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UNSSOD: Foreign Minister's speech



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U ' J L U N J J S

ί * Λ ΐ. α « ^ - « ϋ < .

N o .

1 .;«f ··.-: >'„

Date THE HON. TONY STREET, M.P.

M75 23 June 1982

EMBARGOED UNTIL MI DNI GHT~ 2 3 ~ j 0 ne 1982

UNSSOD: FOREIGN MI NI S T E R' S SPEECH

« . . . A t t a c h e d i s an embar goed copy o f t he spe ech t o be

d e l i v e r e d by t h e M i n i s t e r f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s / t h e Hon.

Tony S t r e e t MP/ t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on

Di s a r ma me n t i n New Yor k on Wedne sday/ 23 June ( a b o u t 6 a . m.

. . . . AEST on 24 J u n e ) . A l s o a t t a c h e d i s a s y n o p s i s o f t h e s p e e c h .

u ^ U L ' U - J

yyn§E_NATI ONS_SPECI AL_SESSi qN_ON_DI SARMAMENT

STATEMENT BY AUSTRALIAN FOREIGN MINISTER

SYNOPSIS

- I n open s o c i e t i e s t h e r e a r e w i d e s p r e a d p o p u l a r demands f rom

p e o p l e i n a l l wa l k s of l i f e f o r p r o g r e s s t o wa r d s d i s a r ma me n t .

A u s t r a l i a u n d e r s t a n d s and s y mp a t h i s e s w i t h t h e s e hopes and

f e a r s and s h a r e s f u l l y t h e c o n c e r n s f o r e a r l y p r o g r e s s

t o wa r d s e f f e c t i v e means o f d i s a r m a m e n t .

- Di sar mament g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d n ot be o v e r ­

s i m p l i f i e d . E f f e c t i v e arms c o n t r o l can r e s u l t o n l y f rom

g e n u i n e n e g o t i a t i o n / not t h r o u g h empt y g e s t u r e s .

- The wo r l d i s a l r e a d y o v e r - a r m e d . F r e e z e p r o p o s a l s w i l l o n l y

p e r p e t u a t e t h i s s t a t e u n l e s s a c c ompani ed by v e r i f i a b l e

r e d u c t i o n s i n bot h c o n v e n t i o n a l and n u c l e a r weapons.

- Di sar mament and arms c o n t r o l a r e l i n k e d w i t h n a t i o n a l ’ s e c u r i t y

and p r o g r e s s i n t h e d i s a r ma me n t f i e l d depends on mu t u a l t r u s t

and c o n f i d e n c e t h a t commi t ment s e n t e r e d i n t o w i l l be r e s p e c t e d

and t h e d i s c h a r g e o f t hem v e r i f i e d .

- Above a 11 pr opos a l s must be r e a l i s t i c and h e l p b u i l d c o n f i d e n c e .

NUCLEAR .

- The N u c l e a r N o n - P r o l i f e r a t i o n T r e a t y i s t h e cor e o f t h e

i n t e r n a t i o n a l n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n r e g i me .

- The T r e a t y d e m o n s t r a t e s i t s v i t a l i t y and r e l e v a n c e by c o n t i n u i n g

t o a t t r a c t new a d h e r e n t s . But t h e r e a r e s t r o n g p r e s s u r e s whi ch

c h a l l e n g e t he n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n o b j e c t i v e / i n c l u d i n g / r e g r e t t a b l y /

t h e u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f a s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f s t a t e s t o a c c e p t NPT.

We must c o n t i n u e t o s t r i v e f o r u n i v e r s a l a d h e r e n c e t o t he NPT.

- The IAEA s a f e g u a r d s syst em whi ch p r o v i d e s a wo r k i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l

syst em o f v e r i f i c a t i o n must be s t r e n g t h e n e d . A u s t r a l i a a p p l i e s

s t r i c t s a f e g u a r d s t o a l l i t s n u c l e a r t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r

c o u n t r i e s . T h i s p o l i c y i s c o n s c i o u s l y d e s i g n e d t o s t r e n g t h e n

i n t e r n a t i o n a l n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n e f f o r t s .

- S p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r n u c l e a r di s a r ma me n t l i e s on t h e two

s u p e r - p o w e r s . We wel come U S / S o v i e t a gr e e me nt t o n e g o t i a t e on

i n t e r m e d i a t e r ange n u c l e a r f o r c e s and on s t r a t e g i c n u c l e a r

weapons ( START) . A u s t r a l i a a l s o a t t a c h e s h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y t o

c o n c l u s i o n of a m u l t i l a t e r a l c o mp r e h e n s i v e n u c l e a r t e s t ban

t r e a t y ( CTB) t o check d e v e l o p me n t and a c q u i s i t i o n of n u c l e a r

weapons by s t a t e s whi ch do not now pos sess them and t o cur b t he

e x p a n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g a r s e n a l s .

- A u s t r a l i a i s w o r k i n g a c t i v e l y i n t h e Commi t t ee on Di sar mament (CD)·

We a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t e c h n c i a l work on d e t e c t i o n and i d e n t i f i ­

c a t i o n of s e i s m i c e v e n t s . We s h a l l a l s o t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r

f a v o u r a b l y any p r o p o s a l t o l o c a t e i n A u s t r a l i a one o f t h e s e i s mi c

m o n i t o r i n g c e n t r e s whi ch w i l l be needed when a CTB comes i n t o

o p e r a t i o n .

____ / 2

2

- A u s t r a l i a sha r e s t he o p p o s i t i o n of o t h e r Sout h P a c i f i c c o u n t r i e s

t o n u c l e a r weapons t e s t i n g / dumpi ng or s t o r a g e of n u c l e a r wast es

i n t he P a c i f i c .

CHEMICAL WEAPONS (CW)

- A u s t r a l i a s u p p o r t s u r g e n t a c t i o n t o n e g o t i a t e a f u l l y v e r i f i a b l e

c ompr e h e ns i v e c o n v e n t i o n t o ban c h e mi c a l weapons. We a r e

d i s t u r b e d by p e r s i s t e n t r e p o r t s of CW use i n A f g h a n i s t a n and

I n d o c h i n a .

- A u s t r a l i a i s i n t e r e s t e d a l s o i n e x a mi n i n g t he r e l e v a n c e f o r

CW v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l RECOVER p r o j eu L i n whi ch

A u s t r a l i a p a r t i c i p a t e s . (A t e r m i n a l has been i n s t a l l e d a t t he

AAEC' s Lucas H e i g h t s Resear ch L a b o r a t o r i e s f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n

on r e m o t e - c o n t r o l l e d m o n i t o r i n g of t he IAEA s a f e g u a r d i n g

equi pment l o c a t e d t h e r e . )

CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS

- The r e i s an u r g e n t need f o r p r o g r e s s t o r educe t he c o n v e n t i o n a l

arms r a c e / whi ch s e r i o u s l y d r a i n s away r e s o u r c e s needed f o r

economi c d e v e l o p m e n t .

- We a r e a l s o c oncer ned at t he c l a n d e s t i n e ( b l a c k ma r k e t )

t r a d e i n ar ms. We i mpose r i g o r o u s c o n t r o l s on arms e x p o r t s

and c a l l on o t h e r n a t i o n s t o do l i k e w i s e .

REGIONAL

- The r e g i o n a l s e t t l e m e n t of d i s p u t e s shoul d be more a c t i v e l y

p u r s u e d . A u s t r a l i a s u p p o r t s t h e ASEAN concept of a zone of

p e a c e / f r eedom and n e u t r a l i t y i n Sout h East A s i a . I t s u b s c r i b e s

t o t h e o b j e c t i v e o f an I n d i a n Ocean zone of pe a c e .

CONFIDENCE AND TRUST

- C o n f i d e n c e and t r u s t bet ween n a t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l

n e g o t i a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y / t h e o v e r a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l

c l i m a t e shapes p r o s p e c t s f o r d i s a r ma me n t .

- Arms c o n t r o l and di sar mament measur es need t o c o n t a i n p r o p e r

measur es f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n and c o m p l i a n c e . '

- Arms c o n t r o l and di sar mament p r o p o s a l s must be r e a l i s t i c and

s t a t e s must be c o n f i d e n t t h e y do not i m p a i r b a s i c s e c u r i t y .

Onl y when s t a t e s a r e a b l e t o f e e l s e c u r e and have c o n f i d e n c e

about t h e i n t e n t i o n s of o t h e r s t a t e s w i l l r e l i a n c e on arms be

r e d u c e d .

- E x i s t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e n s i o n s cannot be wi shed away or

p a p e r e d - o v e r . The a c h i e v i n g of e f f e c t i v e di sar mament measur es

w i l l be p r o t r a c t e d and d i f f i c u l t .

. . . / 3

3 .

SUMMARY . .

- I n summary/· A u s t r a l i a c o n s i d e r s t h i s S p e c i a l Se s s i o n s houl d

g i v e p r i o r i t y t o :

„ a h a l t t o t h e n u c l e a r arms r ace .

. r e v i t a l i s i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g n u c l e a r n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n

e f f o r t s

. a compr e h e ns i v e and f u l l y v e r i f i a b l e ban on n u c l e a r t e s t s

. an e f f e c t i v e and v e r i f i a b l e ban on t he p r o d u c t i o n / · use

and s t o r a g e of c he mi c a l weapons

. t he dr a wi n g up of a compr ehensi ve program of di sar mament

. measur es t o encour age a r e d u c t i o n i n t he c o n v e n t i o n a l arms

r ace

. d e v e l o p i n g a f r amewor k f o r b u i l d i n g c o n f i d e n c e and t r u s t .

/

s t a t e m e n t . ™ u n i t e d n a t i o n s s p e c i a l s e s s i o n on

Mr P r e s i d e n t s a g r e a t d e a l has c h a n g e d i n t h e w o r l d , s i n c e

t h e G e n e r a l A s s e mb l y met i n i t s f i r s t S p e c i a l S e s s i o n f o u r y e a r s

a g o .

I t c o u l d n o t be s a i d , h o w e v e r / t h a t t h e c h a n g e s t h a t ha v e

o c c u r r e d h a v e made t h e w o r l d a s a f e r p l a c e .

The e x p a n s i o n o f n u c l e a r and c o n v e n t i o n a l a r s e n a l s r e m a i n s

u n c h e c k e d „ T h e r e i s a g r o w i n g i m p a t i e n c e t h a t t h e l i m i t e d a c h i e v e m e n t

o f ar ms c o n t r o l and d i s a r m a m e n t d i p l o m a c y has n o t b e e n e n o u g h .

Whe r e ope n s o c i e t i e s p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e . d i v i d u a l and

f r e e d o m o f s p e e c h / t h e r e a r e w i d e s p r e a d p o p u l a r demands f r o m p e o p l e i n

a l l w a l k s o f l i f e f o r p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s d i s a r m a m e n t . I A u s t r a l i a u n d e r s t a n d s

and s y m p a t h i z e s w i t h t h e s e hop e s and f e a r s and s h a r e s f u l l y t h e c o n c e r n s

f o r e a r l y and i d e n t i f i a b l e p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s e f f e c t i v e me a s u r e s o f

d i s a r m a m e n t . ■ , ,

We s u s p e c t a m a j o r i t y i n c o u n t r i e s i n w h i c h t h e r i g h t s o f t h e

i n d i v i d u a l and f r e e d o m o f e x p r e s s i o n a r e s u p p r e s s e d may a l s o s u p p o r t

t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f d i s a r m a m e n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y / e v e n w h i l e we

h a v e b e e n m e e t i n g i n New Y o r k t h e r e h a v e b e e n d i s q u i e t i n g r e p o r t s o f

a c t i o n s by a t l e a s t one g o v e r n m e n t a g a i n s t t h o s e o f i t s c i t i z e n s who

h a v e s o u g h t t o e x p r e s s v i e w s on d i s a r m a m e n t t h r o u g h p e a c e f u l d e m o n s t r a t i o n

One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g t h e d i s a r m a m e n t

mov eme nt i n f r e e c o u n t r i e s i s t o f i n d a way o f j o i n i n g i t s v o i c e w i t h

s i m i l a r e x p r e s s i o n s o f o p i n i o n f r o m w i t h i n c l o s e d s o c i e t i e s w h i c h a r e

s t r u g g l i n g . t o make t h e m s e l v e s h e a r d .

Mr P r e s i d e n t / t h e r e i s a r i s k t h a t by t h e i r p o p u l a r a p p e a l /

mass p e a c e mo v e me n t s may , d i v e r t a t t e n t i o n f r o m r e a l ar ms c o n t r o l and

d i s a r m a m e n t m e a s u r e s .

L e a d e r s and t h e r a n k and f i l e o f d i s a r m a m e n t mo v e me n t s must

f o c u s on r e a l i s s u e s and p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e c o u n t r i e s

t h e y c l a i m t o r e p r e s e n t .

I t w o u l d be t h e u l t i m a t e i r o n y i f t h e ma i n b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f

such mo v e me n t s i n ope n s o c i e t i e s w e r e t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o f c o u n t r i e s i n

w h i c h suc h v a l u e s and i d e a l s w e r e c o m p l e t e l y s u p p r e s s e d . I t s h o u l d be

o u r o b j e c t i v e a t t h i s S p e c i a l S e s s i o n t o s e e t h a t t h e ho p e s and

a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e m i l l i o n s o f men and women s e e k i n g g e n u i n e me a s u r e s

o f ar ms c o n t r o l and d i s a r m a m e n t a r e f u l f i l l e d .

A moment a g o / Mr P r e s i d e n t / I r e f e r r e d t o t h e " g o a l s and

o b j e c t i v e s " o f d i s a r m a m e n t . I t i s p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e s e g o a l s and

o b j e c t i v e s seem t o us t o be so o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y t o

o v e r s i m p l i f y t h e m . .

We now h e a r / f o r e x a m p l e / c a l l s f o r u n i l a t e r a l me a s u r e s

w h i c h / on t h e s u r f a c e / a r e a p p e a l i n g . Y e t t h e p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t s o f

suc h me a s u r e s a r e o f t e n q u i t e c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s .

" F r e e z e " p r o p o s a l s w h i c h m e r e l y c o n f i r m e x i s t i n g n u c l e a r and

c o n v e n t i o n a l s u p e r i o r i t y / u n d e r m i n e t h e c o n f i d e n c e n e e d e d f o r r e a l ar ms

c o n t r o l .

The w o r l d i s a l r e a d y o v e r a r m e d . " F r e e z e " p r o p o s a l s w i l l

p e r p e t u a t e t h i s s t a t e u n l e s s a c c o m p a n i e d by v e r i f i a b l e r e d u c t i o n s i n

b o t h c o n v e n t i o n a l and n u c l e a r w e a p o n s .

____ / 2

2 .

Nor do we b e l i e v e t h a t " t h e t a k e i t or l e a v e i t appr oach"

p r o v i d e s any s o l u t i o n . E f f e c t i v e arms c o n t r o l can o n l y r e s u l t f rom

g e n u i n e n e g o t i a t i o n s / not t h r o u g h empty g e s t u r e s .

■ i '

A c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s bet ween di sar mament and arms

c o n t r o l and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . No s t a t e w i l l e v e r e n t e r i n t o arms

c o n t r o l or di sar mament a gr ee ment s i f by doi ng so i t s s e c u r i t y i s

t h r e a t e n e d .

Arms c o n t r o l and di sar mament depend on i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f i d e n c e

and mut ual t r u s t . Event s i n A f g h a n i s t a n / P o l a n d / t he Sout h A t l a n t i c

and t he M i d d l e East make t h i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e . t

' t

T h e r e can be no p r o g r e s s i n t h e di s a r ma me n t f i e l u u n l e s s t h e r e

i s c o n f i d e n c e t h a t commi t ment s e n t e r e d i n t o w i l l be r e s p e c t e d and

d i s c h a r g e d / and can be v e r i f i e d . Above a l l / Mr P r e s i d e n t / p r o p o s a l s

need t o be r e a l i s t i c / and c o n t r i b u t e t o b u i l d i n g c o n f i d e n c e . :

A u s t r a l i a has sought t o p l a y a c o n s t r u c t i v e r o l e i n t h e a r e a

o f arms c o n t r o l and d i s a r ma me n t . The t a s k b e f o r e us i s t o f u r t h e r t he

o b j e c t i v e o f d i s a r ma me n t . We a r e not asked t o n e g o t i a t e t r e a t i e s -

t h a t i s a t a s k f o r o t h e r b o d i e s / such as t h e Commi t t ee on Di sar mament -

but we do have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s / s e t g o a l s /

d e f i n e p r i o r i t i e s / and f i n d ways t o a c h i e v e t hem.

F i r s t / I r e f e r t o t h e n u c l e a r arms r a c e a n d / on t he o t h e r

h a n d/ t he p e a c e f u l d e v e l o p me n t and use o f n u c l e a r e n e r g y .

F o r t y y e a r s a g o / i t was r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e power of t he atom

c ou l d s e r v e t h e ‘ c a u s e 1 o f peace as w e l l as t he pur pos e s of wa r . E f f o r t s

were made/ n o t a b l y by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s of A m e r i c a / t o s e p a r a t e and t o

keep s e p a r a t e t h e p e a c e f u l f r om t he w a r l i k e . Ho we v e r / bot h i n v o l v e d

t he same f orm of e n e r g y / e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same t e c h n o l o g y . The e ne r g y

of t h e atom can p r o v i d e c i v i l i s a t i o n s w i t h power f o r warmt h and l i g h t .

I t can a l s o d e s t r o y c i v i l i s a t i o n s .

These t wo a s p e c t s of t he atom - i t s p e a c e f u l and n o n - p e a c e f u l

uses - a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n r egi me n e g o t i a t e d d u r i n g

t h e s i x t i e s and t o whi ch, t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f s t a t e s now s u b s c r i b e .

The pur pose o f t h a t r egi me i s t o guar d a g a i n s t t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n of

n u c l e a r weapons and a t t h e same t i me t o e s t a b l i s h s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r ­

n a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e p e a c e f u l uses of n u c l e a r e n e r g y . .

The N u c l e a r N o n - P r o l i f e r a t i o n T r e a t y i s t h e ma i n / t hough not

t h e o n l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t t h a t r e g u l a t e s n u c l e a r a c t i v i t i e s . I t

r e c o g n i s e s t h a t w h i l e a f ew s t a t e s a l r e a d y have n u c l e a r weapons t he

g r e a t m a j o r i t y does n o t . I t r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e l a t t e r s h o u I d - r e n o u n c e

t h e i n t e n t i o n o f a c q u i r i n g t hem. The T r e a t y g i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o

each g r o u p . I t s p e c i f i c a l l y a c k nowl e d ge s t h a t v o l u n t a r i l y a c c e p t e d

r e s t r a i n t by n o n - n u c l e a r weapons s t a t e s woul d not p r e v e n t access t o

n u c l e a r e n e r g y f o r p e a c e f u l p u r p o s e s . . ■ > .

We l l o v e r one hundr ed n o n - n u c l e a r weapons s t a t e s have now

acceded t o t h e T r e a t y . They have t h u s e n t e r e d i n t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l

l e g a l commi t ment not t o a c q u i r e n u c l e a r weapons or any o t h e r n u c l e a r

e x p l o s i v e d e v i c e i n any manner w h a t s o e v e r . By a t t r a c t i n g a d d i t i o n a l

a d h e r e n t s each y e a r t h e T r e a t y c o n t i n u e s t o d e m o n s t r a t e i t s v i t a l i t y

and r e l e v a n c e . A u s t r a l i a wel comes r e c e n t a c c e s s i o n s t o t h e T r e a t y

and l ook s f o r w a r d t o i t s u n i v e r s a l a c c e p t a n c e .

/ 3

3 .

Ther e r emai ns a s ma l l m i n o r i t y of s t a t e s w i t h n u c l e a r

pr ogr ams whi ch do not a c c e p t t he NPT. T h e i r u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o acc ept

a l e g a l l y - b i n d i n g commi tment t o n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n / whi ch t he o v e r ­

whel mi ng m a j o r i t y of s t a t e s have a c c e p t e d / i s f o r them t o e x p l a i n .

The l ack of c o n f i d e n c e about t h e i r n u c l e a r a m b i t i o n s and t he

i m p l i c a t i o n s t h i s has i n r e g i o n a l and g l o b a l t er ms i s of concer n

t o a l l .

Y e t / d e s p i t e t he a c t i o n s of a m i n o r i t y / t he n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n

r egi me by a l a r g e and gr owi ng number of s t a t e s means t h a t t he r egi me

i s d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a p a r t of cus t omar y i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w . I n d e e d / i t s

key p r o v i s i o n s ar e obs e r v e d even by s t a t e s whi ch have not so f a r acceded

t o t he T r e a t y i t s e l f . Some of t h e s e s t a t e s have f r e e l y chosen t o a c c e pt

f u l l - s c o p e s a f e g u a r d s on t h e i r n u c l e a r f a c i l i t i e s . They have agr ee d t o

a p p l y t he p r i n c i p l e of v e r i f i c a t i o n and t o e n t e r i n t o l e g a l commi t ment s

not t o c a r r y n u c l e a r pr ogr ams beyond t he s t r i c t l y p e a c e f u l . That i s

cause f o r h o p e . But t h e r e a r e s t r o n g p r e s s u r e s whi ch c h a l l e n g e t he non­

p r o l i f e r a t i o n o b j e c t i v e . One such p r e s s u r e i s t he t e m p t a t i o n t o d e v e l o p

c i v i l i a n n u c l e a r f a c i l i t i e s t o w a r d s / but s t o p p i n g j u s t s h o r t o f / t he

c a p a c i t y t o pr oduce n u c l e a r weapons. An o t h e r i s t he p o s s i b l e u n d e r ­

mi n i n g of n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s by t he f a i l u r e of some s u p p l i e r s and

cust omer s t o a p p l y f u l l - s c o p e s a f e g u a r d s t o a l l n u c l e a r t r a n s a c t i o n s .

These and o t h e r p r e s s u r e s somet i mes come f rom i n s i d e t he r egi me and

somet i mes f rom o u t s i d e i t .

The n u c l e a r n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n r egi me can and shoul d be

s t r e n g t h e n e d . That i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of each member of t he

i n t e r n a t i o n a l communi t y. R e g r e t t a b l y / s e v e r a l s t a t e s have not made t he

c o n t r i b u t i o n t h e y coul d make t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f i d e n c e / and t hus t o

i n t e r n a t i o n a l peace and s e c u r i t y / by a c c e p t i n g t he o b l i g a t i o n s of t he

N u c l e a r N o n - P r o l i f e r a t i o n T r e a t y .

A u s t r a l i a r e s p e c t s t he r i g h t of s t a t e s t o p r o t e c t t h e i r

l e g i t i m a t e s e c u r i t y i n t e r e s t s . However./ we b e l i e v e t h a t t h e spr ead

of n u c l e a r weapons l e a ds t o s i t u a t i o n s of i n s e c u r i t y and danger ous

i n s t a b i l i t y . A u s t r a l i a c o n s i d e r s we must c o n t i n u e t o s t r i v e f o r

u n i v e r s a l a d h e r e nc e t o t he NPT.

We must a l s o c o n t i n u e t o s t r e n t h e n and e x t e n d t he I n t e r n a t i o n a l

At omi c Ener gy Agency s a f e g u a r d s sys t e m. T h i s i s v i t a l t o t he p r a c t i c a l

o p e r a t i o n of t he NPT and p r o v i d e s a wor k i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l system of

v e r i f i c a t i o n . I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t he c r e a t i o n of t h e c l i m a t e of

c o n f i d e n c e on whi ch t he n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n u n d e r t a k i n g depends. The

second S p e c i a l Se s s i on d e v o t e d t o di sar mament must i d e n t i f y and d e v i s e

measur es t o m a i n t a i n t he i n t e g r i t y and v i t a l i t y of t h e r e g i me .

A u s t r a l i a i s a l r e a d y p l a y i n g a c o n s t r u c t i v e p a r t i n t h e s e

e f f o r t s by a p p l y i n g s t r i c t s a f e g u a r d s t h r o u g h agr ee ment s t o n u c l e a r

t r a n s a c t i o n s bet ween A u s t r a l i a and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . Our p o l i c y i s

c o n s c i o u s l y d e s i g n e d t o s t r e n g t h e n n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n e f f o r t s t o f u r t h e r

t h e goa l of u n i v e r s a l a dher ence t o t h e NPT. I r e f e r r e d e a r l i e r t o t he

f a c t t h a t t he NPT i mposes r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on bot h n u c l e a r - w e a p o n s

s t a t e s as w e l l as n o n - n u c l e a r w e a p o n s - s t a t e s . A common o b l i g a t i o n on

a l l p a r t i e s i s t h a t t h e y n e g o t i a t e an e a r l y c e s s a t i o n of t h e arms r ace

and a c h i e v e n u c l e a r d i s a r ma me n t . N u c l e a r di sar mament has t o b e g i n w i t h

n u c l e a r weapons s t a t e s t h e ms e l v e s a nd/ i n p a r t i c u l a r / w i t h t he two

s u p e r p o w e r s . Thu s / t h e s e s t a t e s bea r a s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .

____ / 4

4 .

The A u s t r a l i a n Gover nment wel comes t he agr eement of t he

U n i t e d S t a t e s and t he S o v i e t Uni ons t o u n d e r t a k e n e g o t i a t i o n s on

r e d u c t i o n of t h e i r i n t e r m e d i a t e - r a n g e and s t r a t e g i c n u c l e a r weapons.

The Government of A u s t r a l i a i n p a r t i c u l a r wel comes t he i n i t i a t i v e

of t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s whi ch l ed t o a j o i n t commi tment

by bot h gov er nment s t o work t owa r ds s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n s i n t he s e

f o r c e s . These d e v e l o p me n t s hol d out t he p r o s p e c t of becomi ng

i m p o r t a n t s t e p s t owa r d s r e a l d i s a r ma me n t . A u s t r a l i a hopes f o r a

s t e a d y b r o a d e n i n g of d i a l o g u e bet ween t h e s e two s t a t e s on n u c l e a r

m a t t e r s and I ur ge a l l gover nment s t o g i v e t h e i r f u l l s up por t t o t he

s t e p s whi ch a r e now be i n g t a k e n .

I n a c k n o wl e d g i n g t he p r i m a r y r o l e and t he o b l i g a t i o n s of t he

n u c l e a r - w e a p o n s t a t e s f o r n u c l e a r d i s a r m a m e n t / A u s t r a l i a at t he

same t i me w e l l awar e t h a t m u l t i l a t e r a l di sar mament measur es a r e a l s o

e s s e n t i a l . The i s s u e s at s t a k e bear d i r e c t l y on t h e s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y

of e v e r y member of t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l communi t y.

Mr P r e s i d e n t / A u s t r a l i a r emai ns c on v i n c e d t h a t an i t e m of

h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y on t h e di sar mament agenda i s t h e need t o c on cl ude a

c o mp r e h e ns i v e and f u l l y v e r i f i a b l e n u c l e a r t e s t ban t r e a t y . Such a

t r e a t y woul d r e i n f o r c e n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n e f f o r t s by c he c k i ng t he

d e v e l o pme nt and a c q u i s i t i o n of n u c l e a r weapons by s t a t e s whi ch do not

now possess t hem/ and i t woul d cur b t he c o n t i n u i n g e x p a n s i o n of

e x i s t i n g n u c l e a r a r s e n a l s . We a c c e p t t h a t i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of a

t e s t ban t r e a t y r e l a t e t o s t r a t e g i c n u c l e a r m a t t e r s under n e g o t i a t i o n

by t he n u c l e a r - w e a p o n s t a t e s . We hope t h a t t h e s e t oo w i l l be soon

a g r e e d .

I n t he me a n t i me / A u s t r a l i a c o n s i d e r s t h a t t he wi d e r i n t e r ­

n a t i o n a l communi t y t h r o u g h i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s her e at t he U n i t e d

N a t i o n s i n New York and i n t h e Commi t t ee on Di sar mament at Geneva/ has

a l s o a p a r t t o p l a y i n t h i s p r o c e s s . I n t h i s c o n t e x t / my Government i s

encour aged by t he d e c i s i o n of t h e Commi t t ee on Di sar mament t o e s t a b l i s h

an ad hoc wo r k i n g gr oup t o d e a l w i t h v e r i f i c a t i o n a s p e c t s of a n u c l e a r

t e s t b a n . ,

A u s t r a l i a ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t he Commi t t ee on Di sar mament

w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h i s wor k. On t he q u e s t i o n of

v e r i f i c a t i o n of a c ompr e h e ns i v e t e s t ba n / I woul d draw a t t e n t i o n t o t he

v a l u a b l e t e c h n i c a l work whi ch i s b e i n g done by t he ad hoc gr oup of

s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r t s whi ch has been r e p o r t i n g t o t he Commi t t ee on

Di sar mament on t h e d e t e c t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s e i s mi c e v e n t s .

A u s t r a l i a w i l l a l s o m a i n t a i n i t s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t he work of

t h i s gr o u p . We s h a l l t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r f a v o u r a b l y any p r o p o s a l t h a t

A u s t r a l i a be t h e s i t e of one of t he d a t a c e n t r e s whi ch w i l l need t o be

e s t a b l i s h e d t o m o n i t o r a compr e h e ns i v e t e s t ban t r e a t y by s e i s mi c means.

N u c l e a r t e s t i n g c o n t i n u e s t o be conduct ed i n t he South P a c i f i c

a l t h o u g h t h e r e has been no t e s t i n g i n t he at mosphe r e s i n c e 1 9 7 4.

A u s t r a l i a has j o i n e d t he o t h e r gover nment s of t he Sout h P a c i f i c Forum

i n " s t r o n g condemnat i on of t e s t i n g of n u c l e a r weapons or dumpi ng or

s t o r a g e of n u c l e a r wast es i n t he P a c i f i c by any gover nment as hav i ng

d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s on t h e p e o p l e and e n v i r o n me n t of t he r e g i o n " .

A u s t r a l i a w i l l m a i n t a i n i t s s t r o n g b a c k i n g f o r a c ompr ehensi ve t e s t

ban t r e a t y whi ch woul d o u t l a w n u c l e a r t e s t i n g by a l l s t a t e s i n a l l

e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h i s woul d go a l ong way t o s a t i s f y t h e concer ns of

t h e c o u n t r i e s of t h e r e g i o n .

____ / 5

5

An ot h e r s u b j e c t r e q u i r i n g u r g e n t a c t i o n i s t h a t of a

c ompr e h e ns i v e c o n v e n t i o n t o ban c he mi c a l weapons. The v e r y n o t i o n of

such weapons i s a b h o r r e n t . The r e i s a c o n s t a n t t e m p t a t i o n t o use them

a g a i n s t l e s s we l l - e q u i p p e d a d v e r s a r i e s and t hus t he u n s u s p e c t i n g / and

t he u n p r o t e c t e d ar e t he most v u l n e r a b l e . Re p o r t s t h a t c h e mi c a l weapons

have been used i n A f g h a n i s t a n and I n d o c h i n a p e r s i s t . T h i s i s v e r y

d i s t u r b i n g . A ban on c he mi c a l weapons woul d overcome t he d e f i c i e n c i e s

i n t he Geneva P r o t o c o l of 1925 and t he B i o l o g i c a l Weapons Co n v e n t i o n of

1 9 7 2 . Such a ban woul d have t o be f u l l y v e r i f i a b l e .

The r e c e n t d e c l a r a t i o n by t h e S o v i e t Uni on i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t

now a c c e p t s t he p r i n c i p l e of o n - s i t e c h e mi c a l weapons i n s p e c t i o n shoul d

be acknowl edged as an e n c o u r a g i n g s t e p .

The Commi t t ee on Di sar mament a l r e a d y p r o v i d e s a f orum f o r

n e g o t i a t i n g a ban on che mi c a l weapons and i t resumes work o n , t h e s u b j e c t

on 20 J u l y . T h i s S p e c i a l Se s s i on of t h e Ge n e r a l Assembl y c a n/ n e v e r t h e ­

l e s s / i t s e l f c o n t r i b u t e t o p r o g r e s s by r e a f f i r m i n g t he r e s o l u t e

o p p o s i t i o n of t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l communi t y t o t h e s e a bo mi na b l e weapons.

W i t h i n t he Commi t t ee on Di s a r ma me n t / A u s t r a l i a w i l l c o n t i n u e

t o be a c t i v e i n t he d i s c u s s i o n s of a c h e mi c a l weapons c o n v e n t i o n /

p a r t i c u l a r l y t he i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n v e r i f i c a t i o n . For e x a mp l e /

A u s t r a l i a p a r t i c i p a t e s t h r o u g h a t e r m i n a l l o c a t e d nea r Sydney i n t he

"RECOVER" p r o j e c t f o r t he r e m o t e - c o n t r o l v e r i f i c a t i o n of n u c l e a r

i n s t a l l a t i o n s . T h i s IAEA e x p e r i e n c e c oul d have r e l e v a n c e i n t he

c h e mi c a l weapons a r e a .

A f u r t h e r goa l f o r t h i s s p e c i a l s e s s i o n i s a Compr ehensi ve

Program of Di sar mament (CPD) . I m p o r t a n t p r e l i m i n a r y work has been

c a r r i e d out at Ge ne v a . T h i s has i d e n t i f i e d f o r us t he main i s s ue s

on whi ch we need t o sec ur e a g r e e me n t . Work has a l r e a d y begun at t h i s

S p e c i a l S e s s i o n / but t h e r e r emai ns a wi de d i v e r s i t y of vi ews w i t h i n

t he U n i t e d N a t i o n s whi ch need t o be r e c o n c i l e d .

The A u s t r a l i a n d e l e g a t i o n w i l l c o n t i n u e t o work a c t i v e l y

t o wa r d s t h i s end.

A u s t r a l i a a l s o b e l i e v e s t h e r e i s an u r g e n t need f o r p r o g r e s s

i n r e d u c i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l arms r a c e . Far t oo hi gh a p r o p o r t i o n of

t h e w o r l d ' s s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s ar e dev ot e d t o u n n e c e s s a r y p u r c h a s e s of

c o n v e n t i o n a l ar ms. The S p e c i a l Se ssi on must t a c k l e t h i s pr obl em

because of i t s i mpact on s e c u r i t y and because of t he wast e i n v o l v e d

i r c o u n t r i e s a c q u i r i n g arms beyond t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e d e f e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s .

S t u d i e s by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s have shown t h a t e x c e s s i v e e x p e n d i t u r e s on

arms s e r i o u s l y d r a i n s away r e s o u r c e s whi ch o t h e r w i s e woul d be a v a i l a b l e

f o r s o c i a l and economi c d e v e l o p me n t . C o u n t r i e s i n t he d e v e l o p e d wor l d

have t he g r a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c u r b i n g t h i s a p p a l l i n g wa s t e .

T he r e i s a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a l b l a c k mar ket t r a d e i n ar ms. Thi s

c l a n d e s t i n e t r a f f i c has u n d o u b t e d l y p l a y e d a p a r t i n t he gr owt h of

i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e r r o r i s m . A u s t r a l i a i mposes r i g o r o u s c o n t r o l s on t he

e x p o r t of arms t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s / and c a l l s on o t h e r n a t i o n s t o do

l i k e w i s e .

One s t e p s i n c e t he l a s t S p e c i a l Se s s i on on Di sar mament was t he

c o n c l u s i o n i n 1980 of a c o n v e n t i o n r e s t r i c t i n g t he use of c e r t a i n weapons

whi ch may have i n d i s c r i m i n a t e e f f e c t s . T h i s i s e n c o u r a g i n g . A u s t r a l i a

has s i gne d t h i s c o n v e n t i o n .

. . . . / 6

6 .

U s e f u l work has a l s o been done by t he U n i t e d Na t i o n s

Di sar mament Commi ssi on i n p r e p a r i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r an e x p e r t s t udy on

c o n v e n t i o n a l d i s a r m a m e n t / u n d e r t he a u t h o r i t y of t h e S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l .

These g u i d e l i n e s d e s e r v e c l o s e s t u d y . They n o t e t h a t s t a t e s w i t h

t h e l a r g e s t m i l i t a r y a r s e n a l s as w e l l as o t h e r m i l i t a r i l y s i g n i f i c a n t

s t a t e s have i m p o r t a n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . They p o i n t out t h a t r e d u c t i o n s

must be b a l a n c e d and e q u i t a b l e so as t o ens ur e t he r i g h t of e v e r y s t a t e

t o s e c u r i t y and t o g u a r a n t e e t h a t no s i n g l e s t a t e or gr oup of s t a t e s

g a i n s u n i l a t e r a l a d v a n t a g e . The g u i d e l i n e s a l s o f oc us on v e r i f i c a t i o n /

and not e t h a t c o n f i d e n c e - b u i l d i n g s t e p s bet ween s t a t e s c o n t r i b u t e t o

p r o g r e s s i n c o n v e n t i o n a l d i s a r ma me n t . .

R e f e r e n c e i n t he g u i d e l i n e s t o r e g i o n a l f a c t o r , ar e a l s o of

i n t e r e s t . T e n s i o n s o f t e n d e v e l o p and f e e d on each o t h e r i n :s p e c i f i c

r e g i o n s . Somet i mes t he t e n s i o n s can be eased by i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n /

f o r e x a mp l e / i n t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l . Long t er m s o l u t i o n s howeve r /

may f r e q u e n t l y be s t be a c h i e v e d at t he r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The r e g i o n a l

s e t t l e m e n t of d i s p u t e s shoul d be more a c t i v e l y pur sued and pr omot ed.

I n t h i s c o n t e x t / c o n f i d e n c e - b u i l d i n g measur es can cost l i t t l e

a nd/ at t he same t i m e / make a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l /

s e c u r i t y and economi c t e r m s . T h i s needs t o be b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e d and

more e n e r g e t i c a l l y p u r s u e d .

A u s t r a l i a s u p p o r t s t he ASEAN concept of a zone of p e a c e /

f r eedom and n e u t r a l i t y i n Sout h East A s i a . A u s t r a l i a a l s o s u b s c r i b e s

t o t h e o b j e c t i v e of e s t a b l i s h i n g a zone of peace i n t he I n d i a n Ocean

and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o c o n t r i b u t e a c t i v e l y t o t h e work of t he ad hoc

c ommi t t e e set up f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . 1

I have s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o n f i d e n c e and t r u s t bet ween n a t i o n s i s

e s s e n t i a l t o any success i n arms c o n t r o l and di sar mament n e g o t i a t i o n s .

A c c o r d i n g l y / t h e o v e r a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e shapes t he

p r o s p e c t s f o r d i s a r ma me n t .

Arms c o n t r o l and di sar mament a gr e e me nt s whi ch a r e not

" t r a n s p a r e n t " - whi ch do not c o n t a i n p r o p e r measur es of v e r i f i c a t i o n

and c o mp l i a n c e a r e i n a d e q u a t e and d e f e c t i v e . Al so agr ee ment s whi ch

r e s t r i c t i n f o r m a t i o n about m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e s / and t he s i z e and

scope of m i l i t a r y a r s e n a l s u l t i m a t e l y run t h e r i s k of f a i l u r e .

Arms c o n t r o l and di sar mament p r o p o s a l s must al ways be

r e a l i s t i c and t a k e f u l l acc ount of t he need f o r s t a t e s t o be

c o n f i d e n t t h a t such a gr e e me nt s do not i m p a i r b a s i c n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y .

U n r e a l i s t i c p r o p o s a l s d i s c r e d i t t h e cause of arms c o n t r o l -

f o r i n t h e end we w i l l be j udge d on what we a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e / not on

hi ghmi nded d e c l a r a t i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s . The f a c t i s t h a t di sar mament

p r o p o s a l s must be d e v e l o p e d a g a i n s t t h e bac kgr ound of t he USSR' s massi ve

and s u s t a i n e d b u i l d - u p ove r many y e a r s .

T h e . i n t e r n a t i o n a l arms c o n t r o l and di sar mament agenda cannot

i g n o r e such f a c t s . Fpr i t i s o n l y when s t a t e s a r e a b l e t o f e e l sec ur e

and have c o n f i d e n c e about t h e i n t e n t i o n s of o t h e r s t a t e s / w i l l r e l i a n c e

on ar ms/ and t h e i r u s e / be r e d u c e d .

These r e a l i t i e s may not be p a l a t a b l e t o some. But e x i s t i n g

i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e n s i o n s cannot be wi shed away or p a p e r e d - o v e r .

____ / 7

7 .

«. , , 4 -

E f f e c t i v e d i s a r m a m e n t n e g o t i a t o r s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y b e p r o t r a c t e d a n d

d i f f i c u l t i f a g r e e m e n t i s t o b e r e a c h e d o n p r a c t i c a l / c o n c r e t e a n d

c a r e f u l l y n e g o t i a t e d p r o p o s a l s .

I n s u m m a r y / A u s t r a l i a c o n s i d e r s t h i s S p e c i a l S e s s i o n s h o u l d

g i v e p r i o r i t y t o :

( 1 ) a h a l t t o t h e n u c l e a r a r m s r a c e /

( 2 ) r e v i t a l i s i n g a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g n u c l e a r n o n - p r o l i f e r a t i o n

e f f o r t s /

( 3 ) a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d f u l l y v e r i f i a b l e b a n o n n u c ^ a r t e s t s *

( 4 ) a n e f f e c t i v e a n d v e r i f i a b l e b a n o n t h e p r o d u c t i o n / u s e

a n d s t o r a g e o f c h e m i c a l w e a p o n s /

( 5 ) t h e d r a w i n g u p o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o g r a m o f d i s a r m a m e n t /

( 6 ) m e a s u r e s t o e n c o u r a g e a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a r m s

r a c e / a n d

( 7 ) d e v e l o p i n g a f r a m e w o r k f o r b u i l d i n g c o n f i d e n c e a n d t r u s t .

I f we a r e t o a c h i e v e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s we s h a l l h a v e t o m a r s h a l l

t h e p o l i t i c a l w i l l o f t h e p e o p l e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s A s s e m b l y .

A u s t r a l i a i s c o m m i t t e d t o w o r k w i t h o t h e r s t o t h i s e n d .

- o o O o o -