Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
“Peace and disarmament"



Download PDFDownload PDF

D55/85

510

Deputy Leader of the Opposition

2tn 2i-w-85·

ADDRESS BY THE HON JOHN HOWARD MR

TO

THE LIBERAL PARTY OF AUSTRALIA (NEW SOUTH WALES DIVISION)

WOMEN'S COUNCIL

PEACE AND DISARMAMENT SEMINAR

SATURDAY, 27 APRIL, 1985

"PEACE AND DISARMAMENT"

Parliament House, Canberra, A .CT. 2600

THIS IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SEMINARS BEING HELD

AROUND AUSTRALIA BY THE WOMEN'S SECTIONS OF THE

LIBERAL PARTY.

I CONGRATULATE THE ORGANISERS OF THESE SEMINARS.

THERE IS NO MORE IMPORTANT CHALLENGE FACING THE

LIBERAL PARTY AT THE MOMENT THAN THE SUCCESSFUL

COMMUNICATION OF OUR POINT OF VIEW ON THE PEACE

MOVEMENT. IT IS THE UNIVERSAL DESIRE OF HUMANITY

THAT WE SHOULD BE SPARED NUCLEAR ANN I fll Li ATI ON.

IN PUTTING OUR VIEW WE SHOULD HAVE TWO GOALS

IN MIND.

FIRSTLY; WE SHOULD TOTALLY IDENTIFY OURSELVES

WITH THE CAUSE OF PEACE AND THE AVOIDANCE OF

WAR - EITHER NUCLEAR OR CONVENTIONAL.

./2

2

SECONDLY, WE SHOULD RELENTLESSLY EXPOSE ALL

FALSE PROPHETS OP THE PEACE MOVEMENT WHO CLAIM

A MORAL EXCLUSIVENESS AND ADVOCATE A COURSE OF

ACTION WHICH, IF IMPLEMENTED, WOULD CONDEMN US

TO AN INFINITELY MORE DANGEROUS WORLD AND A

MORE PRECARIOUS PEACE,

IT IS APPROPRIATE THAT THIS SEMINAR IS BEING

HELD DURING OUR WEEK OF NATIONAL REMEMBRANCE.

APRIL 1985 IS OF SPECIAL SIGNIFICANCE IN

THAT WE REMEMBER THE SEVENTIETH ANNIVERSARY

OF THE FIRST AIF'S LANDINGS ON GALLIPOLI, THE

FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE END OF THE SECOND

WORLD WAR AND THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF COMMUNIST

HANOI'S VICTORY OVER SAIGON,

*

THE PEACE MOVEMENT IN THE 1930'S LED TO WAR

THE SECOND WORLD WAR CAME ABOUT AFTER THE WESTERN

ALLIES HAD VARIOUSLY DECLARED THEMSELVES FOR

DISARMAMENT, PEACE, APPEASEMENT AND NEUTRALITY.

THE END RESULT WAS THE MOST ATROCIOUS WAR IN HUMAN

HISTORY.

IN OTHER WORDS, THE PEACE MOVEMENT OF THE 1930'S

WAS A DISASTROUS FAILURE. IT VERY NEARLY BROUGHT

ABOUT THE DESTRUCTION OF WESTERN CIVILISATION.

THE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCE OF ITS ACTIONS WAS TO

FACILITATE THE EMERGENCE OF NAZI MILITARISM AND

BRING ABOUT A WAR THAT LED TO THE DEATH OF ABOUT 60

MILLION.

IN THESE DAYS OF RE-EMERGING PACIFICISM IT IS

TIMELY TO REMEMBER THAT BRITAIN IN THE 1930'S

WAS FULL OF WELL-INTENTIONED PEOPLE WHO SINCERELY

BELIEVED THAT UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT WAS THE ONLY

WAY TO LASTING PEACE. .

ψ.

THEY COULD BE FOUND AT THE OXFORD UNION IN 1933

SUPPORTING THE MOTION THAT "THIS HOUSE WILL IN

NO CIRCUMSTANCES FIGHT FOR ITS KING AND

COUNTRY" OR PARTICIPATING IN THE OCTOBER 1934

PEACE BALLOT, THEIR POLITICAL LEADERS WERE

IN BOTH THE LABOR AND CONSERVATIVE PARTIES BUT

NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN BECAME THEIR CONSTANT

SPOKESMAN, THE MUNICH AGREEMENT OF SEPTEMBER 1938

WAS THEIR TRIUMPHAL HIGH POINT.

THE PEACE MOVEMENT IS AN ANTI-DEFENCE MOVEMENT

The LESSONS OF t h e 1930 s d e m o n s t r a t e THAT PACIFISM

IN THE FACE OF AGGRESSION DOES NOT AND CANNOT WORK.

IN 1940 BRITAIN FOUND ITSELF VIRTUALLY ALONE. IT

HAD THE SUPPORT OF ITS COMMONWEALTH ALLIES

INCLUDING CANADA AND AUSTRALIA. BUT FRANCE HAD

SURRENDERED. THE SOVIET UNION WAS A PARTNER

IN THE NOTORIOUS HITLERrSTALIN PACT. AND THE UNITED

STATES WAS OFFICIALLY NEUTRAL.

THE HEADY DAYS OF APPEASEMENT HAD RESULTED IN

VALUABLE TIME LOST. THE END RESULT WAS NEARLY

FATAL FOR WESTERN DEMOCRACIES.

/5

5

BETWEEN 1939 AND 1941, WHEN NAZI AND SOVIET

TROOPS WERE DIVIDING UP EASTERN EUROPE BETWEEN

THEMSELVES, IT BECAME MANIFESTLY CLEAR THAT

THE SELF-PROCLAIMED PEACE MOVEMENT WAS NO MORE

THAN AN ANTI-DEFENCE MOVEMENT. IT HAD FAILED

TO DELIVER PEACE. ITS SOLE ACHIEVEMENT HAD BEEN

TO GREVIOUSLY WEAKEN THE DEFENCES OF THE DEMOCRACIES.

IN THE 1930'S THERE WAS NO EFFECTIVE PEACE MOVEMENT .

IN BERLIN. LIKEWISE TODAY. THERE ARE NO FREE

PACIFISTS IN MOSCOW.

IT SHOULD NOT BE FORGOTTEN THAT HITLER WAS

DEFEATED ONLY AFTER THE WESTERN PEACE MOVEMENT

WAS DISCREDITED.

HAD THE AIMS OF THE PEACE MOVEMENT SUCCEEDED, THEN \ · ■ . .

THE AGGRESSORS WOULD HAVE WON. IT IS AS SIMPLE AS THAT,

../ C

6

THE GATES OF HITLER'S EXTERMINATION CAMPS WERE

UNLOCKED BY ALLIED ARMIES ,

ON 8 MAY 1945 THE ALLIES ACCEPTED THE UNCONDITIONAL

SURRENDER OF NAZI GERMANY. THE HISTORIAN MARTIN GILBERT

HAS CALCULATED THE EFFECT OF THE NAZI WAR AGAINST

MINORITIES: .

"MORE THAN ELEVEN MILLION CIVILIANS HAD

BEEN MURDERED IN COLD BLOOD SINCE THE

GERMAN INVASION OF POLAND MORE THAN FIVE

YEARS BEFORE. AMONG THOSE ELEVEN MILLION

WERE SIX MILLION JEWS".

ON 15 APRIL 1945 THE BRITISH ARMY LIBERATED THE

BELSEN CONCENTRATION CAMP, TWO WEEKS LATER

UNITED STATES MILITARY FORCES FREED THE SURVIVORS

OF DACHAU.

AS A RESULT OF THE ENSUING PUBLICITY THE CITIZENS

OF THE WESTERN DEMOCRACIES BECAME AWARE OF WHAT

WOULD HAVE BEEN THE CONSEQUENCES OF A NAZI VICTORY.

.. n

7

IF IT HAD NOT BEEN FOR THE ALLIED VICTORY

IN 1945 THERE SCARCELY WOULD HAVE BEEN A JEW

OR A GYPSY LEFT IN THE WHOLE OF EUROPE.

HITLER'S "FINAL SOLUTION" WAS SMASHED BY FORCE

OF ARMS. THE NAZI WAR ON EUROPE WAS STOPPED

BY THE ALLIED ARMIES. THE GATES OF THE

EXTERMINATION CAMPS WERE OPENED BY ALLIED SOLDIERS - .

NOT BY MEMBERS OF THE BRITISH PACIFIST SOCIETY,

HOWEVER WELL-INTENTIONED THEIR MOTIVES MIGHT

HAVE BEEN.

IT IS ALSO TIMELY TO REMEMBER THAT IF THOSE SAME

ALLIES HAD BEEN MORE VIGILANT ABOUT THE RISE OF

NAZISM AND LESS NAIVE ABOUT THE CONSEQUENCES

OF MILITARY UNPREPAREDNESS, THE HOLOCAUST

MIGHT HAVE BEEN AVOIDED.

THE HUMAN TRAGEDY THAT WAS WORLD WAR II IS A

TIMELY REMINDER THAT PEACE CAN BE BEST ACHIEVED

THROUGH STRENGTH AND THAT WEAKNESS LEADS INVARIABLY

TO WAR.

REGRETTABLY THERE IS DISTURBING EVIDENCE THAT, FOUR

DECADES AFTER THE DEFEAT OF HITLER,THIS FACT IS BEING

INCREASINGLY FORGOTTEN..

/o

8

SECURITY IN THE NUCLEAR AGE

DUE TO THE EXISTENCE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS, THE

SITUATION FACING THE WORLD IS STARKLY DIFFERENT

TO WHAT IT WAS FIFTY YEARS AGO.

IT IS QUITE OBVIOUS THAT THERE CAN BE NO WINNERS

IN A NUCLEAR WAR. NOR FOR THAT MATTER, ON THE

BASIS OF PRESENTLY KNOWN TECHNOLOGY, WILL ANY

NATION BE ABLE TO. SHIELD ITSELF FROM THE CONSEQUENCES

OF A NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST.

IF A NUCLEAR WINTER DESCENDS UPON THE W$

IT WILL AFFECT Ntff ZEALAND AND T^E1 UNITED STATES

.ALIKE,

IT IS FOR THIS REASON THAT ALL OF US HAVE A VESTED

INTEREST IN THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE.

ALL RATIONAL AND DECENT PEOPLE BELIEVE IN PEACE.

THE CRUCIAL QUESTION IS WHETHER PEACE IS BEST ACHIEVED

THROUGH STRENGTH OR THROUGH UNILATERAL ACTS OF

DISARMAMENT.

THE KEY QUESTION IS : HOW CAN PEACE BE ASSURED?

/9

9

IT IS THE LIBERAL PARTY'S VIEW THAT PEACE CAN

ONLY BE ATTAINED THROUGH SECURITY,

THE FACT THAT, OVER THE LAST FORTY YEARS, NO

ONE COUNTRY HAS o b t a i n e d an o v e r w h e l m i n g

MILITARY SUPERIORITY·HAS BEEN A FACTOR FOR PEACE,

THERE CAN BE NO DISGUISING OF -THE FACT THAT

IN RECENT YEARS THE SOVIET UNION HAS ENGAGED

IN A MASSIVE MILITARY BUILD UP.

THE USSR IS CURRENTLY SPENDING ABOUT 16 PER CENT

OF ITS GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT ON ITS MILITARY,

THE COMPARABLE FIGURE FOR THE USA IS ABOUT 7 PER CENT.

THE SOVIET UNION HAS A CLEAR SUPERIORITY IN

LAND BASED, LONG RANGE NUCLEAR WEAPONS AS WELL

AS IN CONVENTIONAL FORCES,

IT IS IMPORTANT TO THE PRESERVATION OF WORLD PEACE

THAT THE SOVIET BUILD UP BE MATCHED BY THE UNITED

STATES AND ITS ALLIES,

,./10

10

IT IS FOR THIS REASON THAT THE LIBERAL PARTY

SUPPORTS PRESIDENT REAGAN'S STRATEGIC INITIATIVES -

IN PARTICULAR THE MX MISSILE AND THE STRATEGIC

De f e n c e I n i t i a t i v e .

THE STRATEGIC DEFENCE INITIATIVE

THE SDI IS A RESEARCH PROGRAM THE AIM OF WHICH IS

TO INTERCEPT AND DESTROY LAUNCHED MISSILES BEFORE

THEY REACH DESIGNATED TARGETS.

THE SDI IS DESIGNED TO BE A DEFENSIVE, NOT OFFENSIVE

WEAPON. EVEN IF ONLY PARTLY SUCCESSFUL, IT COULD

LEAD TO A SUBSTANTIAL DOWNGRADING IN THE ROLE AND

IMPORTANCE OF OFFENSIVE NUCLEAR WEAPONS. THE AIM

OF THE SDI IS TO SHIFT DETERRENCE FROM MUTUAL ASSURED

DESTRUCTION TO MUTUAL ASSURED SECURITY BY MEANS OF

NON-NUCLEAR DEFENCES.

IF WE ASSUME THAT THE UNITED STATES AND THE SOVIET UNION

WILL REMAIN RIVALS FOR SOME YEARS, IT APPEARS THAT (IN THE ABSENCE OF SUCCESSFUL DISARMAMENT TALKS) THE DEVELOPMENT

OF STRATEGIC DEFENCES OFFERS THE ONLY POSSIBLE PATH TO

A PROCESS OF NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT SUITABLE TO BOTH COUNTRIES.

IN THE SHORT TERM, A SPACE-BASED DEFENSIVE SYSTEM

IS THE ONLY KNOWN MEANS BY WHICH THE UNITED STATES

COULD COUNTER A FIRST STRIKE LAUNCHED FROM SOVIET

LAND-BASED ICBM s . ,

11

MOREOVER, AN SDI TYPE DEFENSIVE SYgTEM WOULD

PROVIDE PROTECTION AGAINST ANY ACCIDENTAL LAUNCH

OF A MISSILE. ALSO IT COULD OFFER PROTECTION

AGAINST SMALL, BUT MILITARILY AGGRESSIVE, NUCLEAR

POWERS.

OPPONENTS OF PRESIDENT REAGAN'S STRATEGIC DEFENCE

INITIATIVE CONVENIENTLY OVERLOOK THE FACT THAT THE

USSR IS CURRENTLY DEVELOPING ITS OWN STRATEGIC DEFENCES. AT THE MOMENT THE WORLD'S ONLY ANTI-BALLISTIC

MISSILE SYSTEM IS DEPLOYED AROUND MOSCOW. AND

THE SOVIET HAS CONSTRUCTED A LARGE RADAR INSTALLATION

IN SIBERIA DESIGNED TO FACILITATE THE INTERCEPTION

OF BALLISTIC MISSILES.

IF THE OPPONENTS OF PRESIDENT REAGAN'S STRATEGIC

De f e n c e I n i t i a t i v e (SDI) have t h e i r w a y, t h e USSR

WILL HAVE AN ABSOLUTE MONOPOLY ON ANTI-MISSILE DEFENCE

SYSTEMS. SUCH AN EVENTUALITY WOULD NOT ASSIST

THE CAUSE OF PEACE.

IT IS QUITE OBVIOUS WHY MOSCOW IS VEHEMENTLY OPPOSED

TO THE SDI.

BUT IT IS FAR FROM CLEAR WHY THE HAWKE GOVERNMENT

HAS EFFECTIVELY LINED UP WITH THE SOVIET UNION

AND AGAINST THE UNITED STATES ON THIS KEY ISSUE.

../12

12

THE MX MISSILE

THE MX MISSILE WAS AN INITIATIVE OF THE CARTER

ADMINISTRATION DESIGNED TO OVERCOME THE SOVIET

UNION'S AWESOME PREPONDERANCE IN LONG RANGE

NUCLEAR WEAPONS,

IT IS AN UNCONTESTABLE FACT THAT THE USA'S

LONG RANGE NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE BECOMING

OBSOLESCENT, .

THEREFORE IT IS IN THE INTEREST OF PEACE THAT

THE UNITED STATES DEVELOP THE MX MISSILE.

IT IS OBVIOUS WHY MOSCOW IS FERVENTLY OPPOSED

TO ANY FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE MX MISSILE

PROGRAM. . .

BUT IT IS FAR FROM CLEAR WHY THE HAWKE GOVERNMENT

HAS REFUSED TO ALLOW UNITED STATES PLANES MONITORING

AN UNARMED MX MISSILE SPLASH-DOWN TO BE SERVICED

FROM AUSTRALIAN AIRFIELDS,

/13

13 .

THE GENEVA DISARMAMENT TALKS

IT WAS PRESIDENT REAGAN'S CLEAR INTENTION TO GO

AHEAD WITH BOTH THE MX PROGRAM AND SDI RESEARCH

THAT FORCED THE SOVIET UNION TO GO BACK TO

THE NEGOTIATING TABLE AT GENEVA.

I AM SURE ALL OF US HERE REGARD IT AS

IMPORTANT FOR THE SUPER POWERS TO DISCUSS

v MUTUAL DISARMAMENT.

WITHOUT THE U.S. ADMINISTRATION'S DETERMINATION

ON THE MX AND THE S D L IT IS UNLIKELY THAT THE

USSR WOULD HAVE RESUMED THE GENEVA TALKS.

VIEWED IN THIS LIGHT.» PRESIDENT REAGAN'S STRATEGIC

INITIATIVES HAVE ALREADY PROVEN TO BE A FACTOR FOR

PEACE.

THE USSR AS A WORLD POWER

TO BE CONCERNED WITH THE SOVIET MILITARY BUILD UP

IS NOT TO ENGAGE IN SCARE MONGERING. NOR IS IT TO

DENY THAT OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF ORDINARY RUSSIANS

SINCERELY DESIRE PEACE AS DO THEIR FELLOW MEN IN OTHER COUNTRIES

BUT THE FACT IS THAT THE SOVIET LEADERSHIP IN RECENT

YEARS HAS EXTENDED SOVIET MILITARY POWER.

THERE ARE APPROXIMATELY 24,000 SOVIET MILITARY ADVISERS

PRESENTLY STATIONED IN THIRTY COUNTRIES. MOSCOW IS A KEY SUPPLIER OF ARMS TO MANY COUNTRIES - INCLUDING LIBYA'S

rni ΛΜΡΙ fiADAFFI . ,./14

14 .

IN AFGHANISTAN, 115,000 SOVIET TROOPS ARE LITERALLY

PUTTING THE LOCAL POPULATION TO THE SWORD BY CONDUCTING

A WAR OF STAGGERING BRUTALITY AND OPPRESSION.

AND IN ETHIOPIA AN 1800 STRONG SOVIET FORCE IS

ASSISTING THE MARXIST GOVERNMENT IN ADDIS ABABA

WHICH IS LITERALLY STARVING THE RACIAL MINORITIES

IN ERITREA AND TIGRE INTO SUBMISSION AND EARLY

GRAVES.

THE SOVIET PRESENCE IN INDOCHINA

IN THE TEN YEARS SINCE THE FALL OF SAIGON,

PRO-SOVIET FORCES HAVE COME TO POWER IN LAOS,

CAMBODIA, MOZAMBIQUE, ANGOLA, ETHIOPIA, SOUTH YEMEN,

NICARAGUA AND AFGHANISTAN. .

MOREOVER, MOSCOW HAS ENGAGED IN WHAT CAN ONLY BE

DESCRIBED AS A SUBSTANTIAL MILITARY BUILD UP IN THE

PACIFIC AND INDDAN OCEANS AND THE SOUTH CHINA SEA.

UNDER THE TERMS OF THE TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN

MOSCOW AND HANOI, THE SOVIET UNION HAS ACCESS TO

THE VIETNAMESE MILITARY BASES AT DA NANG AND CAM RANH BAY

CAM RANH BAY IS NOW THE LARGEST SOVIET NAVAL BASE

OUTSIDE OF THE WARSAW PACT COUNTRIES.

. ,/15

15 .

THIS DEVELOPMENT SHOULD BE OF GREAT CONCERN TO

AUSTRALIA. AFTER ALL, CAM RANH BAY IS AS CLOSE

TO DARWIN AS DARWIN IS TO MELBOURNE.

THE SOVIET PRESENCE IN VIETNAM MAKES NONSENSE

OF THE HAWKE GOVERNMENT'S SUPPORT FOR A NUCLEAR

FREE ZONE IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC. .

A NUCLEAR FREE ZONE IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC

WOOLt) NOT PREVENT'THE SOVIET UNION ^LACING

NUCLEAR ARMED LONG RANGE AIRCRAFT (EG, THE BADGER, BEAR AND BACKFIRE) IN VIETNAM

FROM WHERE THEY COULD THREATEN VIRTUALLY ALL THE

SOUTH PACIFIC.

AN EVEN MORE SERIOUS SITUATION WOULD DEVELOP IF

THE USSR RELOCATED SOME OF ITS SS20 MISSILES IN

VIETNAM.

VIEWED IN THIS LIGHT, THE HAWKE GOVERNMENT'S PROPOSAL

FOR A NUCLEAR FREE ZONE IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC MAKES

LITTLE SENSE SINCE IT WOULD NOT AFFECT SOVIET NUCLEAR

CAPABILITY IN VIETNAM. RATHER, THE SOVIET NUCLEAR

BUILD UP IN EAST ASIA UNDERLINES THE NECESSITY OF THE

UNITED STATES DETERRENT IN OUR REGION,

. ,/16

16

AGAIN, IT IS NOT SURPRISING THAT THE SOVIET UNION

SUPPORTS THE NUCLEAR FREE SOUTH PACIFIC PROPOSAL,

BUT ORDINARY AUSTRALIANS ARE ENTITLED TO ASK WHY

THE HAWKE GOVERNMENT IS PURSUING THIS INITIATIVE

AND FOR WHAT REASON - I.E. APART FROM PLACATING

THE SOCIALIST LEFT,

THE PEACE MOVEMENT WAS WRONG ON VIETNAM

THE SOVIET BUILD UP IN VIETNAM REMINDS US OF MANY

OF THE PROMISES THAT WERE MADE BY THE OPPONENTS OF .

THE ALLIED COMMITMENT IN VIETNAM.

AS I RECALL IT, WE WERE ALL TOLD THAT A UNITED STATES

WITHDRAWAL FROM VIETNAM WOULD LEAD TO THE FORMATION OF

A NON-ALIGNED GOVERNMENT. VIETNAM, IN OTHER WORDS, WOULD

BECOME AN ASIAN YUGOSLAVIA. ITS LEADERS WOULD BECOME

ASIAN TITOS.

IN FACT, THE PRECISE OPPOSITE HAS OCCURRED. VIETNAM

IS RUN BY AN UNRECONSTRUCTED STALINIST REGIME. THE

HANOI LEADERSHIP SUPPORTED THE SOVIET INVASION OF

CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND MOSCOW'S CRUSHING OF SOLIDARITY IN

POLAND. VIETNAM IS NOW ONE OF THE USSR'S CLOSEST ALLIES.

THE ALLIED WITHDRAWAL DID NOT LEAD TO PEACE IN VIETNAM -

DESPITE THE PROMISES OF DR JIM CAIRNS, MR GOUGH WHITLAM

AND THE VOCAL MEMBERS OF THE PEACE MOVEMENT,

RATHER, IT LED TO A MASSIVE EXODUS OF REFUGEES ALL FLEEING FROM WHAT WERE SAID TO BE THEIR "LIBERATORS". . ,/17

17

IT IS TIMELY TO REMEMBER THE POSITION TAKEN

BY KEY AUSTRALIANS CONCERNING THIS HUMAN

TRAGEDY,

in h i s b o o k Ch i n a, C o m m u n i s m a n d Co c a Co l a,

MR CLYDE CAMERON QUOTES GOUGH WHITLAM AS

SAYING THAT HE WOULD NOT HAVE IN AUSTRALIA

"HUNDREDS OF F ... VIETNAMESE BALTS COMING

INTO -THIS COUNTRY WITH THEIR RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL

HATREDS,.."

IT IS NOT A MATTER OF SURPRISE, THEN, TO LEARN

THAT MR WHITLAM'S INSTRUCTIONS TO THE AUSTRALIAN

EMBASSY IN SAIGON MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR DOMESTIC

CATS TO BE AIRLIFTED AWAY FROM COMMUNIST TYRANNY

BUT PREVENTED REFUGE BEING GIVEN TO LOCAL VIETNAMESE

WHO HAD WORKED FOR THE AUSTRALIAN EMBASSY FOR YEARS,

AS LATE AS SEPTEMBER 19178, DESPITE THE REFUGEE

FLOWS FROM VIETNAM AND THE MASS KILLING IN CAMBODIA,

MR WHITLAM WAS STILL DEFENDING THE COMMUNIST REGIMES

IN HANOI AND PHNCMPENH.

,./ιε

18

THE LEFT SUPPORTED POL POT PRIOR TO THE

VIETNAMESE INVASION. THIS SHOULD NOT BE

FORGOTTEN TODAY WHEN WE HEAR SO MANY LEFT-WING

JUSTIFICATIONS FOR HANOI'S CONQUEST OF

KAMPUCHEA,

WHEN THE KHMER ROUGE MURDERS WERE AT THEIR HEIGHT

WILFRED BURCHETT, THE WELL KNOWN LEFT-WING JOURNALIST,

DESCRIBED ALLEGATIONS ABOUT POL POT'S KILLINGS AS

"CIA LIES".

TODAY SO MANY OF THOSE WHO WERE GREVIOUSLY WRONG

ABOUT THE LIKELY CONSEQUENCES OF COMMUNIST VICTORIES

IN INDOCHINA ARE LEADING THE PEACE MOVEMENT AND

TELLING US THAT ALL WILL BE WELL IF WE TRUST

MOSCOW, REJECT THE AMERICAN ALLIANCE, AND DISARM,

UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT LEADS TO WAR - NOT PEACE

I AM IN FAVOUR OF MULTILATERAL UNIVERSAL DISARMAMENT -

IF THIS PROVES TO BE POSSISOES

BUT I AM OPPOSED TO UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT

BECAUSE I BELIEVE THAT, IN THE END, IT WOULD LEAD

TO WAR, NOT PEACE.

, ,/19

19

THE DUTY OF ALL WESTERN GOVERNMENTS - INCLUDING

AUSTRALIA - IS TO WORK TIRELESSLY TO BRING ABOUT

EFFECTIVE INTERNATIONAL DISARMAMENT AGREEMENTS,

THE OPPOSITION STRONGLY SUPPORTS THE EFFORTS

OF THE UNITED STATES TO ACHIEVE THIS END.

BUT IT WOULD BE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS TO WORLD

PEACE IF THE WESTERN DEMOCRACIES WERE TO

UNILATERALLY ABANDON THEIR NUCLEAR OR

CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS AND LEAVE THE FREE WORLD

AT RISK FROM DICTATORSHIPS OF THE RIGHT OR THE

LEFT.

EVEN IF THE WESTERN POWERS DID DISARM, THIS

WOULD. NOT LEAD TO WORLD PEACE. THERE WOULD

STILL BE MANY ARMED DICTATORSHIPS OF ONE KIND

OR ANOTHER WHICH WOULD BE CAPABLE OF WAGING WAR -

EITHER NUCLEAR OR CONVENTIONAL.

I AM VERY SYMPATHETIC TO THE GENUINE AND SINCERE

PEACE-MAKER. THERE CAN BE NO NOBLER CAUSE, HOWEVER I

AM CONSCIOUS THAT, IN OUR QUEST FOR PEACE, WE DO NOT

TAKE ACTIONS THAT WILL UNINTENTIONALLY ENCOURAGE

AN AGGRESSOR OR POTENTIAL AGGRESSOR.

,/20

20

THERE IS NO EVIDENCE THAT THE SOVIET UNION WOULD

BECOME LESS AGGRESSIVE IF THE UNITED STATES

AND OTHER NATO FORCES DISARMED.

THE TOTAL UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT OF THE NATO

FORCES WOULD NOT RID THE WORLD OF NUCLEAR

WEAPONS, MOREOVER; THERE IS NO EVIDENCE

TO SUGGEST THAT THE US Sftj CHINA OR EVEN

FRANCE WOULD FOLLOW SUIT.

THE FACT IS THAT THERE COULD STILL BE A

NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST EVEN IF THE USA OR UK

WERE TO. IMMEDIATELY GET RID OF ALL NUCLEAR

WEAPONS.

.. Z21

21 .

IN THE FOUR DECADES BETWEEN 1914 AND 1945

THERE WERE TWO WORLD WARS THAT CAUSED THE

DEATH OF ABOUT 80 MILLION PEOPLE.

IN THE FOUR DECADES SINCE 1945 THERE HAS BEEN

NO INTERNATIONAL CONFLAGRATION - ALTHOUGH

MANY HAVE DIED IN PROTRACTED REGIONAL WARS.

THE EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT THE EXISTENCE OF

NUCLEAR WEAPONS HAD NOT LED TO WAR BUT, RATHER,

APPEARS TO HAVE HINDERED IT.

INDEED, PROFESSOR MICHAEL HOWARD, WHO CAN

HARDLY BE CHARACTERISED AS A MILITARIST, COMMENTED IN

HIS 1984 DEAKIN MEMORIAL LECTURE:

"PARADOXICALLY ... A WORLD WITHOUT NUCLEAR

WEAPONS, BUT WHICH POSSESSED ALL THE

TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE NEEDED TO RECREATE

THEM, MIGHT STAND IN GREATER DANGER OF

NUCLEAR WAR THAN ONE IN WHICH THESE WEAPONS

ALREADY EXIST. FOR SO LONG AS THEY EXIST,

THE VERY POSSIBILITY OF THEIR USE IS A

SPINE-CHILLING PROSPECT WHICH KEEPS AT

LEAST THE GREATER POWERS OF THE WORLD QUITE

LITERALLY IN ORDER!'.

. ,/22

22 .

Ja p a n is t h e o n l y c o u n t r y t h a t h a s b e e n t h e

SUBJECT OF A n u c l e a r ATTACK.

t h o s e w h o a d v o c a t e u n i l a t e r a l d i s a r m a m e n t

SHOULD ASK THEMSELVES ONE CENTRAL QUESTION:

IS IT LIKELY THAT AN ATOM BOMB WOULD HAVE BEEN

DROPPED ON JAPAN, IF THE JAPANESE HAD POSSESSED

NUCLEAR WEAPONS THEMSELVES AND THE CAPACITY TO

RETALIATE?

IF THE ANSWER TOTHIS QUESTION IS IN THE NEGATIVE

(AND I SINCERELY BELIEVE IT IS) THEN THIS

DEMONSTRATES THAT THE POSSESSION OF NUCLEAR

WEAPONS MAY WELL BE THE BEST MEANS OF PREVENTING

A NUCLEAR WAR - SHORT OF THERE BEING AN EFFECTIVE

DISARMAMENT AGREEMENT IN EXISTENCE,

THE PEACE MOVEMENT MUST BE COMBATTED

PART OF THE EFFECTIVE ANSWERING OF THE PEACE MOVEMENT

LIES IN IDENTIFYING AND DESTROYING THE MORE OUTRAGEOUS

AND PRETENTIOUS OF ITS CLAIMS,

I USE THE. EXPRESSION "PRETENTIOUS" QUITE DELIBERATELY, I

DO SO BECAUSE I BELIEVE THAT THE PEACE MOVEMENT PROCLAIMS A

BELIEF THAT THEY HAVE SOME KIND OF MONOPOLY OF CONCERN

IN OUR COMMUNITY FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF WAR - PARTICULARLY

NUCLEAR WAR.

. ./ 23

23 .

THE PEACE MOVEMENT IN THIS COUNTRY MUST BE

ISOLATED, IDENTIFIED AND ARGUED AGAINST.

I DO NOT BELIEVE THERE CAN BE A CONSENSUS

REACHED WITH THE HARD CORE OF THIS MOVEMENT.

THAT IS BECAUSE THIS HARD CORE IS AVOWEDLY IN

FAVOUR OF UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT.

FURTHERMORE, THAT HARD CORE REPEATEDLY ESPOUSES

AN ANTI-AMERICAN (AND BY IMPLICATION PRO-SOVIET)

ATTITUDE IN VIRTUALLY ALL DEBATES^INVOLVING

NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT.

THEY INSTINCTIVELY ESCHEW THE RAMIFICATIONS OF OUR

ALLIANCE WITH THE UNITED STATES. THEY WORK

THEMSELVES INTO A LATHER OVER THE PRESENCE

OF UNITED STATES BASES IN AUSTRALIA. BUT THEY

REMAIN.SILENT ABOUT THE SOVIET BUILD UP IN CAM RANH BAY.

THEY PROTEST STRONGLY AGAINST THE U.S. TESTING OF MX

MISSILES IN THE PACIFIC. BUT THEY ARE QUITE MUTE

ABOUT SOVIET TESTING OF LONG RANGE MISSILES IN THE

SAME OCEAN.

../24

24

IN THE CURRENT DEBATE W£ SHOULD ■'CONCCNTRATE

ON THOSE IM THE COMMUNITY WHO THROUGH THEIR GENUINE CONCERN FOR SECURITY AGAINST

NUCLEAR WAR ARE PERSUADED BY THE

OVER-SIMPLIFICATION AND MORAL EXCLUSIVENESS

OF THE PEACE MOVEMENT INTO BELIEVING THAT

THE PRESCRIPTION OF THAT MOVEMENT IS THE

ONLY EFFECTIVE PATH.

WE SHOULD NOT SET OUT TO CONVERT THE PETER GARRETTS

OF THIS WORLD AWAY FROM THEIR BELIEFS. THAT WOULD

BE A FUTILE EXERCISE.

IT SHOULD BE OUR GOAL TO PUT THE OTHER POINT OF

VIEW.

IT SHOULD BE OUR GOAL TO INFORM THE AUSTRALIAN

PEOPLE THAT THE POSSESSION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS

IN THE HANDS OF THE UNITED STATES HAS DELIVERED

WORLD PEACE FOR THE LAST FORTY YEARS.

IT SHOULD BE OUR GOAL TO REMIND THE AUSTRALIAN

PEOPLE THAT, IN THE ABSENCE OF TOTAL AND EFFECTIVE

NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, THE EXISTING BALANCE OF DETERRENCE

IN THE HANDS OF THE SUPER POWERS IS THE BEST GUARANTEE

OF WORLD PEACE,

• · ·