental Psychology (Contd)

generation wishes to transmit to the next.

)r L C Hall AGING AND VISUAL SEARCH EFFICIENCY: Professor B Crassini EYE MOVEMENT MEASURES OF INFORMATION Hr M Skinner PROCESSING

Deakin University The proposed research will investigate whether individuals can compensate for the limitations resulting from age-related changes in visual sensory processing, be using higher-order cognitive skills to organise the selection and the depth of processing of visual information. The eye movements and fixations of adults from 20 to 70 years will

be measured as they perform visual search tasks to establish the extent of age differences in the ability to deploy visual attention efficiently, and the conditions which best promote efficient visual search.

Assoc Prof J I Laszlo SLOW KINAESTHETIC DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTS ON MOTOR, ACADEMIC, SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOUR; AS AN ANTECEDENT OF CLUMSI­ NESS;

University of Western Australia Kinaesthesis, the sense of movement and position, is essential in motor control. Thirty percent of 5-7 year old children lack adequate kinaesthetic ability and 73 percent of clumsy children are retarded kinaesthetically. Clumsiness is a condition which hinders optimal functioning throughout life. From a sample of 300 Year 1 children, slow kinaesthetic developers will be identified and trained kinaesthetically. Accelerated kinaesthetic development is hoped to increase printing skill, self-confidence and

attitude to school work in Year 1 and reduce the incidence of clumsiness in Year 3.

B E McKenzie THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPACE PERCEPTION ? rofessor R H Day

Trobe University Our major interest is in the growth of the capacity to localize objects in space. Using methods suitable for infants aged from 4 to 12 months we study their behaviour when they are provided with landmarks of various kinds and when there are no landmarks at all. Evaluation of the

relative importance of visual and kinaesthetic cues will lead to a better understanding of the development of spatial orientation.

25,500

1

25,000

29,714

t .

Developmental Psychology (Contd)

Dr C J Pratt YOUNG CHILDREN'S ASSESSMENT AND

UNDERSTANDING OF KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEFS

University of Western Australia The project examines children's assessment and understanding of two closely related mental states, knowing and believing. In particular it will explore children's understanding that knowledge and belief states in self and others may differ. The research is of significance as it will contribute to our understanding of children's ability to invoke mental state explanations of behaviour and learning, an ability that is central to intellectual, social and language development.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Assoc Prof G Russell DEVELOPMENT AND CONSEQUENCES OF FAMILY Dr A Russell RELATIONSHIPS FROM EARLY MIDDLE CHILDHOOD TO ADOLESCENCE.

Macquarie University This is the second stage of a longitudinal study which examines the development and consequences of family relationships from middle childhood to adolescence. Of particular concern are the effects that the quality of and satisfaction with family relationships have on the well-being and development of children and parents.

Findings will have considerable social benefits through their implications for preventive health and parent education programs, and for improving the health and welfare of families and children (especially during adolescence when conflict levels are higher).

Dr C A Samuels SELF CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT DURING INFANCY

University of New England This project is a programmatic investigation of self concept development during human infancy. Self concept is seen as an incorporation of various categorical components of identity

(eg. one's face, body, name, voice, gender, species). One major aim of the project, then, is to chart a developmental timetable of these components of identity to learn when each component emerges as significant in identity formation, during the early part of an individual's life course. It is against a background of understanding the processes of normal development that disordered development, such as is seen in autism, will be better understood. The development of a concept of self forms a foundation for all future social relationships, as well as the basis for one's developing sense of personal efficacy. Our basic understanding of the infant, his/her cognitive capacities, social sensitivities, and communicative competence all hinge on how the infant comes to define "self-other" and particularly "self"!

... Cont/.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Developmental Psychology (Contd)

Dr A Sanson THE IMMEDIATE AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF Dr B S Bradley CHARACTERISTICS OF DAY CARE FOR YOUNG AUSTRALIAN CITIZENS

The University of Melbourne Debate in the psychological literature and the media continues to rage over the costs and benefits of day-care to the child and to society, but cannot be resolved on the basis of current empirical data. Using a cross-sequential design, causal-modelling techniques and fine grained

assessments of the characteristics of a representative sample of day-care facilities this study aims to discover those characteristics which are influential in determining good and poor outcomes for the child, and the causal

structure underlying these relationships. The results will have important implications both theoretically and in providing guidance to policy decisions on day-care.

Dr J A Ungerer DETERMINANTS OF EMPATHY AND PROSOCIAL Professor B Waters BEHAVIOUR IN YOUNG CHILDREN Dr B Barnett

Macquarie University This study aims to identify characteristics of parents and children that are important for promoting the development of empathy and helping behaviour in young children in the first

two years of life. Factors of particular interest include parent personality and child-rearing practices, and child temperament and gender. This study should contribute to the

understanding of emotional development in young children and provide information for educational programs attempting to foster the development of helping behaviour in childhood.

Clinical and Counselling Psychology

Dr D G Byrne PSYCHOSOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF SMOKING ONSET AMONG ADOLESCENTS

Australian National University This study prospectively examines psychosocial determinants of smoking onset among adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. It focuses on the areas of personality, stress, attitudes and psychosocial modelling to attempt multivariate predictions of decisions to take up smoking. The importance of the work

lies with the fact that past attempts at prediction using simple or single variables have been largely unsatisfactory and more complete models explaining smoking onset are necessary in order to guide effective programmes of smoking prevention among adolescents and to reduce smoking related illness.

17,000

34,00

22,500

... Cont/.

Clinical and Counselling Psychology (Contd)

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Assoc Prof L L Viney THE PROCESS OF COUNSELLING 20,000

Wollongong University Counselling consists of an interaction between a professional helper and a client. It is employed by thousands of Australian professionals in departments, education and welfare; but little is yet known about how to make counselling more effective. Earlier research

programmes have focused on the behaviour of counsellor and client to the exclusion of their experience, and failed to relate the process of counselling to its outcome. This

research remedies these defects. It should provide both social benefits for Australian clients and economic benefits from more efficient Australian counsellors.

Dr H R Winefield VERBAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN 22,000

Professor T G Murrell PROFESSIONAL HELPERS AND DIFFICULT PATIENTS IN PRIMARY CARE

Adelaide University Research techniques from counselling psychology and psychotherapy will study differences in the patterns of verbal interaction between professional helpers (general practitioners) and clients (patients) whose consultation goes well or badly. Interactions with patients who attend

frequently with health problems that resist diagnosis and cure are of special interest. Results will contribute to understanding of the helping process, and may validate communication training approaches within professional education.

Mental Retardation

Assoc Prof T R Parmenter

Macquarie University The provisions of the Commonwealth Disability Services Act of 1986 support the placement of persons with intellectual disabilities in competitive employment. Considerable research indicates that while these people can be trained to perform regular work skills they fail to maintain employment owing to their inadequate social and interpersonal skills. This project seeks to identify major friendship and social support building tasks that these people need to perform to maintain employment, to identify major environmental variables which may impact on social skill development and to socially validate an inventory of person and setting variables relevant to the successful development of social

... Cont/.

AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP 28,000 BETWEEN PATTERNS OF SOCIAL INTERACTIONS AND VOCATIONAL OUTCOMES IN PEOPLE WHO ARE MENTALLY RETARDED

Rental Retardation (Contd)

skills required in competitive employment.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Cross-Cultural Psychology

Dr A J Hayes VARIABILITY AND CHANGE: AN AUSTRALIAN Dr V P Gunn LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF DISABILITY

Professor J Elkins

Queensland University This program explores the ways in which children with disabilities develop socially and intellectually to adulthood. It offers myriad possibilities for research to enhance the lives of disabled persons and their families. There is no equivalent longitudinal study of disability in Australia so it provides unique opportunities for research

now and in the future. A clear understanding of disabled children, their families and friends is essential if we are to find the most economical ways of providing practical support and help in those special situations where people may have more difficulty than usual in coping with the

stresses of contemporary life.

Industrial and Organisational Psychology

Dr J L Cordery THE IMPACT OF MULTI-SKILLING Assoc Prof L K Savery Dr W S Mueller

Curtin University of Technology The study involves a longitudinal study of a programme of multi-skilling within lower levels of the Public Service of Western Australia. This programme, which introduces to the

public sector the concept of payment and advancement based on skills possessed and utilised, rather than on seniority, prior qualifications or fixed job classifications, represents one of the first of its kind in the world. Over

7,000 employees are involved.

Hr K Donohue AUSTRALIAN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: Dr B Thompson THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT Dr G Palmer POLICIES (1990)

Queensland University of Technology A country or company's Human Resource Management affects its economic achievements and the nature of its social and political structures. Theories from overseas about the

causes and effects of different HRM policies need to be tested in Australian conditions. This project develops new directions from study supported by the ARC in 1988-89. The aim is to improve the theoretical understanding of

Australian HRM and thereby improve management education.

46,935

49,000

15,000

Industrial and Organisational Psychology (ContdJ

Dr B L Hesketh INCORPORATING CAREER FLEXIBILITY AND 29,267 COMPROMISE IN PERSON-WORK ENVIRONMENT FIT MODELS

University of N.S.W This research applies a new measurement approach to advance our understanding of the processes involved in career compromise and work adjustment. The findings will be significant for individuals, counsellors, unions and employers concerned with increasing career flexibility to better deal with rapidly changing job opportunities and skill requirements.

Dr B Kabanoff A MODEL OF INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT IN 23,871

ORGANISATIONS: ITS VALIDATION AND RELATION TO CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

University of N.S.W The aim is to validate and develop further a model of interpersonal conflict in group and organisational settings. The model seeks to specify the conditions most likely to

result in interpersonal conflict in interpersonal relationships on the basis of an analysis of power relationships. The model provides a framework for conflict diagnosis and for analysing the factors influencing the form of conflict behaviour parties adopt. A better understanding of which factors lead to more effective management of power-related conflicts is the ultimate goal.

Assoc Prof G E O'Brien THE EFFECTS OF GROUP STRUCTURE AND 25,000 MEMBER RESOURCES ON SMALL GROUP PERFORMANCE

Flinders University The effectiveness of most organizations is a direct function of the productivity of their component groups. However, little is known about small group productivity. Until recently, systematic research has concentrated on the contribution of human resources (eg abilities, motivation, personality) to group performance. The present project is designed to test performance models that are more comprehensive, as they assume that performance is a joint

function of member resources and group structure (eg authority, communication, cooperation). The results of this project should advance knowledge about small group i ) performance as well as provide recommendations to organizations about conditions necessary to optimize group productivity.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Industrial and Organisational Psychology (Contd)

Dr P Ullah A STUDY OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS 28,667

OF EMPLOYMENT, UNEMPLOYMENT & TRAINING ON URBAN ABORIGINAL YOUTHS & DESIGN EVALUATION OF A NEW TRAINING PROGRAMME

University of Western Australia The aim of the project is to measure the psychological health, work attitudes, employment commitment, aspirations, and needs of urban Aboriginals before and after they leave

school. The effects of employment, unemployment and training on these variables will be examined. The findings will be implemented in the design of a training program for urban Aboriginals, which will then be evaluated. This

approach is expected to result in higher participation and lower drop out rates. The training programme will aim to give Aboriginals Skills that will improve their long-term job prospects and reduce welfare dependency.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Educational Psychology

Dr G M Boulton-Lewis AN ASSESSMENT OF THE INFORMATION PROC- 22,000 ESSING LOADS, VALUE AND LIMITATIONS OF MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATIONS USED BY TEACHERS AND YOUNG CHILDREN

Brisbane College Of Advanced Education Mathematically competent citizens are important to the future of Australian society. This research will provide information that can be applied to improving mathematics

teaching in early childhood. Teachers regularly use representations such as concrete analogs of concepts and others which are inherently mathematical. Our contention is that some representations impose a cognitive processing load that is too high and therefore interfere with understanding of concepts. We will assess and compare the processing

loads of child and teacher representations in order to make recommendations about maximizing benefits and minimizing limitations.

/economics (except agricultural economics)

Professor P B Dixon MULTISECTORAL ECONOMIC MODELLING: 33,744 Mr B R Parmenter FORECASTING AND VALIDATING

The University of Melbourne This project is an extension of the ORANI model of the Australian economy. ORANI has been used since 1977 by government departments, business organizations and university research workers in assessments of the effects on

industries, occupations and regions of changes in tariffs, taxes, technology, wages, government spending, world commodity prices and many other variables. ORANI will now become a tool for investigating possible future paths for the economy, not just a tool for isolating the effects of particular events.

Prof S Domberger THE ROLE OF COMPETITIVE TENDERING IN 17,200 Dr D A Hensher PROMOTING PUBLIC SECTOR EFFICIENCY IN AUSTRALIA

Sydney University This project will examine the scope of competitive tendering policy in an Australian context, drawing on the lessons from recent U.K. and U.S experience where the policy has been sucessfully implemented. The project will comprise a detailed analysis of the theoretical issues involved and the appropriateness of tendering to different types of public sector activities such as refuse collection or local bus services. It will also provide quantitative estimates of the achievable cost savings based on Australian data wherever possible.

Dr D K Fausten INCOME-MOBILITY OF INTERNATIONAL 23,275

CAPITAL MOVEMENTS

Monash University The aim of the project is to explore the influence of income on international capital movements. International direct or equity investment is responsive to profit prospects that are related to income. Given the shift from corporate equity to debt finance this influence may manifest itself also in

international portfolio flows, and its recognition may promote the understanding of exchange rate behaviour.

Dr C C Findlay RURAL INDUSTRIALISATION IN CHINA: 46,935

Mr A J Watson CHINA'S ECONOMIC REFORMS, THEIR IMPACT ON CHINA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS

Adelaide University China is a developing country and a centrally-planned economy undergoing major changes. Its economic reforms are thus significant both because analytical issues raised by their content and because of their importance for contemporary economic and political development. Our

... Cont/.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Economics (except agricultural economics) (Contd)

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

project focuses on rural industrialisation because it encompasses many of the theoretical issues inherent in systematic economic and political change. It is also of great significance to Australia since China's economic

growth and opening to world markets is having and will continue to have a profound impact on our trade and economic environment.

Dr D A Hensher STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE THE PRODUCTIVITY OF PASSENGER RAIL SERVICES IN AUSTRALIA

Macquarie University Railways in Australia represent the greatest single source of budgetary commitment of most State Governments. A substantial part of the cost is a direct subsidy to support

highly inefficient practices. Within railways, passenger transport is the major recipient of revenue supplements. In order to establish the sources of inefficiency and to propose strategies to improve the performance of passenger rail services, we need to have suitable measures of performance and productivity. Existing practice based on

arbitrary performance indicators is quite misleading. This research project seeks to resolve the whole issue by establishing scientifically acceptable benchmark measures of performance. The identification of sources of inefficiency

is of central interest.

Dr D H Hutchinson TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: MULTINATIONALS, Mr S J Nicholas LICENSING AND JOINT VENTURES IN AUSTRALIAN MANUFACTURING

Sydney University Overseas technology is transferred to Australia by licensing agreements, by internal transfers within multinational and by hybrid arrangements such as joint ventures. This project analyses the costs and longer term implications of each of these methods of technology transfer, within a theoretical

framework. This analysis of the economics of technology transfer is important because of the role of overseas technology in raising the efficiency of Australian industry.

Dr C Kearney FISCAL POLICY, CURRENT ACCOUNT > PERFORMANCE AND ASSET PRICE

DETERMINATION.

University of N.S.W Macroeconomic theory remains ambivalent about how fiscal policy impinges upon asset prices and trading performance. This project will conduct a multi-country (including Australia) empirical analysis of the effects of fiscal

policy innovations on the current account, the exchange rate and on interest rates. It will generalize the classical ... Cont/.

33,989

26,000

28,000

Economics (except agricultural economics) (ContdJ

'single country' studies by explicitly modelling the important international interdependencies.

Dr J 0 Kennedy DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL ANNUAL FISH 38,000 CATCHES ALLOWING FOR MULTICOHORT STOCKS AND ADJUSTMENTS IN FLEET SIZE

La Trobe University Important real-world features of fisheries management problems have been ignored in many optimizing models of fisheries to date. These are the multicohort nature of many

fish stocks and the frequently low opportunity cost of excess fleet capacity when harvesting restrictions are imposed. The project aims to discover the most satisfactory methods for solving the more realistic problems which take

account of these features, and to apply these methods to Australian fisheries, in particular southern bluefin tuna.

Professor M L King ECONOMETRIC HYPOTHESIS TESTING IN THE 19,929 CONTEXT OF DYNAMIC REGRESSION MODELS AND SIMULTANEOUS EQUATION MODELS

Monash University Statistical hypothesis testing is the cutting edge that allows economics to claim it is a science. Such procedures are essential for testing new economic theories and checking the adequacy of econometric models. It is important that test procedures be as accurate as possible, particularly in the context of dynamic regression and simultaneous equation models. This project investigates the adoption of testing procedures that have been very successful in the context of

the classical linear regression model, to dynamic and simultaneous equation models.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Dr D E Lewis PHYSICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALES AND 28,000 Dr C Nyland FEMALES AND THE SEXUAL DIVISION OF

LABOUR.

Wollongong University Post 1950 explanations of the evolution and persistence of the sexual occupational division of labour have concentrated on fecundity, discrimination and human capital. This project examines a fourth factor, those physical differences between males and females not directly related to fertility which have been neglected in recent literature. The project has numerous policy implications and this is particularly so

for the role of protective legislation as the proportion of employees who are female increases.

Economics (except agricultural economics) (Contd)

Dr I M McDonald THE OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF AUSTRALIA'S RESOURCES BETWEEN PRESENT CONSUMPTION AND FUTURE CONSUMPTION

The University of Melbourne Currently considerable concern is being expressed over Australia's large current account deficit and her allegedly low rate of capital accumulation. This project will develop

and implement a model which will determine levels of capital accumulation and the current account which are optimal for the Australian Economy. This will permit a rational assessment of the economy's performance to be made and will

provide governments with an important tool for improving policy-making.

Prof R D Milbourne THE ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF Er R A Bewley AUSTRALIA'S EXTERNAL DEBT Ir G Kingston

tniversity of N.S.W This program seeks to analyse the dramatic increase in Australia's external debt; the causes, consequences - and burden of the debt. Part of the program is directed towards

explaining empirical anomalies regarding the behaviour of the exchange rate which has contributed to the problem. The program also evaluates the effect of exchange rate volatility on exports, and the risk of having most of the debt denominated in foreign currencies. Finally it analyses optimal policies towards minimising the burden of repayment of the debt on future generations.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( C o n t d )

I Dr T D Nguyen INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH PERFORMANCE: A CONVERGENCE HYPOTHESIS PERSPECTIVE

Griffith University Among industrialised countries and since World War II, there has been a remarkable robust tendency for per-capita income levels in different countries to converge, ie. for richer

countries to record lower rates of economic growth than poorer countries. The aims of this project are (1) to determine how general this tendency is (over time and across different groups and countries); and (2) to investigate its possible causes. Thus the research is expected to yield

additional insight into the fundamental processes which determine productivity and economic growth.

16,740

67,000

18,790

Economics (except agricultural economics) (Contd)

Mr J Pope THE COMPLIANCE COSTS OF TAXATION 25,000

Mr R Fayle Professor K W Clements

University of Western Australia This is the first time that the compliance costs of taxation have been investigated and quantified in Australia. These hidden costs of taxation are borne by both individual and business taxpayers. The results of our studies are of direct relevance to current taxation policy, with likely economic and social benefits deriving from any ensuing policy modifications.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( C o n t d )

Dr R Robinson AUSTRALIAN FLAG COMPETITIVENESS AND 34,000 Dr K Trace NATIONAL MARITIME POLICY: AN ANALYSIS

OF ITS COST IMPACTS ON CONTAINER AND BULK MINERALS EXPORTS

Wollongong University In 1986 the Australian Government's Task Force to review Australia's overseas liner shipping legislation underlined the importance of promoting the development of an efficient Australian flag shipping industry 'through policies which make Australian shipping more competitive'. But can Australian flag shipping be competitive? And if so, what is

the cost of this competitiveness? This project seeks to answer the question, what is the cost, for Australian container and bulk minerals exports, of Australian flag competitive?

Ms E J Savage ANALYSIS OF REFORMS TO THE AUSTRALIAN 40,772 Mr G S Jones TAXATION AND SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEMS Assoc Prof P F Apps

Sydney University The research examines the distributional and efficiency effects of tax and welfare policy using ABS household survey data. We are developing a tax simulation package for the Australian economy. Results so far indicate the importance of the welfare ranking of households and that marginal tax

rates on high earnings do not cause large efficiency losses. The research will be extended to a detailed investigation of social security reforms. Accurate descriptions of reform impacts provide a basis for sound policy design.

Economics (except agricultural economics) (Contd)

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( C o n t d )

Prof R H Snape A DOCUMENTARY AND ANALYTICAL HISTORY OF AUSTRALIAN INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY SINCE 1966

Monash University Sir Douglas Copland compiled documentary collections of Australian trade policy in 1930's. Sir John Crawford published a major book comprising selections from official

trade documents from 1942 to 1966, together with an extensive economic commentary. This study would extend Crawford's work, though with more economic analysis. It would comprise an economic analysis and history of Australian trade policy over the last twenty three years, together with a substantial selection of extracts from documents which will provide a basis (like the work of Copland and Crawford) for subsequent work of other scholars.

Mr H Stretton INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMIC THEORY

Adelaide University The project is to develop, for institutional economists and policy-makers in business and government, a body of theory and 'codified experience' more pragmatic and adaptable to changing realities than prevailing neoclassical theory tends to be. Among other things the theory will deal centrally with public and domestic as well as private production in mixed economies; with environmental issues; and with some main concerns of women outside as well as inside the paid workforce.

Professor R D Terrell SYSTEM METHOD FORECASTS OF BOTH MACRO Dr A D Hall & MICROECONOMIC TIME SERIES WILL BE

DEVELOPED & ASSESSED & THE PROPERTIES

“ COMPARED WITH SINGLE SERIES FORECASTS

Australian National University The project will focus the expertise of a group of academics, strong in time series methods, on the difficulties faced by an individual or institution required to produce a set of forecasts for planning or policy making purposes. The research activity is directed to improving

forecasting performance for a set of possibly related economic variables, whether encountered in microeconomic or macroeconomic contact.

I.

1 5 , 5 0 0

33,000

19,400

Economics (except agricultural economicsJ (Contd)

Professor C D Throsby MEASURING DEMAND FOR PUBLIC OUTLAYS Professor G A Withers

Macquarie University How much defence, social welfare, policing etc. is really wanted by the taxpayer? The project will answer this by providing a practical method of eliciting honest, informed, consistent, quantitative preferences for government outlays. The approach implies substantial conceptual and methodological advance for its field and it promises to

directly improve the fundamental information base for public decision-making in Australia, and hence to contribute a major socio-economic benefit.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( C o n t d )

Dr P D Travers THE LEVEL AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE Dr S Richardson STANDARD OF LIVING: AUSTRALIA AND THE US COMPARED

Adelaide University Our previous research shows that at the personal or household level, income is not an accurate predictor of standard of living. We have developed alternative measures of standard of living, using Australian data. We wish to check these measures against data from the USA, and to compare the level of the standard of living, and the degree of inequality in the standard of living, in Australia and the USA. This comparison will help in the assessment of Australia's social welfare system.

Dr R Tyers IMPERFECT COMPETITION AND SCALE ECONO­ MICS IN GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM: TRADE & INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN FOUR ARCHETYPE WESTERN PACIFIC ECONOMIES

Adelaide University Recent developments in international trade theory reduce our capacity to generalise, from theory alone, the desirability or otherwise of industrial protection. By using models which combine the new theory with conditions specific to

four archetype Western Pacific economies (including Australia), this project will estimate the economic consequences of industry protection in a region of growing significance to the Australian economy.

Economics (except agricultural economics) (Contd)

Professor A D Woodland DEMAND ANALYSIS WITH BLOCK-PRICING: RESIDENTIAL DEMAND FOR ELECTRICITY AND GAS.

Sydney University The project will lead to theoretical advances in the econometric analysis of models of household demand where some goods are subject to block pricing. This will enable the estimation of parameters of such models in a manner consistent with economic theory and with desirable

statistical properties. The empirical part of the project will provide a deeper understanding of residential choice between electricity and gas and enable a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of alternative pricing policies.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( C o n t d )

Accounting, Commerce and Finance

Professor P Brown THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE AUSTRALIAN Prof T S Walter SHAREMARKET AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE Mr M J Aitken INTRADAY PATTERN OF SHARE TRADING

University of Western Australia This project studies the microstructure of the Australian share market and how it affects price and volume patterns during share trading. Apart from findings of interest to accounting and finance scholars, we will collaborate with

stock exchange consultants who are assessing the practicality of continuously monitoring stock exchange transactions in order to oversee and regulate sharemarket

activity. A valuable by-product is a data base to be used by graduate students and other researchers.

Dr C Chiarella THE TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATES 1 Mr T Pham IN AUSTRALIA: A STUDY BASED ON

MULTIFACTOR GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM AND CONTINUOUS ARBITRAGE MODELS

University of N.S.W The project will carry out a detailed study of the term structure of interest rates in Australia using recently developed finance theories based on general equilibrium arguments and continuous arbitrage arguments. The main phases of the project are the establishment of an extensive data bank of Australian Government bond yields, using the database to statistically estimate the historical term

structure which is then used to fit the multifactor general equilibrium model. Apart from contributing to pure research the project has direct practical bearing on investment management and public policy implementation.

33,000

24,398

36,000

Accounting, Commerce and Fxnance (ContdJ

Professor D Midgley IDENTIFYING SUCCESSFUL EXPORT 30,525 MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR PRODUCTS BASED ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.

University of N.S.W This research project is to develop a framework to assist Australian enterprises in identifying appropriate export marketing strategies. It will make both a practical contribution to economic performance and an intellectual contribution - by stimulating high-level scholarship in an under-developed area. The chosen industry focus is that of

science-based complex products.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( C o n t d )

Professor I G Sharpe FINANCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF AUSTRALIAN 15,000 THRIFT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PRE AND POST DEREGULATION - A SIMULTANEOUS MODELLING APPROACH

University of N.S.W There is public concern that financial market deregulation may have undermined the economic viability of Australian thrift institutions (savings banks, building societies and credit unions). This study examines the effect of deregulation on thrift financial behaviour, their scale and profitability, and on financial market structure. It has

important implications for monetary and prudential regulation and for efficient financial management within the thrift industry.

Prof T S Walter

Sydney University Considerable debate currently exists in Australia on privatisation. One important issue in such a debate is the setting of a price at which ownership interests in government endeavours are offered to the public. This is no simple matter. Using data for all new corporate listings since 1960 the research will directly test ex ante uncertainty explanations of pricing that have been developed. The research thus has direct relevance for policy on pricing of initial public offers.

PRICING OF SHARES IN INITIAL PUBLIC 31,800 FLOTATIONS BY AUSTRALIAN COMPANIES SEEKING LISTING ON STOCK EXCHANGES: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRIVATISATION

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( C o n t d )

Economic History

Dr R J Aldrich THE FRENCH AND THE SOUTH PACIFIC: 1945 TO THE PRESENT

Sydney University As the Pacific assumes increasing importance in world-affairs - and is of vital concern to Australia - the greatest controversy in the South Pacific is the French

presence in the region, particularly continued French administration of New Caledonia and nuclear testing in Polynesia. This project analyses the historical background to these issues, French activities in the South Pacific and Australasia, France's reasons for remaining here, and the

evolution of the French Oceanic territories since 1945.

Emer Prof N G Butlin ECONOMIC HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA TO 1980

Australian National University This is a full-scale economic history of Australia incorporating Aboriginal migration and economy and substantially the whole of "white" economic development. No up-to-date economic history exists. The understanding of our long-run development is most important not only as a matter of historical interest but also for contemporary

policy. The history is being written as an analytical, statistical and literary undertaking with strong policy content.

Dr J H Drabble AN ECONOMIC HISTORY OF MALAYA: NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURY

Sydney University

There is at present no general economic history of Malaya (known as West Malaysia since 1963). This study will draw together and improve upon the current relatively diffuse literature to provide the first integrated account of economic change between c.1786-1980 . It will provide a deepened understanding of one of Australia's important ASEAN neighbours, and could also furnish useful supporting material in educational areas concerned with Australia's own

growth as a multicultural society.

Dr I W McLean RESOURCES, TRADE AND POLICY IN ! AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC GROWTH 1851-1914

1 Adelaide University The broad aim of this project is to undertake a major reinterpretation of the development of the Australian economy between 1851 and 1914. The approach adopted is that of a three sector small open economy where the export sector

is natural resource intensive. New estimates of basic ... Cont/.

33,739

38,400

27,118

30,965

Economic History (Contd)

economic time series are being generated, and several historical controversies will be re-assessed from the new perspective adopted.

Assoc Prof D H Pope FINANCING AUSTRALIA'S ECONOMIC 20,860 DEVELOPMENT 1851-1980

Australian National University The study examines the factors contributing to the growth of Australia's financial institutions, developments in the efficiency of the financial system (including the cost of

intermediation) and the impact of the financial sector on the Australian economy. The study sets recent changes in financial institutions and markets in perspective and evaluates the options open to policy-makers in addition to, or in lieu of, deregulation.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( C o n t d )

Λ gricultural Economics

Professor W F Musgrave WATER PRICING AND ALLOCATION 32,157 Dr N J Dudley IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENTS

Mr M J Bryant

University of New England This proposal aims to examine alternative institutional arrangements which preserve as many of the attractive features of capacity sharing as possible/practical, while reducing the reservoir management role of users to user-preferred levels, and incorporating restrictions on the

free market transfer of water and water rights to achieve a desirable balance between social equity and economic efficiency considerations of individual users, local communities, and the national economy.

Computer simulation and stochastic dynamic programming are seen as the main modelling methods, to be supported by linear and non linear programming.

Geography

Dr B A Badcock 'GETTING AHEAD': HOUSING CAREERS AND 26,000 THE AMASSING OF PERSONAL WEALTH

Adelaide University The 1980s have been a time of quite significant developments in housing and taxation policy directed at homeowners/buyers. This project focuses attention upon the extremities in wealth accumulation existing within homeownership in Australia, how that wealth is created through the operation of the housing market and then redistributed as a consequence of Commonwealth policy.

( C o n t d )

■

Geography (Contd)

Assoc Prof P H Curson ATLAS AND DATABASE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE AT RISK IN AUSTRALIA

Macquarie University The project aims to investigate the impact and consequences of epidemics of infectious disease in Australia. Using spatial data analysis and Geographical Information Systems techniques it is hoped to produce an atlas and database of

infectious disease risk for the last 150+ years. No coordinated database of infectious disease currently exists in Australia. No previous attempt has been made to assess the effects and consequences of epidemics of infectious disease or to assess the disease risk of particular areas or regions. Given the current resurgence of infectious disease

such a database would be of considerable importance.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s

Assoc Prof R H Fagan INDUSTRIAL RESTRUCTURING IN THE AUSTRALIAN FOOD INDUSTRY, 1975-1990

Macquarie University This project analyses the causes and implications of restructuring in the Australian food and beverage processing industries since the late 1970s. It sets changes in output, technology, employment levels, work practices, and domestic

location of production in the context of global strategies adopted by the largest food- and beverage-based enterprises. The results will increase our understanding of links between the global economy and Australian industry, and have

implications for financial, industrial and employment policy.

Dr R Fincher CLASS AND GENDER RELATIONS IN THE

LOCAL STATE

The University of Melbourne The project studies community services that support the dependants of paid labour force participants in 6 Melbourne municipalities. It describes and explains local variations

in service provision, and use by different social groups. It then draws out the relationships of class and gender that are embedded in these different supply and use characteristics, showing how the local state can cause

social relations to vary spatially. The project is thus significant theoretically, but also practically because its results could be used to evaluate the effects of services policy on the ground.

31,000

20,000

15,500

Geography (Contd’ )

Professor J H Holmes ELICITING AND TESTING LANDHOLDERS 23,500 PREFERENCES IN RURAL SETTLEMENT STRUCTURE AND SERVICE DELIVERY

Queensland University A computer-based procedure for eliciting underlying preferences in settlement structure and rural service delivery has been developed, tested and validated, for pastoral landholding families. A low-cost adaptation is proposed, using a two-stage postal survey. This will enhance capacity to obtain comprehensive, reliable data on

servicing priorities and will also provide a more effective research tool for application in other contexts.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( C o n t d )

Dr J V Langdale AUSTRALIA IN THE GLOBAL INFORMATION 16,740 ECONOMY: THE IMPACT OF TELECOMMUNICA­ TIONS AND THE INTERNATIONALISATION OF PRODUCTION

Macquarie University The project examines the impact of international telecommunications and the internationalisation of production on the Australian banking & finance industry. The emergence of twenty-four hour trading in various sectors of the banking & finance industry is dramatically changing Australia's "location" in the international economic system.

Particular attention is directed at these developments in foreign exchange, securities & futures markets as well as the impact of electronic securities & futures trading on Australia's financial markets.

Dr L M Potter MOBILITY, POVERTY AND INTENSIFICATION: 19,087 A STUDY IN THE HULU SUNGAI, SOUTH KALIMANTAN

Adelaide University The project is set in South Kalimantan, Indonesia, in a crowded but environmentally risky agricultural district with a long migratory tradition. The aim is to test the assumption that seasonal movement beyond the district is caused by lack of income, hence likely to disappear with greater local intensification of rice or handicrafts. I expect to find inter-regional networks and kin ties

important in maintaining flows·, also time allocation to particular tasks. Testing concepts of intensification and diversification in relation to mobility, for better understanding of traditional systems and system change.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( C o n t d )

Sociology

Dr R E Hickson CONTRACT FARMING AND RURAL SOCIAL Dr D Burch CHANGE: A STUDY OF INNOVATION AND

STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE

Griffith University Contract fanning is a principle form of change in Australian agriculture. It affects farm decision making on use of technology, land and water resources and chemical use. The

study examines its benefits as well as its economic, social and environmental costs.

Dr Y Sugimoto SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND CLASS AWARENESS IN CONTEMPORARY JAPAN

La Trobe University A study of social stratification and class awareness in Japanese society from 1945 to present on the basis of several quantitative data sets. Examination of

interrelations among social inequality, mobility and class identity over four decades.

Professor J S Western CLASS AND INEQUALITY IN Professor S R Clegg COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE Dr p R Boreham

Queensland University This research proposal develops and extends the Class Structure of Australia project. First, comparative analyses focus on a range of class-related factors with a view to determining what is unique about the Australian class

structure and its patterns of inequality. Second, the analysis of the class structure and its patterns of inequality is extended to the unemployed. In addition to the determination of their class backgrounds, particular attention will be given to the relationship between unemployment, changes in household work strategies and participation in informal economic activity.

Dr C Williams MEN AND WOMEN WORKERS IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN TIMBER INDUSTRY: A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY

Flinders University The study will evaluate government initiatives and restructuring on important manufacturing industry in terms of industrial democracy (employees having a say at the workplace) and equal opportunity. The South Australian branch of the Timberworkers Union (A.T.W.U.) is regarded as

a leader in award restructuring initiatives in Australia. The trade union movement in Australia is watching developments with interests. The needs of working class working women will also be highlighted. The study will also

lead to a greater understanding of the industrial relations ... Cont/.

15,645

43,493

32,305

35,000

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Sociology (Contd)

problems in the timber industry.

Sociology of Education

Dr J K Currie TERTIARY GRADUATES AND THE LABOUR 17,200

Assoc Prof C V Baldock MARKET GENDER AND AGE AS FACTORS IN LABOUR MARKET EXPERIENCE

Murdoch University This study compares the labour market prospects of mature age tertiary graduates with those graduates (termed 'school leavers') who progressed directly from school to a tertiary

institution. It follows graduates into the labour market for a period of five years and allows us to make a more accurate analysis of how male and female, younger and older graduates differ in terms of their salaries, promotion opportunities, further training and other benefits.

Mr P J Dwyer DISAFFILIATED EARLY SCHOOL LEAVERS: 20,000

Ms J Wyn 15-19 YEAR OLDS WHO HAVE LEFT SCHOOL

Dr R Woock WITHOUT DIRECT ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT,

TRAINING OR FURTHER EDUCATION

The University of Melbourne The major emphasis in recent youth policy has been to increase the retention of young people in education and training, partly through improvement of courses and expansion of places, partly through disincentives to young people entering the labour market (removal of unemployment benefit for persons under 18, together with severe constraints on the Young Homeless Allowance). Nevertheless, a significant proportion of young people will continue to leave school without a Year 12 credential. This project will investigate the social and economic costs that arise

from this 'policy vacuum'.

Dr J E Kenway GENDER REFORM IN SCHOOLS: THE 24,200

Dr S G Willis RECEPTION AND EFFECTS OF EQUAL

OPPORTUNITY PROGRAMS FOR GIRLS.

Deakin University Despite the increasing attempts by governments to bring about equal opportunity between boys and girls in education, no studies have explored the dynamics of the reception of such policies in schools. This project will explore the ways in which the policies designed to encourage girls into

'non-traditional' subjects and occupations are responded to be different school populations in different school types. It will thus fill a vacuum in the research literature and will inform future policy.

(Contd)

industrial Relations

Dr L R Johnson ADOLESCENT WOMEN IN RECENT CULTURAL 26,725 HISTORY

The University of Melbourne Young women are surrounded by complex and often contradictory messages about how they should make the transition from childhood to adulthood. This study seeks to understand the nature of the full range of these messages

and how they are socially produced by examining the 1950s and 60s when many of these definitions of growing up and femininity first appeared.

Assoc Prof D H Plowman LABOUR RELATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL 29,000 Mr M Rimmer EFFICIENCY

University of N.S.W There is an increased need for Australian industry to become internationally more competitive. This calls for a more flexible, a better trained and a more productive workforce. There is a need to analyse the ways in which industrial

relations institutions and processes which have evolved under 'New Protection' conditions impede, accommodate, and/or facilitate increased efficiency and to propose policies in

that direction.

GROUP - Social Sciences

Sthnic and Race Relations

Ms P J Maclean THE PREPARATION OF A TRANSLATED 9,542

ANTHOLOGY OF WRITINGS BY PINCHAS GOLDHAR, INCLUDING A BIBLIOGRAPHY AND EXTENDED CRITICAL BIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY

Deakin University An anthology of the translated fiction and non-fiction writings of the internationally acclaimed Yiddish-Australian writer, Pinchas Goldhar, would provide an invaluable

collection for historians and literary critics interested in migration and multiculturalism.

Dr F Rizvi FORMS OF RACISM: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC 18,000

Dr A Rice EXPLORATION OF RACE RELATIONS IN FOUR

MULTI-RACIAL SCHOOLS IN VICTORIA

Deakin University Against the background of an emerging concern in Australian community about racist violence, this project uses ethnographic techniques to explore the nature of race

relations in a number of multi-racial schools, in an effort to identify what part, if any, racism plays in defining inter-racial discourse, social relationship and organisational arrangements in those schools.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Criminology

vr d Brown A SURVEY OF CRIME IN INNER CITY SYDNEY 50,000

Asst Professor D Weisbrot RATES OF UNREPORTED CRIME, FEAR OF Mr R Hogg CRIME , VICTIMISATION AND ATTITUDES TO

POLICE PRIORITIES AND PREVENTION.

University of N.S.W This local crime survey to be carried out in an inner city, high crime suburb of Sydney, will provide a measure of unreported crime rates, levels of fear of crime, evidence of patterns of victimisation and attitudes towards policing methods and priorities. Such data is not available in Australia at a local level. The survey will contribute to policy formulation in relation to policing, crime prevention and local services, at all levels of government and will contribute to criminological understanding of crime and policing issues.

Professor G F Gale SENTENCING JUVENILES: THE INTERACTION 76,958 AND CONFLICT BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE

Adelaide University

Domography

Dr G J Hugo ASIAN MIGRATION TO AND SETTLEMENT IN 34,000

AUSTRALIA

Flinders University More than half a million Australians were born in Asia. The fastest growing birthplace groups in Australia are all Asian and while there is a great deal of public discussion regarding them, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding their patterns of settlement, their economic and social adjustment to life in Australia, their problems and achievements. Such knowledge is of considerable importance to inform not only immigration policy makers but the public generally.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Social Work and Administration

Dr A Borowski THE NATURE OF SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE IN Dr B Lagay VICTORIA

La Trobe University The aim of this study is to describe the nature of social work practice in Victoria in a way which captures the actual activities in which social workers engage. It is

anticipated that the study will show that social workers engage in a diversity of "tasks" that demand both substantive education and considerable skill. This "mapping" exercise should assist schools of social work in

shaping more practice-relevant curricula and the profession in articulating the contributions made by social workers.

Professor R A Gregson N-DIMENSIONAL PSYCHOPHYSICS

University of New England To extend present results, in the modelling of nonlinear psychophysics, from three-dimensional stimulus situations to higher dimensionality, such as normally occurs in real life. A profound gap exists between the theory and practice of

traditional laboratory experiments, where only one physical dimension is varied at a time, and accounts of sensations received by organisms in their natural environments. A basis for narrowing this gap has been identified in olfaction, where the problem is ubiquitous.

Prof L Rosenman ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COSTS OF DEMENTIA OF THE ALZHEIMER'S TYPE TO FAMILIES AND TO THE COMMUNITY

Queensland University With the aging of the Australian population, Dementia will become a major public health problem. This has serious implications for policy, practice and social expenditures in

health; long term care and social services. The project will investigate the direct and indirect economic costs, patterns of service utilisation and the social costs and emotional stress of caring for a dementia patient over a two year period and across the course of the disease. The project will parallel a research project in the USA enabling

comparisons to be made of costs, stress levels and patterns of service utilisation under different health and social care systems.

30,000

25,000

33,376

Social Welfare

Professor T Vinson THE SOCIAL CLASS - CHILD ABUSE 30,793

CONNECTION: GENUINE OR THE RESULT OF BIASED REPORTING AND UNEVEN SOCIAL SURVEILLANCE?

University of N.S.W The reported incidence of child abuse has increased dramatically during the past decade. State welfare departments have responded to the greater public consciousness of child maltreatment by emphasizing the protection, and even rescuing, of vulnerable children from

'sick' home situations. However, if an apparent statistical connection between child abuse and low socioeconomic status could be shown to be of substance, a quite different view of the underlying nature of the problem and strategies for dealing with it, could result.

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Science Policy Studies

Professor E Hazel

University of N.S.W The project is concerned with the under-representation of women in science and technology education at universities - at the undergraduate and especially postgraduate levels. The

study involves two cohorts of students from the University of New South Wales and the University of Technology, Sydney from 1986 (first year and final year students). It focuses on both barriers and positive factors. Factors studied

include attendance at single sex or co-educational schools, presence of role models and mentors, mathematics preparation, careers advice, careers plans, image of science and "maleness" of disciplines and university departments.

Dr C Inglis THE NEW MIGRANTS TO AUSTRALIA: 10,430

Dr C T Wu BUSINESS AND SKILLED MIGRATION FROM

ASIA

Sydney University This research will investigate the economic and social dimensions of the skilled and business migrants. The success and nature of the economic and social adjustments of these migrants are relevant to considerations about the economic contribution of immigrants to Australia and about the potential needs for advice and assistance of such people.

WOMEN IN SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY IN 36,500 AUSTRALIA - FEMALE & MALE ATTITUDES & POLICIES INFLUENCING ACCESS & ACHIEVE­ MENT - LONGITUDINAL SURVEY STRAND

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Womens Studies

Dr R L Rowland A FEMINIST ANALYSIS OF FETAL

PERSONHOOD

Ceakin University As reproductive technology allows younger premature babies to live, and as in vitro conception allows greater possibilities for in vitro life during fetal development,

issues such as abortion become more confusing for feminists. It is essential that the theoretical framework concerning abortion, fetal personhood and the rights of women developed.

Education/Social Sciences

Ms F Christie THE CONSTRUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE Mr R Maclean SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASSROOM: TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EDUCATIONAL LINGUISTICS.

Deakin University Classroom discourse has hitherto focused on aspects of language but not addressed ways subjects are constructed in characteristic discourse patterns. We need accounts of how knowledge is constructed because (i) that can make a contribution to a developing educational linguistics, and

(ii) it can improve the quality of teaching and learning in schools.

Dr B Davies A POSTSTRUCTURALIST ANALYSIS OF GENDER AND OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S DISCOURSE WITH A PARTICULAR FOCUS ON NARRATIVE STRUCTURES

University of New England The way in which children learn to theorise gender stems from the forms of discourse that are available to them. Children's narratives in particular, (both those they encounter as part of the school curriculum and those they use in everyday discourse) will be examined to locate the ways in which primary school children make sense of being male or female in terms of their emotional, physical and

social being. The project has direct implications for the development of equitable educational practices.

12,000

19,000

25,000

Kducation/Social Sciences (Contd)

Professor B J Fraser DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION AND USE OF AN 20,000 Dr G J Giddings INSTRUMENT FOR ASSESSING THE PSYCHO­ SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT OF SCIENCE LABORATORY CLASSES

Curtin University of Technology There is an urgent need to improve participation and achievement in secondary and tertiary science, especially among girls. The science laboratory class is unique and expensive, yet limited research evidence exists about its effectiveness. This study aims to facilitate future research by developing, validating and using a new

instrument for assessing students' or teachers' perceptions of actual and preferred environment in laboratory settings. The study is likely to provide insight into why laboratory · based teaching is not always effective (especially for girls) and suggest ways of improving it.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Dr P R Freebody THE ORAL LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENT OF EARLY 27,50C SCHOOL-LITERACY: RELATIONSHIPS TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND PATTERNS OF LITERACY ACQUISITION.

University of New England This project will employ a range of analytic techniques to document empirically the relationships between individual-teacher interaction patterns, patterns relating to the socio-economic status (SES) of the students, and significant aspects of students' literacy acquisition. Differential rates of academic achievement relating to SES, while well-documented, have been marginalised in most

accounts of early literacy acquisition, partly because those accounts remain disassociated from the varying patterns of oral-instructional discourse through which school-literacy is presented.

Professor G S Harman AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH FUNDING AGENCIES 38,00C Dr V L Meek AND THEIR CLIENTS

University of New England The project will study related Australian government research funding agencies and their influence on research activity and the research community. It will explore how government priorities are translated into policy by funding agencies, how funding agencies go about their work, and the impact that their policies and financial allocations have on the direction, quality and productivity of research activity. The findings aim to provide better understanding of research policy and research activity, and highlight potential barriers to change.

GROUP - S o c i a l S c ie n c e s ( C o n t d )

Sducation/Social Sciences (Contd)

Professor P W Hughes Dr J Abbott-Chapman Mr C Wyld

University of Tasmania The unique data base and pioneering methodology developed over 5 years of our longitudinal cohort study will enable us to identify by tested quantitative measures ■ , as well as the more usual qualitative measures, those teachers and schools which have succeeded in improving student participation and

performance against the pattern of prediction i.e. with higher "success" rates than could have been expected for given student backgrounds and social conditions. The analyses of causal factors will make major contributions to

educational theory, practice and policy.

Dr D Kirk AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRODUCTION AND

Dr L Fitzclarence APPROPRIATION OF KNOWLEDGE IN PHYSICAL Dr R Tinning AND HEALTH EDUCATION AND A CRITIQUE OF THE PROCESS OF CULTURAL PRODUCTION

Deakin University The study examines the production and appropriation of school knowledge in physical and health education by analysing representations of the body, physical activity and health in curriculum materials, print and electronic media

and in people's lived experiences. It attempts to challenge earlier linear conceptualisations of the more general process of cultural production and to build on recent theoretical developments to describe the complexity of this process.

Professor Μ E Poole NEW PATHS AND DIRECTIONS FOR WOMEN'S CAREER SUCCESS: DEVELOPING COMPETENT- CIES AND EXPANDING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

Monash University .

The project has three aims: (1) to examine predictors of perceived career success, professional attainment and career/family orientations in men and women; (2) to develop a typology of career competencies suitable for use in

training programs and (3) to explore the career paths of entrepreneurial and managerial women. The studies build on an existing data archive and on new data collections. This

project is important to the 'national priorities' in addressing issues of income wealth, social inequalities and employment opportunities.

IMPROVING EDUCATIONAL PARTICIPATION AND PERFORMANCE OF DISADVANTAGED YOUTH OF HIGH ABILITY, USING SCHOOLS AS THE AGENTS OF CHANGE

34,000

20,000

7,500

GROUP - Social Sciences (Contd)

Kducation/Social Sciences (Contd)

Dr M Rose ANALSS. & EVALN. OF 1)THE ROLE PLAYED

BY THEORIES OF THE POSTINDUSTRIAL SOC­ IETY IN HIGHER EDUC. REFORMS IN AUSTR. & 2)THE FIRST EFFECTS OF THOSE REFORMS

The University of Melbourne The aim of this research is 1) to analyse those premises behind recent higher education reforms which derive from post-industrial theory, and 2) to assess the progress of those reforms towards the achievement of a post-industrial knowledge society via a study of the initial (next 3 year) changes to student enrolments, curricula changes and research activities. Economic and social benefits to Australia should follow from the way in which the study

results should help to give direction to future educational developments.

Studies of student learning have shown that the quality of learning is influenced by the students' perceptions of learning. Little research has been conducted into the lecturers' perceptions of teaching and learning, yet it is likely that these perspectives will influence the students' perspectives and, ultimately, their quality of learning. This pilot study focuses on the perspectives of first year university science teachers, in particular conceptions of and approaches to teaching and learning, and the relationships between them.

Dr K Trigwell Mr M Prosser

ACADEMICS' EXPERIENCES IN TEACHING FIRST YEAR SCIENCE COURSES

University of Technology Sydney

Civil Engineering (StructuresJ

Dr J C Barry GRAIN BOUNDARY STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY 26, 000

IN THE HIGH TC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OXIDE YBA2CU207-X

Queensland University The critical temperature of the new superconducting oxides are excellent, but applications for the new oxides are few because they have very low critical current density. We

intend to use electron microscopy (lattice imaging and chemical analysis) to determine whether the low critical temperatures are caused by impurities, or by misorientation

at the grain boundaries.

Dr R Coleman MEASUREMENT OF IMPERFECTION IN SILOS 40 , 0 0 0

Dr J M Rotter IN SERVICE

Professor N S Trahair

Sydney University This project measures the imperfections in metal silos in service. Both the loading on a silo and the strength of the silo structure are sensitive to very small dents and dimples in the walls. Many failures in silos occur every year, and lead to significant economic losses both in the cost of repairs and through loss of production. Current

silo tolerances are based chiefly on appearance rather than rational reasoning. Very few measurements of silo imperfections have ever been made anywhere. This project should lead to cheaper silos with improved reliability,

arising from rational loading and strength requirements.

GROUP - E n g i n e e r i n g a n d A p p l i e d S c ie n c e s G r o u p 2

Sanitary Engineering

Dr Μ K James MODELLING APPROACH TO HYDRODYNAMICS, 56,000 LARVAL DISPERSAL AND REEF CONNECTIVITY IMPLICATIONS FOR A.PLANCI, OTHER REEF ORGANISMS, AND G.B.R. MANAGEMENT

James Cook University of North Qld The proposed work will use and extend the results of existing research on the large-scale population dynamics of the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish. It involves the development of a population model based on sub-models of hydrodynamics

and larval dispersal. The project is expected to make a major contribution to the vexed question of the origin of outbreaks of A. Planci populations, and to problems of monitoring and control. The models will also be applicable

to other reef species, so that an important contribution can be made to the provision of soundly-based tools for the support of G.B.R. management.

flu tiding Science and Architecture

Dr V R Beck A STOCHASTIC COST EFFECTIVE SYSTEM 48,

MODEL TO ASSESS THE RISK TO LIFE AND COST IMPLICATIONS ARISING FROM FIRE SPREAD IN MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS

Footscray Institute of Technology This proposal is to develop a system model to assess both the Risk to Life and cost implications of fire in multi-storey residential and commercial buildings. The outcome from this research will lead to savings of several

hundred million dollars per year in the capital cost of building construction in Australia. These savings will be achieved whilst at the same time maintaining acceptable levels of risk to life for the occupants of buildings.

Professor J S Gero MEMORY-BASED REASONING FOR NON-ROUTINE 37, DESIGN SYNTHESIS

Sydney University Design is one of the most significant of the purposeful acts of humans. It is an act based on decisions taken amongst various choices open to the designer. Whilst routine design, where the designer essentially utilises a previous design, is beginning to be well understood, non-routine design is where innovation and creativity occur. This project proposes a reasoning system in which non-routine design is possible based on a separation of designers experience between "compiled knowledge" and "episodic memory". The development of systems to aid the designer in

non-routine design is fundamental to improving designed products.

Dr K C Kwok SNOW AND WIND FLOW AROUND AND THEIR 70,

Mr H F Rohde LOADINGS ON AUSTRALIAN ALPINE AND ANTARCTIC BUILDING

Sydney University Many buildings in alpine areas (including Australia) and Antarctica (to which Australia lays a 42% claim) are continually plagued with problems caused by the wind drifting snow around them. The aims of the project are to develop, in aid of cold-climate building design 1., guidelines for the general control of snow-drifting, and 2., a detailed procedure for wind tunnel based snowdrifting analysis and prediction.

This research is also relevant to macroparticle drift analysis and prediction necessary for the design of buildings and structures in desert, off-shore and extraplanetary environments. The guidelines, technology and services of the Project used here and exported overseas offers the opportunity to significantly improve the safety, economics and environmental impact of alpine and Antarctic buildings, and enhance the knowledge of building design in

... Cont/.

GROUP - E n g in e e r i n g a n d A p p l i e d S c ie n c e s G r o u p 2 ( C o n t d )

GROUP - E n g i n e e r i n g a n d A p p l i e d S c ie n c e s G r o u p 2 ( C o n t d )

Building Science and Architecture (Contd)

other fluid-macroparticle affected environments.

Karine and Coastal Engineering

Professor R M Carter SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND DISPERSAL 30, Dr D P Johnson

James Cook University of North Qld Human activity involves a change in the naturally occurring transport and dispersal of industrial sediments. This study will investigate the changes occurring in the Burdekin Delta

resulting from the construction of the Burdekin Dam, which affect local fisheries, and will trace transport pathways for dredge spoil dumped in Cleveland Bay.

Assoc Prof J B Hinwood COMBINED WAVE AND CURRENT FORCES ON 25, OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

Monash University Offshore structures are frequently subject to forces due to the simultaneous action of waves and currents. Present design codes under or over-estimate these forces by as much

as 40%. More accurate prediction gained by better understanding and reliable experimental data will increase safety and reduce costs of offshore structures for Bass

Strait with its waves plus tidal currents and for the North West Shelf with its tropical cyclone waves plus storm surges.

Prof J Imberger THE HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES ACTING ON 30,

Mr D P Lewis OFFSHORE PIPELINES SUBJECT TO EXTREME CO-EXISTING WAVES AND CURRENTS

University of Western Australia The accurate evaluation of the forces acting on submarine pipelines due to extreme wave and current conditions is essential for their safe and economic design. This

research project aims to improve our understanding of the loadings on offshore pipelines so that future design may then enhance the economic viability of offshore developments, particularly those that are presently considered marginal.

Ur G Price ARTIFICIAL CEMENTATION OF CARBONATE 36,

V J Wall SEDIMENTS FOR THE FOUNDATION OF OFF

°r L Patterson SHORE ENGINEERING

USIRO

To establish an appropriate chemical system which will induce artificial cementation, through the growth of calcite crystals (or dolomite or calcium silicate phases), within the pores of uncemented, and weakly cemented, calcareous

sediments. The aim is to improve the mechanical performance ... Cont/.

000

000

000

000

Murine end Coastal Engineering (Contd)

of the carbonate sediments so as to provide a stronger foundation for offshore engineering structures such as oil platforms and to substantially reduce the foundation installation costs.

GROUP - E n g in e e r i n g a n d A p p l i e d S c ie n c e s G r o u p 2 ( C o n t d )

Metallurgy and Materials

Dr A Atrens PASSIVITY 25,000

Queensland University Breakdown of passive films is the critical step in many corrosion mechanisms such as pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The aim of the project is to develop a detailed understanding of the structure and composition of passive films and the process of passivity breakdown. Commercial stainless steels and selected binary alloys are exposed to controlled corrosive environments, and the passive films formed are characterized using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). Possible

spinoffs include an improved generation of more corrosion resistant stainless steels.

Dr R P Burford CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERPENETRATING 25,000 POLYMER NETWORKS BASED UPON CROSSLINKED ELASTOMERS

University of N.S.W Sequential SBR/PS and BR/PS interpenetrating polymer networks, prepared at UNSW, vary widely in transparency, stiffness, fracture toughness and mode of failure. Although some discussion of phase domain size and other microstructural properties have been provided by Donatelli et al., further fundamental characterization of these materials is needed. Forefront techniques including

transmission electron microscopy/parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy, together with dynamic mechanical analysis, will allow rigorous structure-property relationships for this increasingly important category of high performance materials to be developed.

Assoc Prof D M Dunne RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF IRON-BASED 2 8 , 00θ | Assoc Prof N F Kennon SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS

Wollongong University Shape memory alloys are high technology materials with established commercial applications in devices such as couplings and thermal actuators. This project is concerned with the development of commercially useful shape memory

alloys based on iron. It is a scientifically significant project because of its potential to clarify the factors responsible for the interface reversible phase change which is germane to shape memory. Additionally, it is commercially significant because of its potential to develop

... Cont/.

Metallurgy and Materials (Contd)

low cost shape memory alloys which can operate at higher temperatures than commercial alloys currently available.

Dr N B Gray DEVELOPMENT OF THE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR 45,000

Dr Y S Morsi IMPROVED SYSTEMS FOR TOP SUBMERGED Professor J M Floyd LANCING OF GASES AND SOLIDS INTO PYROMETALLURGICAL BATHS

The University of Melbourne Despite the wide usage of top submerged lancing system of gas/solid injection in high intensity commercial smelting operations in Australia, very limited fundamental data on the operation of such lances exist which could provide a theoretical basis for their design and scale up. The

information related to the flow and thermal characteristics of the swirling gas flowing down the annular region of the lance under high temperature gradients and its dispersion within the bath is particularly lacking. The project will

define the limits of the existing systems, and develop the design criteria for improved systems.

Professor P F Hall ULTRACRYOMICROTOME 30,721

Dr A E Ashford Dr W G Allaway

University of N.S.W Professor Burford will use this equipment to examine samples of polymers at low temperature. Professor Hall will use the ultracryomicrotome to examine samples from endocrine organs under conditions which will maximise the interaction of

antigens with the antibodies. Professor Hewlett will use the apparatus to identify specific cells by immunochemistry with gold and silver. Professor Ashford will examine plant tissues by ultracryomicrotomy.

Professor R J MacDonald INTERFACE PHENOMENA IN EPITAXIAL 35,000 Dr B V King GROWTH OF THIN FILMS

Newcastle University This project involves the study of the interface between single crystal thin films. Thin films are used extensively in industry. They can, for example, make metal surfaces wear or corrode less or allow connections to be made in

integrated circuits. Many properties of thin films are determined by the interface between the film and substrate. We will use ion beam analysis to determine atomic positions at the interface and to study the movement of atoms across

interfaces.

GROUP - E n g i n e e r i n g a n d A p p l i e d S c ie n c e s G r o u p 2 ( C o n t d )

ϊ

Metallurgy and Materials (Contd)

Assoc Prof B A Parker THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF 28,000

MICROCRYSTALLINE ALLOYS

GROUP - E n g in e e r i n g a n d A p p l i e d S c ie n c e s G r o u p 2 ( C o n t d )

Monash University Microcrystalline alloys are produced by novel processing technologies and having grain sizes considerably smaller than those of similar alloys produced by conventional methods. The additional strengthening achieved through the

fine grain size enables reductions in the weight of manufactured components. There appear to be some problems with other mechanical properties of these alloys and the project will address these and devise means for their

solution.

Assoc Prof B A Parker THE ANALYSIS OF PHASES CONTAINING 40,000 Dr B C Muddle LIGHT ELEMENTS IN ENGINEERING MATERIAL Assoc Prof R McPherson

Monash University Many of the phases in important engineering materials contain light elements. These phases have important influences on the processing, structure and properties of materials. This project seeks to establish the special

techniques required to characterise micro-structures containing such phases.

Dr D K Sood Mr P J Paterson Dr R R Manory

SURFACE MODIFICATION OF METALLIC MATERIALS BY FORMATION OF HARD COMPOUNDS AND AMORPHOUS ALLOYS USING ION BEAM TECHNOLOGY

43,000

R.M.I.T. This multidisciplinary project aims at utilizing a high current ion implanter (one of the best few in the world) to produce novel surface metals. The studies will include

fundamental aspects of this unique alloying technique and the resulting changes produced in surface properties such as microhardness, friction and wear. The basic understanding of implantation metallurgy could lead to significant

advances in Australian metal surface finishing industry.

Assoc Prof D J Young MIXED GAS CORROSION OF FERROUS ALLOYS 35,000 AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

University of N.S.W Many industrial processes using coal or oil produce high temperature gases containing both oxidizing and sulfidization corrodents. Because conventional materials are designed to resist oxygen at high temperatures, they

frequently fail as a result of sulfur corrosion. Unfortunately, standard methods of prediction fail. This project evaluates the use of manganese and aluminium in steel to resist these environments. Whereas Australia has very little chromium, the conventional steel component, it

... Cont/.

i

Xetallurgy and Materials (Contd)

has large reserves of manganese and aluminium.

Assoc Prof D J Young MICROANALYSIS OF DISPERSED POLYPHASE 50,000 Dr B J Hensen MATERIALS

Dr A J Bourdillon

U n i v e r s i t y o f N . S . W Many materials of current technological interest are composite, i.e. multi-phase in constitution. In order to characterize and eventually improve these materials it is

necessary to chemically analyse the individual phases. Because the phases can be extremely small, a finely focused electron beam is used to probe the individual phases. In this project an electron microscope is being modified for

this purpose, and will be used to analyse a variety of advanced materials.

GROUP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

Chemical Engineering (General)

Dr P K Agarwal MIXING/SEGREGATION HEAT AND MASS 28,000

TRANSFER FOR LARGE FREELY MOVING ACTIVE SPHERES IN FLUIDIZED BEDS OF SMALLER INERT BED PARTICLES

Adelaide University Technological advances related to coal and mineral processing are of considerable importance to the Australian economy. This proposal seeks to investigate, both

theoretically as well as experimentally, some fundamental issues related to the optimal design of processing systems based on fluidization technology with particular relevance to fluidized bed combustion of coal. The combined comprehensive study on the solids mixing/segregation, heat/mass transfer in binary gas fluidized beds will provide more complete understanding of these complexrelated phenomena. This understanding, as discussed in the body of

the proposal, will lead to improved a priori design procedures.

C D Bertram ENHANCEMENT OF MEMBRANE PROCESSES BY 25,000 PULSATILE FLOW

University of N.S.W The project will find out whether a collapsible tube oscillator can be used reliably and economically to oscillate the flow through tubular filters, which are known to work more efficiently when the flow through them includes

a to-and-fro component. This performance advantage is usually foregone in view of the expense and complexity of conventional ways of producing oscillation. The work is part of membrane technology, which has a significant

high-tech export future.

I

Chemical Engineering (General) (ContdJ

Dr I T Cameron MODELLING AND CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS IN 100,000 Asst Professor P L Lee OPTIMAL PROCESSING Dr R B Newell

Queensland University The competitive nature of Australia's process industries is dependent on optimal operation of these processes. Optimal operation is vitally dependent on the use of process models

for control and optimization. This project will examine the fundamental requirements of such models for each application to reduce the time and effort involved in developing models.

Assoc Prof D D Do FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF IDENTIFICATION OF 47,000 RATE TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN ACTIVATED CARBON AND CARBON MOLECULAR SIEVE

Queensland University Activated carbon and carbon molecular sieves are valuable as adsorbent and catalyst support in many industries. Their full utilization depends on our complete understanding of

rate processes inside the particle. The surface barrier process recently observed for zeolites will be investigated for its existence in carbonaceous materials. The success of

this fundamental project will provide us better knowledge of fluid-solid interaction and hence help us to tailor make solids to suit specific purposes, like, separation of mixtures of fine chemicals or biochemicals.

Assoc Prof D D Do A FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF TOXIC GAS 75,000

REMOVAL FROM COMBUSTION PROCESSES BY USING HIGH ASH COAL REJECT AND FLY ASH

Queensland University The aim of this project is to study the removal of NOx and S02 from combustion gases using waste materials such as high ash coal reject, power plant fly ash and spent shale. This would render the process economically viable. The success of this project will facilitate further development of utilization of coal, which will serve as a fuel and a

feedstock for chemicals in the very short future. Its success is of great relevance to Australia because of our future heavy dependence on coal combustion as a major energy source, and the major contribution of coal exports to the country's balance of payments.

GROUP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

Chemical Engineering (General) (Contd)

Assoc Prof A G Fane BIOADHESION AND FOULING OF SYNTHETIC 32,000 Professor C J Fell MEMBRANES Professor K C Marshall

University of N.S.W \

Membrane processes are becoming increasingly important for desalination, industrial separations and downstream processing in biotechnology. A common problem in many applications is membrane fouling by bacteria and other micro-organisms. This project aims to investigate

bioadhesions onto membrane systems in order to develop better membranes and more appropriate operating strategies.

Assoc Prof A G Fane OPTIMISATION OF PERVAPORATION 40,000 Professor C J Fell MEMBRANES AND MODULES

University of N.S.W Pervaporation (PV) is a new membrane separation process of growing application in the Chemical Industry, as an alternative to conventional distillation. Opportunities exist to improve PV by improved membrane and module design. The performance of thin film composite PV membranes will be examined by varying film thickness and substrate porosity. Modules based on direct contact condensation, thereby

avoiding vacuum technology, will be assessed in terms of heat and mass transfer efficiency.

Dr N R Foster PARTIAL OXIDATION OF METHANE TO 34,000

METHANOL IN A LIQUID PHASE REACTION SYSTEM

University of N.S.W Australia has large uncommitted reserves of natural gas which are principally located in remote areas. There is considerable incentive for on-site conversion of this gas

into a product that is more cheaply transported than liquefied natural gas. One such product is methanol. The aim of this project is to investigate the Direct Partial Oxidation of methane to methanol in a liquid phase system.

Dr N R Foster SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION 37,000

Dr R P Chaplin

University of N.S.W Supercritical extraction is an economically important technique for the separation of components from naturally occurring oils. This project will develop new design correlations for mass transfer efficiency using extraction with carbon dioxide, to cope with the unusual properties of

the phases, and will also include fundamental studies in relation to the feasibility of the process as a means of extraction of gamma-linolenic acid from plant sources.

GROUP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

Chemical Engineering (General) (Contd)

Dr N R Foster OXIDATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL WASTES Dr R Chaplin USING SUPERCRITICAL WATER

University of N.S.W The principal objective of this project is to investigate the oxidation (detoxification) of chlorinated organic wastes (over 7000 tonnes of which is stored in NSW alone), using the Supercritical Water Oxidation process. The process

involves dissolving the organic waste in Supercritical Water, subsequent addition of oxygen and rapid oxidation of the hydrocarbon to carbon dioxide and halide salts. Although the process has been proven at the demonstration

level, little understanding of the underlying fundamentals has so far been attained. Completion of this project will rectify this deficiency.

Dr N R Foster APPLICATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT OF Dr R Chaplin SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

University of N.S.W The objective of the project is to further develop Supercritical Fluid Chromatography as both a research and analytical tool. The Chief Investigators have developed considerable expertise in the areas of Supercritical Fluids and Chromatographic Techniques, thus providing a unique base of skills amongst investigators in this country. Supercritical Fluid Chromatographic analysis will be applied to a number of current projects where conventional chromatographic techniques have limitations.

Dr Q D Nguyen TIME-DEPENDENT FLOW OF YIELD STRESS FLUIDS

GROUP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

Adelaide University Many concentrated industrial suspensions exhibit complex time-dependent plastic flow behaviour with the presence of a yield stress, that must be exceeded to start flow. The

influence of time and shear history on the yield parameter brings fundamental and practical problems to the handling and processing of these materials. The project examines several typical flow problems that are relevant to the minerals, oil, paint and material processing in Australia.

Professor D J Nicklin GAS SOLID FLOW CHARACTERISTICS Mr Y 0 Chong

Queensland University The present study is aimed at providing understanding of existing industrial applications of two aspects of gas-solid flow. Standpipe flow is one of the problem areas in catalyst recirculation in reactors. The problems have caused major plant shutdown and lost production. Overflow standpipe flow is one of the circulation problems in the circulating fluidized bed. So far, because of the lack of

... Cont/.

25,000

35,000

27,000

55,000

Chemical Engineering (General) (Contd)

knowledge of gas-solid flow in the overflow standpipe, the design has been based on rule-of-thumb. There is no control strategy available for standpipe gas-solid flow at this time.

Professor 0 E Potter FLUID-BED REACTORS, CONVENTIONAL AND 35,000 CIRCULATING, A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Monash University Conventional and circulating fluidized beds are partly opposed, partly overlapping, means of achieving the same objective. No adequate comparison has been made. The results are important for some catalytic reactors, fluid-bed combustion, metallurgical operations. The applicant has a

set-up worth at least half-a-million dollars which in any innovative country would be more than fully employed.

GROUP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

Dr G W Stevens INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA IN SOLVENT 35,000

Professor T W Healy EXTRACTION

The University of Melbourne The aim of this project is to develop a new surface spectroscopy technique for examining the kinetics of liquid extraction processes which are of importance to the Australian minerals extraction industry. In particular we

seek to apply the new concepts and techniques to areas such as rare earth processing where this technique could lead t o results which will allow Australian processing technology t o lead the world.

Professor D L Trimm DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION OF A REACTOR 50,000 Assoc Prof M S Wainwright FOR THE ROOM TEMPERATURE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM METHANOL

University of N.S.W The design, testing and optimisation of a reactor to oxidise and steam reform methanol to produce hydrogen for a fuel cell. Concurrent oxidation and steam reforming of methanol

is known to produce hydrogen suitable for use in a fuel cell. The reactor has not been optimised. The purpose of this proposal is to develop the reactor to optimal performance.

Assoc Prof E T White MODEL FOR FLOW AND EXTRACTION IN A 65,000 SUGAR CANE DIFFUSER

Queensland University The project will investigate the behaviour of sugar cane diffusion in terms of fundamental mechanisms to quantify these mechanisms and thus to develop a more efficient and more effective cane diffuser for the Australian Sugar

Industry. Every improvement in technology in Australian sugar processing keeps the present large export industry ... Cont/.

7

Chemical Engineering (General) (Contd)

competitive against other (often low labour cost) countries.

Dr Y L Yeow BIAXIAL EXTENSION OF VISCOELASTIC 50,000

Professor D V Boger FLUIDS

The University of Melbourne The most important factor in polymer processing is the extensional rheology of the polymer. The situation is complicated by the existence of two extensional flows: axisymmetric and biaxial extension. Recent results indicate that axisymmetric extension can be described by KBKZ equations. In this project biaxial extensional response will be measured and compared against the KBKZ equations.

Since the two extensional flows are fundamentally different, this project is a contribution to extensional rheology of the greatest practical importance.

GROUP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

Biochemical Systems

Dr I T Cameron DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTRIBUTED- 30,300

DISCRETE STAGED FRACTIONATORS

Queensland University The project will investigate the FUNDAMENTAL BEHAVIOUR of distillation systems which employ a mixture of PACKED/STRUCTURES SECTIONS AND DISCRETE PLATES. Modelling and simulation of these systems will lead to BETTER CONTROL and VERY SUBSTANTIAL SAVINGS in the petroleum and related

industries which are now using this approach in their crude fractionators. Other industries will benefit.

Dr P M Doran PRODUCTION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FROM 30,000

PLANT CELL CULTURES

University of N.S.W Plant cell and tissue culture is being considered as an alternative means for production of many high-value chemicals otherwise obtained from whole plants. Commercialisation of processes using plant cells has been hampered, however, by technical problems which appear to derive from the lack of cell interaction and protection in conventional dispersed suspension cultures. This project aims to examine new forms of aggregated plant cell catalyst which promote cell-cell contact and communication. The work will involve the development of self-immobilized and differentiated root cell systems, and the design of suitable bioreactors for their large-scale application.

3R0UP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

Biochemical Systems (Contd)

)r P M Doran

University of N.S.W Plant cell culture is being developed as an alternative means for producing many chemicals currently extracted from whole plants. Major problems have been poor productivity of

secondary metabolites by dedifferentiated plant cells and the lack of knowledge about cell growth, secondary metabolism and differentiation in commercially interesting

plant systems. This study uses flow cytometry to measure individual cell properties and identify the range of metabolic activities in heterogenous plant cell cultures. The information obtained will be used to develop control

strategies for large-scale production of plant products.

>r N W Dunn IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS YIELD OF LACTIC 30,000

>r R J Hall STREPTOCOCCI AND IMPROVEMENT IN YIELD OF THE ANTIBIOTIC NISIN

Iniversity of N.S.W High yields of cheese starter cultures are essential to commercial success however little is known about factors that contribute to yield. We have isolated a mutant with a

50% yield improvement and this model system is to be studied to elucidate the genetic and physiological basis of yield with the intention of improving yields of all commercially useful organisms. Production of the antibiotic nisin is

also believed to be proportional to biomass levels. The mechanism of nisin production in relation to yield variable hosts will also be studied.

\pplled Science (General)

rofessor P F Greenfield FACTORS AFFECTING LARGE SCALE 70,000 PRODUCTION OF PROTEINS FROM INSECT CELL CULTURE AND BACULOVIRUS EXPRESSION SYSTEM

ueensland University The baculovirus expression system in insect cells has emerged as one of the most powerful techniques to produce valuable recombinant proteins for therapeutic, agricultural

and veterinary applications. The commercial potential of the technique is very large. For Australia to take advantage of this new technology, we must be able to grow these cells in large scale culture and produce and recover the protein products. A basic understanding of the effect of the large scale environment on insect cell culture does not currently exist. This project aims to provide that understanding.

ANALYSIS OF CELL CYCLE GROWTH RATE 25,000 AND SECONDARY METABOLITE SYNTHESIS IN HETEROGENEOUS PLANT CELL CULTURES USING FLOW CYTOMETRY

Applied Science (General) (Contd)

Professor Μ T Hearn PREPARATIVE BIOCHROMATOGRAPHY IN THE Dr I G Prince OVERLOAD MODE

Monash University This project addresses major conceptual and practical limitations of large scale preparative isolation of proteins from natural and recombinant DNA sources. The research

strategy of this project will provide important new quantitative information on protein behaviour in process and integrated multistage biochromatography operating in the overload mode. Consequently, these studies will be directly relevant to the 'downstream' component of industrial biotechnology in Australia which is involved with the recovery and purification of commercially important proteins.

GROUP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

Hydraulics

Dr A R Simpson ESTIMATION OF PEAK PRESSURES DUE TO COLUMN SEPARATION DURING WATERHAMMER EVENTS IN PIPELINES

Adelaide University The problem of peak pressures associated with column separation during water hammer events is considered in this research. An understanding of the physical processes associated with collapse of vapour cavities in pipelines will be achieved through an experimental program and the development of a general analytical methodology for modelling column separation. Accurate estimation of peak separatipnessueesedtieatofoDltiiiB pipelines. economic design of

Physical Oceanography

Dr J A Church THE PREDICTION OF WIND-DRIVEN CURRENTS ON THE CONTINENTAL SHELF NEAR SYDNEY AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THESE CURRENTS FOR COASTAL UPWELLINGS

Division of Oceanography The first aim of this project is to attempt to predict the wind-driven currents on the continental shelf near Sydney using coastal-trapped wave theory and the knowledge of the wind-forced circulation gained during the Australian Coastal

Experiment. We then wish to delineate what role the wind-forced circulation has in the intermittent intrusions of nutrient rich slope water onto the continental shelf. Remote Sensing (AVHRR) data will be used to identify upwelling events. The final aim is to determine the relationships of currents observed on the South Australian

... Cent/.

Physical Oceanography (Contd)

shelf with those observed on the New South Wales shelf.

Dr C Fandry APPLICATION OF THREE DIMENSIONAL 39,000

Dr P D Craig STRATIFIED MODELS OF FLOW ON

CONTINENTAL SHELVES

Division of Oceanography The primary objective of the project is to investigate mathematical models, developed by the applicants, to simulate circulation and density structure of continental

shelf waters. The models are to be applied to several important problems, including the ocean dynamics induced under tropical cyclones, the advection of biological species, and the dispersion of contaminants. An aim of the

simulations will be to improve the parametrisation of turbulence used in the models.

Dr B Henderson-Sellers A THERMODYNAMIC MARINE MODEL FOR 35,000 COUPLED OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE CLIMATE STUDIES

University of N.S.W A comparative study of the Kraus-Turner and the thermodynamic model EDD1 will be undertaken for application in the CSIRO proposed coupled atmosphere-ocean general

circulation model. The selected model will be embedded in the CSIRO 2 and a half level dynamic model and simulations of the impact of the increasing atmospheric carbon-dioxide

undertaken. Groundwork will be laid for the use of the primitive equation Bryan-Cox-Semtner model.

Dr J R Hunter A FIELD AND MODELLING INVESTIGATION OF 52,000 Dr C J Hearn THE UPWELLING REGION OFF THE SOUTHEAST COAST OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Curtin University of Technology This investigation of the South Australian upwelling region (which supports a $25 million per year fishery) should provide : an improved understanding of the physical oceanography of that region, leading to an ability to model the occurrence of upwelling events (with important

implications in fisheries management); an enhanced Australian capability in three-dimensional modelling of upwelling processes; and the implementation of real-time on-board computer models for use in the planning and

direction of a scientific cruise.

GROUP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

■

Physical Oceanography (Contd)

Dr T J Mcdougal OCEANOGRAPHIC INVERSE MODELLING 44,000

Division of Oceanography Tracer and hydrographic data from the ocean's interior will be used to infer both the mean ocean velocities, and the intensities of lateral and vertical mixing: key parameters that are needed in predictive models of the ocean circulation and climate variations. Our new perceptions of ocean mixing and modelling, including new mixing processes, new surfaces, the correct parameterization of vertical advection, a novel technique for determining locations where gradients of tracer data are linearly-independent, and the accurate use of a streamfunction, are expected to yield new and different

insights into ocean mixing and ocean circulation.

Dr J F Middleton THE SCATTERING OF CONTINENTAL SHELF 60,000 Professor V T Buchwald WAVES INTO AND FROM THE BASS STRAIT: THEORY AND OBSERVATIONS

University of N.S.W Shelf waves are the dominant cause of non-tidal currents on the east Australian coast. Knowledge of shelf waves physics is important in studying such phenomena as Barrier Reef ecology and the behaviour of effluent from submerged sewer outfalls. The results of the 1985 Australian Coastal Experiment suggest that oscillations of the Bass Strait are the main source of the shelf waves. This investigation is designed to analyse Bass Strait data and develop theories which are expected to establish the link between Bass Strait oscillations and shelf waves, both on the south and east coasts.

Dr J H Middleton COASTAL AND SHELF DYNAMICS 167,000

University of N.S.W Knowledge of the processes governing circulation in the coastal ocean is important for technological developments in offshore construction, coastal zone management and for predictions of transport and dispersion of pollutants, nutrients and larvae. This proposal aims to elucidate the dynamics of flow around coastal topography (headlands, embayments, etc), since these substantially complicate an otherwise straightforward and predictable circulation pattern. Techniques proposed include field experiment

(including remote sensing), analytical and numerical modelling, and comparison of theory and observation using sophisticated data analysis techniques.

GROUP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

GROUP - Engineering and Applied Sciences Group 2 (Contd)

physical Oceanography (Contd)

Dr M Nunez REMOTE SENSING OF HEAT FLUXES AND THE 75,000

Dr G Meyers MECHANISMS OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE Dr J S Godfrey CHANGE IN THE SEAS NORTH OF AUSTRALIA

University of Tasmania Small (0.5C) changes in sea surface temperatures (SST) north of Australia have a major effect on global climate. To study these changes, Nunez obtained formulae for surface heat fluxes from remote sensing data, and Meyers built a network of ocean observations. It is now proposed to use these and some other data to estimate all the terms in the

surface mixed layer heat budget - short and longwave radiation, latent and sensible heat flux, advection, mixing and storage. These terms will be used for analysing climate events (eg ENSO episodes), improving ocean models, and refining the algorithms for the heat fluxes.

Dr C Rizos VERTICAL DATUM DEFINITION FOR OCEAN 42,000

Dr R Coleman CIRCULATION STUDIES USING THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

University of N.S.W Making use of the precise positioning capabilities of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, this project seeks to estimate the relative heights of selected tide

gauge stations across Bass Strait. The outcome will be a set of ocean surface levels referred to a unique vertical datum with a precision of better than a decimetre. This information, together with data from in-situ oceanographic measurements will assist in ocean circulation modelling, and

ultimately will provide valuable ground-truth information for the new generation of oceanographic satellite missions (TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS - 1).

Dr R K Steedmar. AUSTRALIAN NORTH WEST SHELF OCEAN 350,829 Dr C Fandry BOTTOM BOUNDARY LAYER PROJECT

Dr P E Holloway

Office of the Administrator Cocos Is. Observations at the edge of the Australian North West continental shelf, show a large shoreward propagating semidiurnal internal tide wave. Large non-linear shocks and

soliton waves are generated during the passage of the wave at the shelf break. The shock interaction and dissipation in the stratified bottom boundary layer and the best method of assessing the extreme nature of these events as they affect the engineering of sea bed structures is unknown. The project aims to measure the physical processes and develop a model (based on the Navier Stokes equations) of the boundary layer dynamics.

I

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology

Structure and Jnfectivity o f Viruses

Dr R J Lester IDENTIFICATION TRANSMISSION 42,000

Professor P B Spradbrow PATHOGENESIS AND CONTROL OF VIRAL DISEASES IN CULTURED PENAEID PRAWNS

Queensland University Virus diseases cause heavy losses in prawn mariculture overseas. We have found baculovirus infections in three species of cultured Australian prawns. In two species, the

infections were closely linked to poor larval survival. This project will identify the viruses, determine how they are transmitted, evaluate their pathogenicity to king and tiger prawns and recommend methods for their control.

Biochemistry of the Nervous System

Dr G B Maguire NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE 30,000

GREENLIP ABALONE HALIOTIS LAEVIGATA

Tasmanian State Institute of Technology A very large export market exists for abalone. Production from capture fisheries have declined. Hence there is great interest in farming abalone. Commercial production to edible

size is being inhibited by excessive cost of artificial abalone diets. There is a need to develop cost-effective diets specifically designed for local species.

Systematica and Taxonomy

Dr W J Woelkerling MONOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF CORALLINACEAE 63,000 RHODOPHYTA IN SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA

La Trobe University This project aims to provide the first reliable taxonomic knowledge of coralline red algae belonging to Fosliella and Pneophyllum which are found in Australian waters, thereby providing knowledge vital for the effective management of the marine environment, especially of seagrass ecosystems to which these algae are important sediment contributors and which are known to be rearing grounds for commercially

important species of fish.

Gonetics and Evolution

Dr W F Ponder BIOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS OF SMALL 20,000

CERITHIACEAN GASTROPODS OF AUSTRALIA

The Australian Museum The aim of this project, which is being carried out in collaboration with two other scientists (one in Washington, D.C. and in Univ. of Sydney), is to provide information about these abundant animals living in shallow water ecosystems around Australia so that they can effectively be utilized in ecological and other studies. This type of work

is the backbone of any well-informed management decisions.

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Plant and Animal Ecology

Dr A J Underwood EXPERIMENTAL ECOLOGY OF INTERTIDAL 48,587 ROCK - POOLS

Sydney University Intertidal rockpools are a fascinating habitat because of the diversity, beauty and interesting natural history of the many species of natural plants and animals that live in

them. More importantly they are also "islands" of favourable habitat surrounded by more hostile regions. They are not exposed to harsh aerial conditions during low tide, as are the surrounding rocky surfaces of sea-shores. Thus, they provide refuges for many intertidal and subtidal species.

These features make pools a useful simulation of other island habitats (real islands, National Parks surrounded by development, estuaries separated from one another along a coast, patches of forest, billabongs etc,). This study is investigating processes affecting the biology, diversity and ecology of species in pools, and the effects of pools on surrounding habitats (and vice-versa). The research includes experimental tests of current ecological theories and models about islands and patchy habitats. These will evaluate the theories and help evaluate methods for managing and conserving species in patchy and isolated habitats.

Dr I A Van Altena INTERACTION BETWEEN MARINE HERBIVORES 44,669 Dr P Steinberg AND BROWN ALGAL SECONDARY METABOLITES

Adelaide University We propose to: 1) Identify bioactive substances in marine algae. Marine organisms are currently being examined worldwide in a search for biotechnologically useful

substances. 2) Examine the deterrent or toxic effects of these compounds on Australian marine herbivores, including commercially important species of abalone. This both enhances our knowledge of the feeding biology of these organisms, and has implications for future mariculture of

abalone. Brown algae comprise much of the producer biomass in temperate Australia; their ecology is generally relevant ... Cont/.

to management of the coast.

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Plant and Animal Ecology (Contd)

Marine Biology

Dr A Bacic STRAIN-SELECTION AND MASS CULTURE FOR 55,000

Dr R Wetherbee THE COMMERCIAL PROSUCTION OF AGAR AND Dr G T Kraft CARRAGEENANS FROM AUSTRALIAN MARINE RED ALGEA

The University of Melbourne Agar and carrageenans are valuable commodities for the food and biotechnology industries. They are currently produced only from seaweeds grown in marine farms and harvested by

hand. This proposal aims to establish whether agar and carrageenans can be produced commercially from Australian seaweeds grown in culture. We will also obtain fundamental information regarding the life histories of certain species.

Dr M A Borowitzka STUDIES OF THE MARINE FLORA OF SOUTH 34,023 Dr J M Huisman WEST WESTERN AUSTRALIA Dr G T Kraft

Murdoch University This project will provide a solid taxonomic basis for the marine algae of south-west Western Australia with particular emphasis on the Ceramiales, the Coorallinales and the genus

Caulerpa. The very rich flora of this region has not been studied in detail in the past. A good knowledge of the marine flora is of fundamental importance to support marine ecological studies, studies of the environmental impact of

coastal developments and the management of marine parks presently being established.

Mr S M Clarke MARICULTURE OF MACROALGAE FOR ABALONE 39,118 Dr S A Shepherd FOOD: SPECIES SELECTION AND OPTIMISATION OF YIELD IN POOLS AND SHALLOW SUBTIDAL ENVIRONMENTS

S.A. Department of Fisheries This study assesses the potential for the commercial culture of select species of macroalgae for use as feed in the mariculture of abalone. The palatability, ease of culture

and yield of a wide range of algae will be assessed; a single taxon selected and the optimum environmental conditions for maximising its yield (while retaining its palatability) determined, and pool and shallow subtidal mariculture undertaken. The topic is one identified as of

national interest, deserving particular attention in 1990, and has economic potential.

Karine Biology (ContdJ

Dr Μ N Clayton STUDIES ON SECUAL REPRODUCTION IN 62,001

Dr J A Phillips AUSTRALIAN BROWN ALGAE WITH A CRITICAL REVIEW OF TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS AND EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS

Monash University The project aims to obtain new information concerning physiological and ultrastructural aspects of sexual reproduction in two groups of brown algae. This will lead to a better understanding of their taxonomic and evolutionary relationships and will provide information

important for the management and conservation of marine ecosystems.

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Dr J C Coll CHEMICALLY MEDIATED INTERACTIONS 25,000

Dr P W Sammarco BETWEEN MARINE ORGANISMS

James Cook University of North Qld Marine animals and plants use small toxic or 'bad-tasting' molecules to defend themselves against predators. Some marine organisms even use these same types of chemicals to wage "war" on neighbouring plants or animals. Reproduction

in algae and corals is also controlled by small fatty molecules. This project will investigate the way these small molecules play important roles in the life of marine organisms. The project will lead to discoveries of molecules possessing antifouling and antibiotic properties.

Dr P G Fairweather VARIABILITY IN ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEMS IN 26,000 RELATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE DATA AND RECOVERY

Macquarie University Some predictions contained in statements of environmental impacts appear to be flawed because variability in ecosystems is ignored. Estuaries (including wetlands) vary greatly from place to place and time to time. This project measures variability in the Hawkesbury Estuary NSW, determines how this affects estimations of impacts, and provides guidelines for precise, accurate and cost effective monitoring of the environment. This will aid environmental managers, consultants and all concerned with mitigating environmental impacts of development.

Karine Biology (Contd)

DrM J Kingsford IMPORTANCE OF OCEANOGRAPHIC FEATURES 59,207 FOR VARIATION IN NUMBERS OF FISH

Sydney University Catches of commercial fish fluctuate in NSW. Oceanographic features such as fronts and plumes of estuaries can determine how many small fish survive early life in the plankton & recruit to adult populations. Fronts and plumes influence

food available to small fish and onshore movements to coastal environments. Pollutants accumulate in fronts and affect survivorship of fish. A multi-disciplinary study of fish in oceanographic features will give insight to why the

size of commercial fish populations vary.

Dr J Kuo REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY IN RELATION TO 36,626

SEA GRASS TAXONOMY

University of Western Australia The Australian waters are well endowed with seagrasses and many endemic species. The reproductive biology of these unusual marine angiosperms is poorly understood. A

comparative structural and developmental study of reproductive organs will be carried out by using field observations and microscopical examinations. The phenology of Australian Posidonia will also be investigated. The

important structural features, as well as the flowering and fruiting patterns, will be assessed in relation to the reproductive strategies and taxonomical significance in the Australian seagrasses.

tosoc Prof A W Larkum PROGRAMME GRANT:PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND 88,655 )r J A Hansen CARBON FLOW THROUGH DETRITUS PATHWAYS ON A CORAL REEF

Sydney University We are examining factors affecting primary production of algae on coral reefs as well as the importance of the algae to the macrofauna consuming it. This will yield information

of extreme value to coral reef management, as we will be able to predict the effects of increased human impact on coral reefs (such as increased nutrient loads due to sewage or fertilizer runoff). We will also understand more about

food chains supporting commercially important fish

r C J Limpus POPULATION DYNAMICS OF EAST AUSTRALIAN 46,500 GREEN TURTLES,II NORTHERN GREAT BARRIER REEF

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Id National Parks & Wildlife Service

Karine Biology (Contd)

Assoc Prof J S Lucas MICROENCAPSULATED FEEDS FOR Mr P C Southgate MARICULTURE OF LARVAL BARRAMUNDI AND OYSTERS

James Cook University of North Qld The development of successful artificial diets for larval oysters and barramundi would represent a significant breakthrough in the field of mariculture on a world-wide basis. At present, the provision of live feeds in mariculture hatcheries represents a large proportion of

total cost and labour. Development of "off the shelf" diets would result in much cheaper and more reliable feeds. This research, if successful in achieving the objectives would

attract interest from commercial feed manufacturing companies in Australia.

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Dr D J Mackey BINDING OF MICRONUTRIENTS BY

Dr H J Merchant PHAEOCYSTIS POUCHETII AND THE ROLE OF Dr P D Franzmann BACTERIA IN THEIR RELEASE

Division of Oceanography The project is to investigate the processes and dynamics of micronutrient binding and release by the environmentally and economically significant alga Phaeocystis pouchetii and its

associated bacteria with a view to determining their role in mediating seasonal species succession where this alga produces dense blooms. An understanding of the biology of Phaeocystis and its associated bacteria, especially those aspects that may influence the growth of other organisms is of direct relevance to resource and environmental management

in both the Australian and international context, including Australia's input to CCAMLR and other forums concerned with the Southern Ocean ecosystem.

Professor W R Muntz RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL Dr D M Williams LIGHT AND VISUAL MECHANISMS INCLUDING CONE PIGMENTS IN INSHORE TO OPEN OCEAN CORAL FISHES

Monash University The aims are to increase our knowledge of the visual mechanisms of the fishes of the inshore, mid-shelf, outer-shelf and Coral Sea reefs in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef, especially in their adaptations to the quality of light in the environment. Apart from adding to our knowledge of the basic biology of the fishes, the results should help explain their distribution and abundance across the continental shelf.

τ

Marine Biology (Contd)

Dr J D Shields THE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF THE Dr R J Lester PARASITES OF SWIMMING CRABS

(PORTUNIDAE)

Queensland University The community of parasites of invertebrate hosts has not been well studied. We will define the organization and structure of the parasite community of swimming crabs. We will address how positive and negative interactions between parasites affect the structure of the community, how

pathogenic parasites affect the community and the host, and how the moulting of the host affects its parasites. Lastly we are developing a model that will enable us to make meaningful statistical comparisons between different levels

of the community.

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Anatomy and Histology

Dr J K King COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND

HISTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE INTEGUMENT OF SEALS AND SEA LIONS.

S.A. Museum The study of seal skin is important because the integument marks the boundary between these animals and their aquatic or terrestrial environment. The skin might be expected to

show adaptations to this amphibious way of life. A detailed knowledge of the sub-cutaneous cellular processes is also essential to an understanding of the chronology and gross

changes which occur in the course of hair growth and moulting cycles and their relationships to other components of the annual cycle.

Reproduction

Dr N Forteath EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY 31

Dr J Purser ON VIABILITY OF RAINBOW TROUT,

-Dr L Wee SALMO GAIRDNERI

Tasmanian State Institute of Technology Rainbow trout are an important commercial species in Australia. High water temperatures in the summer appear to have a detrimental effect on egg quality and broodstock

survival. The export potential of the industry is threatened unless selection programmes are successful. This necessitates egg viability.

35,000

5,000

,000

Applied Biology

Dr M F Capra A STUDY OF MARICULTURE 32,190

Dr A W Blackshaw Ms J A Goodall

Queensland University of Technology Little attention has been paid to the mariculture potential of Australian fish. This proposal will assess the mariculture potential of two commercially important estuarine species the bream, Acanthopagrus Australis, and

the whiting, Sillago ciliata. The proposal will continue studies on reproduction and begin studies on the optimal conditions for in vitro fertilization, larval and juvenile rearing and adult grow out. The chief investigators have a unique opportunity to utilize a large estuarine impoundment at the Sea World Marine Park, Queensland.

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Rnvironmental Pollution

Assoc Prof D W Connell MODELLING THE BIOCONCENTRATION OF 34,675 Dr R D Braddock BIODEGRADABLE LIPOPHILLIC POLLUTANTS

Griffith University The bioconcentration of non-degradable or resistant lipophilic pollutants may be described by a relatively simple first order kinetic treatment, and bioconcentration

factors can be related to the octanol-water partition coefficient of the compound. Most pollutants are biodegradable to some extent however, yet they may still bioconcentrate to significant levels in marine biota. At present, there is no adequate method of describing the bioconcentration process or predicting maximum bioconcentration factors in marine organisms with this large group of compounds.

Assoc Prof A W Larkum UV-B RADIATION, PHOTOSYNTHESIS 55,500 AND THE PRODUCTIVITY OF ALGAE

Sydney University The development of the ozone-hole over Antarctica has increased the levels of harmful UV-B radiation in the region. UV-B inhibits algal growth, largely by inhibiting photosynthesis, which leads to decreased algal production. Since the seas around Antarctica are very productive and depend on phytoplankton to provide the base of the food chain, this region is seriously threatened potentially, by ozone depletion. This project sets out to understand the mechanism of UV-B inhibition in algae, to assess the likely effects of enhanced levels of UV-B, both in Antarctica and

in Australian waters and seeks ways in which algae could become better protected from UV-B radiation.

Environmental Pollution (Contd)

Dr A J Underwood EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSES OF POLLUTION IN ESTUARINE SOFT-SEDIMENTS

Sydney University

Plant Cell Structure

Dr M L Vesk ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EFFECTS ON

MICROALGAE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO MARICULTURE SPECIES

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Sydney University Dr Μ I whitecross MECHANISMS OF ULTRAVIOLET B DAMAGE TO LAND AND MARINE PLANT PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ITS DETRIMENTAL INTERACTIONS WITH

OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES

Australian National University

40,000

25,000

40,000

Marine Geology and Geophysics

Professor C C Von Der Borch STRUCTURE STRATIGRAPHY AND GEOLOGICAL 20,860 Dr V A Gostin HISTORY OF THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN GULFS AND CONTIGUOUS CONTINENTAL SHELF

Flinders University

Seamorphology and Quaternary Geology

Assoc Prof D Hopley FRINGING REEF DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTH 25,000 CENTRAL GREAT BARRIER REEF

James Cook University of North Qld This project is examining the ecological changes in reef communities close to the southern limits in the Great Barrier Reef Province, together with the geomorphological characteristics of reef development which declines rapidly

south of a line opposite Mackay. The project has significance as there are eight established resorts within the region and further resorts are planned.

Dr A D Short AUSTRALIAN BEACH SYSTEMS - NATURE AND 35,000

RISK; AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEACH TYPE AND PUBLIC RISK

Sydney University Australia has the world's highest per capita number of beaches and beach usage. It also has the world's highest level of public beach risk with over 10,000 rescues each year. Beach usage is presently accelerating with rescues

and litigation expected to follow. Recent Australian developments in beach 'science' can be used to both identify and minimise public beach risk. This project will achieve ... Cont/.

Geaatorphology and Quaternary Geology (Contd)

this by conducting research into type and level of public risk in representative beach systems, as well as coordinating Australia wide research that will permit a risk identification and grading of all beach systems.

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Soil and Rock Mechanics

Dr C M Haberfield DESIGN OF ROCK SOCKETED PILES FOR 36,023

Assoc Prof I W Johnston OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

Monash University The overall aim of this project is to improve the design of offshore piled foundations. The expected outcomes from this research are:

(i) an improved understanding of the cyclic behaviour of rock socketed piles. (ii) an improved design method for these piles which would result in safer and more economic construction,

(iii) a sophisticated test facility for the derivation of design parameters which will be available to the relevant industries.

Professor H G Poulos MECHANICS OF CALCAREOUS SEDIMENTS 64,852 Professor J R Booker Dr J P Carter

Sydney University This project aims to develop more reliable procedures for design of foundations for offshore structures in Australian marine calcareous sediments. It will concentrate on the

behaviour of piles in such sediments, with particular reference to the influence of pile diameter, and on appropriate analytical modelling of sediment stress-strain

behaviour.

Assoc Prof M F Randolph CENTRIFUGE MODEL STUDIES OF SHALLOW 52,635 FOUNDATIONS IN CALCAREOUS SOIL

University of Western Australia The offshore industry in Australia is now developing smaller fields in shallower water, where piled jacket structures are less economic than alternatives of gravity base (concrete)

foundations or temporary 'jack-up' drilling rigs. The sea-floor consists of variably cemented calcareous sediments for which limited data exist for the design of shallow foundations. Centrifuge model testing will yield key design data for offshore structures on shallow foundations, quantifying effects of combined vertical, horizontal and moment loading, and providing guidance on likely jack-up leg penetration.

Dr J C Small PORE PRESSURE BUILD UP IN SOILS DUE TO 34,000

Professor J R Booker CYCLIC LOADING

Sydney University Pore pressure build up under marine structures which is caused by wave rise and fall can lead to structural failure, instability or to large settlements. Such problems arise

for offshore oil platforms, port facilities and harbourside structures. The design and safe operation of such structures is vital to Australia's economy and future development.

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

foil and Rock Mechanics (Contd)

Applied Mechanics

Dr B Cotterell IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CRACK OPENING 25,000

Prof Y W Mai DISPLACEMENT CRITERION FOR DUCTILE FRACTURE

Sydney University The significance of defects in structures, such as offshore oil platforms, is assessed by measuring the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) in a standard test geometry and

following a simple conservative design method. The standard test geometry provides a very high constraint to plastic flow. In practice many defects are in the form of shallow

surfaces cracks that have less constraint. The critical CTOD in these cases is considerably larger than that measured in standard tests leading to very costly over conservation. We seek to understand the relationship

between CTOD, plastic constraint and microstruetural features to enable better determination of the significance of defects.

Plaid Mechanics

Professor R H Grimshaw FLOW OVER TOPOGRAPHY 36,000

University of N.S.W The flow of fluid past topography is one of the central problems of fluid mechanics. This project focuses on environmental applications, such as mountain meteorology, tidal flows and coastal currents. The project utilizes a new concept for the theoretical description of these flows, which unifies previous theories into a single model

incorporating transcience, nonlinearity, wave dispersion, dissipation and forcing.

Marine and Coastal Engineering

Dr A Abel FATIGUE IN OFFSHORE TUBULAR JOINTS

Sydney University

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Summary: The existing fatigue rules do not take into account the possible benefit offered by stress relieving. Experimental has work indicated that a significant improvement can be achieved by stress relieving. The proposed study seeks to establish firmly the benefit of

stress relieving to the extent that design codes may be influenced by these findings.

Dr M R Gourlay WAVE DECAY AND TRANSFORMATION THROUGH Dr I R Young THE GREAT BARRIER REEF

Mr R Nelson

Queensland University

Summary: Waves are important in determining the environment on coral reefs. Little is known about wave energy dissipation within the Great Barrier Reef region. This project should improve wave climate prediction and produce better design methods for reef structures. Australian

tourism will benefit from safer, more economic facilities such as floating hotels and transport terminals on reefs. Navigation in reef waters will be safer, with consequent economic benefits extending well outside the Barrier Reef region. Environmental management of the reef, its cays and mainland beaches will be improved, and emergencies such as oil spills dealt with more efficiently.

Dr N Haritos HYDRONAMIC INTERACTION EFFECTS OF DYNAMICALLY RESPONDING OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

The University of Melbourne The aim of this research proposal is to gain a better understanding of the hydrodynamic forcing and resultant damping of offshore structures through the conduct of extensive experimental and theoretical studies. The outcome of the research will enable more cost-effective designs for such structures (eg. riser systems, channel beacons, oil platforms) so critical to the offshore developments currently underway in this country and overseas.

GROUP - Marine Sciences and Technology (Contd)

Marine and Coastal Engineering (Contd)

Dr I S Jones ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS OF OFFSHORE 32,

STRUCTURES

Sydney University

Summary: One of the critical environmental load parameters for offshore structures, the surface wind drift current, is to be measured in Bass Stra