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UNESCO declaration on mass media



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M136

UNESCO DECLARATION ON MASS MEDIA

The Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr Andrew Peacock, today welcomed the adoption of the Declaration on Mass Media at the UNESCO General Conference in Paris yesterday.

Mr Peacock said that the Declaration had been one of the most controversial and contentious issues^ faced by UNESCO member-states during the past few years.

. "The outcome had been a very desirable result to what

| has been by clear necessity a fundamental issue for Australia", 1 Mr Peacock said.

"From Australia1s point of view, in the text now adopted all contentious areas of the Declaration have been excised or adequately amended. Of course, while not perfect, the Declaration as it now stands excludes unacceptable references to government involvement in media activities and no longer reflects

a view of the relationship between the state, the media and the individual which is foreign to our conception of a free and democratic society. Moreover, the final text includes significant provisions which favour a very desirable improvement globally in the free, extensive and responsible flow of information and news".

Mr Peacock said the Australian delegation had played an active role in the final outcome of the Declaration. In particular it had successfully sought to have included provisions which would afford journalists the best possible conditions for exercising their profession.

Australia strongly supported the inclusion of clauses recognising that the mass media of developing countries in particular should have the resources to enable strengthened cooperation, both among themselves and with the media of developed countries.

The Declaration was adopted by the General Conference's Committee on Culture and Communication, which is made up of all member-states of UNESCO. It will now go to”the final plenary session of the General Conference where it is certain to be endorsed.

Mr Peacock said that the Declaration had to be seen against the broader international context. One significant aspect of the Declaration was its recognition for a better, freer and more

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extensive exchange of information between all countries. The wishes of developing countries to strengthen their, international communications systems and news exchange arrangements were unquestioned and urgent.

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I Australia was already active in this area and stood ready to assist further where it could.

Mr Peacock said: "Activities designed to assist in improving communication systems in developing countries take up a relatively large part of the resources available for Australia's overseas development assistance".

; "We have been actively involved in efforts at the present UNESCO General Conference to effect internationally an intensification of activities, particularly in practical areas such as training and the development of communication infrastructures in developing

countries".

, j "Australia has already provided media and communications training courses for professionals from developing countries and has contributed to international bodies, such as the Asian-Pacific Institute of Broadcasting Development based in Kuala Lumpur. The Institute’s resident consultant is seconded from the ABC and

its training courses utilise Australian consultants extensively".

i "The current aid estimates include a contribution of US$50,000 by Australia towards training courses conducted by the Institute".

"Australia has clearly emphasised its sympathy with the wishes of developing countries for a better, prompt and reliable flow of news to and from themselves. To this end all countries should have the resources to enable their peoples to articulate their

legitimate concerns and report national developments to others" .

"It is my hope that professional media organisations, generally, and particularly those in Australia, will continue their efforts to achieve this important objective".

The text of the Declaration is attached.

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b E CL A RA T I ON ON FUNDAMENTAL P R I N C I P L E S CONCERNI NG THE CONTRI BUTI ON OF THE MASS MEDI A TO ST REN GT HEN I N G PEACE AND I N T E R N A T I O N A L UNDERSTANDI NG, THE PROMOTION OF HUMAN RI GHTS AND TO COUNTERI NG R A C I A L I S M , AP ARTHE I D AND

I NCI T E ME NT TO WAR

PREAMBLE

THE GENERAL CONFERENCE,

1.

2.

RECALLING. (UNDERLINED) THAT BY IT S CONSTITUTION THE PURPOSE OF UNESCO IS TO " CONTRIBUTE TO PEACE AND SECURITY BY PROMOTING COLLABORATION AMONG THE NATIONS THROUGH EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND CULTURE IN ORDER TO FURTHER UNIVERSAL RESPECT FOR JUSTICE, FOR THE RULE OF LAW AND FOR THE HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL

FREEDOMS' ' (ART I , 1 ) , AND THAT TO REALIZE THIS PURPOSE THE ORGANIZATION WILL STRIVE " T O PROMOTE THE FREE FLOW OF IDEAS BY WORD AND IM A G E " (ART I , 2) ,

FURTHER RECALLING (UNDERLINE ONE) THAT UNDER THE CONSTITUTION THE MEMBER STATES OF UNESCO, " B E L I E V I N G IN FULL AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR EDUCATION FOR ALL, IN THE UNRESTRICTED PURSUIT OF OBJECTIVE TRUTH, AND IN THE FREE EXCHANGE OF IDEAS AND

KNOWLEDGE, ARE AGREED AND DETERMINED TO DEVELOP AND TO INCREASE THE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THEIR PEOPLES AND TO EMPLOY THESE MEANS FOR THE PURPOSES OF MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING AND A TRUER AND MORE PERFECT KNOWLEDGE OF EACH OTHER ' S L I V E S " (SIXTH

PREAMBULAR PARAGRAPH) , .

3. RECALLING (UNDERLINED) THE PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS, AS SPECIFIED IN THE CHARTER,

4. RECALLING (UNDERLINED) THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS, ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN 1948 AND PARTICULARLY ARTICLE 19 WHICH PROVIDES THAT "EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF OPINION AND EXPRESSION: THIS RIGHT

INCLUDES FREEDOM TO HOLD OPINIONS WITHOUT INTERFERENCE AND TO SEEK, RECEIVE AND IMPART INFORMATION AND IDEAS THROUGH ANY MEDIA AND REGARDLESS OF F R O N T IE R S ": AND THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON C IV IL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS, ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN 1966, ARTICLE 19 OF WHICH PROCLAIMS THE SAME PRINCIPLES AND ARTICLE 20 OF WHICH CONDEMNS INCITEMENT TO WAR, THE ADVOCACY OF NATIONAL, RACIAL OR RELIGIOUS HATRED AND ANY FORM OF DISCRIMINATION, HOSTILITY OR VIOLENCE,

2.

5 * RECALLING ( UNDERLINED) ARTICLE 4 OF THE INTERNAT Ι Ο NAL>CONVENTION ON THE E L IM IN A T I O N OF ALL FORMS OF RACIAL DISC RI MI NA TION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF’ T HE UNITED NATIONS IN 1965 , AND THE" INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON THE SUPPRESSION AND PUNISHMENT OF THE

CRIME OF APARTHEID ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN 1975, WHEREBY THE STATES ACCEDING TO THESE CONVENTIONS UNDERTOOK TO ADOPT IMMEDIATE AND POS ITIVE MEASURES DESIGNED TO ERADICATE ALL INCITEMENT TO, OR ACTS OF, RACIAL

DIS C RI MI NA TI ON , AND AGREED.. T 0 PREVENT ANY ENCOURAGEMENT OF THE CRIME OF APARTHEID AND SIMILA R SEGREGATIONIST POL ICIES OR THEIR MANIFESTATIONS,

6. RECALLING (UNDERLINED) THE DECLARATION ON THE PROMOTION AMONG YOUTH OF THE IDEALS OF PEACE, MUT UAL RESPECT AND UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN PEOPLES, ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NAT IONS IN 1965 , ■

RECALLING (UNDERLINED) THE DECLARATIONS AND RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE VARIOUS ORGANS OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONCERN IN G T HE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER AND THE ROLE UNESCO I S CALLED UPON TO PLAY IN T H I S RESPECT,

8. RECALL IN G (UNDERLINED) THE DECLARATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF INTER NATIONAL CULTURAL CO-OPERATION, ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL CONFERENCE OF UNESCO IN 19 6 6,

9 . RECALLING (UNDERLINED) RESOLUT 10 N 5 9 ( I) OF T HE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS, ADOPTED IN 1946 AND DECLARING . * ' FREEDOM OF INFORMATION I S A FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT AND IS THE TOUCHSTONE OF ALL THE FREEDOMS TO WHICH THE UNITED NATIONS

I S CONSECRATED: .

FREEDOM* OF INFORMATION REQUIRES AS AN INDISPENSABLE ELEMENT THE WILLINGNESS AND CAPACITY TO EMPLOY I T S PRIVILEGES WITHOUT ABUSE. IT REQUIRES AS A BASIC D I S C I P L I N E THE MORAL OBLIGATION TO SEEK THE FACTS WITHOUT PREJUDICE AND TO SPREAD KNOWLEDGE

WITHOUT MALICIOUS INTENT: ' '

Ϊ 1

1 0 . R E C A L L I N G ( U N D E R L I N E D ) R E S O L U T I O N 1 1 0 ( 1 1 ) OF T H E G E N E R A L A S S E M B L Y

OF T H E U N I T E D N A T I O N S A D O P T E D I N 1 9 4 7 C O N D E M N I N G A L L F ORMS OF

P R O P A G A N D A W H I C H A RE D E S I G N E D OR L I K E L Y T O P R O V O K E OR E N C O U R A G E

A N Y T H R E A T T O T H E P E A C E , B R E A C H O F T H E P E A C E , OR A C T OF

A G G R E S S I O N ,

1 1 . R E C A L L I N G ( U N D E R L I N E D ) R E S O L U T I O N 1 2 7 ( 1 1 ) , A L S O A D O P T E D B Y T H E

G E N E R A L A S S E M B L Y I N 1 9 4 7 , W H I C H I N V I T E S ME MBER* ST AT ES T O T A K E

M E A S U R E S , W I T H I N T H E L I M I T S OF C O N S T I T U T I O N A L P R O C E D U R E S , T O

COMBAT T H E D I F F U S I O N O F - F A L S E OR D I S T O R T E D R E P O R T S L I K E L Y T O

I N J U R E F R I E N D L Y R E L A T I O N S B E T WE E N S T A T E S , AS W E L L A S T H E OT HE R

R E S O L U T I O N S OF T H E G E N E R A L A S S E M B L Y C O N C E R N I N G T H E MA S S M E D I A

A N D T H E I R C O N T R I B U T I O N T O S T R E N G T H E N I N G P E A C E , T H U S C O N T R I B U T I N G

T O T H E GROWTH OF T R U S T AND F R I E N D L Y R E L A T I O N S AMONG S T A T E S ,

/

12. RECALLING ( UNDERLINED) RESOLUT ION 9 , 12 ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL CONFERENCE OF UNESCO IN 1968- RE HERAT IN G UNESCO’ S OBJECTIVE TO HELP TO ERADICATE COLONIALISM AND R A CI AL IS M , AND RESOLUTION 12» 1 ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL CONFERENCE OF UNESCO IN 1976 WHICH PROCLAIMS T HAT COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIAL! SM AND RACIALISM IN ALL

ITS'FORMS AND MANIFESTATIONS ARE INCOMPATIBLE WITH THE FUNDAMENTAL AIMS OF UNESCO,

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13. RECALLING RESOLUTION 4 . 3 0 1 ADOPTED IN 1970 BY THE GENERAL CONFERENCE OF UNESCO ON THE CONTRIBUTION 0 F T HE INFORMATION . MEDIA TO FURTHERING INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING AND CO-OPERATION IN THE INTERESTS OF PEACE AND HUMAN WELFARE, AND TO COUNTERING

PROPAGANDA ON BEHALF OF WAR, RACIALISM, APARTHEID AND HATRED AMONG NATIONS, AND AWARE ( UNDERLINE ONE) OF THE FUNDAMENTAL CONTRIBUTION THAT MASS MEDIA CAN MAKE TO THE' REALIZATION OF THESE OBJECTIVES,

14 , ; R E C A L L I N G ( U N D E R L I N E D ) T H E D E C L A R A T I O N ON R A C E A N D R A C I A L P R E J U D ­

I C E A D O P T E D B Y T H E G E N E R A L C O N F E R E N C E O F U N E S C O A T I T S T W E N T I E T H

S E S S I O N , - .

1 5 . C O N S C I O U S ( U N D E R L I N E D ) O F T H E C O M P L E X I T Y ' O F T H E P R O B L E M S OF

I N F O R M A T I O N I N MO D E R N S O C I E T Y , O F T H E D I V E R S I T Y OF S O L U T I O N S '

W H I C H H A V E B E E N O F F E R E D T O T H E M , A S E V I D E N C E D I N P A R T I C U L A R B Y

C QN S I D E R A T I O N G I V E N T O T H E M W I T H I N U N E S C O A S W E L L A S OF T H E

L E G I T I M A T E D E S I R E O F A L L P A R T I E S C O N C E R N E D T H A T T H E I R

A S P I R A T I O N S , P O I N T S O F V I E W AND C U L T U R A L I D E N T I T Y B E T A K E N I N T O

DUE C O N S I D E R A T I O N ,

1 6 . C O N S C I O U S ( U N D E R L I N E D ) O F T H E A S P I R A T I O N S O F T H E D E V E L O P I N G

C O U N T R I E S F OR T H E E S T A B L I S H M E N T O F A N E W, MOR E J U S T A N D MORE

E F F E C T I V E WO R L D I N F O R M A T I O N AND C O M M U N I C A T I O N O R D E R ,

1 7 . P R O C L A I M S ON T H I S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D A Y O F .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 7 8 T H I S

D E C L A R A T I O N ON F U N D A M E N T A L P R I N C I P L E S C O N C E R N I N G T H E C O N T R I B U T I O N

O F T H E M A S S M E D I A T O S T R E N G T H E N I N G P E A C E AND I N T E R N A T I O N A L

U N D E R S T A N D I N G , T O T H E P R O M O T I O N O F HUMA N R I G H T S AND T O

C O U N T E R I N G R A C I A L I S M , A P A R T H E I D AND I N C I T E M E N T T O WA R .

ART I C L E I

T H E ' S T R E N G T H E N I N G OF P E A C E AND I N T E R N A T I O N A L U N D E R S T A N D I N G ,

T H E P R O M O T I O N O F HUMA N R I G H T S AND T H E C O U N T E R I N G OF R A C I A L I S M ,

A P A R T H E I D AND I N C I T E M E N T T O WAR D E M A N D A F R E E F L OW A ND A W I D E R AND

B E T T E R " B A L A N C E D D I S S E M I N A T I O N O F I N F O R M A T I O N . T O T H I S E N D , T H E M A S S

M E D I A H A V E A L E A D I N G C O N T R I B U T I O N T O M A K E . T H I S C O N T R I B U T I O N W I L L

B E T H E MORE E F F E C T I V E T O T H E E X T E N T T H A T T H E I N F O R M A T I O N R E F L E C T S

T H E D I F F E R E N T A S P E C T S OF T HE S U B J E C T D E A L T W I T H .

4 .

ARTICLE I I ' ’ ' ·

1. :T HE EXERCISE OF FREEDOM OF OPI NION , EXPRESSION AND INFORMATION, RECOGNIZED AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS, IS A VITA L' FA CT O R IN THE STRENGTHENING OF PEACE AND INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING. ■

2 . ACCESS BY THE PUBLIC TO INFORMATION SHOULD BE GUARANTEED BY THE D I V E R S IT Y OF T HE SOURCES AND MEANS OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO I T , THUS! ENABLING EACH IN D I V I D U A L TO CHECK THE ACCURACY OF FACTS AND TO APPRAISE EVENTS OBJECTIVELY. TO T H IS END, JOURNALISTS MUST HAVE

FREEDOM TO REPORT AND THE FULLEST POSSIBLE F A C I L I T I E S OF ACCESS TO INFORMATION. S I M IL A R L Y , IT I S IMPORTANT THAT THE MASS MEDIA BE RESPONSIVE TO CONCERNS OF PEOPLES AND I N D I V I D U A L S , THUS PROMOTING

THE PARTICIPATION OF THE PUBLIC IN THE ELABORATION OF INFORMATION.

3. WITH A VIEW TO THE STRENGTHENING OF PEACE AND INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING, TO PROMOTING HUMAN RIGHTS AND TO COUNTERING ' RACIALISM, APARTHEID AND INCITEMENT TO WAR, THE MASS MEDIA THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, BY REASON OF THEIR ROLE, CONTRIBUTE EFFECTIVELY T O PROMOTING HUMAN RIGHTS, IN PARTICULAR BY GIVING EXPRESSION TO

OPPRESSED PEOPLES WHO STRUGGLE AGAINST COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM, FOREIGN OCCUPATION AND ALL FORMS OF RACIAL D I S C RI M IN A TI O N AND OPPRESSION AND WHO ARE UNABLE TO MAKE THEIR VOICES HEARD WITHIN T H E I R OWN T E R RI TO RI ES . '

4. I F THE MASS MEDIA ARE TO B E ’ IN A POSITION TO PROMOTE THE

PRINCIPLES OF T H I S DECLARATION IN THEIR A C T I V I T I E S , IT I S ESSENTIAL THAT JOURNALISTS AND OTHER AGENTS OF THE MASS MEDIA, IN THEIR OWN ' COUNTRY OR ABROAD, BE ASSURED OF PROTECTION GUARANTEEING THEM THE

BEST CONDITIONS FOR THE EXERCISE OF THEIR PROFESSION. .

ARTICLE H I ' . : .

1. THE MASS MEDIA HAVE AN IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO MAKE TO THE STRENGTHENING OF PEACE AND INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING AND IN COUNTERING RACIALIS M, APARTHEID AND INCITEMENT TO WAR.

£· IN COUNTERING AGRESSIVE WAR, RA CI AL IS M , APARTHEID AND OTHER VIO LA TI ON S OF HUMAN RIGHTS WHICH ARE INTER A L IA ( UNDERLINE TWO) SPAWNED BY PREJUDICE AND IGNORANCE, THE MASS MEDIA, BY DISSEMINATING INFORMATION ON THE AIMS, ASPIRAT.IONS, CULTURES AND NEEDS OF ALL

PROPLE, CONTRIBUTE TO EL IM IN AT E IGNORANCE AND MISUNDERSTANDING BETWEH PEOPLES, TO MAKE NATIONALS OF A COUNTRY SENS ITIVE TO THE NEEDS AND DESIRES OF OTHERS, TO ENSURE THE RESPECT OF THE RIGHTS AND D I G N I T Y OF ALL NATIONS, ALL PEOPLES AND ALL I N D I V I D U A L S WITHOUT D I S T IN C T I O N

OF RACE, SEX, LANGUAGE, RELIGION OR NATIONALITY AND TO DRAW ATTENTION TO THE GREAT E V IL S WHICH AFFLICT HUMANITY, SUCH AS POVERTY, MALNUTRITION AND DISEASES, THEREBY PROMOTING THE FORMULATION BY STATES OF PO L I C I E S BEST ABLE TO PROMOTE THE REDUCTION OF

INTERNATIONAL TENSION AND THE PEACEFUL AND THE EQUITABLE SETTLEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES.

5.

ARTICLE IV - . >

THE MASS MEDIA HAVE AN ESSENTIAL PART TO PLAY IN THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN A S P IR IT OF PEACE, JUSTICE, FREEDOM, MUTUAL RESPECT AND UNDERSTANDING, IN ORDER TO PROMOTE HUMAN RIGHTS, EQUALITY OF RIGHTS AS BETWEEN ALL HUMAN BEINGS AND ALL NATIONS, AND ECONOMIC

AND SOCIAL PROGRESS* EQUALLY THEY-HAVE AN IMPORTANT ROLE TO PLAY IN MAKING KNOWN THE VIEWS AND ASPIRATIONS OF THE YOUNGER GENERATION*

ART ICLE V

IN ORDER TO RESPECT FREEDOM OF OPINION, EXPRESSION AND INFORM­ ATION AND IN ORDER THAT INFORMATION MAY REFLECT ALL POINTS OF VIEW, IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE POINTS OF VIEW PRESENTED BY THOSE WHO CONSIDER THAT THE INFORMATION PUBLISHED OR DISSEMINATED ABOUT THEM HAS SERIOUSLY PREJUDICED THEIR EFFORT TO STRENGTHEN PEACE AND

INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING, TO PROMOTE HUMAN RIGHTS OR TO COUNTER RACIALISM, APARTHEID AND INCITEMENT T 0 WAR BE DISSEMINATED.

ART ICLE VI

'

F O R / T H E E S T A B L I S H M E N T OF A NEW E Q U I L I B R I U M AND GR E A T E R R E C I P ­

R O C I T Y ' I N T H E FLOW OF I N F O R M A T I O N , W H I C H W I L L BE C O N D U C I V E T O T H E

I N S T I T U T I O N OF A J U S T AND L A S T I N G P E A C E AND T O T H E E C O N O M I C AND

P O L I T I C A L I N D E P E N D E N C E OF T H E D E V E L O P I N G C O U N T R I E S , I T I S N E C E S S A R Y

T 0 CORRE CT T H E I N E Q U A L I T I E S I N T H E FLOW OF I N F O R M A T I O N T O AND FROM

D E V E L O P I N G C O U N T R I E S , AND B E T WE E N T H O S E C O U N T R I E S . T O T H I S E N D ,

I T I S E S S E N T I A L T H A T T H E I R MA S S M E D I A S H OU L D H A V E C O N D I T I O N S AND

R E S O U R C E S E N A B L I N G T H E M T O G A I N S T R E N G T H AND E X P A N D , AND T O CO­

O P E R A T E B O T H AM ON G T H E M S E L V E S AND W I T Η T HE MA S S M E D I A I N D E V E L O P E D

COUNT R I E S .

ART I C L E V I I .

B Y D I S S E M I N A T I N G M O R E ' W I D E L Y A L L OF T H E I N F O R M A T I O N C O N C E R N I N G

T H E O B J E C T I V E S AND P R I N C I P L E S U N I V E R S A L L Y A C C E P T E D W H I C H A RE T H E

B A S E S OF T H E R E S O L U T I O N S A D O P T E D B Y T H E D I F F E R E N T OR GA N S OF T H E

U N I T E D N A T I O N S , T H E M A S S M E D I A C O N T R I B U T E E F F E C T I V E L Y T O T H E

S T R E N G T H E N I N G OF P E A CE AND I N T E R N A T I O N A L U N D E R S T A N D I N G , T O T H E

P R O M O T I O N OF HUMAN R I G H T S , AS W E L L A S T O T H E E S T A B L I S H M E N T OF A MORE

J U S T A ND E Q U I T A B L E I N T E R N A T I O N A L E C O N O M I C O R D E R .

A R T I C L E V I I I ..

P R O F E S S I O N A L O R G A N I Z A T I O N S , AND P E O P L E WHO P A R T I C I P A T E I N T H E

P R O F E S S I O N A L T R A I N I N G OF J O U R N A L I S T S AND OT H E R A G E N T S OF T H E MA S S

M E D I A AND WHO A S S I S T T H E M I N P E R F O R M I N G T H E I R F U N C T I O N S I N A

R E S P O N S I B L E MA NN E R WHOUL D A T T A C H S P E C I A L I M P O R T A N C E T O T H E P R I N C I P L E S

OF T H I S D E C L A R A T I O N WHEN D R A W I N G UP AND E N S U R I N G A P P L I C A T I O N

OF T H E I R C O D E S OF E T H I C S . -

ART ICLE IX

IN THE SPIRIT OF T H I S DECLARATION, IT I S FOR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY T O CONTRIBUTE TO THE CREATION OF THE CONDITIONS FOR A FREE FLOW AND WIDER AND MORE BALANCED DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION, AND THE CONDITIONS FOR THE PROTECTION, IN THE EXERCISE OF THEIR FUNCTIONS, OF JOURNALISTS AND OTHER AGENTS OF THE MASS MEDIA* UNESCO I S WELL PLACED TO MAKE A VALUABLE CONTRIBUTION IN T H IS RESPECT.

ART ICLE X

1. WITH DUE RESPECT FOR CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS DESIGNED TO GUARANTEE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION AND FOR THE APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS AND AGREEMENTS IT I S INDISPENSABLE TO CREATE AND MAIN­ T A I N THROUGHOUT THE WORLD THE CONDITIONS WHICH MAKE IT POSSIBLE

FOR THE ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONS PROFESSIONALLY INVOLVED IN THE DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION TO ACHIEVE THE OBJECTIVES OF TH IS DECLARAT ION.

2 . IT I S IMPORTANT THAT A FREE FLOW AND WIDER AND BETTER BALANCED DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION BE ENCOURAGED.

5< T Ο T HIS END, IT I S NECESSARY T HAT STATES SHOULD F A C I L I T A T E THE PROCUREMENT, BY THE MASS MEDIA IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, OF ADEQUATE CONDITIONS AND RESOURCES ENABLING THEM TO GAIN STRENGTH AMD EXPAND, AND THAT THEY SHOULD SUPPORT CO-OPERATION BY THE LATTER BOTH AMONG T HEM SELVES AND WITH THE MASS MEDIA IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES.

4 . S IM ILA RL Y , ON A BASIS OF EQUALITY OF RIGHTS, MUTUAL ADVANTAGE, AND RESPECT FOR THE D I V E R S I T Y OF CULTURES WHICH GO TO MAKE UP THE COMMON HERITAGE OF MANKIND, IT I S ESSENTIAL THAT BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL EXCHANGES OF INFORMATION AMONG ALL STATES, AND IN

PARTICULAR BETWEEN THOSE WHICH HAVE DIFFERENT .-ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS BE ENCOURAGED AND DEVELOPED.

ARTICLE X I

FOR T H I S DECLARATION TO BE FULLY EFFECTIVE IT I S NECESSARY, WITH DUE RESPECT FOR THE L E G I S L A T I V E AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS AMD THE OTHER OBLIGATIONS OF MEMBER STATES, TO GUARANTEE THE E X IS ­ TENCE OF FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS FOR THE OPERATION OF THE MASS MEDIA,

IN CONFORMITY WITH THE PROVISIONS OF THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND WITH THE CORRESPONDING PRINCIPLES*PROCLAIMED IN THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON C I V I L AND P O LI T IC A L RIGHTS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN 19 ξ 6 .