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Prime Minister's address at the United Nations General Assembly



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PHIMU luINlaTEH* 15 aDONNSS

AT ΤΗΝ UNITED NaTIuNS

GjiNAiiAL ΛΒοιΙαΒίιΥ

The f o l l o w i n g i s t h e t e x t

o f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ’ s Addr ess t o t h e

U n i t e d N a t i o n s G e n e r a l Asse mbly i n New York on Monday, 30 September 1 9 7 4 «

Hr P r e s i d e n t ,

' I n t h i s y e a r i n which A u s t r a l i a ha s e s t a b l i s h e d

d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i i h A l g e r i a , i t g i v e s me p a r t i c u l a r

p l e a s u r e , as Head o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n Governm ent, t o c o n g r a t u l ­

a t e you upon y o ur e l e c t i o n as P r e s i d e n t o f t h i s 2 9 t h S e s s i o n

o f t h e G en eral A sse m bly . I he -Algerian e x p e r i e n c e ha s encom­

p a s s e d many o f t h e d e e p e s t problem s f a c i n g t h e w o r ld and t h i s

. w o r ld o r g a n i s a t i o n t o d a y . S i r - your n a t i o n ’ s e x p e r i e n c e -

and your own - e n su r e d i s t i n c t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n c e t o y o ur

o c cu p a n c y o f t h i s h i g h p o s t .

As head o f t h e f i r s t A u s t r a l i a n S o c i a l D e m o c r a t ic

Government s i n c e A u s t r a l i a h e l p e d t o f o un d t h e U n i t e d H a t i o n s

and t o frame i t s C h a rser more than a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y a g e ,

I a f f i r m our l o y a l t y ' t o b o t h . Such p l e d g e s a r e e a s i l y enough

g i v e n , y e t no n a t i o n makes them more s i n c e r e l y , more e a r n e s t l y

to da y thai A u s t r a l i a . . . . . '

' Ho c o u n t r y n e e d s more than A u s t r a l i a t h e f u l f i l m e n t

o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s tp

r e a c h t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f h er own n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . There

a r e few c o u n t r i e s i n which t h e paradox i s d e m o n s t r a t e d w i t h

su ch f o r c e t h a t t r u e n a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e depend s upon

i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . There a r e few n a t i o n s t o

which t h e m irag e o f n a t i o n a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y can be made so

t e m p t i n g . Yet t h e r e a r e few7 n a t i o n s f o r w h ic h t h a t m ira g e

can be so e a s i l y s h a t t e r e d . A u s t r a l i a , f o r t u n a t e i n p o s s e s s ­

i o n o f g r e a t r e s o u r c e s , c o n f i d e n t i n t h e a b i l i t y o f h e r own

p e o p l e to d e v e lo p t h o s e r e s o u r c e s , i s n e v e r t h e l e s s n o t ashamed

t o admit h e r i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e w i t h her n e i g h b o u r s and h er

p a r t n e r s a c r o s s t h e wor ld and he r dependen ce upon the m . We

a r e a p e o p l e w i t h o u t i l l u s i o n s , we A u s t r a l i a p s n e i t h e r

f a l s e l y e x a g g e r a t e cur s t r e n g t h n o r f e a r f u l l y e x a g g e r a t e our

w e a k n e s s e s . I t i s p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e v;e make a r a t i o n a l a s s e s s

ment o f our s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s t h a t we r e c o g n i s e t h a t we

depend up:·on a b e t t e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h o s e

t h i n g s we most v a l u e about our n a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . I n

s e e k i n g a b e t t e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r d e r , we g i v e pr im a cy t o t h e

U n i t e d N a t i o n s . ■

■ I t i s t h e r e f o r e w i t h growing c o n c e r n t h a t we w i t n e s s

what can o n l y be c a l l e d a d r i f t away from i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r d e r

and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n a t p r e s e n t o c c u r r i n g i n world

a f f a i r s . A u s t r a l i a ’ s c o n c e r n s p r i n g s n o t . j u s t from t h e

r e a l d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e d by r e c e n t e v e n t s b u t , e v en more,

from t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e r e has been a w e a k e n i n g o f w i l l , a

l o s s o f momentum i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l - l e t e m a n a t i o n t o meet and

overcome t h o s e d i f f i c u l t i e s . '

. . . / 2

' 2

Great h o p es were ce~'n two y e a r s a g y . The A u s t r a l i a n

Government w h o l e h e a r t e d l y er d o rsed t h e movement t o w a r d s .

^ d e t e n t e betw een t h e U n it e d St ates and t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . Vie

w h o l e h e a r t e d l y s u p p o r t e d C h in a ’ s r e t u r n t o her t r u e p l a c e i n

t h e f a m i l y o f n a t i o n s - i n t h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n and i n t h e w o r l d .

We w h o l e h e a r t e d l y e n d o r se d t h e P a r i s Agreement +o e~d t o war

i n V i e t r n , We t h e r e f o r e r a t i f i e d t h e N i c l e a r T .’ o n - P r o l i f -

e r a t i o n T r e a t y , moved our China Embassy from T a -p e h m

P e k i n g , u id ended A u s t r a l i a ’ s own m i l i t a r y i n v o l v e m e n t i n

I n d o - C h i n a . , - ■ ...

Above a l l , we have been d e t e r m i n e d t o do a l l we can

t o e n s u r e t h a t our r e g i o n and t h e world s h o u l d n o t f o r a

s e c o n d tim e l o s e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a new s e t t l e m e n t , a new

s t e p to w a r d s p e a c e and p r o g r e s s , i n t h e way t h a t t h e c h a n c e was

thrown away a f t e r t h e war i n Korea and a f t e r t h e Genova "

m e e t i n g s i n 1954. Yet we have t o a ckno w le dg e t h a t t h e h o p e s

s p r i n g i n g from t h e rem ark able e v e n t s o f 1971 and 1972 are

b e g i n n i n g t o s o u r . There i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a s e n s e o f d ^ i f t ,

a s e n s e o f e v e n t s out o f c o n t r o l . The t a s k r .f t h i s A s s e m b l y

s h o u l d be t o h e l p s t o p t h a t d r i f t . Our n a t u r a l r e - o c c u p a t ­

i o n w i t h c u t n a t i o n a l proble ms - and f o r most o f u s t h e y a r e

v e r y g r e a t i n d e e d - must n o t l e a d t o a l o s s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l

concern·· and i n v o l v e m e n t . We ca nn ot t u r n i n w a r d s . ^ven t h e

most im m ed ia te p r obl e m s o f d o m e s t i c wo r ry - s u c h a s i n f l a t i o n

w h ic h no many o f us s h a r e , t h e s t r o n g e s t , t h e m^st h i g h l y

d e v e l o p e d a l o n g w i t h t h e w e a k e st and t h e l e a s t d e v e l o p e d - a r e

i n e s s e n c e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , f o r w h ic h t h e r e c an be no

u l t i m a t e , no c o m p l e t e n a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n w i t h o u t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l

s o l u t i o n . No n a t i o n , no group o f n a t i o n s , no b l o c , no

a l l i a n c e , can l i v e a l o n e , can l i v e e n t i r e l y t o i t s e l f i n t h i s

new w o r l d . . .

We a r e a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s now - by n e c e s s i t y .

A u s t r a l i a i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t by n e c e s s i t y - and by c h o i c e .

Bach o f u s has our b i l a t e r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s and our r e g i o n a l

a r r a n g e m e n t s . LI any, l i k e A u s t r a l i a , t h r o u g h t r e a t y o r t r a d e

o r t r a d i t i o n , have h o n o r a b l e a l i g n m e n t s and v a l u a b l e a s s o c i a t ­

i o n s . . .

I t i s however t h r o u g h t h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n , i t s .

A s s e m b ly and i t s C o u n c i l s and t h r o u g h t h e s p e c i a l i s e d a g e n c i e s ,

t h a t t h e e n d u r i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e t t l e m e n t s must u l t i m a t e l y be

s o u g h t Lind t h e d r i f t away from i n t e r n a t i o n a l c c - o p e r a t i o n

must be a r r e s t e d .

So t h e r e must nr l o s s o f n e r v e , no l o s s o * w i l l

h e r e . I f we h e r e l o s e our n e r v e , i f we h e r e a l l o w t h a t d r i f t

t o c o n t i n u e u n c h e c k e d , we f a c e t h e breakdown o f t h e n u c l e a r

n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n t r e a t y , t h e breakdown o f w o r l d e co n om ic

o r d e r , two breakdown o f a l l oar h i g h h o p e s and h i g h words

3

about c l o s i n g t h e gap be tween t h e d e v e l o p e d and d e v e l o p i n g

n a t i o n s and t h e breakdown o f any c l a i m s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s

O r g a n i s a t i o n t o be an e f f e c t i v e p e a c e - k e e p e r and p e a c e - m a k e r .

We s h o u l d a l l s t a n d g u i l t y o f b e t r a y a l o f our p e o p l e s

i f we did n o t a c t now t o s t o p t h e d r i f t i n t h e s e m a t t e r s .

The s p e c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s which t h e might o f t h e

s u p e r - p o w e r s im p o se s upon them sh o u l d n o t be made an e x c u s e

f o r i n d i f f e r e n c e o r i n d e c i s i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e s t o f

usL We c o n t i n u e t o urge upon t h e su p e r — powers t h e ne e d f o r

them b o t h t o m a i n t a i n t h e utmost mutual r e s t r a i n t i n t h e i r

r e l a t i o n s between t h e m s e l v e s - and to w a r ds u s . They c a n , o f

c o u r s e , e a s i l y d e s t r o y each o t h e r . They can a l s o d e s t r o y a l l

o f u s . We a r e e n t i t l e d t o ask them t o move forw ard t o a

s t a g e o f c o m p l e t e d e t e n t e where t h e i r tremen dous power can. be

u s e d j o i n t l y f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f t h e whole c i v i l i z a t i o n .

We are e n t i t l e d t o i n s i s t upon r e s t r a i n t i n t h e i r deployment

o f f o r c e s o v e r s e a s , i n a r e a s su ch as t h e I n d i a n Ocean.

A u s t r a l i a i s s t r o n g l y opp ose d t o t h e I n d i a n Ocean becoming a

ground f o r c o m p e t i t i o n , much l e s s c o n f r o n t a t i o n be tween t h e

g r e a t p o w e r s ,

Mutual r e s t r a i n t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l t o p r e v e n t t h e

e x c e s s e s s and t h e d a n g ers o f t h e n u c l e a r arms r a c e .

Le t me r e c a l l t h a t t h o s e o f us who a r e so f a r

p a r t i e s to t h e t r e a t y on t h e N o n - F r o l i f e r a t i o n o f N u c l e a r

Weapons have g i v e n t h e n u c l e a r powers c e r t a i n r i g h t s , t h e y i n

t u r n have a c c e p t e d c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and g i v e n

g u a r a n t e e s , a s p a r t o f a two-way p r o c e s s . We u n d e r t o o k n o t

t o d e v e lo p n u c l e a r weapons i n r e t u r n f o r g u a r a n t e e s o f

p r o t e c t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e development o f n u c l e a r

knowledge f o r p e a c e above a l l , t h e s p o n s o r i n g powers unde r­

t o o k t o promote and m a i n t a i n a world o r d e r b a s e d upon

c om p rehensive disarm am en t„ U n l e s s t h e s e o b l i g a t i o n s are

s i n c e r e l y f u l f i l l e d , t h e i n c e n t i v e abroad and t h e p r e s s u r e

a t home f o r more and more n a t i o n s t o g e t n u c l e a r weapons w i l l

i n c r e a s e . A c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t by a l l l e a d e r s must f i n d

e f f e c t i v e means o f h a l t i n g t h e arms r a c e and p r e v e n t i n g t h e

p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f n u c l e a r weapons. There i s n o t h i n g more

u r g e n t f a c i n g any o f us t o d a y .

A u s t r a l i a t h e r e f o r e s e e s w i t h d e e p e s t a n x i e t y t h e ■

c o n t i n u i n g and new t e s t i n g o f n u c l e a r d e v i c e s , t h e p r o s p e c t

o f an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g number o f n a t i o n s p o s s e s s i n g n u c l e a r

weapons, and an even g r e a t e r number p o s s e s s i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t y

o f e x p l o d i n g n u c l e a r d e v i c e s . Where i t h a s be e n open t o ■

A u s t r a l i a we have e x p r e s s e d our c o n c er n i n a c t i o n b e f o r e t h e

I n t e r n a t i o n a l Court o f J u s t i c e .

. e , / 4

4

A l l o f us f a c e a n ig h tm a r e world i n which ps many

as f i f t e e n o r t w e n t y n a t i o n s may p o s s e s s n u c l e a r weapons

by t h e e a r l y 19 δ 0 ’ s , There i s tim e t o p r e v e n t i t * We have

perhaps about a y e a r , two y e a r s a t t h e most i n which to

p r e v e n t i t = Now i s t h e t i m e , i t may be our l a s t c h a n c e ,

For our party t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government p l e d g e s t h a t

i t w i l l n e i t h e r d e v e l o p no r a c q u i r e n u c l e a r w e a p o n s,

Our f i r s t aim must be t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e Non­

P r o l i f e r a t i o n T r e a t y and work f o r i t s a c c e p t a n c e e v e r y w h e r e ,

R ea l and r a p i d p r o g r e s s can b e s t be made t h r o u g h t h i s t r e a t y e .

We sh o u l d b u i l d on what we h a v e . We ha*re n e t t im e t o s t a r t

a l l o v e r a g a i n . S i x y e a r s a f t e r i t was c o n c l u d e d and more

than f o u r y e a r s a f t e r i t came i n t o f o r c e , some s t a t e s have

s t i l l t o r a t i f y t h e t r e a t y , or t o make c l e a r t h e i r r e n u n c i a t ­

i o n o f n u c l e a r weapons d e v e l o p m e n t , C e r t a i n l y we u n d e rs ta n d

t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e t r e a t y p r e s e n t s t o some n a t r o n s . We

u n d e rs ta n d t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s , We acknow ledge d i s c r i m i n a t o r y

a s p e c t s o f t h e t r e a t y as i t now s t a n d s , we would hope t h a t

t h e f o r t h c o m i n g r e v i e w c o n f e r e n c e w i l l remove some o f t h e s e

d i f f i c u l t i e s , but t h e c o n f e r e n c e w i l l be more s u c c e s s f u l and

m e a n i n g f u l i f more n a t i o n s r a t i f y t h e t r e a t y and work w i t h i n

i t s framewok t o improve i t and a p p l y i t .

S e c o n d l y , we s h o u l d make a c o m p r e h e n s i v e t r e a t y t o

ban n u c l e a r weapons t e s t i n g an u r g e n t p r i o r i t y . The t r e a t i e s

which have be e n c o n c lu d e d and r e s o l u t i o n s w h ic h have been

adopted are i m p o r t a n t a c h i e v e m e n t s , but t h e y h a t e n o t gone

f o r enough tow ards s t o p p i n g t h e n u c l e a r arms r a c e . They are

o n l y s t e p s to wards u n i v e r s a l and c o m p re h e n s iv e agreement on

n u c l e a r weapons t e s t i n g . We must c o m p l e t e t h e j o u r n e y .

T h i r d l y we need e f f e c t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l arran gem en ts

t o gov ern and c o n t r o l n u c l e a r e x p e r i m e n t s f o r p e a c e f u l

p u r p o s e s . We a l l r e c o g n i s e t h e prom ise w h ic h s c i e n t i f i c

c o l l a b o r a t i o n on th e p e a c e f u l u s e s o f n u c l e a r nee.rgy h o l d s

f o r economic development i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l mankind.

But t h e world ca nno t a f f o r d t h e r i s k s which l i e i n t h e p r o s p e c t

where i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f c o u n t r i e s p o s s e s s n u c l e a r d e v i c e s -

even i f t h e y p r o f e s s t o have them f o r p e a c e f u l p u r p o s e s o n l y .

We cannot sh ru g o f f n u c l e a r e x p l o s i o n s w h ic h p r e s e n t us w i t h

su ch a t h r e a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e c o ndu cte d o u t s i d e e x i s t i n g

s a f e g u a r d s and w i t h o u t i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s p e c t i o n , A u s t r a l i a

s e e k s support f o r an i n t e r n a t i o n a l arrangement by which a l l

s t a t e s c o u l d g a i n a c c e s s t o n u c l e a r e x p l o s i v e s e r v i c e s under

a g r ee d and s e c u r e i n t e r n a t i c n a l c o n t r o l s f o r p e a c e f u l p u r p o s e s „

We urge a l l n u c l e a r s t a t e s t o c o - o p e r a t e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g su ch

a s e r v i c e , p r e f e r a b l y under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l

Atomic Energy Ag ency , I j o i n w i t h th e F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r o f

‘/Ο

5.

Canada i n t h i s c a l l . g

* Another approach t o t h e g o a l o f disarmament w orth

s e r i o u s e x p l o r a t i o n i s t h e c o n c e p t o f p e a c e z o n e s . They

a r e o f c o u r s e no s u b s t i t u t e f o r c o m p r e h e n s iv e disarmament

and no s u b s t i t u t e f o r an e f f e c t i v e n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n t r e a t y .

A u s t r a l i a , however, t a k e s a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e

a g r e e m e n t s and p r o p o s a l s embodying t h i s c o n c e p t , b e c a u s e

most o f them a f f e c t our c o n t i n e n t and our r e g i o n d i r e c t l y .

i The ' n t a r c t i c T r e a t y , The I n d i a n Ocean P e a c e Zone, The

ί ASEAN D e c l a r a t i o n , t h e Trendy o f T l a t e l o l c o , and t h e p r o p o s a l

| by I r a n f o r a n u c l e a r weapons f r e e zone i n t h e -Middle* Just"

a l l move i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . They command A u s t r a l i a ’ s

broad support s i n c e t h e y a s s e r t t h e d a n g e r s i n h e r e n t i n an

u n c o n t r o l l e d , u n r e g u l a t e d u s e o f our p l a n e t f o r t h e deploym ent

o f n u c l e a r w eapons, t h e y s e e k to l i m i t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , ·

emplacement and u s e o f n u c l e a r weapons i n the- a r e a s and

e n v i r o n m e n t s t h e y c o v e r . t h e y a l l e x p r e s s g r o w ing a n x i e t y

about t h e sp r e a d o f n u c l e a r weapons, t h e y a l l s e e k p a t h s

t o w a r d s r e d u c i n g t e n s i c n s among t h e n u c l e a r powers·. For* t h e

A u s t r a l i a n Government, t h e s e i n i t i a t i v e s n o t o n l y r e p r e s e n t

ends i n t h e m s e l v e s b u t , we b e l i e v e s e r v e t o s t i m u l a t e p r o g r e s s

on o t h e r im portant m easures i n t e n d e d t o b r i n g to f u l f i l m e n t

t h e h o p e s o f mankind t o l i v e i n s e c u r i t y , f r e e from t h e t h r e a t

o f n u c l e a r war. . .

Let me s a y t h a t A u s t r a l i a ' s a n x i e t y about t h e n u c l e a r

arms r a c e do es not b l i n d us t o t h e r is k ' s t o i n e r n a t i c n a l

p e a c e and s e c u r i t y from l o c a l i s e d c o n f l i c t s u s i g c o n v e n t i o n a l

w e a p o n s. We, t h e members o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i immunity, '

s t a n d condemned f o r our f a i l u r e s o f a r t o f i n d ~η· s e r v e o f

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e means o f a u t h o r i t y t o s t o p r e g i o n a l

d i s p u t e s b e i n g s e t t l e d by f o r c e . I t i s e q u a l l y bad t h a t ' s e m e

members o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m . u n i t y have made p o s s i b l e -

f o r p r o f i t - m a s s i v e r e c o u r s e t o arms and t h e means o f w aging

wars about t o s t a r t o r a l r e a d y begun. A w o r ld o r d e r wh ic h

p e r m i t s , or which, be d e f a u l t , s a n c t i o n s t h e l a r g o s c a l e

t r a n s f e r of weapons from one c o u n t r y t o a n o t h e r where th e

r i s k o f c o n f l i c t i s h i g h , i s g r a v e l y a t f a u l t and v e r y f o o l i s h .

I t s h o r t c i r o u i t s t h e p r o c e s s o f p e a c e f u l n e g o t i a t i o n s and p u t s

prim a cy upon s e t t l e m e n t o f d i s p u t e s by w a r , by b l o o d s h e d , and

a s a l w a y s happens - must a lw a y s happen i n modern war - by t h e

b l o o d s h e d o f t h e i n n o c e n t .

C l e a r l y we s t i l l have f a r t o go b e f o r e t h e

i n t e r n a t i o n a l com...unity w i l l a g r e e c o l l e c t i v e l y t o f o r s a k e

t h e s h o r t t e i m g a i n s on arms s a l e s abroad i n r e t u r n f o r t h e

l o n g e r term but l e s s t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s t h a t t h i s s e l f - d e n y i n g

o r d i n a n c e would c o n f e r on t h e weapons p r o d u c e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,

we now a sk t h a t t h e major weapons p r o d u c i n g c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d

s e t an example by im p o s in g t h e s t r i c t e s t r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e

' :*r « τ - τ *ι.·Î¯[· ι

aS E F V S F S r - * ? ' · '- · -

. . . / 6

6

9

<*<

e x p o r t o f arms a b r o a d t o a r e a s where t h e r e i s a c l e a r r i s k o f

c o n f l i c t . . .

R e c e n t e v e n t s have shown t h a t p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p e a c e

i s more t h a n a m a t t e r o f arms c o n t r o l . I +" i s a l s o a m a t t e r

o f k e e p i n g th e p e a c e when v i o l e n c e t h r e a t e n s o r o c c u r s . I t

i s n o t enough f o r members o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o pay l i p

s e r v i c e t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s ’ p e a c e - k e e p i n g r o l e . I n d i v i d u a l

members have t h e d u t y t o p r o v i d e t h e m a t e r i a l and f i n a n c i a l

r e s o u r c e s t o a l l o w t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o d e a l w i t h t h r e a t s

t o s e c u r i t y , b r e a c h e s o f t h e p e a c e and a c t s o f a g g r e s s i o n .

A u s t r a l i a s t a n d s r ea d y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p e a c e ­

k e e p i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n what eve.- way would be most u s e f u l .

A u s t r a l i a i s o f c o u r s e a l l i e d by t r e a t y w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ,

and we make no a p o l o g i e s f o r i t . Th ere i s however n<3 a r e a o f

a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t anywhere i n t h e w o r l d where

l o y a l t i e s , i -’e a l o g y o r i n t e r e s t s , s h o u l d make an A u s t r a l i a n

i n v o l v e m e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n p e a c e - k e e p i a g u n a c c e p t a b l e o r

un w e lc om e. We w i s h A u s t r a l i a to be a l w a y s among t h e f i r s t

n a t i o n s from w h ic h t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s wou ld a s k f o r p e a c e ­

k e e p i n g f o r c e s , we s h a l l be among t h e f i r s t t o r e s p o n d . we

u n d e r t a k e t o keep t h e S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l r e g u l a r l y i n f o r m e d

on t h e n a t u r e and s i z e o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s we a r e a b l e t o p r o v i d e

o v e r a g i v e n p e r i o d . .

A u s t r a l i a f u r t h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f

p r e v e n t i v e d i p l o m a c y must come t o be more w i d e l y r e c o g n i s e d

and a c c e p t e d and t h a t t h e ample p r o v i s i o n s o f f e r e d by t h i s

o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r peace- k e e p i n g and good o f f i c e s s h o u l d be

r e i n v i g o r a t e d , e x p l o r e d more t h o r o u g h l y and more t h o r o u g h l y

e x p l o i t e d . I t i s t i m e , t h e r e f o r e , t o l o o k a g a i n a t t h e

h i t h e r t o un tapped p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r , t o

make a l l t h a t we ca n o f i t s c a p a c i t y t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l c o n t r i b ­

u t i o n s t o s u c h a c t i v i t i e s a s f a c t - f i n d i n g , c o n c i l i a t i o n

m e d i a t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n .

We h e r e s h o u l d p a r t i c u l a r l y d e v o t e i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o

t h e r o l e o f t h e I n t e r n s t i o n a l Court o f J u s t i c e . Not enough

n a t i o n s u s e t h e C o u r t . Members o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l community

c a n n o t be c o m p e l l e d t o t a k e t h e i r c - s e s b e f o r e t h e Court bn-* "

we s h o u l d s t r i v e t o b u i l d c o n f i d e n c e i n i t s w o r t h , i t s wisdom,

i t s w o r k a b i l i t y a s one way o f r a t i o n a l i s i n g , and h a r m o n i s i n g

i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . I f t h e r u l e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w

and j u s t i c e i s to p r e v a i l , t h e n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r i b u n a l i s

i n d i s p e n s a b l e . The C o u r t ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n s h o u l d b e w i d e n e d .

J u r i d i c t i o n s h o u l d become co m p u lso r y and u n i v e r s a l . New

m u l t i l a t e r a l t r e a t y a r r a n g e m e n t s - l i k e t h a t w h ic h w i l l emerge

from t h e Lav/ o f t h e S e a C o n f e r e n c e - s h o u l d e n f o r c e r m p u i s o r y

s e t t l e m e n t o f d i s p u t e s , w i t h t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Court a s t h e

f i n a l c o u r t o f a p p e a l . By s u c h s t e p s t h e r u l e o f l a w can be

. . , / l .

i . ~ ; r r — r

8

7ο

e s t a b l i s h e d and s t r e n g t h e n e d i n a b e t t e r w o r ld o r d e r .

. · I n t h i s d i f f i c u l t , c o m p l i c a t e d , crowded w o r l d we

a l l a r e c r e a t i n g f o r o u r s e l v e s , t h e c a u s e s o f c o n f l i c t

m u l t i p l y . N u c l e a r b r i n k m a n s h i p , i d e o l o g y , b o r d e r d i s p u t e s ,

r a c e h a t e , r e l i g i o u s b i g o t r y , n a : i o n a l a m b i t i o n s , f o r e i g n

e x p l o i t a t i o n - a l l p r o v i d e a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s o f

t e n s i o n , c o n f l i c t , b l o o d s h e d and w a r . * e t t h e r e r e m a i n s

f o r t h e f u t u r e one o f t h e o l d e s t o f a l l t h e c a u s e s o f war -

t h e t h r e a t o f war f o r t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . Huge

p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , t h e r e v o l u t i o n o f r i s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s ,

t h e enormous and o f t e n w a s t e f u l demands o ; r t e c h n o l o g i c a l

c i v i l i z a t i o n makes upon t h e w o r l d ’ s r e s o u r c e s , have i n c r e a s e d

t h e p r e s s u r e s on our world c i v i l i z a t i o n t o t h e v e r y t h r e s h o l d

o f t h e t o l e r a b l e .

For c o u n t r i e s which l a c k r e s o u r c e s t h e s i t u a t i o n has

become c r i t i c a l . The d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ; have be e n g r o s s l y

d i s a d v a n t a g e d . L a s t y e a r ’ s o i l c r i s i s bro ug h t t h i s s h a r p l y

home t o a l l o f us ~ d e v e l o p e d and d e v e l o p i n g a l i k e .

I t i s p r o p e r t h a t i n t h i s w o r ld f or urn I s h o u l d s t a t e

t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government’ s a t t i t u d e t o t h e u s e and d e v e l o p ­

ment o f A u s t r a l i a ' s own v e r y con i d e r a b l e r e s o u r c e s . There i s

no p l a c e i n our t h i n k i n g f o r "economic n a t i o n a l i s m " i n i t s

c r u d e s t s e n s e „ W e do, o f c o u r s e , 'wish t o e n su r e s t e a d y

m a rk ets a t f a i r p r i c e s f o r ./hat we p r o d u c e . We r e c o g n i s e t h e

g r e a t , s c o p e f o r i n c r e a s e d c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n p r o d u c e r s o f

raw m a t e r i a l s and f o r g r e u p s o f e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s t o '

a s s o c i a t e t o b u i l d a b e t t e r framework f o r o r d e r l y and r a t i o n a l

d e v e lo p m e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n and t r a d e . As a r e l a t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d

and t h r i v i n g n a t i o n , v'hich a l s o p r o d u c e s many r e s o u r c e s sh a r e d

by d e v e l o p i n g and p o o r e r n a t i o n s , A u s t r a l i a r e c o g n i s e s i t s

du ty t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h s u c h n a t i o n s i n o b t a i n i n g f a i r and

r e a s o n a b l e r e t u r n f o r our p r o d u c t s . And we are c o - c p e r a t i n g .

E q u a l l y however we i n A u s t r a l i a a c c e p t o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o

r e a s s u r e c o u n t r i e s which depend upon o u r r e s o u r c e s t h a t t h e y

s h a l l have s t e a d y , s e c u r e a c c e s s t o t h o s e r e s o u r c e s at f a i r '

p r i c e s . V/e must p r o t e c t c u r i n t e r e s t s and we s h a l l , cut

A u s t r a l i a i s n o t i n t h e b u s i n e s s o f r e s o u r c e , b l a c k m a i l . That

i s t h e way t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s a s t e r - f o r p r o d u c e r s and u s e r s

a l i k e .

L e t u s a c c e p t t h e p l a i n f a c t t h a t war f o r r e c e u r c i s

o r f o o d o r m a rk ets by any n a t i o n o r group o f n a t i o n s would,

i n modern t i m e s , r e p r e s e n t t h e supreme f o l l y . Thera i s no

war, n u c l e a r o r " c o n v e n t i o n a l " by wh:: . ch t h e v i c t o r s o - c a l l e d ,

a ss u m in g t h e r e v;r - o n e , c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y -win back by war t h e

r e s o u r c e s u sed a i d d e s t r o y e d i n waging i t . I f ·. c c h o o s e n e t

t o l i s t e n t o t h e v o i c e o f humanity a g a i n s t war, we m ight a t

/ e

8

l e a s t l i s t e n t o t h e v o i c e o f' comrnonsense and i n d e e d o r d i n a r y ,

r a t i o n a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t e

As a major fo o d p r o d u c e r , A u s t r a l i a i s p a r t i c u l a r l y

i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r o p o s a l s on f o o d w hic h P r e s i d e n t Ford

and S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e K i s s i n g e r have made a t t h i s S e s s i o n »

A u s t r a l i a u n d e r t a k e s t o work c o n s t r u c t i v e l y and c o - o p e r a t i v e l y

towar ds i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e p r o p o s a l s » S u g g e s t i o n s s u c h

a s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f g r a i n

r e s e r v e s a r e t h o r o u g h l y commendable and d e s e r v e our most s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n »

Of a l l t h e chan ges which have o c c u r r e d i n t h e

i n t e r n a t i o n a l community s i n c e World War I I none ha s more p r o f o u n d l y a l t e r e d t h e f a c e o f t h e w o r l d t h a n t h e a c c e s s i o n t o

ind ep en de nc e by t h o s e p e o p l e s and s t a t e s f o r m e r l y under

c o l o n i a l r u l e « The p r o c e s s i s n o t y e t c o m p l e t e , but we l o o k

t o a tim e i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e when no t e r r i t o r y w i l l be c o n t r o l l ­

ed a g a i n s t i t s c h o i c e by a m e t r o p o l i t a n power w i t h whom i t

h a s no g e o g r a p h i c a l , s o c i a l , r a c i a l , c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t y » I n

t h i s r e g a r d we p a r t i c u l a r l y welcome d e c i s i o n s by P o r t u g a l

about h er c o l o n i e s »

A u s t r a l i a has a c t e d w i t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n and v i g o u r t o

a p p l y t h e r e l e v a n t a r t i c l e s o f t h e Ch arter» Papua New Guinea

became s e l f - g o v e r n i n g on 1 December 1973» I t w i l l become

f u l l y i n d e p e n d e n t as soon as t h e House o f Asse m bly o f Papua

New Guinea d e c i d e s » We e x p e c t t h i s d e c i s i o n soon» Let me

emphasise - t h e d e c i s i o n we a w a it i s by t h e House o f Assembly»

The A u s t r a l i a n Government made i t s own d e c i s i o n l o n g ago ~

we u t t e r l y r e j e c t a c o l o n i a l r o l e f o r A u s t r a l i a » Meanwhile

t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government d e a l s w i t h t h e Government o f Papua New Guinea i n - a l l s i g n i f i c a n t r e s p e c t s a s t h a t o f a n a t i o n

a l r e a d y i n d e p e n d e n t . .

There i s t o me, I must s a y , a most s a t i s f y i n g

sy m etry i n t h e march o f e v e n t s by which P o r t u g a l t h e o l d e s t ,

and A u s t r a l i a t h e n e w e s t , o f t h e c o l o n i a l powers are a c t i n g

a t t h e same t i m e towards t h e l i q u i d a t i o n o f c o l o n i a l i s m »

A c r o s s t h e d i s t a n c e o f 400 y e a r s t h e new w o r ld i n A u s t r a l i a

c l a s p s hands w i t h t h e o l d , i n endin g a f a l s e , demeaning,

unworthy power o v e r o t h e r s »

The dr am atic and welcome p r o g r e s s made to wards t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e o l d e s t and l a s t o f t h e c o l o n i a l empires

now e n a b l e s t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o d i r e c t even more c o n c e n t r a t e d

a t t e n t i o n upon t h e t w i n e v i l o f r a c ism - p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s

p o s t - c o l o n i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n S o u t h e r n A f r i c a . We must

• / 9

'ϊ ί ^ ω*·1Τ Î’ ' ^ '

be u n r e m i t t i n g i n t h e e f f o r t s s a n c t i o n e d by t h e Assembly

t o break t h e i l l e g a l regim e i n R h o d e s i a , t o end South

A f r i c a ’ s u n l a w f u l c o n t r o l o v e r Namibia and t o end a p a r t h e i d »

We sh o u ld a l l make de ter m ine d e f f o r t s t o s e e t h a t t h e momentum

which la u n c h e d t h e decade f o r a c t i o n t o combat r a c i s m and

r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s n o t l o s t . My Government - c o n s c i o u s

t h a t A u s t r a l i a ' s own r e c o r d i s s e r i o u s l y f l a w e d - i s d e t e r ­

mined t o remove a l l forms o f r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i t h i n

our own s h o r e s , n o t a b l y now, a s n o t o r i o u s l y i n t h e p a s t ,

a g a i n s t our own a b o r i g i n a l s »

While r a c i s m rem ains as c r u e l a s any example o f man's

inhum anity t o man, we s h o u l d n o t , ho w ever, o v e r l o o k t h v e x i s t ­

ence o f o t h e r forms o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which rob men and women

o f t h e i r r i g h t t o l i v e i n d i g n i t y and p e a c e o f mind. Throughout

t h e wor ld p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s l a n g u i s h i n j a i l s o r are o t h e r ­

w i s e d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r c i v i l l i b e r t i e s . There a r e t h o r o u g h l y

u n a c c e p t a b l e c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e r i g h t o f p o l i t i c a l asylu m .

R e l i g o u s and e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s a r e p e r s e c u t e d , w orkers are

d e n i e d t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e I . L . O . c o n v e n t i o n s , women are

d e n i e d e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , even as one b e h o l d s t h i s a s s e m b ly

women a re s c a r c e l y e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . The A u s t r a l i a n F o r e i g n

M i n i s t e r , S e n a t o r W i l l e s e e , w i l l , d u r in g t h e d i s c u s s i o n , be

p u t t i n g A u s t r a l i a n s u b m i s s i o n s t o e x p r e s s our v i e w s and p r o p o s a l s

on t h e s e m a t t e r s .

There has n e v e r been a t i m e i n human h i s t o r y when t h e

t r u t h o f th e o n e - n e s s , t h e i n d i x i s i b i l i t y o f hum a nity , h a s

be e n so m a n i f e s t . I t i s no l o n g e r o n l y a p h i l i s o p h i c a l or

r e l i g o u s p r o p o s i t i o n but an a s s e r t i o n o f s h e e r r e a s o n and command·

i n g commonsense. A l l t h e momentous r e c e n t d e v e lo p m e n t s have profound i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e c o ndu ct o f i n t e r ­

n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s s i n c e t h e y have one common theme - t h e

i n t e r d p e n d e n c e o f us a l l . That i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s now a l m o s t

t o t a l .

An a ttem p t by any s t a t e t o b r i n g a bo u t p o l i t i c a l or

economic change i n a n o t h e r th r o u g h u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l , c l a n d e s t i n e ,

c o r r u p t m eth o ds, by a s s a s s i n a t i o n or t e r r o r i s m , unde rm ines t h e

r u l e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w , e n c o u r a g e s a d v e r t u r i s m and

a na r c hy , e n d a n g er s world p e a c e and t u r n s q u i t e q u i c k l y a g a i n s t

even t h e most p o w e r f u l n a t i o n s who would s e e k t o advance

t h e i r c a u s e by su ch m eth ods.

T-he w i l f u l e r e c t i o n o f t r a d e b a r r i e r s by one s t a t e o r

a group o f s t a t e s w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e h a r d s h i p c a u se d t o

o t h e r s can c r e a t e economic d i s l o c a t i o n around t h e world by

c u r t a i l i n g o r c l o s i n g e x p o r t m arkets t o wh ic h t h e i r i n d u s t r i e s

have become g e a r e d and on which t h e i r f o r e i g n exchange e a r n ­

i n g s de pe nd . ,

10

«

R e f u s a l t o r e c o g n i s e t h e i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s o f a l l

p e o p l e t o freedom and i n d e p en d e n c e p r o d u c e s t e n s i o n and

c o n f l i c t n o t o n l y between t h e o p p r e s s e d and t h e o p p r e s s o r s

but b e t w e e n them and o t h e r n a t i o n s w h ic h become a s s o c i a t e d

o r i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e j u s t and l e g i t i m a t e s t r u g g l e s .

Nov/ more than e v e r , we l o o k t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s .

J t h a s t h e e x p e r i e n c e , t h e s t a t u r e and t h e c a p a c i t y t o h e l p

u s i d e n t i f y t h e s o u r c e s o f t e n s i o n b e t w e e n n a t i o n s , t o

p r e s c r i b e c o l l e c t i v e m ea sures t o m i t i g a t e a nd e v e n t u a l l y remove

t h e c a u s e s o f c o n f l i c t , and t o a n t i c i p a t e and p r e v e n t s i t u a t ­

i o n s d e v e l o p i n g which have t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s t u r b i n g

world p e a c e .

. Mr P r e s i d e n t , I t i s c la i m e d t h a t t h e w o r l d i s new

s h o r t on l e a d e i s h i p . I t ’ s t r u e r t o s a y t h a t t h e n a t u r e ,

c o m p l e x i t y and u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e p r o b le m s r u s h i n g i n upon

u s r e n d e r i r r e l e v a n t and o b s o l e t e t h a t c o n c e p t o f w o r ld

l e a d e r s h i p whereby a h a n d f u l o f p o w e r f u l men i n c h a r g e o f t h e

most p o w e r f u l n a t i o n s can c h a r t t h e c o u r s e f o r t h e r e s t o f us

t o f o l l o w . So t h e c h a l l e n g e o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e

a g e n u i n e and c o n t i n u i n g s o u r c e o f l e a d e r s h i p , o f hope and

pu rp o se f o r t h e world i s more u r g e n t , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y more

r e a l , th a n a t any t i m e i n t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n * s h i s t o r y . I n t h e

r e s p o n s e we h e r e make t o t h a t c h a l l e n g e , we s h a l l be j ud g ed -

a s n a t i o n s , as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f our n a t i o n s and a s men

and women - n o t by our power o r s i z e o r w e a l t h , but by t h e

h o n e s t y o f our e f f o r t s t o promote and p r a c t i c e t h e p r i n c i p l e s

o f t h e C h a rte r o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s .