Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Population movements in non-metropolitan Australia



Download PDFDownload PDF

: >· : : : V : : χ . ν χ ; : : · · - χ : · ·

JOINT STATEMENT

ΟΠΕ 92/24C 31 March 1992

ΡΟΡυΐΑΉΟΝ MOVEMENTS IN NON-METROPOLITAN AUSTRALIA

A report which examines population movements in rural and remote Australia was released today by the Minister for Primary Industries and Energy, Simon Crean, and the Minister for Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs, Gerry Hand.

The report was commissioned by the Department of Primary Industries and Energy and the Bureau of Immigration Research. Coopers and Lybrand Consultants completed the report using data obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

It is the first time in Australia a national data base has been established which calculates annual net migration at local government level. The period covered is 1976 to 1989.

"Net migration is a powerful indicator of the residential preferences of Australians. Total population is frequently cited as a measure of demographic shifts, but it is net migration - total population growth exclusive of the effects of births and deaths - that truly reflects where people most want to live, or must live," Mr Crean said.

The report also examines the age and gender composition of people moving into and out of specific parts of non-metropolitan Australia between 1981 and 1986.

"The report is an important document which will be used widely in government and industry to examine a range of economic and social issues at the local level," Mr Hand said.

"It is essential for governments to know not only the distribution of the population outside our capital cities, but also the direction, scale and demographic composition of those moving in and out of non-metropolitan communities. This information will assist government in formulating policies to ensure and to maintain a decent

standard of living for rural Australians," Mr Crean said.

1

Important Findings

The report shows several important trends in non-metropolitan Australia:

• The process of net migration loss from remote regions and many inland townships in the w heat/sheep zones, particularly in the Central West and Murrumbidgee in New South Wales, the Wimmera in Victoria, the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia and the wheat-belt in Western Australia.

• The net migration gain in some inland centres eg. M ildura, Dubbo,

Tamworth, Wodonga, Bendigo.

• The remarkable concentration of net migration gain in the eastern coastal strip stretching from Eden, south of Sydney, to the Sunshine Coast, north of Brisbane. Migrants to these areas include a disproportionate number in the retirement or near-retirement age groups.

• The impact on some cities and townships of sudden economic change in the mining sector. Cut backs in the labour force in the steel industry in the early 1980s had an immediate impact on the volume of net migration loss from Wollongong, Whyalla and Newcastle. Similar economic processes affected Zeehan in Tasmania and more recently, the Pilbara in Western Australia.

• The emptying of the central cores of large provincial dtes and the transfer of population to the urban fringes - the so-called doughnut effect - eg. in Newcastle, Wollongong, Bendigo, Launceston, Townsville, Gladstone, Mackay and Geraldton.

• The spread of most of our largest cities to the limits of commutable distances to metropolitan workplaces, a process which has accelerated net migration gain in many urban overspill cities and districts eg. Pakenham, Vic; Wingecarribee, NSW; Beaudesert, Qld; Mt Barker, SA; and Mandurah, WA.

• In Eastern Australia, migrants from rural and remote regions are more inclined to migrate to other rural or remote regions than they are to capital cities. For WA, SA and the NT, migrants are more likely to go to the capital cities.

• Those moving out of rural and remote regions comprise all age groups, but especially young adults (mainly school leavers) and a disproportionate number of young women.

Population Movements in Non-Metropolitan Australia is available from the AGPS at a cost of $24.95. The report also contains about 100 pages of detailed data tables which are available from the AGPS on computer disc.

Further information: Bernard Salt Coopers & Lybrand Consultants (03) 606 4880 Catherine Payne Minister Crean's office (06) 277 7520

Lynne Adams Minister Hand's Office (06) 277 7860

2

Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual total

B C ‘ S ta te/ net migration net migration n et migration net migration n et migration n et migration

LGA/SLA note Terr 1976-81 1981-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 . 1976-89

____________________________Number Rank Number Rank Number R ank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank

FACT SHEET- NEW SOUTH WALES

• Major rural centres gained 153 629 people during 1976-89 from net migration. (Sydney gained 172 266 in the same period.)

• Most of the non-metropolitan growth was in the coastal areas especially Shoalhaven, Tweed, Coffs Harbour, Hastings and Ballina.

• Inland local government areas which have experienced significant population growth through net migration are Dubbo: (4 008); Mudgee (2 563); Bathurst (2 556); Albury (1 947) and the surrounding shires of Corowa (1 533), Hume (1 526) and Murray (915); the shires of Yarrowlumla (3 613) and Snowy River (1 045) near the ACT; Wagga Wagga (960); Mulwaree (792); Tamworth (261) and the surrounding

shires of Parry (1103) and Uralla (225).

• Areas classified as "Other Metropolitan" areas, "Other Rural Areas", "Major Remote Centres" and "Other Remote Areas" have each, in aggregate, lost population due to net migration.

• Wollongong ("Other Metropolitan"), Newcastle ("Other Metropolitan") and Broken Hill ("Major Remote Centre") recorded the greatest net migration loss.

• The extent of migration movements is shown by examining separately in- and out-migration for each region:

AREA A IN-MIGRATION B

1981-86

OUT-MIGRATION c 1981-86

S ydn ey

O u ter m etropolitan 61 817 70 777

M ajor Rural Centre 160 601 119 253

O th er R ural Area 87522 103 280

M ajor R em ote Centre 7828 12 811

O th er R em ote Area 14 441 21659

T O T A L 50 5 026 566 398

A Area of residence in 1986

B Resident in the Area in 1986 but not in 1981

C Resident in the Area in 1981 but not in 1986

In-migration - age group and sex

LGA/SLA Population State DPI&E 0-14 15-24 25-54 55-64 65+ Total

region region _______ M F M F M F M F M F M F

Facts sheets - page i

Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual total BC‘ State/ net migration net migration net migration net migration net migration net migration

LGA/SLA note Terr 1976-81 1981-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1976-89

_______________ Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank

• Most people who left a non-metropolitan area in 1981 went to live in another non-metropolitan area. For example, 4 239 people left the northern agricultural area of Coonabarabran-Coonamble-Gilgandra in 1981. Their locations in 1986 included Sydney (1 120), Dubbo (379), the mid-North Coast (219) and Newcastle or Wollongong (184).

• A disproportionately high number of 15-24 year olds from this area went to Sydney, Newcastle and Wollongong.

In-migration - age group and sex

LGA/SLA Population State DPI&E ΊΠ Ζ 15-24 25-54 55-64 65+ total

region _____________________ region _______ M F M F M F M F M F _________M F

Facts sheets - page ii

Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual total

SC* State/ net migration n et migration n et migration net migration net migration net migration

LGA/SLA note Terr 1976-81 1981-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1976-89

____________________________Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank

FACT SHEET - VICTORIA

• The rural region in Victoria gained 80 611 people through net migration between 1976-89.

• Many inland local government areas, beyond commuting distance from Melbourne, experienced net migration gain.

The most significant net migration gains were Wodonga (6 245); areas surrounding Bendigo, including Huntley (1 431), Marong (3 744) and Maldon (759); Eaglehawk (961); Mildura (4 008); Grenville (3 810), adjacent to Ballarat.

• Many other municipalities, spread throughout the State, and beyond daily commuting distance from Melbourne, experienced net migration gain during 1976-89. These included Castlemaine (510), Eaglehawk (961), Echuca (527), Port Fairy (131), Portland (C) (1 407), Shepparton (1 457), Wamambool (1 238), Bairnsdale (S) (2 318), Beechworth (431), Benalla (S)

(1 512) and Bright (1 323).

• Areas which experienced net migration loss during 1976-89 were the Wimmera (5 875), Western (5 029) and North Mallee (1 216).

• Horsham experienced a small net migration loss during 1976-89, despite a * substantial in-migration from surrounding areas in the Wimmera (901 during 1981-86). The total in-migration to Horsham (2 486) was exceeded by an out-migration of 3 065.

The scale of migration for 1981-86 is shown in the following table:

AREA A IN- MIGRATION B

1981-86

OUT-MIGRATION c 1981-86

Capital C ity 140 897 195 816

O ther M etropolitan 8 622 13 009

M ajor R ural Centre 100 508 92 576

O th er R ural Area 109 050 97452

M ajor R em ote Centre 8 004 6443

O th er R em ote Area 7810 9 790

TOTAL 374 891 4 15 086

A Area of residence in 1986

B Resident in the Area in 1986 but not in 1981

C Resident in the Area in 1981 but not in 1986

In-migration - age group and sex

LGA/SLA Population State DPI&E ΖΠ3 15-24 25-54 55-64 S3+ Total

region region _______ M F M F M F M F M F M F

Facts sheets - page iii

Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual Total SC* State/ n et migration net migration n et migration net migration net migration net migration

LGA/SLA note Terr 1976-81 1981-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1976-89

_________ ___________________ Number Rank Number Rank Number R ank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank

• The extension of the urban fringe of Melbourne has meant that the net migration gain of some "rural" areas is closely associated with workers commuting to the capital city. This particularly applies to Pakenham, to Upper Yarra including Woori, Yallock, Launching Place and Yarra Glen, to Bacchus Marsh, to Bellarine, to South Barwon.

In-migration - age group and sex

LGA/SLA Population State DPI&E ΖΠ3 15-24 25-54 55-64 65+ Total

region region _______ M F M F M F M F M F M F

Facts sheets - page iv

Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual lota! B C ‘ S ta te/ net migration n et migration net migration net migration net migration net migration

LGA/SLA note Terr 1S76-81 1981-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1976-89

____________________________Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank

FACT SHEET - QUEENSLAND

• Queensland gained 468 041 in population through net migration between 1976 and 1989, considerably more than any other state. NSW gained 285 757 and WA 235 865 in the same period.

• The pattern of net migration within Queensland has served to consolidate coastal urban development, most of this being outside Brisbane particularly in the Gold Coast, the Sunshine Coast, Townsville and Cairns.

• Moreton Statistical Division surrounding Brisbane gained 234 839 people though net migration between 1976 and 1989, Gold Coast (50 990), Albert "Balance" - effectively suburban Gold Coast - (75 208) and the Sunshine Coast (45 486), Cairns-Mulgrave-Douglas (27 305) and Townsville- Thuringowa (10 051).

• The Mackay Statistical Division gained 13 457, all local government areas gaining except the city of Mackay itself and the inland shire of Mirani. Gladstone and the adjacent areas of Calliope and Livingstone, all largely dependent on the alumina refinery and other heavy industry, attracted a net migration of 6199. Bowen and Rockhampton, other large coastal municipalities, attracted only a net migration of 526 and 1190 respectively in the period.

• Toowoomba (5 472) and surrounding districts experienced net migration gain in the period, as did Charters Towers (982), also inland. Other substantial inland centres experienced net migration loss viz. Mt Isa (9 465), Dalby (1190), Goondiwindi (381) and Roma (246).

• The Far West, Central West and South West were the only Statistical Divisions to lose population through net migration. These areas are dominated by the pastoral industry and, virtually without exception, all local government areas in these areas saw a net outflow of population.

• An unusually high proportion of in-migration to some areas was retirees. During 1981-86 this was 12% for the Gold Coast, 9% for Caboolture and 10% for Noosa.

• The scale of migration is indicated by the number of people moving in and out of an area. In Gold Coast during 1981-86 alone, 306 323 people migrated in compared with 30 003 who migrated out in the same period.

in-migration - age group and sex

LGA/SLA Population State DPI&E 0-14 15-24 25-54 55-64 65+ total

region __________________ region _______ M F M F M F M F M F _________M F

Facts sheets - page v

Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual total

B C ‘ Slate/ net migration net migration n et migration net migration net migration net migration

LGA/SLA note Terr 1976-81 1981-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1976-89

____________________________ Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank

• Some of the dynamics behind net migration are illustrated by Mt Isa. In terms of population change through net migration, it ranked number 681 nationally among the 685 non-metropolitan local government, unincorporated areas and capital cities throughout Australia between

1981 and 1986. This net migration loss totalled one third of Mt Isa’s 1981 population.

Unlike many other areas with steady net migration loss however, young people were not over-represented in this loss, being 20% of the total of 9 066 people moving out. The destinations for those leaving Mt Isa included Brisbane (3%), Townsville (12%), Cairns (4%), Sunshine Coast

(3%) and the Gold Coast (2%). In fact, a higher than average proportion of 15-24 year olds moved into Mt Isa in the period - 29% of the total.

In-migration - age group and sex

LGA/SLA Population State DPI&E ΊΠ Ζ 15-24 25-54 5S-84 65+ lota!

region _____________________ region _______ M F M F M F M F M F M F

Facts sheets - page vi

Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual total

B C ‘ S ta te/ net migration net migration n et migration net migration n et migration net migration

LGA/SLA note Terr 1976-81 1981-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1976-89

____ ________________________ Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank

FACT SHEET - SOUTH AUSTRALIA

• South Australia lost a total of 2 734 people from its rural and remote regions though net migration during 1976-89. SA and Tasmania were the only States with a net migration loss from both rural and remote regions in this period.

• With few exceptions, municipalities in the South East, Eyre and Northern Statistical Divisions experienced net migration loss in the period. The exceptions were Mt Gambier (DC) (594), Robe (170) Roxby Downs (2 213), Port Lincoln (926). Flinders Ranges increased its population to 3 059 with a net migration of 234.

• All municipalities in Outer Adelaide increased in size due to net migration, with Mt Barker gaining 7 847, almost half its total population of 17 268 in 1989.

• Some municipalities on the River Murray experienced net migration gains - Murray Bridge (1 659), Berri (795), Renrnark (617), Port Elliot and Goolwa (3 120) and Victor Harbour (2 022).

• By far the biggest out-migration during 1981-86 was from Whyalla (8 843) followed by Port Augusta (3 934) and Port Lincoln (2 810). Whyalla, the largest municipality in non-metropolitan SA (total population 26 731 in * 1989), also had a high in-migration of 3 651 during 1981-1986. The new

uranium town of Roxby Downs grew to 2 213 by 1989, almost entirely due to in-migration.

• Some of South Australia's small municipalities lost as much as a third of their population in the 15 years to 1989. The population of Kimba was reduced to 1 394 in 1989 following a steady net migration loss totalling 597 during 1976-89 and Lameroo fell to 1 381 following a net migration loss of 535 in the same period.

• Out-migration of young people was particularly high from rural and remote areas. About one in three migrants from the Eyre Peninsula - which is dependent largely on broadacre farming - who went to Adelaide during 1981-86, were 15 - 24 years old.

• SA ranked fifth among States and Territories in terms of net migration 1976-89 with a gain of 35 853. Queensland gained 468 041 in the same period.

In-migration - age group ana sex

LGA/SLA Population State DPI&E 0-14 16-24 25-54 55-64 65+ total

region _____________________ region _______ M F M F M F M F M F _________ M F

Facts sheets - page vii

Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual total

BC ‘ S ta te/ n et migration net migration net migration net migration net migration n et migration

LGA/SLA note T en 1976-81 1981-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1976-89

______________________ Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank

FACT SHEET - WESTERN AUSTRALIA

• Metropolitan WA dominated the state in terms of net migration gain during 1976-89. Perth gained 216 347 in this period, ranking second nationally to the Moreton Statistical Division (surrounding Brisbane). There was comparatively little change in net migration for the whole of

the rural region and a loss for the remote region.

• Areas surrounding Perth also grew substantially, with a gain in Mandurah of 13 598. Like Adelaide, around half of those migrating from rural and remote areas moved to the capital. Unlike Adelaide, Perth also attracted a large number of migrants from outside its State.

• The coastal and timbered areas of the South West grew substantially in the period, with most municipalities, from Port Augusta in the south to Mandurah in the north, experiencing net migration gain. The port of Bunbury gained 3 463 in net migration, Busselton, 4 140, Dardanup 1 040 and Harvey 2 785. Manjimup experienced a steady net migration loss totalling 845 during 1976-89.

• A large number of gold mining areas in the dry inland grew substantially in the period. The largest net migration gains were in Kalgoorlie-Boulder (2 585), Leonora (1 387) and Mt Magnet (765). Some of the small mining towns, including Leonora and Mt Magnet, more than doubled in size ‘ during 1976-89.

• Other substantial net migration gains were in Broome (2 632), Albany Shire (2 938), and Greenough, adjacent to Geraldton (2 942). Steady net migration gain over the 15 years took Broome's total population to 7 474 in 1989 and the adjacent Derby-West Kimberley to 7 352.

• In the Pilbara, the new mining ventures linked to Roebourne led to a net migration gain of 1 594 while nearby Port Hedland, lost 1 453 in net migration.

• With the exceptions of Toodyah and York, virtually all municipalities in the Western Australian wheat belt lost population through net migration between 1976-89. Many of these lost 30-40% of their population in the period, reducing some of them to fewer than 1 000 persons eg.

Dumbleyung's total population fell to 953 in 1989 following a net migration loss of 508 and Wickepin's to 898 following a net migration loss of 510.

In-migration - age group and sex

LGA/SLA Population State DPI&E 7Π 2 15-24 25-54 55-64 65+ total

region _____________________ region _______ M F M F M F M F M F _________ M F

Facts sheets - page viii

Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual Average annual total

BC‘ S ta te/ net migration n et migration net migration net migration net migration n et migration

LGA/SLA note Terr 1976-81 1981-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1976-89

____________ ________________ Number R ank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank Number Rank

FACT SHEET - TASMANIA

• Rural, remote and metropolitan regions in Tasmania each lost population through net migration between 1976 and 1989. Tasmania as a whole lost 6 558 people through net migration to places beyond Tasmania.

• In terms of net migration loss, Launceston ranked 15, Zeehan 19, Lyell 27 and Bumie 33 among all 685 areas throughout Australia classed as capital cities, other municipalities or unincorporated areas.

• Net migration loss for Launceston was 2 569, Zeehan 2 342, Lyell 1 909, and Bumie 1 645.

• The scale of migration for these areas is shown by examining separately data for 1981-86 on in-and out-migration:

AREA A IN-MIGRATION B

1981-86

OUT-MIGRATION C 1981-86

Launceston 10 410 11050

Zeehan 1 247 2 504

Lyell 728 1056

B u m ie 3 552 3 952

Kingsborough 5 536 3 751

D evonport 4 590 4 745

Beaconsfield 3 935 2 840

A Area of residence in 1986

B Resident in the Area in 1986 but not in 1981

c______ Resident in the Area in 1981 but not in 1986

The growth in Beaconsfield and Kingsborough serves to consolidate Launceston and Hobart.

The pattern of in- and out-migration by young people for each of these areas for 1981-86 is illustrated below:

PERCENT IN-MIGRATION AND OUT-MIGRATION OF 15-24 YEAR OLDS AREA A IN- MIGRATION B

1981-86

OUT-MIGRATION C 1981-86

Launceston 29 25

Zeehan 27 17

Lyell 21 21

B u m ie 25 30

Kingsborough 16 24

D evonport 21 28

Beaconsfield 19 29

in-migration - age group and sex

LGA/SLA Population State DPI&E 0-14 15-24 25-54 55-64 65+ total

region _____________________ region _______ M F M F M F M F M F M F

Facts sheets - page ix