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Release of research study on CYSS and young women

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S RELEASEM :"": " 3 1il|l 18 I i I ■• ■Federal Minister for Employment and Industrial RelationsRalph Willis MRFriday 10 February 1984 36/84RELEASE OF RESEARCH STUDY ON CYSS AND YOUNG WOMENThe Minister for Employment and Industrial Relations, Mr Ralph Willis, announced today the release of a major study which examines the effectiveness of the Community Youth Support Scheme (CYSS) in catering for young women.The study, commissioned by the Government in March 1983, was conducted by Professor Eileen M Byrne of the Department of Education (Policy Studies), of the University of Queensland.Mr Willis said the Report provided an important insight into the problems faced by CYSS in catering for the needs of young unemployed women, and contained a range of recommendations concerning ways of improving the Scheme.The Report canvassed issues relating specifically to improving female participation in CYSS, including the need for women's development officers and single sex CYSS centres.A range of broader issues was also canvassed, including funding, management, staffing, classification of project activities and training.Mr Willis indicated that the recommendations suggesting fundamental changes to CYSS would require extensive consultation and consideration as part of the Government's preparation for the 1984/85 Budget.He added, however, that the Government would be looking at the possibility of acting on some recommendations over the next few months.Parliament House, Canberra A.C.T. 26001-2-466 March 83...2/. Telephone (062) 73 2136 Telex: 62286

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Mr Willis said that the Report would also be an extremely

valuable input to the Committee of Inquiry into Labour Market Programs which was recently established to examine the aims, objectives and cost effectiveness of all existing work experience,

training and support programs including CYSS.

This Committee, chaired by Mr Peter Kirby, Chairman of the Technical and Further Education Board of Victoria, is to

report by end-1984, and has also been asked to provide an

interim report for consideration in the 1984/85 Budget context. _ _ ____ _____

"For this reason, Professor Byrne's Report is extremely timely and I am certain that her examination of CYSS will provide the Kirby Committee with significant insights

into one of the Government's key programs for young people."

Mr Willis said that he intended to consult widely on the Report.

As part of this process, the Report would be distributed

throughout the CYSS network, including the State Advisory Committees, individual CYSS projects and CYSS project officers' associations.

The Report will also be made available to major women's and

youth organisations at Federal and State level.

Mr Willis said that the need to improve opportunities for young girls and women under its labour force programs was a major concern of the Hawke Government.

"I fully expect that Professor Byrne's valuable contribution

will lead to significant improvements in the effectiveness of CYSS, particularly in terms of meeting the needs of girls and young women."

A summary of recommendations contained in the Report is attached.



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Objectives and programmes

(a) Projects should be required to define more closely the

relationship of their courses and activities to different

sets of the objectives in D.E.I.R. guidelines: viz, work

oriented or personal development. As a result they should

then seek approval as a Type A, Type B or Type C centre with

an appropriately focussed programme.

(b) Projects should be required to justify why their projects are

not attracting female participants, especially in areas where

even registered female unemployment is higher, or where "hidden"

female unemployment has been recognised as significant and


(c) that C.Y.S.S. programmes be monitored with regard to their

contribution to work motivation and work orientation, as distinct

from work skills or job skills. All centres should attempt

work motivation; emphasis on jobskills may depend on local


(d) that projects should be required to define more closely to

C.Y.S.S. Field Officers or State Co-ordinators the programmes

and measures which they are taking to attract and meet the

needs of particular target groups, including girls and women

from disadvantaged groups.

(e) The D.E.I.R. should consult widely with relevant field interests

and set up a working group which includes staff seconded from

projects, to produce new programme guidelines and working

manuals or kits to disseminate more widely (i) effective ways

of developing work-motivation, independence, improved personal

competence and "marketability" or employability and (ii) effective

ways of extending women's participation in systematic progressive

courses and activities with these aims, which widen their

perception of their future adult roles.


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Work pools

We recommend that

(a) No centre programme should be approved for grant purposes

which provides work-pool activities which exceed 50% of

centre programmes and use more than 50% of staff resources

or budget.

(b) New guidelines should stress that in principle, workpool

activities should not use more than about one-third of a

centre's time, programme and staff resources.

(c) Centres which run work-pools should balance these with specific

programmes aimed at young women most of whom do not benefit

from work-pool opportunities.

(d) The D.E.I.R. should negotiate satisfactory insurance cover for

C.Y.S.S. centres as a matter of urgency, including cover of

domestic work in the home.

(e) The D.E.I.R. should introduce a travel allowance scheme to

enable project officers to claim for mileage for work-pool

administration provided that the centre can establish satis­

factory evidence that women are at least one-third of work-pool

participants, (to prevent yet more resources from being

diverted to male activities).

Eligibility - women

We recommend that

(a) Special publicity be encouraged at regional and local levels

to make it clear that married women, single supporting mothers

and other young women not drawing unemployment benefit are

fully eligible for and welcome at all C.Y.S.S. centres.

(b) Project staff .be circulated to remind them of their obligation

to reach these young women and to encourage them to use the

scheme under the current guidelines.

. . .5/.


Pregnancy and young mothers

We recommend that

(a) All C.Y.S.S. centres should encourage the introduction of

family planning sessions as an option in the centre programmes,

for both sexes and not as a "women's issue", and

(b) That more decisive educational programmes be developed for

very young mothers, using tutors from local High Schools,

TAPE or the educated local community as appropriate, to

improve their possibility for later training and employment.

Legislation - age discrimination

It is recommended that

(a) the Federal government take immediate steps to start national

discussions with the A.C.T.U. and the employers' associations

on the introduction of an amendment to current industrial

legislation which would render illegal, the dismissal of an

employee solely on the grounds that she or he has reached 18

years and whose performance and work behaviour cannot other­

wise be clearly demonstrated as unsatisfactory on reasonable


(b) the Federal government consult appropriate interests on the

addition to current anti-discrimination legislation, of a

measure to make illegal, dismissal at 18+ as outlined in (a)


(c) The D.E.I.R. set up a formal enquiry through C.E.S. offices,

C.Y.S.S. and other services for unemployed young people, to

invite evidence and to examine this problem in greater depth,

and report back accordingly to the Federal Government for


. . .6/.


Rural outreach

It is recommended that

(a) the Commonwealth Government initiate consultations with

the aim. of developing specific programmes of rural outreach

for young people over 15 not in fulltime employment or

education or training, in which TAFE, C.Y.S.S. and other

special programmes are planned regionally to cover rural needs

on an integrated basis.

(b) Special additional funding should be considered on the lines

of the Schools Commission's special programmes for country

schools, to enable C.Y.S.S. centres with a rural hinterland

to organise outreach activities on a part-time basis (e.g.,

Rockhampton to Mt. Morgan; Mt. Isa to Cloncurry). Particular

attention should be paid to reaching rural girls in family

communities and improving their vocational orientation and

widening their vocational aspirations and skills. This may be

by supplementary funding on the lines of the proposed new

basis for funding outlined in Chapter IX, or otherwise, and

should include elements for travel and overnight costs for

both staff and participants.

(c) One C.Y.S.S. Field Officer post in each state should be avail­

able and designated to concentrate on the initiation, develop­

ment and monitoring of rural outreach activities, and to

liaise with other professional staff concerned with rural

young people.

(d) Programmes should be developed to encourage rural young people

to develop rural and country crafts and to foster the

development of small-business skills as well as craft skills,

in C.Y.S.S. rural participants.

(e) Priority should be given to girls and young women in relation

to ;c) and (d) above where evidence shows that they are under­

represented in TAFE, prevocational courses and C.Y.S.S.

courses in rural areas.

(f) That the possibility of grant aid for the acquisition of a

mini-bus for C.Y.S.S. centres developing substantial outreach

facilities in their sub-region be explored.



■Single sex provision

We recommend that

(a) a limited number of single sex centres be set up at a level

of not less that two for each state capital (of which one

should aim at migrant women) as a net addition to the C.Y.S.S.

national budget (not at the expense of an existing centre for

which the need is already established, for three years in the

first instance as a national experimental and developmental

programme to examine women's learning patterns in single sex

and mixed environments.

(b) the grant aid to the new single sex centres should be

dependent on willingness to cooperate with researchers and

to provide data and reports to them on objectives, programmes

and perceived success or otherwise of different approaches

in relation to some defined factors, in order to throw more

light on the validity and achievements of the different


(c) a small and continuing Task Force of part-time consultants

with relevant expertise be commissioned to monitor the

centres over a three year period.

(d) new guidelines should instruct centres to examine the need

for single sex sessions or days in their area, either on or

off-site, to meet the special needs of girls and women; and

enable the award of supplementary funding for these under the

suggested new arrangements outlined in Chapter IX, provided

that the programmes can be seen to be purposeful and as a

conscious and planned programme to widen women's career

aspirations, improve their employability and increase their

personal confidence in roles external to the home.

Migrant women

We recommend that

(a) The provision of at least one single sex C.Y.S.S. centre in

each capital city with a significant multi-ethnic population,

which would be publicised as. aiming at defined targetted

cultural and ethnic groups.



(b) The case for these is made as a result of field evidence

surveys or consultation with all relevant migrant groups

including those of Middle Eastern or Asiatic origin, and

not merely because the area is "high migrant or high ethnic".

(c) The programmes are purposeful and at least partly specifically


Child care

We recommend that

(a) Future guidelines specify that Local Management Committees

must survey facilities for the care of children in their

catchment area and define a centre policy to encourage

participants with young children to attend C.Y.S.S. with

appropriate support.

(b) the care of children be presented in C.Y.S.S. programmes of

personal development and "Life-Skills" as an issue for

both sexes and for both parents and not as a "women's issue".

(c) Future guidelines include a provision for supplementary

funding for playgroup or other child care at C.Y.S.S. centres,

provided that centres have established a clear and defined

need for the target group in their district, and defined

the programmes and activities to be provided for them.

(d) the possibility of subsidies from C.Y.S.S. centre funds be

explored to enable participants with young children to pay

for local child care provision where the cost of this exceeds

$1 per day and where the participant is shown to be attending

purposeful and work-oriented courses, and has an established

regular attendance.

Premises and equipment

We recommend that

(a) The D.E.I.R., State Advisory C.Y.S.S. Committees and the local

authority associations should discuss as a matter of urgency,

ways of obtaining longer and more secure rentals of suitable

premises for the C.Y.S.S. service, to ensure centre stability

and minimum standards.

. . . 9/.

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(b) Revised Guidelines should establish the principle that

centres should maintain a minimum reasonable standard of

cleanliness, furnishing and safety as a condition of grant.

The interpretation of reasonable should not be based

necessarily or rigidly on standards designated for educational

institutions; but should be defined sufficiently for the

preservation of health, hygiene, safety and the creation of

an environment which will not discourage the attendance of

girls and young women.

(c) As part of the suggested revised basis for funding outlined

in Chapter IX, Revised Guidelines should include the

possibility of earmarked grant aid for items of major equip­

ment provided that the courses for which it is to be used

are structured, of not less than a defined minimum duration

(to be decided after consultation with field interests) and

are part of the permanent programme- of the centre.

(d) Revised Guidelines should give clearer guidance about target

groups and purposeful environments, with reference to the

inclusion or the exclusion of young people who disrupt

programmes, vandalise premises and cause repeated deterioration

in standards of cleanliness, hygiene and furnishings.


We recommend that

Staff appointments:

(a) No C.Y.S.S. centre should have fewer than two staff as a

basic establishment.

(b) All C.Y.S.S. centres should have at least one male and one

female project officer, and should seek to retain a reasonable

sex balance above that establishment.

(c) Management Committees who interview candidates for potential

Project Officer posts, should check out at interview their

experience of, knowledge of and attitudes towards the special

needs of girls and women.



(d) All staff, but particularly males, who have only previous

experience of males (e.g. army, industrial apprentices,

boys' clubs) should be released for early induction training

in the special needs of women, and relating to sexism and

sex role stereotyping.

(e) (i) The D.E.I.R. should negotiate with relevant field

interests to ensure that future C.Y.S.S. staffing is

based on a three-year secure contract with obligation

on both sides but with an appropriate escape clause in

the event of extreme unsuitability and

(ii) Staff should be appointed subject to a six-month

probationary period.

(f) The D.E.I.R. investigate ways of enabling new C.Y.S.S. project

staff to visit centres with relevant expertise and experience

transferable to their district and target clientele, as part

of their induction training.

Women's Development Officers

We recommend that

(a) The D.E.I.R. seek funds for the appointment of C.Y.S.S.

Women's Development Officers to be appointed as soon as

possible at the level of two for Queensland (on geographical

grounds, one to cover Central and North Queensland), two for

New South Wales and Victoria (on population grounds) and one

for each remaining State.

(b) Their terms of reference should include the review and

monitoring, initiation, coordination, dissemination, training

and production roles as set out in Chapter VII.

(c) The posts be advertised nationally in appropriate professional,

education and public journals and newspapers, and appointments

be made in consultation with appropriate outside specialists

experienced in this area.


Staff training

. We recommend that

(i) The D.E.I.R. should introduce immediate induction training

for all new staff and for such existing staff as are seen

to need it, at regional and sub-regional levels. This

should include at least management- skills, briefing on

current G.Y.S.S. policy and a compulsory element taught by

relevant specialists on sexism and sex role stereotyping and

the particular needs of adolescent girls and young adult

women. (Chapter VII).

(ii) The D.E.I.R. should investigate the possibility of regular

inter-sectoral inservice seminars on such specialist issues

as changing work patterns (see Chapter IV), sexism and women's

needs, the needs of migrants and of aborigines and the careers

advice services available at State, regional and sub-regional

levels. The relevant sectors would include TAPE, C.E.S.,

C.Y.S.S. and State Education Departments, inter alia. (Chapter VII).

(iii) The D.E.I.R. discuss with the Department of Education and Youth

Affairs, the joint funding and appointment of at least two

qualified trainers in each State with experience of inservice

education and training at post-schooling and adult levels, of

whom at least one should be female, to develop further training

for personnel dealing with young people above school age. At

least one trainer in each state should have expertise in the

area of the special needs of girls and women. (Chapter VII).

(iv) The D.E.I.R. collaborate with the TAPE authorities and other

related interests to promote regional seminars to discuss

immediate and foreseen patterns in work and in employment,

job outlets, training opportunities and current and

alternative economic work ethics, aimed at staff working with

young people. (Chapter IV).

(v) That Regional Directors and Management Committees be instructed

to release C.Y.S.S. field officers and project staff for these

seminars as a high priority. (Chapter IV).



Management Committees

We recommend that

(a) Management Committees should be appointed/elected for a

period of three years, resignations during that period to

be filled on a "casual" election.

(b) The date of changeover of Committees be standardised

Australia-wide (e.g. on 1st July) for all C.Y.S.S. centres

and thereafter that

(c) the D.E.I.R. organise induction courses for new C.Y.S.S.

Management Committees during the first four months of each

new triennium on C.Y.S.S. policy, management, staffing and

accountability. Such induction courses should all contain

compulsory elements on the special needs of girls and women

in relation to the role of C.Y.S.S.; and in non-metropolitan

areas, the special needs of rural girls and women.

Policy changes - for girls and women, or for other central

issues - depend on commitment of management to them. We endorse the

field requests that Committees should be required to act reasonably

where there is substantial evidence that many do not.

(d) New guidelines to Management Committees include the following

requirements as a condition of grant,

(i) All selection and appointment committees for the appoint-

of project staff should include women, either from the

committee or co-opted as necessary.

(ii) Management Committees should be required to release new

project officers for compulsory induction training as a

condition of the project officer's appointment and as a

condition of grant aid.

. . .13/.

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Industrial legislation.

It is recommended that

(a) The Federal government take immediate steps to start national

discussions with the A.C.T.U. and the employers' associations

on the introduction of an amendment to current industrial

legislation which would render illegal, the dismissal of an

employee solely on the grounds that she or he has reached 18

years and whose performance and work behaviour cannot otherwise

be clearly demonstrated as unsatisfactory on reasonable grounds;

(b) the Federal government consult appropriate interests on. the

addition to current anti-discrimination legislation, or a

measure to make illegal, dismissal at 18+ as outlined in

(a) above.

(c) The D.E.I.R. set up a formal enquiry through C.E.S. offices,

C.Y.S.S. and other services for unemployed young people, to

invite evidence and to examine this problem in greater depth,

and report back accordingly to the Federal government for action.

Structure and funding.

Accordingly, we recommend that

(a) The D.E.I.R. consult all relevant interests, on the interim

introduction of a two-tier level of funding for basic and

supplementary provision based on territorial principles of

need and not political or other principles of demand, on the

lines outlined in this chapter.

(b) The D.E.I.R. consult with the Commonwealth Education Department

and other relevant interests on longterm planning of a permanent

and professional Australian Youth and Community Service through­

out each State.