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South Africa - the case for constructive pressure



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P A R L I A M E N T O F A U S T R A L I A

FA13/85 6.11.85

*3* . >

H O U S E O F R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S

SOUTH AFRICA - THE CASE FOR CONSTRUCTIVE PRESSURE

Attached "is a speech given at a Kooyong Liberal Party Meeting by Hon. A.S. Peacock, today, November 6, 1985.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT PETER WOOLCOTT 72 7724.

1

SOUTH A F R I C A - THE CASE FOR C O N S T R U C T I V E P R ES S UR E

T here w i l l be no qui ck and neat s o lu t io n to the c r i s i s in S outh

A f r i c a . F or what we are watching i s a drawn out and protracted

struggle between a whi te n a t i o n a l i s m and a black n a t i o n a l i s m .

I t has been going on for g e n e r a t i o n s , and i t w i l l go on for a lot

l on ge r .

S lowly but i nexo rabl y i t w i l l end e v e nt u al l y i n e i t h e r g enui ne

p o l i t i c a l power - sharing or c i v i l war . A monumental tragedy is

p o t e n t i a l l y in the m a k i n g - I t is a tragedy that w i l l be

d i f f i c u l t for the west to p r e v e n t .

T he S outh A f r i c a n G overnment , though i t c l a i m s to be r e f o r m i s t ,

has c o n s i s t e n t l y made i ts concessions too l i t t l e and too l a t e .

C o n c i l i a t o r y words that mi ght have been h a i l e d as a breakthrough

A FEW YEARS AGO ARE NOW TREATED AS SIMPLY JUSTIFICATION FOR

OPPRESSION.

A nd the re pr es si on i t s e l f , which may have a few years ago

SUCCEEDED IN PRODUCING AN UNEASY CALM, NOW SERVES ONLY TO FURTHER

RADICALISE THE BLACK POPULATION-

" 2 -

T h e t i m e h o n o u r e d w a y o f d e a l i n g w i t h v i o l e n t u p r i s i n g s i s t o

I S O L A T E T H E R A D I C A L L E A D E R S H I P W H I L S T M A K I N G G E N U I N E C O N C E S S I O N S

T O T H E R A N K A N D F I L E ·

T h e S o u t h A f r i c a n r e g i m e h a s s h o w n g r e a t s k i l l a t i s o l a t i n g t h e

R A D I C A L L E A D E R S H I P , B U T H A S P R O V E D I T S E L F U N W I L L I N G T O M A K E ,

S U F F I C I E N T C O N C E S S I O N S -

G e n e r a l l y t h i n g s h a v e b e e n c o n c e d e d o n l y a f t e r t h e y h a v e c e a s e d

T O H O L D I M P O R T A N C E . . '

T h e w a y t h r o u g h t o a p e a c e f u l a n d j u s t s o l u t i o n c a n o n l y c o m e

T H R O U G H G E N U I N E N E G O T I A T I O N S · "

N e g o t i a t i o n s n o t w i t h h a n d p i c k e d a n d " t r u s t e d " b l a c k s , w h i c h

R E N D E R A N Y A G R E E M E N T U S E L E S S , R U T N E G O T I A T I O N S W I T H T H E B L A C K

L E A D E R S WHO H A V E T H E C O N F I D E N C E OF T H E M A J O R I T Y -

I t I S B E C A U S E OF T H E C R U C I A L I M P O R T A N C E OF T H E N E E D F OR G E N U I N E

N E G O T I A T I O N S T H A T I WE L C O M E M A L C O L M F R A S E R ' S R O L E ON T H E

C o m m o n w e a l t h G r o u p o f E m i n e n t P e r s o n s ·

T h e i r r o l e i s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e e v o l u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l d i a l o g u e i n

S o u t h - A f r i c a . T h e r e i s n o o n e b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y

t h a n M a l c o l m F r a s e r f o r t h i s t a s k · , .

N ot only w i l l we hear a great deal of S outh A f r i c a in the ' next

FEW MONTHS, WE -WILL ALSO HEAR A GREAT DEAL OF MALCOLM FRASER ON

S outh A f r i c a , and no doubt not merely on S outh A f r i c a . I

CONGRATULATE HIM, AND LOOK FORWARD TO HIS VIEWS ON A WIDE RANGE

OF SUBJECTS·

M alcolm F r a s e r ' s a p p o i n t m e n t should be seen q u i t e properly as a

TRIBUTE TO HIM, AND TO THE COALI TI ON' S FOREIGN POLICY· FOR LESS

THA| TWO AND A HALF YEARS LATER, FRASER'S MOST BITTER ENEMIES

HAVE FELT OBLIGATED TO OFFER HIM ONE OF THEIR MOST PRESTIGIOUS

FOREIGN POLICY APPOINTMENTS.

T he W h i t l a m s , the H a y d e n s , the W i l l e s . sees were a l l d i s m i s s e d as

INADEQUATE BY THE PRIME MINISTER, WHO FELT OBLIGED TO TURN TO THE

MAN WHO DESTROYED LABOR IN 1975 AND KEPT THEM IN THE WILDERNESS .

UNTIL 1983.· . "

ANY DIFFERENCES THE COALITION MIGHT HAVE WITH MALCOLM FRASER ON

S outh A f r i c a , pale i nto i n s i g n i f i c a n c e when compared to the

•DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FRASER AND THE LABOR . GOVERNMENT ON FOREIGN

POLICY ·

M oreover i t i s i mportant to keep our d i f f e r e n c e s wi t h M alcolm

F raser on S outh A f r i c a in t h e i r proper c o n t e x t .

F or we share the same g o a l s . T hey are an end to a p a r t h e i d and

ITS REPLACEMENT BY A SYSTEM BASED ON JUSTICE-

W here we do d i s a g r e e i s on t h e ' use of p u n i t i v e economi c s a n c t i o n s

AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN BRINGING THIS ABOUT· -

- 3 -

- 4 -

T h e C o a l i t i o n h a s n o t m o v e d a w a y f r o m i t s p o l i c y i n g o v e r n m e n t ,

OF O P P O S I T I O N T O A P A R T H E I D , A N D OF C O N S T R U C T I V E P R E S S U R E ON T H E

S o u t h A f r i c a n r e g i m e - P u n i t i v e e c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s h a v e n e v e r

B E E N P A R T OF T H A T P O L I C Y -

T h e C o a l i t i o n t a k e s i t s p o s i t i o n o n S o u t h A f r i c a b o t h f o r

P R I N C I P L E D A N D P R A C T I C A L R E A S O N S -

F o r t h e r e a r e t w o t h i n g s a t s t a k e - t h e r e a r e g r e a t m o r a l i s s u e s ,

A N D T H E R E A R E T H E W E S T ' S S T R A T E G I C I N T E R E S T S - B O T H D I C T A T E T H A T

WE B R I N G C O N S T R U C T I V E P R E S S U R E T O B E A R ON S - OUT H A F R I C A , B U T I N

D O I N G S O , T H A T WE A C T W I T H C OMMON S E N S E - ' '

S o u t h A f r i c a p r a c t i c e s i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m - I t h a s m a d e s k i n

C O L O U R T H E T O U C H S T O N E OF P O L I T I C A L A N D L E G A L R I G H T S - I T H A S

V I O L A T E D T H E F U N D A M E N T A L P R I N C I P L E S OF L I B E R A L I S M , A N D . I T D O E S SO

W H I L E C L A I M I N G T O A D H E R E T O W E S T E R N V A L U E S -

I T I S T H I S W H I C H O U T R A G E S SO M A N Y P E O P L E , A N D P L A C E S S O U T H A F R I C A

I N A S P E C I A L C A T E G O R Y , A N D A S T H E T A R G E T OF C O N C E R T E D

I N T E R N A T I O N A L P R E S S U R E - . ·

B u t T H E R E A R E A L S O S O U N D P R A C T I C A L R E A S O N S WHY WE S H O U L D B E

P U S H I N G F O R C H A N G E I N S O U T H A F R I C A -

F o r t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m i s e v e n t u a l l y d o o m e d , a n d t h e o n l y

A L T E R N A T I V E T O A V I O L E N T A N D R A D I C A L I S E D O U T C O M E I S A P O L I T I C A L ·>■

S E T T L E M E N T B E F O R E I T I S T OO L A T E -

- 5 -

T h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r a l l S o u t h A f r i c a n s , a n d f o r w e s t e r n

S T R A T E G I C I N T E R E S T S , S H O U L D S U C H A V I O L E N T C O N F L A G R A T I O N

O C C U R , WO U L D B E D I S A S T R O U S .

T h a t i s w h y s o m e c o m m o n s e n s e i s r e q u i r e d , a n d w h y w e s h o u l d b e

C A R E F U L T O E N S U R E T H A T OUR A C T I O N S P R E V E N T , R A T H E R T H A N

C O N T R I B U T E T O , S U C H A C A T A C L Y S M ·

F o r w h a t w o u l d a v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n a c h i e v e · I f A f r i c a n h i s t o r y

I S A N Y J U D G E , S O U T H A F R I C A WO U L D E X C H A N G E O N E G R O U P OF O P P R E S S O R S

F OR A N O T H E R - .

W h e t h e r t h e W e s t s h o u l d f e e l m o r a l l y s u p e r i o r w i t h s u c h a n

O U T C O M E I S D E B A T A B L E · C E R T A I N L Y I T WO U L D F E E L A L I T T L E L E S S

S E C U R E ·

G e o g r a p h i c a l l y a n d g e o l o g i c a l l y , S o u t h A f r i c a i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e

I M P O R T A N C E T O WE S T E R N S E C U R I T Y · Ϊ Η Ε S O U T H A F R I C A N G O V E R N M E N T

C O N S I S T E N T L Y E X A G G E R A T E S T H A T I M P O R T A N C E , A N D I T H A S F A I L E D T O

L O C K T H E WE S T I N T O A N Y F OR M OF D E P E N D E N C Y R E L A T I O N S H I P - Y E T

C E R T A I N F A C T S C A N N O T B E I G N O R E D -

T h e C a p e o f G o o d H o p e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h o k e p o i n t a n d i t s

C O N T R O L A M A J O R A S S E T . U N T R A M M E L L E D U S E OF T H E C A P E R O U T E I S

V I T A L F OR A C C E S S T O M I D D L E E A S T E R N O I L , W H I L S T S OME 7 0 P E R C E N T OF

W e s t e r n E u r o p e ' s s t r a t e g i c m a t e r i a l s m u s t u s e t h i s t r a d e r o u t e .

- 6 -

S outh A f r i c a i s the r i c h e s t d e p o s i t o r y of m i n e r a l s i n the world

APART FROM THE SOVIET UNION- IT, IS THE LARGEST WORLD SUPPLIER

OF GOLD, PLATINUM, DIAMONDS, CHROME, VANADIUM, MANGANESE, AND

ANDALUSITE METALS, VERM I C U L I T E , AND ASBESTOS FIBRES,AND A MAJOR

SUPPLIER OF MANY OTHERS-

AS HAS BEEN POINTED OUT BY W - C - J - VAN RENSBURG, SOUTH AFRICA AND

the S o v i e t U ni on control between them , 99 percent of the world ' s

PLATINUM, 97 PERCENT OF VANADIUM, 93 PERCENT OF ITS MANGANESE, 84

PERCENT OF ITS CHROME, AND 68 PERCENT OF ITS GOLD-

T he f i r s t four s t r a t e g i c m i n e r a l s are e s s e n t i a l to western

INDUSTRY AND DEFENCE, WHILE ANY DISRUPTION IN THE SUPPLY OF SOUTH

A f r ica n gold would have a s i g n i f i c a n t i mpact on world gold .

PRICES, AND AFFECT INTERNATIONAL MONETARY STABILITY-

I t REQUIRES NO GREAT MOMENT OF LUCIDITY TO REALISE THAT THE SOUTH

A fri can m i n i n g i ndustry occu pi es a c r u c i a l role in the

INDUSTRIALISED WORLDS ECONOMY- SIMILARLY, IT CAN BE SEEN THAT A

DISRUPTION OF SOUTH AFRICA'S MINING INDUSTRY WOULD BE OF ENORMOUS

BENEFIT TO THE SOVIET UNION, AND DESTABILISING FOR THE WEST-

S outh A f r i c a i s also the cornerstone of the wider economic system

in S outhern A f r i c a -

I ts collapse would have a seri ous impact on S outh A f r i c a ' s

NEIGHBOURS, WHO ARE HEAVILY DEPENDENT ON TRADE WITH, AND

REMITTANCES FROM, THE SOUTH AFRICAN ECONOMY- IT WOULD : -

DESTABILISE THE WHOLE OF SOUTHERN AFRICA- „

- 7 -

T h e d i f f i c u l t c h a l l e n g e i s h o w t o b r i n g t h e S o u t h A f r i c a n

G O V E R N M E N T T O I T S S E N S E S · HOW T O E N C O U R A G E G E N U I N E D I A L O G U E

W I T H T H E B L A C K S A N D T H E D E V E L O P M E N T OF W O R K A B L E P O L I T I C A L

I N S T I T U T I O N S W I T H I N W H I C H P OWE R I S S H A R E D -

I n P U R S U I N G T H I S , I DO N O T B E L I E V E T H A T I T I S A S E N S I B L E C O U R S E

T O T A K E S T E P S W H I C H W I L L D A M A G E , D E S T A B I L I S E OR U N D E R M I N E T H E

S o u t h A f r i c a n e c o n o m y .

E c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s a r e a n e x p r e s s i o n o f m o r a l o u t r a g e , t h a t i s

B O T H T H E I R P R I N C I P A L S T R E N G T H A N D T H E I R P R I N C I P A L W E A K N E S S ·

T o p u r s u e t h e m a s a p o l i c y f o r p e a c e f u l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f S o u t h

A f r i c a n s o c i e t y a t t h i s t i m e d o e s n o t s e e m t o m a k e a g r e a t d e a l

o f s e n s e · -

R a t h e r , w h a t - i t r e p r e s e n t s i s a w a s h i n g o f h a n d s , a s t a t e m e n t o f

L A S T R E S O R T · .

W h a t a r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f i m p o s i n g p u n i t i v e e c o n o m i c

S A N C T I O N S ? .

W e l l , f i r s t , i f e f f e c t i v e , y o u d e s t a b i l i s e o r d a m a g e t h e e c o n o m y ·

Y e t h o w . i s a G o v e r n m e n t e x p e c t e d t o p r o c e e d d o w n a p a t h o f r e f o r m

WH E N I T H A S B E E N T H R OWN I N T O E C O N O M I C C R I S I S , A N D WHE N T H E

C O N S E Q U E N T U N E M P L O Y M E N T A N D D E P R I V A T I O N W I L L F E E D F U R T H E R S O C I A L

U N R E S T ? -

8

S econd , you damage the mai n force of reform in S outh A f r i c a ,

WHICH IS THE ECONOMY- I t IS BUSINESS WHICH IS AN EFFECTIVE

ENGINE OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION, AS IT RECOGNISES THAT A MODERN

INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY CANNOT BE GOVERNED BY A PRE~INDUSTRIAL

PHILOSOPHY OF RACIAL SEGREGATION- I t IS THE MODERN ECONOMY

WHICH HAS GIVEN BLACKS THE ABI LI TY TO ORGAN ISE TRADE UNIONS, AND

TO FLEX THEIR POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MUSCLE-

T h i r d , you hurt the blacks themselves in S outh A f r i c a - T he

POLLING ON HOW THEY VIEW THIS IS HO PELESSLY . UNREL IABLE, BUT THE

ECONOMIC DATA ON BLACK JOB LOSSES, IF SANCTIONS PROVE EFFECTIVE,

i s n o t - B lack leaders who state that they are w i l l i n g to make

THIS SACRIFICE DOUBTLESS MEAN IT- WHETHER THEY SPEAK FOR THE

BLACK MIDDLE CLASS, OR THE BLACK EMPLOYED, WHO HAVE A STAKE' IN

PEACEFUL TRANSITION, IS DOUBTFUL- .

F ourth / they may well be counter - producti ve , rei nforci ng the more

CONSERVATIVE ELEMENTS IN THEIR OPPOSITION TO REFORM- SANCTIONS

COULD BECOME THE EXTERNAL ENEMY AGAINST WHICH AN INCREASINGLY

BELEAGUERED WHITE COMMUNITY UNI TES-

F i f t h , you send a m e s s a g e - B ut once that message i s s e n t , you

LOSE ANY FURTHER LEVERAGE- ONCE SANCTIONS ARE IMPOSED, THERE IS

LI TTLE MORE YOU CAN DO, FOR YOU HAVE EFFECTIVELY WITHDRAWN-

S i x t h , you destroy n e i g h b o u r i n g b l a c k e c o n o m i e s , as well as

HURTING OUR OWN

F i n a l l y , there is the d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t ha t s a n c t i o n s w i l l

NOT PROVE EFFECTIVE.

T he result s of the o i l and arms embargo on S outh A f r i c a g i v e no

GROUNDS WHATSOEVER FOR OPTIMISM*

T he M i n i s t e r for F o re i gn A f f a i r s , when we put a s i d e h i s

RHETORICAL EXCESSES, HAS MADE SOME REASONABLY SENSIBLE REMARKS ON

S outh A f r i c a .

H e has s t a t e d that what A u s t r a l i a i s t r y i n g to do i s b r i n g S outh

A f r i c a to i t s s e n s e s , not i t s k n e e s .

I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h , the F i n a n c i a l R e v i ew of 7 A u g u s t , M r .H ayden

s a i d that the G overnment wanted a " p r a c t i c a l programme " of reform

TO BE WORKED OUT FOR SOUTH AFRICA AND EXPRESSED THE CONCERN THAT

WE SHOULD NOT PUSH SOUTH AFRICA INTO EVEN GREATER CHAOS THAN AT

PRESENT· , '

T o q u o t e : " T he l a s t t h i n g we want to see i s a s e r i o u s

DETERIORATION IN THE SITUATION IN SOUTH AFRICA · . · LEADING TO

. - 9 -

W I D E S P R E A D D I S R U P T I O N A N D H U MA N T R A V A I L ·

10 -

T h e k e y t o M r H a y d e n ' s v i e w s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t e

F R OM T H E S A M E A R T I C L E : " WE M U S T WORK O U T WH A T S O R T OF P R E S S U R E S

A R E L I K E L Y T O B R I N G P O S I T I V E R E S P O N S E S A N D W H E T H E R I T ' S P O S S I B L E

T O M A K E C O N T A C T W I T H S O U T H A F R I C A N G O V E R N M E N T A U T H O R I T I E S T O

E S T A B L I S H S OME S O R T OF C O M M U N I C A T I O N W I T H T H E M W H E R E B Y I T M A Y B E

P O S S I B L E T O WORK O U T P R A C T I C A B L E P R O G R A M M E S · "

I A G R E E - .

B u t I c a n n o t s e e h o w t h e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t h i s G o v e r n m e n t h a s

E M B A R K E D U P O N I S L I K E L Y T O F U R T H E R T H I S E N D ·

L a b o r ' s p o l i c y s u f f e r s f r o m a f u n d a m e n t a l c o n f u s i o n o v e r m e a n s

A N D E N D S - · ' „

T h e G o v e r n m e n t h a s p u s h e d t h e c a s e o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e m a n d a t o r y

E C O N O M I C S A N C T I O N S , T A K E N U N I L A T E R A L E C O N O M I C M E A S U R E S , A N D „

R E S O R T E D T O T H E P E R S O N A L V I L I F I C A T I O N OF S P O R T S M E N , T O T H R E A T S

A G A I N S T C I V I L L I B E R T I E S I N A U S T R A L I A , A N D T O T H E D E N I A L OF F R E E

S P E E C H .

T h i s l a c k o f j u d g e m e n t a n d o f m o d e r a t i o n w a s m o s t r e c e n t l y s e e n

a t t h e B a h a m a s C o m m o n w e a l t h H e a d s o f G o v e r n m e n t M e e t i n g .

I H A V E M A D E I T C L E A R , ON B E H A L F OF T H E O P P O S I T I O N , T H A T WE

E N D O R S E D T H E L A T E S T I N I T I A T I V E S A N N O U N C E D A T T H E B A H A M A S C H O G M -

π -

WE ENDORSED THEM BECAUSE THE POLITICAL MEASURES WHICH WERE .

ADOPTED STOP SHORT OF PUNITIVE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND BROUGHT

C ommonwealth c o u n t r i e s l a r g e l y i nto l i n e w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s

AND EEC MEASURES AGAINST SOUTH AFRICA-

T hey p r o v i d e d for a c o h e s i v e W estern approach to b r i n g i n g

ADDITIONAL POLI TICAL PRESSURE ON SOUTH AFRICA-

T he communique of course also e s t a b l i s h e d the group of e m i n e n t

PERSONS , TO PUSH FOR POLITICAL DIALOGUE-

T h i s i s a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n and i t i s to be hoped that the

S outh A f r i c a n G overnment t akes them s e r i o u s l y - O n t h i s p o i n t ·., i t

m i gh t be noted that the B r i t i s h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , L ord B a r b e r , has

e x t e n s i v e b a n k i n g i n t e r e s t s throughout A f r i c a i n c l u d i n g S outh

A f r i c a - . . .

H owever , the P ri me M i n i s t e r ' s own d i p l o m a t i c ef fort s l e a d i n g t o ,

and at CHOGM were crude and c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l - , .

f

. h

■ . %

I n the e nd , what was a c h i e v e d , was moderate and s e n s i b l e - T hey

COULD HAVE BEEN ACHIEVED, HOWEVER, WITHOUT RANCOUR, WITHOUT

t hr ea t en in g to s p l i t the C ommonwealth , and w it ho ut t h r e a t e n i n g to

ISOLATE THE UNITED KINGDOM WHICH HAPPENED TO BE THE ONLY

C ommonwealth country with real economic leverage over S outh

A f r i c a - _

L a bo r , in i t s a n x i e t y to be seen to be b r i n g i n g pressure to bear -

on S outh A f r i c a , has lost touch with i t s stated goal -

12

T h i s can be seen throughout the G overnment ' s S outh A f r i c a n

p o l i c y -

F or d e s p i t e the G overnment ' s acknowledgement that u n i l a t e r a l

ECONOMIC SANCTIONS ARE POINTLESS, THE GOVERNMENT HAS IN A NUMBER

OF AREAS EMBARKED ON EXACTLY THAT· I t HAS UNILATERALLY ADOPTED A

NUMBER OF THE SECOND TIER APPROACHES OUTLINED IN THE CHOGM

COMMUNIQUE WITHOUT REGARD TO THEIR CONSEQUENCES AND PRE-EMPTING

THE REPORT THAT THE GROUP OF EMINENT PERSONS WILL BRING DOWN·

W hat is also of concern is the h e a v y . handed manner in which the

G overnment has implemented i t s p o l i c y of s p o rt in g s a n c t i o n s .

O ne of the arguments t h i s G overnment seems to have fa ll en for is

THAT SPORTSMEN HAVE BEEN UNFAIRLY SINGLED OUT, THAT IT IS ALL

RIGHT TO TRADE WITH THEM, BUT YOU CAN' T PLAY WITH THEM · Ϊ Η IS

FORGETS TWO ΤΗ INGS: ' ■

O n e , that the G leneagles agreement was a c a r e f u l l y balanced

DEVICE TO PROHIBIT REPRESENTATIVE SOUTH AFRICAN TEAMS FROM

INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION AND THAT' S THE KEY, REPRESENTATIVE

TEAMS;

AND TWO, THAT SPORTING SANCTIONS ARE FOCUSED ON BECAUSE THEY

ARE BOTH EFFECTIVE AND SELECTIVE IN THEIR IMPACT·

S porting s a n c ti o ns s i n g l e d out whi te S outh A f r i c a n s o c i e t y and

HURT THEM IN A TANGIBLE SENSE · THEY HAVE WORKED AND THERE IS NO

GREATER TESTAMENT TO THIS THAN THE EFFORTS SOUTH AFRICA HAS MADE

TO GET AROUND THEM·

13 -

G l e n e a g l e s n e e d s t o b e c o n t i n u a l l y e x p l a i n e d , a n d i m p l e m e n t e d i n

A S E N S I B L E M A N N E R .

T h e G o v e r n m e n t w i t h i t s a b u s e , i t s t h r e a t s t o c i v i l l i b e r t i e s a n d

L U D I C R O U S B A N S ON R O T A R I A N G O L F E R S , R I S K S J E O P A R D I S I N G T H E

C R U C I A L E L E M E N T OF C O M M U N I T Y S U P P O R T -

T h e C o a l i t i o n ' s p o l i c y o n S o u t h A f r i c a s e e k s t o c o m b i n e

P R I N C I P L E S W I T H P R A G M A T I S M -

I t s e e k s t o b r i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e p r e s s u r e t o b e a r o n t h e S o u t h

A f r i c a n r e g i m e f o r g e n u i n e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e r e a l l e a d e r s o f

T H E B L A C K M A J O R I T Y A N D F OR A P R A C T I C A L P R O G R A M M E OF R E F O R M -

I t N E G O T I A T E D A N D S T I L L S U P P O R T S T H E G L E N E A G L E S A G R E E M E N T A S ON E

A R E A WH E R E A U S T R A L I A D O E S H A V E A R E A L I M P A C T ON W H I T E S O U T H "

A f r i c a n s - :

I t s u p p o r t s a v o l u n t a r y c o d e o f c o n d u c t f o r o p e r a t i o n i n S o u t h

A f r i c a , a n d i t s e e s s u c h a c o d e a s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e s o r t o f

m e a s u r e s w h i c h w o r k f r o m t h e i n s i d e t o d e s t r o y a p a r t h e i d a n d .

E N C O U R A G E S B L A C K R I G H T S -

A n d i t p u r s u e s p o l i c i e s o f t r y i n g t o c o n v i n c e ; t h e S o u t h A f r i c a n

G o v e r n m e n t t h a t t h e s y s t e m o f g r a n d a p a r t h e i d h a s t o g o - a

P O L I C Y O F P L A I N P O L I T I C A L S I G N A L S , OF C O N S I S T E N T P R E S S U R E , A N D A N

A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T OF S T E P S T A K E N -

- 14 - ■

T he r e a l i t y i s though that the S outh A f r i c a n G overnment l a r g e l y

RESPONDS TO INTERNAL PRESSURES NOT EXTERNAL ONES -

B ut these i n t e r n a l pressures are d e v e l o p i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y - T hey

ARE COMING FROM THE BLACK COMMUNITY, PARTICULARLY THE YOUNG, AND

THEY ARE COMING FROM INTERNAL MARKET FORCES -

WE CANNOT FORCE THE SOUTH AFRICAN REGIME TO COOPERATE NOR TO

INSTITUTE CHANGE, BUT WE CAN ENCOURAGE THEM TO MAKE THE NECESSARY

REFORMS AND WE CAN PROMOTE GENUINE DIALOGUE BETWEEN ALL THE

GROUPS - ‘

T he system of government i s u l t i m a t e l y for S outh A f r i c a n s to

DECIDE BUT THE COALITION MAINTAINS ITS POSITION THAT SOUTH AFRICA

SHOULD HAVE A GOVERNMENT THAT IS TRULY BASED ON THE CONSENT OF

THE GOVERNED - DESEGREGATING SWIMMING- POOLS OR PARK BENCHES IS .

NOT AN ANSWER - . ' . .

IN CONCLUSION LET ME SAY THAT THE COALITION HAS NEVER STATED THAT

IT WOULD NOT TAKE REASONABLE MEASURES AGAINST APARTHEID JUST

BECAUSE THEY MIGHT HAVE AN EFFECT ON THE ECONOMY OF 'SOUTH AFRICA-

I t IS OBVIOUS THAT THE ARMS EMBARGO, IMPLEMENTED BY THE

C o a l i t i o n , d i d have some economi c e f f e c t -

N or does the C o a l i t i o n take the v i ew that in no c i r c u m s t a n c e s

SHOULD ECONOMIC SANCTIONS EVER BE IMPOSED - THIS WAS MADE CLEAR

IN THE STATEMENT I ISSUED AS LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION ON 19

A ugust and s ub s e que nt l y endorsed by J ohn H oward ' s S hadow C a b i n e t -

15 -

B u t I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r i m p o s i t i o n a t t h i s t i m e i s l i k e l y t o b e

C O U N T E R - P R O D U C T I V E A N D V E R Y MU C H A M A T T E R OF L A S T R E S O R T -