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Australia's role as a middle power



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MINISTER FOR

FOREIGN AFFAIRS

« S '

NEWS RELEASE

NO. Date

M56 14 May 19S2

THE HON. TONY STREET, M.P.

EMBARGOED UNTI L « . 0 0 P. M. FRIDAY 14 MAY 1982

SPEECH BY MI NI STER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS TO 10TH NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE A H A

A t t a c h e d i s t h e t e x t of a speech by t h e M i n i s t e r f o r

F o r e i g n A f f a i r s / t h e Hon. Tony S t r e e t MP/ openi ng t he Tent h

N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l

A f f a i r s i n Sydney on 14 May 1982:

AUSTRALI A' S ROLE AS A MIDDLE POWER

SYNOPSIS

Growth in A u s t r a l i a ' s range of i n t e r e s t s

. i n t he l a s t decade A u s t r a l i a ' s range of i n t e r n a t i o n a l

r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s has i n c r e a s e d

■ i t s economi c/ p o l i t i c a l and s t r a t e g i c s t a t u r e i s c o mp a t i b l e

wi t h t h a t of a mi ddl e power

. i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c f o r A u s t r a l i a to seek t o i s o l a t e

i t s e l f i n an i n t e r d e p e n d e n t worl d

A u s t r a l i a and t he T h i r d World

. A u s t r a l i a ' s shared p o l i t i c a l / c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l

l i n k s wi t h o t h e r west er n c o u n t r i e s do not p r e c l u d e

d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r e s t s

. A u s t r a l i a ' s p o l i t i c a l / s t r a t e g i c e nv i r onme nt i s shaped

by i t s l o c a t i o n i n t he A s i a / P a c i f i c r e g i o n . I t s r e g i o n a l

r e l a t i o n s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y wi t h T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s

. Al i gnment has not reduced A u s t r a l i a ' s l i n k s wi t h the

T h i r d World

. t he T h i r d World has a c hi e v e d an i d e n t i f i a b l e cohesi on

and i n f l u e n c e in i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o d i e s / eg. UN/ and has

been a b l e t o a ppl y i t s i n f l u e n c e e f f e c t i v e l y eg. Law of

t he Sea/ response t o i n v a s i o n s of A f g h a n i s t a n / Kampuchea

. t he T h i r d World i s a p o we r f u l f o r c e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l

p o l i t i c a l and economic r e l a t i o n s

. as a food pr oduc er and an i m p o r t a n t s u p p l i e r of energy

r e sour ce s A u s t r a l i a st ands i n a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p

wi t h d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s

A u s t r a l i a as a M i d d l e Power

. mi ddl e powers have a l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y to i n f l u e n c e e v e n t s .

T h e i r i n f l u e n c e and w e i g h t / however / can be c o n s i d e r a b l e in

i n s t i t u t i o n s / eg. t he Commonwealth/ and on r e g i o n a l and

s p e c i f i c i s s ue s eg. N o r t h / S o u t h d i a l o g u e

. a mi ddl e power must devel op and s u s t a i n i t s s t a n d i n g

t hr ough c a r e f u l use of i t s r e sour ce s and i n f l u e n c e

. a mi ddl e powe r ' s c a p a c i t y t o act e f f e c t i v e l y depends on

t he q u a l i t y of t hose d e v e l o p i n g and a r g u i n g i t s p o l i c i e s

. t he gr owi ng c o m p l e x i t y of t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l e nvi r onment has

i n c r e a s e d t he r e l e v a n c e of mi ddl e powers in r e g i o n a l

i s s u e s eg. A u s t r a l i a i n t he South P a c i f i c

. A u s t r a l i a ' s l i n k s wi t h the T h i r d Worl d have br ought i n s i g h t s

i n t o i t s a s p i r a t i o n s eg. t he need t o secur e p r og r e s s i n

N o r t h / S o u t h d i a l o g u e . But A u s t r a l i a does not speak on b e h a l f

of t he T h i r d World

A u s t r a l i a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s

. what c r i t i c s l a b l e " s u b s e r v i e n c e ” masks a r e l a t i o n s h i p

which a l l o w s both t o d e a l c a n d i d l y and openl y wi t h each o t h e r

. changes which have o c c u r r e d i n decades f o l l o w i n g World War I I

( f r a g m e n t a t i o n of f or mer e m p i r e s / emergence of new S t a t e s /

f o r c e s of n a t i o n a l i s m / c r e a t i o n of new c e n t r e s of we a l t h and

power) has d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d t he c a p a c i t y of t he s u p e r ­

powers t o m a i n t a i n e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e

g r o u p s . Thi s c a r r i e s i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t he r o l e of

t he mi ddl e powers and t he c o n t r i b u t i o n t he y can make on

p a r t i c u l a r i s s ue s

. j u s t as t h e r e i s a need f o r c o u n t r i e s such as A u s t r a l i a to

u n d e r s t a n d t he awesome r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and burdens of t he

U n i t e d S t a t e s / t h e r e i s a l s o a need f o r t he U n i t e d S t a t e s to

u n d e r s t a n d t he p e r s p e c t i v e s of s m a l l e r powers

. t he Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been p a r t i c u l a r l y consci ous of

t he need f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h i t s a l l i e s

A u s t r a l i a ’ s c a p a b i l i t i e s i n t he I n t e r n a t i o n a l Community

. A u s t r a l i a ’ s r e s o u r c e s l i m i t t he range of i s s ue s t o which

i t can c o n t r i b u t e e f f e c t i v e l y . G e n e r a l l y / t he t a s ks

A u s t r a l i a s et s i t s e l f shoul d match i t s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s

and conform g e n e r a l l y t o i t s r e g i o n . Requests made of i t

shoul d not exceed i t s c a p a c i t i e s

. t h e r e w i l l a l s o be t i mes when A u s t r a l i a w i l l need t o c o n s i d e r

i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o wi d e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i p l o m a t i c a c t i v i t i e s /

eg. A f g h a n i s t a n / Pol and and t he S i n a i Peacekeepi ng Force

. on some i s s ue s mi dd l e powers e n j o y g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y than

t he s upe r powe r s / e g. t he Commonwealth and Zimbabwe

„ t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n of t he d u r a b i l i t y and s t r e n g t h of

A u s t r a l i a ' s l i n k s w i t h t he U n i t e d S t a t e s but d i f f e r e n c e s

of p e r s p e c t i v e between t he two c o u n t r i e s w i l l emerge from

time to time

. A u s t r a l i a ’ s v i s i o n of n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y i s g l o b a l . A u s t r a l i a

shar es t he broad s e c u r i t y and o t h e r concerns of t he Western

a l l i a n c e

. in a l l / A u s t r a l i a ' s i n t e r e s t s ar e best served by a process

of a c t i v e d i p l o m a t i c engagement .

AUSTRALI A' S ROLE AS A MIDDLE POWER

Speech by t he M i n i s t e r f o r Fo r e i gn A f f a i r s / t he Honourabl e

Tony S t r e e t MP/ t o t he Tent h N a t i o n a l Conf er ence of the

A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s in Sydney

on 14 May 1982.

Thank you./ Mr Chai rman/ f o r your i n v i t a t i o n to open t h i s /

t he Tenth N a t i o n a l Conference of the A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e of

I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s .

The theme you have set f o r your c onf er ence i s " A u s t r a l i a

i n the New Power Bal ance - Asi a and t he P a c i f i c B a s i n " . In

opening your conf er ence t o n i g h t I i n t e n d t o move beyond t he l i m i t s

or the s p e c i f i c t i t l e of your semi nar and speak about A u s t r a l i a ' s

r o l e as a mi ddl e power i n the wi der i n t e r n a t i o n a l community.

The reason f o r t h i s i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d enough. As

Forei gn M i n i s t e r / I c o n s i d e r i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t we a l l have a c l e a r

u n d e r s t a n d i n g of A u s t r a l i a ' s p o s i t i o n and r o l e w i t h i n the worl d

community; of what t h a t r o l e means to our f o r e i g n p o l i c y ; and of

the way A u s t r a l i a ' s s t a t u s r e l a t e s to the i n t e r e s t s and concerns

of o t h e r s / r angi ng from the c o u n t r i e s of the T h i r d World to the

United. S t a t e s / and the Western A l l i a n c e . Such an u n d e r s t a n d i n g

i s / I b e l i e v e / necessar y b e f o r e any d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s can be made

of A u s t r a l i a ' s r o l e i n A s i a / the P a c i f i c B a s i n / or f o r t h a t m a t t e r

elsewhere.

I n the l a s t decade/ p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t t e r h a l f / A u s t r a l i a

has gai ned a g r e a t e r range of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

These have come as much from e x p e c t a t i o n s of A u s t r a l i a n s t hemsel ves as from the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l community and fl ow

d i r e c t l y from a growing accept ance t h a t A u s t r a l i a has devel oped

an economi c/ p o l i t i c a l and s t r a t e g i c s t a t u r e co mp a t i b l e wi t h t h a t

of a medium s i z e d power. I s h a l l t r y to i d e n t i f y some of the

s p e c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s which mi ddl e power s t a t u s a f f o r d s a count ry

l i k e A u s t r a l i a / i n c l u d i n g t hose o p p o r t u n i t i e s which are unique to

us. I s h a l l a l s o t r y to p o i n t to some of the c o n s t r a i n t s and

l i m i t a t i o n s on A u s t r a l i a ' s scope f o r a c t i o n .

I n r ecent weeks i t has been suggested t h a t A u s t r a l i a

sr.ould " d i s e n t a n g l e " i t s e l f from the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the Western

A l l i a n c e / t h a t A u s t r a l i a has no i mmedi ate i n t e r e s t at st ake in

S o v i e t a c t i v i t e s in V i e t n a m / A f g h a n i s t a n or e l s e w h e r e . Such

a t t i t u c e s may perhaps be more a p p l i c a b l e to a smal l power than

a mi ddl e power. For my p a r t / I do not b e l i e v e i t i s r e a l i s t i c or

d e s i r a b l e to thy t o i s o l a t e o u r s e l v e s from t o d a y ' s i n t e r d e p e n d e n t

worl d or to cut o u r s e l v e s o f f from those wi t h whom we share common

v a l u e s / c ompa t i bl e i n s t i t u t i o n s and o b j e c t i v e s .

Above a l l I hope t h a t my remarks w i l l c a r r y the sense of

r e a l i t y and c o n s t r u c t i v e purpose which I b e l i e v e must govern the

p u r s u i t of A u s t r a l i a ' s i n t e r e s t s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . As we

anew from r ecent event s - Cambodia/ A f g h a n i s t a n / Poland and now

1 t he South A t l a n t i c - t he path l e a d i n g t o i n s t a b i l i t y and

c o n f l i c t can be sh o r t and p r e c i p i t o u s .

Recent event s show t h a t n a t i o n s are no more capabl e t oday

than t hey have been i n the past of p r e v e n t i n g a t t e mp t s to r e s o l v e

by f o r c e of arms t h a t which di pl omacy f a i l s t o a c h i e v e . That i s

t he r e a l i t y we must f a c e : we would be n e g l i g e n t to i g nor e i t / in

the same way t h a t we would be i r r e s p o n s i b l e not t o cont i nue to

s t r i v e f o r ways of r e i n f o r c i n g t he processes of p e a c e f u l

r e c o n c i l i a t i o n .

2

My remarks about A u s t r a l i a ' s r o l e as a mi ddl e power -

about t he advant ages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s which a r i s e from t h a t

s t a t u s - ar e made i n t he hope t h a t t h e y w i l l add t o your a p p r e c i a t i o n

of what might r e a l i s t i c a l l y be ex pe ct e d of A u s t r a l i a as a c o n t r i b u t o r

t o a more s t a b l e and secure i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t .

Let me f i r s t d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y t he s p e c i a l c i r c ums t a nc e s

i n wnich A u s t r a l i a must frame i t s f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s . These

c i r c u ms t a n c e s d e r i v e from our bei ng a b a s i c a l l y west er n n a t i o n

l o c a t e d among t he p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h i r d wor l d c o u n t r i e s of t he A s i a n -

P a c i f i c r e g i o n * We ar e f a r from t he t r a d i t i o n a l c e n t r e s of

West ern power but we ar e not so removed from t he ma l i gn p r o j e c t i o n

of S o v i e t power i n such an e n v i r o n m e n t . ·

The i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n / wi t h i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r

i n s t a b i l i t y i n t he I n d i a n Ocean/ i s t e s t i m o n y t o t h a t / as i s

Moscow's backi ng of t he Vi et namese o c c u p a t i o n of Cambodia/ and t he t h r e a t posed t o t he r e g i o n ' s s t a b i l i t y by t he S o v i e t U n i o n ' s

use of base f a c i l i t i e s i n V i e t n a m.

A number of f a c t o r s / however / p l a c e us s q u a r e l y i n t he

West ern group of c o u n t r i e s / p o l i t i c a l / c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l

t i e s ; our r e l a t i v e l y hi gh s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g ; our de f e nc e a l l i a n c e

w i t h t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and t he i mpo r t a nc e of our economic r e l a t i o n s

w i t h J a pa n/ t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and West ern E u r o p e . We have a

v e r y hi gh s t a k e i n t he p r e s e r v a t i o n of West ern d e mo c r a t i c v a l ue s

and i n t he c o n t i n u a t i o n of West ern s e c u r i t y and economic s t a b i l i t y .

Some of ο ϋ r i n t e r e s t s / however / ar e not al ways c o m p l e t e l y

i d e n t i c a l w i t h t hose of o t h e r Western c o u n t r i e s and our r e l a t i o n s

a r e not a l w a y s f r e e o f p r o b l e ms . Our " We s t e r n - n e s s " i s assured

and i m m u t a b l e / but i t would be wrong t o o v e r l o o k t he s p e c i a l

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n t er e s.t s of A u s t r a l i a which d i f f e r from t hose

of most o t h e r West ern i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s .

For e x ampl e / our l o c a t i o n i n t he A s i a n - P a c i f i c r e gi on

means chat our i mmedi at e p o l i t i c a l / s t r a t e g i c e nv i r onme nt i s q u i t e

d i f f e r e n t because our r e g i o n a l r e l a t i o n s are w i t h T h i r d World

c o u n t r i e s . We are one of t he few West ern c o u n t r i e s wi t h a

c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y . We ar e a l s o d i f f e r e n t t o t he e x t e n t t h a t we

depend h e a v i l y upon e x p o r t s of our p r i m a r y c ommo d i t i e s . No o t h e r

West ern c o u n t r y i s i n a comparabl e p o s i t i o n / wi t h t he e x c e p t i o n

of our ne i g hbo ur New Z e a l a n d .

Here I need t o expand upon what I have j u s t s a i d about

A u s t r a l i a ' s r e l a t i o n s wi t h t he T h i r d Wo r l d . I do so now because

t he q u e s t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t .

Ther e a r e many who remain s c e p t i c a l of t he v e r y term T h i r d

Wor l d. They w i l l say t h a t t he e n t i t y i t d e s c r i b e s i s d i v e r s e /

l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d and i n t e r n a l l y d i v i d e d i n s e r i o u s ways. They

w i l l a l s o / wi t h j u s t i f i c a t i o n / say t h a t t he p r o f e s s e d v a l u e s of

i t s members as a group ar e o f t e n c o n s p i c u o u s l y at v a r i a n c e wi t h t h e i r

be h a v i o u r as i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s / i t would be a mi s t a ke

t o i g nor e t he f a c t t h a t d e s p i t e t he p o l i t i c a l / g e og r a ph i c and

economic d i v e r s i t y of t he T h i r d World i t has a c h i e v e d an i d e n t i f i a b l e

c o h e s i o n / e s p e c i a l l y on a wide range of i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic i s s u e s .

3

Few coul d deny t h a t t he U n i t e d N a t i o n s has p r o v i d e d

T h i r d World s t a t e s wi t h a forum where l i m i t e d d i p l o m a t i c

r e s o u r c e s / e f f e c t i v e use of numbers and s o l i d a r i t y not on l y

ba l a nc e but can sometimes out wei gh super or g r e a t power i n f l u e n c e .

I n d e e d / t h e r e can be no d i s p u t e t h a t t he numbers game of

t he UN r e s t s s e c u r e l y i n t h e i r grasp and t o some t h i s may i mpl y

moral a u t h o r i t y . For c o u n t r i e s of t he West who have r egarded ,

moral a u t h o r i t y as bei ng synonomous wi t h democracy t h i s should p r o v i d e pause f o r c a r e f u l t h o u g h t .

Events have shown t h a t T h i r d World wei ght can be a p p l i e d

p u r p o s e f u l l y and c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . A c u r r e n t example concerns t he

d i f f i c u l t i e s which ar ose i n t he now concl uded n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a

Law of t he Sea C o n v e n t i o n . I n a g e n e r a l l y c o n s t r u c t i v e a p p r o a c h /

T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s were pr e p a r e d t o accommodate some U n i t e d S t a t e s concerns about a s p e c t s of t he Convent i on as long as t h i s

d i d n o t . a l t e r t he f unda me nt a l p r i n c i p l e s of t he C o n v e n t i o n . Dur i ng

n e g o t i a t i o n / i n c i d e n t a l l y / A u s t r a l i a was a b l e t o p l a y a b r i d g i n g r o l e

aimed at b r i n g i n g t he T h i r d World and U n i t e d S t a t e s p o s i t i o n s

c l o s e r . I n t he event t he U n i t e d S t a t e s d i d not f e e l at t h i s t i me

t h a t enough of i t s concerns had been met t o ena bl e i t to vot e in

f a v o u r of t he C o n v e n t i o n . However we hope t h a t t he U n i t e d S t a t e s

and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s which di d not s uppor t t he Convent i on w i l l look

aga i n a t t he advant ages of worki ng w i t h i n a secure and agreed

f r a me wo r k / even at some cost t o t h e i r own s p e c i f i c n a t i o n a l g o a l s .

Anot her pr omi nent example of t he T h i r d W o r l d ' s c o n s t r u c t i v e

approach i s i t s suppor t f o r t he U n i t e d N a t i o n s r e s o l u t i o n s

condemning t he i n v a s i o n s by S o v i e t and Vi et namese ar mi es of

A f g h a n i s t a n and Cambodia.

C o n v e r s e l y / of c o u r s e / t he consequences of s t a n d i n g as i de

from t he T h i r d World coul d be e q u a l l y d r a m a t i c . A u s t r a l i a / from

h u m a n i t a r i a n c o n c e r n / and a l s o p a r t l y on t he ba s i s of p e r c e i v e d

s e l f - i n t e r e s t / has chosen t o r e c o g n i s e and t o respond t o t he concerns

and a s p i r a t i o n s of t he T h i r d Wor l d.

The T h i r d W o r l d ' s p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r A u s t r a l i a has

s e v e r a l a s p e c t s . Our r e l a t i o n s wi t h T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s are

f i r s t of a l l i m p o r t a n t t o us i n t h e i r own r i g h t . I t can al s o be

s a i d t h a t A u s t r a l i a / al ong wi t h o t h e r Western c o u n t r i e s / and

p r o b a b l y more t han most / i s a f f e c t e d by the T h i r d W o r l d ' s c o l l e c t i v e

i mpact on t he course of i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s .

A u s t r a l i a i s one of t he w o r l d ' s b i g g e s t and most e f f i c i e n t

pr oduc er s and e x p o r t e r s of f o o d . I n t h a t r e g a r d / we bear a heavy

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t he f o o d - s c a r c e n a t i o n s of t he un d e r - d e v e l o p e d

and d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d s . There are s i m i l a r s t r a n d s of i n t e r e s t and

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t he f a c t t h a t A u s t r a l i a i s near to becoming t he

w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g e x p o r t e r of a range of i m p o r t a n t m i n e r a l s / i n c l u d i n g

e n e r g y - p r o d u c i n g c oa l and ur a ni um.

To r e t u r n t o my c e n t r a l t heme/ as I s a i d e a r l i e r /

t h e r e are i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n s to a mi dd l e p o we r ' s c a p a c i t y to

i n f l u e n c e e v e n t s . For e x ampl e / i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r A u s t r a l i a

al one t o b r i n g d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y to bear on t he g l o b a l s t r a t e g i c

b a l a n c e . Nor can we al ways suppor t wi t h enough p o l i t i c a l wei ght

our heavy economic r e l i a n c e on e x p o r t s of p r i m a r y commodi t i es.

Thus/ i n i m p o r t a n t mar ket s s uc l v a s West ern - Europe and Japan our t r a d e

becomes v u l n e r a b l e t o t he p o l i c i e s of o t h e r s .

4

But i f we a r e t o i d e n t i f y A u s t r a l i a ' s i mpo r t a nc e i n terms

of p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s or c i r c u m s t a n c e s / t he e q u a t i o n a l t e r s

s i g n i f i c a n t l y . W i t h i n i t s own r e g i o n / f o r e x ampl e / t he wei ght and

i n f l u e n c e of a mi dd l e power can be v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e i n d e e d / as

A u s t r a l i a ' s i s i n South East Asi a and t he South West P a c i f i c .

Our we i g ht and i n f l u e n c e can be c o n s i d e r a b l e w i t h i n a

p a r t i c u l a r f o r u m / as f o r example w i t h i n t he Commonwealth. I t can

be c o n s i d e r a b l e t o o / i n r e l a t i o n t o p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e s / as/ s a y / t o

f ood and e n e r g y / and i t ca n/ as I have i l l u s t r a t e d / be c o n s i d e r a b l e

i n t he c o n t e x t of i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s such as t he N o r t h - S o u t h d i a l o g u e .

T h e r e / our commitments and i n t e r e s t s ar e we l l - k n o wn and our

t r a d i t i o n a l s t a n d i n g among c o u n t r i e s of t he de v e l oped wor l d i s

ba l a nc e d by t he c r e d i b i l i t y and r e s p e c t we e n j o y among c o u n t r i e s

of t he T h i r d Wo r l d . Much t he same can be s a i d of our i n f l u e n c e on

such maj or q u e s t i o n s as n u c l e a r s a f e g u a r d s / arms c o n t r o l and

disarmament.

Our p o s i t i o n / n e v e r t h e l e s s / d i f f e r s markedly from t h a t of

a superpower/ e s p e c i a l l y in the way in which we must earn and s ust ai n

our c r e d i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y . Because of i t s very s i z e / a

superpower enjoys a u t h o r i t y whether i t deserves to or n o t . However

badl y i t may behave/ i t w i l l / by d i n t of i t s power/ always command

r espect and even c r e d i b i l i t y from one q u a r t e r or a n o t h e r .

But a middle power must a c q u i r e those q u a l i t i e s by i t s

own e f f o r t s and then i t must make a conscious e f f o r t to ma i nt ai n

them. That job of maintenance becomes an i mpo r t ant p a r t of a

middle power's f o r e i g n p o l i c y . Moreover/ i f a middle power is

s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t e r m i n e d / i t can achieve s i g n i f i c a n t a u t h o r i t y by

sheer f or c e of p o l i t i c a l w i l l . There has always been o i l beneath

the Saudi Arabian d e s e r t / i t was only when the Saudis themselves

decided to use i t f o r p o l i t i c a l purposes in t h e i r own per cei ved

n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h a t t h e i r country assumed the importance i t now

e n j o y s .

The task of A u s t r a l i a n diplomacy i s to s u s t a i n our weight

and i n f l u e n c e in circumstances which a f f e c t not only our n a t i o n a l

i n t e r e s t but also bear upon our r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the wider

western community. We know from expe r i enc e t h a t the balance of

c o n s t r a i n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f a c i n g a middle power i s sometimes

more complex and l e s s - d e f i n e d than i t is f o r e i t h e r the very small

or the very p o w e r f u l . We f i n d t h a t a middle power has more

o p p o r t u n i t i e s / and t h e r e f o r e more t e m p t a t i o n to o v e r - r e a c h i t s e l f /

t;iar, a small power/ and i t faces more c o n t r a i n t s / and t h e r e f o r e

g r e a t e r danger t h a t i t w i l l be unduly caut iou s and t i m i d / than a

5 r e s t power . The t a s k i s to f i n d and m a i n t a i n a c a r e f u l and

r e a l i s t i c bal ance between o p p o r t u n i t y and c o n s t r a i n t .

F a i l u r e / of c o u r s e / can put at r i s k a mi ddl e power' s hard-won

c r e d i b i l i t y and thus i t s i n f l u e n c e . F a i l u r e can a l s o put at some

r i s k the r e p u t a t i on of t he wi der Western community/ e s p e c i a l l y in

r e g i o n s prone to i n s t a b i l i t y / where t h e r e i s a d i s p o s i t i o n to

a s c r i b e the wrong mot i ves t o Western p o l i c i e s and where the mi ddl e

power rin q u e s t i o n i s seen as i n some way r e p r e s e n t i n g " t he West".

But our own e x p e r i e n c e i s t h a t such r i s k s can be mi ni mi sed by

p r ud en ce / p a t i e n c e / r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s and e s p e c i a l l y - an e n l i g h t e n e d

i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s e l f - i n t e r e s t .

5.

The f a c t i s t h a t a l i g n m e n t / t h a t i S / o u r cl os e a s s o c i a t i o n

wi t h t he Western A l l i a n c e / has not a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d the

devel opment or a ccept ance of A u s t r a l i a ' s l i n k s wi t h t he T h i r d

Wo r l d . I n d e e d / more o f t e n t han not our i n de pe nde nt but cl os e

l i n k s wi t h t he U n i t e d S t a t e s have been seen t o be an advant age

and used a c c o r d i n g l y .

I t i s no l onge r t r u e / and I doubt t h a t i t w i l l be a g a i n /

t h a t a s u p e r p o we r ' s scope and c a p a c i t y f o r u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n w i l l

a l o n e p r o v i d e t he most e f f e c t i v e response t o r e a l and p o t e n t i a l

i n s t a b i l i t y . I n t h i s new age of c o m p l e x i t y / t he n a t i o n a l and

s t r a t e g i c i n t e r e s t s upon which t hose u n i l a t e r a l p r e s s u r e s are

b a s e d/ are at odds/ i n c r e a s i n g l y / wi t h t he i n t e r e s t s of o t h e r

s t a t e s whose s t a b i l i t y and w e l l - b e i n g ar e d i r e c t l y t h r e a t e n e d .

I n t he s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s / t he r o l e of the midd l e power gai ns

i n r e l e v a n c e . Whi l e A f r i c a and t he M i d d l e East may be ar eas of

c u r r e n t concern in t h i s r e g a r d / so t oo are r e g i o n s n e a r e r t o A u s t r a l i a .

I n t he South West P a c i f i c / f o r exampl e/ I b e l i e v e t h a t A u s t r a l i a

i s b e t t e r - p l a c e d t han t he U n i t e d S t a t e s t o hel p f a s h i o n p o l i c i e s t h a t

w i l l / among o t h e r t h i n g s / deny t he S o v i e t Union access t o a new

and p o t e n t i a l l y - i m p o r t a n t a r ea of i n f l u e n c e . Our c a p a b i l i t i e s i n

t h i s r e g a r d d e r i v e from our h e i g h t e n e d a p p r e c i a t i o n of r e g i o n a l

i n t e r e s t s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s / and our a b i l i t y t o act wi t h e f f e c t

and c r e d i b i l i t y o u t s i d e t he c o n s t r a i n t s of superpower s t r a t e g i e s .

Anot her f unda me nt a l i n g r e d i e n t f o r s u c c e s s f u l mi ddl e

power di pl oma c y i s t he q u a l i t y of per f or mance which i n d i v i d u a l s

b r i n g t o t he advocacy of i t s p o s i t i o n . . The i n f l u e n c e o f t he l a t e

P r e s i d e n t T i t o of Y u g o s l a v i a i s an o u t s t a n d i n g example of what I

have i n mind: a n o t h e r was t he l a t e P r e s i d e n t Sadat of Egypt whose

courageous s t a t e s ma n s h i p was v e r y r e l e v a n t t o our t i m e s . Whereas

a g r e a t powe r ' s i mpor t a nc e i s e s t a b l i s h e d al most by d e f i n i t i o n /

and a smal l c o u n t r y ' s l ack of power so c l e a r l y l i m i t s i t s i n f l u e n c e /

a mi ddl e power l i k e Y u g o s l a v i a or Egypt f i n d s i t s e l f i n v a r i a b l e

c i r c u m s t a n c e s / wi t h scope e i t h e r t o w i t h h o l d or seek t o e x e r t i t s

i n f l u e n c e . Th i s i n t u r n / means t h a t t he p e r c e p t i o n s and w i l l of t he

l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n t he f o r e i g n p o l i c y pr ocess are p a r t i c u l a r l y

i m p o r t a n t i n g r e d i e n t s in d e t e r m i n i n g t he outcome.

Put a n o t h e r way/ a mi ddl e powe r ' s c a p a c i t y t o act

e f f e c t i v e l y w i l l depend l a r g e l y on t he q u a l i t y of t hose who c o n c e i v e /

i mpl ement and argue i t s p o l i c i e s .

W i t h i n our own r e g i o n A u s t r a l i a and New Zeialand stand

as t he most s t a b l e / d e m o c r a t i c / l i b e r a l and pr osper ous Western

s o c i e t i e s i n t he Sout hern he mi s phe r e . By example al one we gi v e

e f f e c t i v e advocacy t o West ern s t a n d a r d s and a c hi evement s i n a

p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h i r d wor l d e nvi r onment whose v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o

e x t e r n a l pr e s s u r e s - p o l i t i c a l / economic and s t r a t e g i c - are

c o n s i d e r a b l e .

The example we p r e s e n t t o t he A s i a n - P a c i f i c r e g i o n on b e h a l f

of t he West i s r e i n f o r c e d i n i t s c r e d i b i l i t y by t he r e l a t i o n s we have

b u i l t wi t h T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s . /

_ Thi s in t u r n has gai ned us f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e of t h e i r

a s p i r a t i o n s / and an a p p r e c i a t i o n / perhaps keener t han most i n t he

West / of j u s t why i t has become so u r g e n t f o r t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l

6 .

community t o f a c e t he probl ems of t he Nor t h and South and t o

r e s o l v e t hem. I t i s a l s o from our own e x p e r i e n c e t h a t we know

how t he p r o s p e c t s f o r t he pe op l e s of t he w o r l d ' s l e a s t de v e l oped

c o u n t r i e s hi nge on t he economic f o r t u n e s of t he major economies

o f t h e West . Al t hough we r e c o g n i s e t he u r g e n t need f o r pr o g r e s s

i r, t h e N o r t h - S o u t h d i a l o g u e # e q u a l l y we know from our d i r e c t

e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a l l n a t i o n s have a s t a k e i n a s t r o ng Western

e c o no mi c s y s t em.

I f I have g i v e n emphasis t o n i g h t t o A u s t r a l i a ' s p e r c e p t i o n s

of t he T h i r d World and i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s # t h a t i s l a r g e l y because the

i s s u e of N o r t h - S o u t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l . Mass p o v e r t y and d e p r i v a t i o n

i n c e r t a i n p a r t s of t he wor l d i n our vi ew i s humanly c r u e l and a

maj or source of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y . The B r i t i s h 19t h Cent ur y

st at esman Benj ami n D i s r a e l i spoke of t he economic d i v i s i o n s i n hi s

c o u n t r y as c r e a t i n g i n e f f e c t two n a t i o n s . G l o b a l l y t he economic

c o n t r a s t between much of t he South and t he Nor t h has c r e a t e d two

w o r l d s . Li k e D i s r a e l i # I f a v o u r t he concept a t home of one n a t i o n

and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y of one w o r l d .

Let .m e say p l a i n l y # l e s t t h e r e by any doubt s# A u s t r a l i a does

n o t speak f o r or on b e h a l f of t he T h i r d Wo r l d . Nor do we concern

o u r s e l v e s wi t h t he probl ems of t he T h i r d World t o t he e x c l u s i o n

o f o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a West ern mi ddl e power. Rat her i t i s

t h a t f r o m our s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n as a West ern mi dd l e power we see very

c i e a r l y t he c o n n e c t i o n between t he p o s s i b l e f a i l u r e of t he N o r t h - S o u t h

d i a l o g u e and t he e f f e c t i v e n e s s of West ern s e c u r i t y i n t he l onger

term. < .

We b e l i e v e t h a t the costs of not br e a ki ng the c u r r en t

i mpasse i n the Nor th-South d i al o gu e maybe very high i ndeed. This

we conti nue to make c l e a r . And in the f i n a l a n a l y s i s our motives

in using whatever c r e d i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y we may have to f i n d a

way t h r o u g h t h a t impasse are not very d i f f e r e n t from the a s p i r a t i o n s

whi ch I hope w i l l conti nue to bind the fir mness and re l i a b i l i t y of

our c o n t r i b u t i o n to the Western A l l i a n c e .

Hers Ϊ would l i k e to say something more of the way in which

A s c r a ί i a 8 s s t a t u s as a mi ddl e power r e l a t e s to t he i n t e r e s t s of

our most i m p o r t a n t a l l y # t he U n i t e d S t a t e s # and v i c e v e r s a . I do

s; not l e a s t because t h e r e are some i n our community who seem

i r . c a p a b i e of seei ng t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n o t h e r t han a c y n i c a l l i g h t #

end who are a l s o prone to j udge i t i n terms t h a t are n e i t h e r

- v a x.;... ·: i c nor c o n s t r u c t i v e . Such c r i t i c s doa d i s s e r v i c e to

t r e m s e i v e s # to A u s t r a l i a and t o t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . Moreover t hey

confuse s o - c a l l e d s u b s e r v i e n c e on A u s t r a l i a ' s p a r t wi t h what in .

. c i s a r a r e q u a l i t y of b i l a t e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h · a l l o w s both

c o u n t r i e s t o d e a l c a n d i d l y and openl y wi t h each o t h e r in a way t h a t #

t h e same t i m e # acknowl edges our r e s p e c t i v e independence and ϊ . ran seen os t h e l i m i t s of normal S t a t e - t o - S t a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

I t has t a k e n t i me f o r t he concept of a mi ddl e power t o become

a c c e p t e d w i t h i n A m e r i c a ' s p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e ss . Thi s i s

because modern di pl omacy has not gi ven t he U n i t e d S t a t e s d i r e c t

e x p e r i e n c e of what i t means.

7

H i s t o r i c a l l y / A m e r i c a ' s t r a n s i t i o n from r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n

i n t he p e r i o d b e f o r e t he Second World War to superpower s t a t u s i n t he

y e a r s si nc e was s w i f t . I t was a r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n t h a t brought wi t h

i t t he need and t he w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on s t r a t e g i c i ssues

and l e a d e r s h i p of t he West ern community wh i c h/ t h a n k f u l l y / c o n t i n u e

t o d a y .

I t a l s o br ought a l e v e l of g l o b a l c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t he

S o v i e t Union which imposed on American p o l i c y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r

a c t i o n i t al one coul d t a k e i n an e nvi r onment where t h e r e were

p e r s u a s i v e and s t r o n g f o r c e s worki ng on o t h e r n a t i o n s t o a l i g n

t hemsel ves wi t h one or o t h e r of t he two super power s.

B u t / i r o n i c a l l y / even at t he t i me when t he s e f o r c e s were

at t h e i r s t r o n g e s t / t h a t i s / i n t he decades i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g

World War I I / t he c o n d i t i o n s which gave r i s e t o them were being

un de r mi n e d. Empires were f r a g m e n t i n g a t a s p e c t a c u l a r r a t e ; dozens

of new s t a t e s were coming i n t o e x i s t e n c e / p r o p e l l e d by t he f o r c e of

n a t i o n a l i s m ; and t he economic r e c o v e r y of some c o u n t r i e s combined w i t h the emergence of o t h e r s was c r e a t i n g new c e n t r e s of we a l t h and

power. As a r e s u l t t he c a p a c i t y of t he superpowers t o m a i n t a i n

e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e groups d i m i n i s h e d

p e r c e p t i b l y .

I emphasise I am not e q u a t i n g t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between

America and i t s a l l i e s on t he one hand/ and t he S o v e i t Union and i t s

s a t e l l i t e s on t he o t h e r . The q u a l i t y of t he two s et s of

r e l a t i o n s h i p s was/ and i s / u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t . What I am s a y i n g /

however / i s t h a t w h i l e a t t e n t i o n f ocussed on t he f o r c e s d r i v i n g

c o u n t r i e s i n t o one or o t h e r of t he g r e a t power camps/ o t h e r f o r c e s

were at work which r e s u l t e d over r oug hl y t he l a s t two decades/ i n

t he e v o l u t i o n of a compl ex/ d i v e r s i f i e d gr oupi ng of n a t i o n s .

The c o m p l e x i t y which has come t o c h a r a c t e r i s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l

r e l a t i o n s now c a r r i e s i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t he mi ddl e power/

i m p l i c a t i o n s d i f f e r e n t from t hose a f f e c t i n g e i t h e r superpowers or

minor powers. A m e r i c a ' s r i g h t of a c t i o n i s by no means d i mi n i s h e d

i n t hese c i r c u ms t a n c e s , i n which t he mi ddl e power has assumed g r e a t e r

r e l e v a n c e . Far from i t . But I w i l l say t h a t t he e x e r c i s e of

t h a t r i g h t may now c a l l f o r g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y and care on the

p a r t of p o l i c y - m a k e r s i n Washington than e v er b e f o r e .

Just as we - and o t h e r Western c o u n t r i e s - need t o under st and

t he awesome r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s / pr e s s u r e s and burdens of t he Uni t e d

S t a t e s as a s upe r powe r / so does t he U n i t e d S t a t e s - i f i t i s t o be

p r o p e r l y equi pped t o d e a l wi t h t he c o m p l i c a t e d p o l i t i c s of the

a l l i a n c e - need t o u n d e r s t a n d t he p e r s p e c t i v e s of l e s s e r powers.

There i s an ol d p r e c e p t : "Know Thi ne Enemy” . I t i s a v a l i d and

wi se o n e . But e q u a l l y v a l i d and e q u a l l y wi se i s t he p r e c e p t : "Know

Thi ne A l l y " .

We must a p p r e c i a t e t h a t t h i s i s not a l t o g e t h e r an easy

t h i n g f o r a superpower t o doV Coping wi t h i t s own problems and

keepi ng a c l os e watch on i t s main a d v e r s a r y are in t hemsel ves

demanding t a s k s . As I have s a i d / t he ur gency of e vent s o f t e n

r e i n f o r c e s t he p r e s s u r e s t o go i t a l o n e . N e v e r t h e l e s s / i n s o f a r as

a superpower i s commi t t ed t o l e a d i n g an a l l i a n c e / t he i n t e l l e c t u a l

and i m a g i n a t i v e e f f o r t t o un de r s t a nd i t s a s s o c i a t e s and t he l o g i c of

t h e i r be h a v i o u r i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e . . .

C o n t r a r y t o i mp r e s s i o n s which some seek t o convey/ P r e s i d e n t

Reagan and hi s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have a c t e d wi t h a p a r t i c u l a r

8

consci ousness of t he need f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n . They have made g r e a t

e f f o r t s t o c o n s u l t t h e i r f r i e n d s on i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s .

To r e t u r n t o my main t heme/ what t hen i s t o be d i s c e r n e d

from a l l t h i s about A u s t r a l i a ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s i n t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l

community? I o f f e r t he f o l l o w i n g t h o u g h t s . F i r s t / o t h e r s should

not ex pe ct of us t h a t which we cannot g i v e or ask of us t h a t which

we have t o r e f u s e .

Because our r e s o u r c e s ar e l i m i t e d / t he range of i s s ue s t o

which we can make a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i s n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d / and

i t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h i s be r e c o g n i s e d by o t h e r s i n t h e i r

d e a l i n g s wi t h us. F u r t h e r / i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t what

mi ght seem to be v e r y modest r e q u e s t s i n Wa s hi n gt on/ f o r exampl e/

may a ppear i n Canber r a t o be a f o r m i d a b l e sum. We need t o s e l e c t

our t a s k s and o r d e r our p r i o r i t i e s c a r e f u l l y / and t o r e s i s t t e m p t a t i o n

from w i t h i n and p r e s s u r e from w i t h o u t t o e xt end o u r s e l v e s

u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y . As a r u l e of thumb/ t he t a s k s we set o u r s e l v e s

w i l l g e n e r a l l y match c l o s e l y our n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s / and w i l l u s u a l l y

be i n our r e g i o n .

There w i l l be t i m e s / however / when i t w i l l be n e c e ss a r y t o

c o n s i d e r t he e x t e n t we can c o n t r i b u t e t o wi d e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l

d i p l o m a t i c a c t i v i t i e s and t he b r o a d e r i n t e r e s t s of t he Western

A l l i a n c e . Whi l e A u s t r a l i a ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t he S i n a i M u l t i n a t i o n a l

Force and Obser ver s i s a pr omi n en t r e c e n t example of t he f o r m e r /

t he mai nt enance of j o i n t f a c i l i t i e s w i t h t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and

A u s t r a l i a ' s s uppor t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t d i r e c t and

i n d i r e c t S o v i e t i n v o l v e m e n t i n A f g h a n i s t a n and Pol and ar e ev i de nc e

Of t he l a t t e r .

Second/ do not o v e r l o o k t h a t i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s / we

as a mi ddl e power can be more e f f e c t i v e t han a g r e a t power/ p r e c i s e l y

because we do not b r i n g t oo much power or a u t h o r i t y t o bear on a

s i t u a t i o n and do not a u t o m a t i c a l l y engage t he i n t e r s t of o t h e r g r e a t

po we r s . I n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s l i m i t e d power can be more of an

a s s e t t han a l i a b i l i t y / and t he pat h of q u i e t accommodation and

p a t i e n t n e g o t i a t i o n which mi ddl e powers know b e t t e r t han most/

t he more p r o f i t a b l e c o u r s e .

S e v e r a l y e a r s ago/ we and o t h e r members of t he Commonwealth f o l l o w e d t h a t v e r y pat h i n our sear ch t o s e t t l e t he c o n f l i c t i n Zimbabwe

ye succeeded as you know/ and I b e l i e v e . i t can now be s a i d t h a t our

success has p r o b a b l y p r e v e n t e d t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n o t h e r base of

S o v i e t i n f l u e n c e on t h e A f r i c a n c o n t i n e n t . A g a i n / my. e a r l i e r

r e f e r e n c e t o t he r o l e which mi ddl e powers ar e p l a y i n g w i l l i l l u s t r a t e

the p o i n t wi t h r e s p e c t t o t he N o r t h - S o u t h d i a l o g u e .

T h i r d / and t o r e f e r a g a i n t o our most i m p o r t a n t a l l y / i t

i s s a l u t a r y to remember t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n of t he

d u r a b i l i t y and s t r e n g t h of our r e l a t i o n s w i t h t he U n i t e d S t a t e s as

t he r e c e n t v i s i t of V i c e - P r e s i d e n t Bush has shown/ i t i s an a l l i a n c e

between powers of a v e r y d i f f e r e n t ma g n i t u d e . For us t he

management of t he r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l al ways c o n s t i t u t e a v er y

i m p o r t a n t p a r t of our d i p l o m a c y . The U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l always be

much more v i s i b l e t o us t han we t o t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . We w i l l

al ways be more a l i v e t o any d i f f e r e n c e s of o u t l o o k or p o l i c y . And

t h e r e w i l l be d i f f e r e n c e s from t i me t o t i m e . Our management of our

s i d e of t he r e l a t i o n s h i p a l l o w s f o r t hose c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . But d e s p i t e

any d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t may emerge on p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s / our basi c

o b j e c t i v e i s t o want t o f u l f i l and t o expand our commitment both t o

9 .

t he a l l i a n c e and t o West ern i n t e r e s t s g e n e r a l l y . But our

c a p a c i t y t o put t h a t i n t o p r a c t i c e must al ways t a k e account of

our l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s / our n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and t he mai nt enance

of our n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y .

Perhaps I should c l a r i f y t h a t my i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g

r e f e r e n c e s t o n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s were not i n t e n d e d t o i mpl y t h a t

A u s t r a l i a sees i t s n a t i o n a l i nterests s t o p p i n g at i t s b o r d er s or

even i n i t s r e g i o n . ,

Our v i s i o n of n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y i s a g l o b a l v i s i o n . Our

concerns t o h e l p c o n s t r a i n t he S o v i e t Union t o t he ways of peace/

t o p r o t e c t t he r i g h t s of t he i n d i v i d u a l / and m a i n t a i n t he a c c o u n t a b i l i t y

of government t o t he governed a r e , w i t h o u t r e s e r v a t i o n , t h e same concerns

of t he West ern A l l i a n c e Syst em. They a r e a l s o t he concerns of many

c o u n t r i e s o u t s i d e t he A l l i a n c e . The reason i s obvi ous - S o v i e t

t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m i s a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t he a s p i r a t i o n s of t hose

■ c o u n t r i e s which seek p r o s p e r i t y and an i n de pe nde nt way of l i f e . The

/ w o r l d ' s response t o t he S o v i e t i n v a s i o n and o c c u p a t i o n of

A f g h a n i s t a n was one of r e v u l s i o n ; and a p p r e h e n s i o n . ' Our

' r esponse was v i g o r o u s and i s s u s t a i n e d i n our s uppor t f o r Western

e f f o r t s t o f o r e s t a l l what a l l of us hope w i l l not be a c a t a s t r o p h e in

P o l a n d . A u s t r a l i a has de mons t r a t ed beyond any doubt i t s commitment

t o t he r e i n f o r c e m e n t of West ern pr e pa r e d ne s s and r e s o l v e on a g l o b a l

and not a p a r o c h i a l b a s i s .

The A u s t r a l i a n F e d e r a l Government i s convi nced t h a t our

i n t e r e s t s a r e best ser ved by t he pr ocess of a c t i v e d i p l o m a t i c

engagement - not di s e ng a ge me nt . I n s h o r t / I b e l i e v e t h a t i f a

mi dd l e power such as A u s t r a l i a ge t s i t s : p o l i c i e s r i g h t / i t o f f e r s

t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l community an a s s e t which cannot and i ndeed i s not

be i ng i g n o r e d .