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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003.



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INFORMATION, ANALYSIS AND ADVICE FOR THE PARLIAMENT

I N F O R M A T I O N A N D R E S E A R C H S E R V I C E S

Chronology No. 1 2002-03

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975- 2003

This update of a Chronology first released in 2000 describes the major changes that have taken place in the Australian Public Service since the 1970s, focusing on changes in the areas of accountability, openness, equity, and efficiency. The Chronology is supplemented by tables of parliamentary publications related to the Public Service.

Rose Verspaandonk Politics and Public Administration Group 15 August 2000

Revised by Ian Holland Politics and Public Administration Group 2 June 2003

D E P A R T M E N T O F T H E P A R L I A M E N T A R Y L I B R A R Y

ISSN 1442-1992

 Copyright Commonwealth of Australia 2003

Except to the extent of the uses permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means including information storage and retrieval systems, without the prior written consent of the Department of the Parliamentary Library, other than by Senators and Members of the Australian Parliament in the course of their official duties.

This paper has been prepared for general distribution to Senators and Members of the Australian Parliament. While great care is taken to ensure that the paper is accurate and balanced, the paper is written using information publicly available at the time of production. The views expressed are those of the author and should not be attributed to the Information and Research Services (IRS). Advice on legislation or legal policy issues contained in this paper is provided for use in parliamentary debate and for related parliamentary purposes. This paper is not professional legal opinion. Readers are reminded that the paper is not an official parliamentary or Australian government document. IRS staff are available to discuss the paper's contents with Senators and Members and their staff but not with members of the public.

Enquiries

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IRS Publications Office Telephone: (02) 6277 2778

Published by the Information and Research Services, Department of the Parliamentary Library, 2003.

1

Contents

Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Openness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Equity and Welfare within the APS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Efficiency and Effectiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Key Changes by Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Selected Publications by the Parliamentary Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Changes in the APS: Selected Publications by Parliamentary Committees . . . . . . . . . . . 26

The Joint Committee of Public Accounts and Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Senate Standing Committee on Finance and Public Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Senate Finance and Public Administration References Committee (REF) and Senate Finance and Public Administration Legislation Committee (LEG) . . . . . . . . 28

Publications of the Management Advisory Board and the Management Improvement Advisory Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

List of Acronyms

APS Australian Public Service

EEO Equal Employment Opportunity

EPAC Economic Planning and Advisory Council

OH&S Occupational Health and Safety

PSMPC Public Service and Merit Protection Commission

SES Senior Executive Service

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Executive Summary

Since the mid 1970s, the Australian Public Service (APS) has undergone significant changes. These changes can be understood as falling into three categories—openness; internal equity and welfare; and efficiency and effectiveness. It is important to note that in government policy making these categories have not necessarily been given equal weight. For example, in the 1990s it has been argued that under successive governments there was a much stronger emphasis on efficiency and effectiveness than on openness or on internal equity and welfare. Further, it needs to be stated that change has not necessarily been mutually reinforcing. For example, it is quite possible that some efficiency measures have the capacity to undermine attempts to increase the openness of government. Nevertheless, the three categories are useful as a way of 'organising' the large number of changes. Indeed, by identifying the first two categories, it is hoped that readers will be reminded that change in the APS is not exclusively about 'bean-counting'.

Openness

These changes have been intended to provide citizens with more information about government decision-making and, in some cases, the right to have decisions reviewed. Early examples include the establishment of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal and the introduction of Freedom of Information rights. More recent examples include customer service charters, the Purchasing Advisory and Complaints Service and more independence for the Auditor-General.

Equity and Welfare within the APS

These changes have been intended to ensure that employees progress according to merit and also that the APS provides a safe workplace. Early changes include the introduction of equal employment opportunity and occupational health and safety initiatives. More recently, the policy of workplace diversity has emphasised benefits to the organisation as well as to the employee.

Efficiency and Effectiveness

These changes have been intended to ensure that the optimal benefit is extracted from public resources. They have been characterised by an emphasis on the efficient use of financial and human resources, the emulation of the private sector, the adoption of market mechanisms and an emphasis on performance control. This approach was flagged in 1976 in a report commissioned by the Whitlam Government. The Hawke and Keating Governments initiated the efficiency and effectiveness aspect of the transformation of the APS and the Howard Government has accelerated its implementation.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Taken together, these changes constitute a transformation of the public service. It is interesting to note that successive governments have generally consolidated, or at least tolerated, the changes of previous governments.

Introduction

The purpose of this chronology of key events is to provide a historical context in which to understand the continuing evolution of the APS.1 More specifically, the chronology is intended to:

• provide a quick reference guide to what happened, and when

• facilitate access to relevant documents, and

• complement more narrative and critical discussions by providing an account that focuses on government decisions, reports and legislation.

The chronology focuses on key events relating to the public service's management of human, financial and other resources. In particular, it includes key events (e.g. documents, announcements and legislation) relating to:

• employment conditions and people management

• financial management

• accountability mechanisms (including some key events in administrative law), and

• service delivery mechanisms.

The number of possible entries in such a chronology is very large. By outlining key events, this chronology is intended to convey the character of change over the last twenty-five years. An important criterion in determining whether an event warranted inclusion was whether secondary sources referred to it.

For reasons of space and time, there are some areas which the chronology does not canvass. The reduction in the number of APS employees is not discussed, although it is illustrated in a graph on page 3. With some exceptions, the chronology does not provide details of changes relating to machinery of government.2 Cabinet or ministerial responsibility, privatisation, or outsourcing. Nor does it provide information relating to statutory authorities. Reports by parliamentary committees and the Management Advisory Board and Management Improvement Advisory Committee are listed separately at the end of the paper.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Background

Once the Commonwealth was properly established at the beginning of the 20th century, there was a period of incremental change until the mid 1970s. In contrast, the last twenty-five years of the 20th century have brought rapid and significant change to the APS.

Traditionally, the public service was characterised by the following:

• a stronger emphasis on processes and inputs than results

• a distinctive 'public service' approach to organisation and service delivery

• male domination (until 1966, female employees were required to resign on marriage)

• security of employment

• a near-monopoly on policy advice to governments

• an entrenched system of preference for those already employed by the public service, and

• central control of personnel practices and conditions.3

By the 1970s, this system was being questioned as social changes undermined the foundation of a distant and hierarchical bureaucracy. In 1974, the Prime Minister announced the establishment of a Royal Commission to examine government administration. In the area of administrative law, several inquiries were conducted, leading to recommendations for changes that would open government decisions to scrutiny. Meanwhile, an emerging critique of government put pressure on governments to demonstrate that they used public resources wisely.

This questioning has led to significant public service change since 1975. The impact of this change is encapsulated in the demise of the term 'public administration' and the rise of the term 'public management'. The difference is explained by public policy analyst, Owen Hughes: 'managers are now responsible for results, where administrators simply carry out the instructions of others'.4 Similarly, John Halligan and John Power describe management as 'the direct and efficient harnessing of scarce resources to the attainment of clearly defined organizational outputs'.5 A centrepiece of the new approach is the Public Service Act 1999, which replaced the much amended Public Service Act 1922.6

In contrast to its predecessor,7 the 'new' APS is characterised by:

• flexibility regarding processes, accountability for outputs and outcomes, and a strong emphasis on efficiency

• similarity with the private sector in organisation and service delivery, and increasing use of the private sector to deliver services

• a more diverse workforce, particularly at senior levels

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

• increasing use of contract employment and greater scope for public servants to be dismissed

• responsibility for policy advice shared with political advisers and consultants

• employment opportunities at all levels for people not currently employed by the public service

• enhanced political control of the bureaucracy

• a variety of avenues for citizens to obtain information and/or redress

• devolution of personnel practices and conditions, and

• decentralisation of budget responsibilities.

A decline in the number of employees has been an integral component of the drive for efficiency. The following graph illustrates the decline in APS employment since the 1980s.8 It shows the overall decline has halted in recent years, mainly due to increased employment in taxation (related to implementation of The New Tax System) and security-related initiatives (in areas such as Defence, Federal Police and Attorney-General's).

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 June

N u m

b er (

thous

ands

) Unadjusted

Adjusted

Source: Australian Public Service Commission

The driving forces9 behind this new approach to public service management include the following:

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

• social changes leading to new expectations of government and government employment, including questioning of whether centralised bureaucracies adequately understand the needs of citizens

• trends in public sector management in other Anglo-American democracies, notably the United Kingdom and New Zealand10

• the ascendancy of arguments for smaller government

• growing belief in the virtue of fiscal austerity,11 and

• advances in telecommunications and information technology.

Chronology

Milestones Details

Source Documents

1975 Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Section is

established in the Public Service Board to address employment inequities facing women, indigenous Australians, people with disabilities and people from a non-English speaking background.

Public Service Board, Annual Report 1974-75.

1975 Administrative Appeals Tribunal is established to

provide independent review of a wide range of administrative decisions made by the Commonwealth Government and some non-government bodies.

Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975.12

http://austlii.law.uts. edu.au/au/other/med ia.OLD/1562.html

July 1975 Confrontation between the Government and the Opposition-controlled Senate over the appearance of public servants as witnesses to give evidence. Government ministers instruct public servants 'to claim privilege in respect of answers to all questions' with which the Senate was concerned. This conflict leads ultimately to the formalisation of guidelines for public service witnesses in 1978.

Senate Debates, 15 July 1975, pp. 2729-30.

Odgers' Australian Senate Practice (10th edition), section 19.6

House of Representatives Debates, 28 September 1978, pp. 1504-09.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

1976 Report into government administration (Coombs

Commission) supports:

• more accountability for public servants • mechanisms to improve the relationship between officials and the community • an emphasis on managerial skills • more efficient and responsive service delivery • devolution of responsibility, as well as greater

flexibility and diversity in organisational styles • more efficient and economical use of human resources, and • a more open public service.

Royal Commission on Australian Government Administration, Report, AGPS, Canberra, 1976.

1976 Commonwealth Ombudsman is established to

consider complaints from people who believe they have been adversely affected by the defective administration of Commonwealth departments or agencies.

Ombudsman Act 1976.

http://www.austlii.edu. au/

1977 Legislation to facilitate judicial review by the Federal Court of some exercises of Commonwealth power (came into operation 1 October 1980).

Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act 1977.

http://www.austlii.edu. au/

1977 Legislation to allow for the dismissal of staff who

engage in industrial action and the suspension without pay of staff who cannot work as a result of industrial action (repealed with effect from November 1983).

Commonwealth Employees (Employment Provisions) Act 1977 (now defunct).

http://www.austlii.edu. au

1979 Facilitation of the retrenchment of public servants

surplus to requirements and a requirement for the permanent head to ensure the efficient, effective and economical use of the department's staff.

Commonwealth Employees Redeployment and Retirement Act 1979 (now defunct).

http://www.austlii.edu. au/

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

1980 Public Service Board advises departments to adopt the common law principle of 'No work as directed—no pay'. This is ruled not to be legal, leading to the amendment of the Public Service Act 1922 to provide for the principle (repealed in 1983).

1982 Extension of the right of the community to access

information in the possession of the Commonwealth Government.

Freedom of Information Act 1982.

http://www.austlii.edu. au

January 1983 Reid Report (review announced 23 September 1982) emphasises the importance of quality management (including financial management and personnel management), as well as issues relating to machinery of government, ministerial responsibility and administrative review.

Review of Commonwealth Administration report, AGPS, Canberra, 1983.

December 1983 Statement by the Prime Minister emphasises efficiency, effectiveness, equity and responsiveness to Ministers and the Parliament (leads to the Public Service Reform Act 1984).

R. J. L. Hawke, Reforming the Australian Public Service: A Statement of the Government's Intentions, AGPS, Canberra, 1983.

1984 Merit Protection and Review Agency established to ensure that actions taken in relation to Commonwealth employees are fair and equitable.

Merit Protection (Australian Government Employees) Act 1984.

http://www.austlii.edu. au/

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

1984 Public Service Reform Act 1984:

• enshrinement of the merit principle • equal employment opportunity • industrial democracy • permanent part-time work • opening up of opportunities at lower levels • formation of Senior Executive Service (effective

1 October 1984) • provision for consultants to be appointed by ministers, and • greater political role in appointing and managing

departmental secretaries (no longer 'Permanent Heads').

Public Service Reform Act 1984 (now defunct).

http://www.austlii.edu. au

1984 Abolition of the Public Service Arbitrator. Conciliation and

Arbitration Amendment Act 1983.

http://www.austlii.edu. au

February 1984 Financial Management Improvement Program emphasises a shift away from compliance towards performance control (including program budgeting which is phased in during the mid-1980s).

Australian Public Service Board and Department of Finance, Financial Management Improvement Program— Diagnostic Study, 1984.

21 March 1984 Announcement that a working party will monitor EEO practices in the Department of Employment and Industrial Relations and develop a management plan (other departments to follow).

26 March 1984 Cabinet agrees to proceed with changes outlined in Reforming the Australian Public Service: A Statement of the Government's Intentions.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

April 1984 Budget Reform paper sets out the Government's reform priorities:

• better means of identifying and setting budget priorities • more emphasis on the goals and objectives of programs • improved performance and efficiency, and • effective review mechanisms

Department of Finance, Budget Reform—A Statement of the Government's Achievements and Intentions in Reforming Australian Government Financial Administration, AGPS, Canberra, 1984.

June 1984 The Members of Parliament (Staff) Act 1984 takes effect. This legislation creates a separate, formal legislative basis for the employment of staff by members of parliament, making such employment potentially independent from public service employment.

Members of Parliament (Staff) Act 1984

1985 Public Service Board develops a model Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) agreement.

11 June 1986 Prime Minister announces the streamlining and rationalisation of some functions and agencies in response to difficult economic circumstances.

R. J. L. Hawke, Address to the Nation on the Economic Situation, 11 June 1986.

25 September 1986 Prime Minister's statement to Parliament announces: • establishment of Efficiency Scrutiny Unit to

investigate cost-saving opportunities • measures to enhance financial efficiency, and • changes to personnel management.

R. J. L. Hawke, Statement to the House of Representatives on Reform of the Australian Public Service, 25 September 1986.

1987 Restructuring and Efficiency Principle rationalises job classifications for clerical and support staff.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

July 1987 Efficiency Scrutiny Unit recommends the replacement of the Public Service Board with a Public Service Commission (holding a reduced role), the devolution of some functions to departments and the transfer of some functions to the Department of Employment and Industrial Relations and to the Department of Finance.

D. Bock, Report by Efficiency Scrutiny Unit on proposed successor. arrangements to the Public Service Board, Canberra, 1987.

14 July 1987 Announcement of the formation of

'mega departments', generally headed by a senior minister assisted by junior ministers (number of departments reduced from 28 to 18).

Prime Minister's media release, 14 July 1987.

18 September 1987 Replacement of Public Service Board with smaller Public Service Commission (some responsibilities

transferred to the Department of Finance or the Department of Industrial Relations, or devolved to departments).

Establishment of Australian Public Service

Management Advisory Board, to advise the Government on significant management issues and act as a forum for consideration of major management activities (replaced by the Management Advisory Committee in 1999).

Administrative Arrangements Act 1987 (now defunct).

April 1988 The Parliamentary Joint Committee on Public

Accounts (JCPA) commences a review of the Audit Office. The Committee's report, delivered in 1989, would lead ultimately to the introduction of the Auditor-General Bill 1994, and finally the passage of the Auditor-General Act 1997, which would establish the Auditor-General as an officer of the Parliament (see also 1 January 1998, below).

JCPA, The Auditor-General: Ally of the People and the Parliament—Reform of the Audit Office, Report no. 296.

August 1988 Adoption of the Structural Efficiency Principle leads to rationalisation of job classifications for

professional, technical and blue collar grades.

8 December 1988 Privacy Act 1988 passed, regulating the collection, handling and use of personal information by the

Commonwealth, and also establishing the Privacy Commissioner within the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission.

Privacy Act 1988.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

December 1989 Management Improvement Advisory Committee established to support the Management Advisory Board.

March 1990 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission replaces the Commonwealth's Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Aboriginal Development Commission, taking over responsibility for many of the Commonwealth's indigenous programs.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission Act 1989

12 June 1990 Privacy Commissioner releases a directory detailing the amount and type of records of a personal nature held by the Commonwealth.

Personal Information Digest, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Sydney, 1989.

August 1990 Decision to restructure the Commonwealth Bank in preparation for a partial public float heralds a series of major full or partial privatisations, including: • Commonwealth Bank • Qantas and Australian Airlines • Telstra (announced October 1997) • Major airports • Moomba-Sydney gas pipeline • National electricity transmission network • DASFLEET

Department of Finance and Administration, Asset Sales: Past Projects

Commonwealth Bank Restructuring Bill 1990, Bills Digest 8 November 1990.

13 November 1990 Economic Planning and Advisory Council (EPAC) report concludes that productivity improvements in

the public sector have generally outpaced those in the private sector.

The size and efficiency of the public sector, Canberra, EPAC, 1990.

1991 Occupational Health & Safety programs required in agencies, to be developed in consultation with unions. Occupational Health and Safety Act

1991.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

July 1991 Agencies are allowed to use property service

providers other than the Department of Administrative Services, and a 1.25 per cent Efficiency Dividend clawback is applied to the running costs of all agencies.

John Wanna, Christine Ryan and Chew Ng, From Accounting to Accountability. A Centenary History of the Australian National Audit Office, Allen & Unwin, 2001, p. 136.

15 July 1992 Announcement that the Refugee Review Tribunal will replace the Refugee Status Review Committee, resulting in more limited avenues of appeal.

9 September 1992 Announcement that all new contracts with the Department of Administrative Services will include a

clause requiring suppliers to comply with the EEO requirements of the Government.

6 November 1992 Announcement of a workplace agreement allowing for productivity reforms and agency-level bargaining.

December 1992 An evaluation of a decade of management changes concludes that :

• the direction of change was correct

• changes were well accepted, and had many positive effects as well as some costs, and

• further changes needed to be undertaken.

Task Force on Management Improvement, The Australian Public Service Reformed: An evaluation of a decade of management reform, AGPS, 1992.

December 1992 Service-wide APS Agreement 1992-94 (extended to 1995) includes:

• some funded wage increases

• further pay negotiations at agency level, and

• equalisation of pay on expiry of agreement.

Improving productivity, jobs and pay in the Australian Public Service 1992-94, Department of Industrial Relations, December 1992.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

December 1992 Performance pay introduced for SES and senior officers in order to encourage productivity growth (later wound back for senior officers).

Improving productivity, jobs and pay in the Australian Public Service 1992-94— Agreement between the Commonwealth Government and public sector unions, Canberra, 1992.

1993 Audit Office (ANAO) undertakes an audit of the 1992 performance pay agreement. The audit finds almost all senior staff were given pay increases under the scheme, and that the scheme was a de facto system for awarding significant pay increases.

ANAO, 'Performance Pay: Performance Appraisal and Pay in the Australian Public Service', Audit Report no. 16, 1993, ANAO, Canberra.

John Wanna, Christine Ryan and Chew Ng, From Accounting to Accountability. A Centenary History of the Australian National Audit Office, Allen & Unwin, 2001, pp. 142-46.

1994 Provision of fixed term appointments for departmental Secretaries. Prime Minister and Cabinet

(Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1994.

June 1994 In response to the 1989 Joint Committee on Public Accounts' (JCPA) report on the Audit Office, the Government introduces new financial accountability legislation, and announces its intention that the Auditor-General be funded directly from the Budget and that a parliamentary Audit Committee be established. (Ultimately, no separate committee is set up. Instead, the JCPA is changed to the Joint Committee on Public Accounts and Audit).

House of Representatives Debates, 29 June 1994, p. 5796.

'Auditor plans are good, not ideal', Canberra Times, 22 June 1994.

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Milestones Details

Source Documents

7 October 1994 Cabinet introduces measures to enforce equal representation of women on public boards and committees.

1995 Report of the Public Service Act Review Group

recommends that the Public Service Act 1922 be replaced by a new Act that will be '…built around the principles and values which stress the centrality of an apolitical public service with merit-based staffing, high standards of honesty and integrity, a strong focus on efficiency and results, and responsiveness and accountability to the government of the day while maintaining a capacity to provide quality and impartial advice.'

R. McLeod, Report of the Public Service Act Review Group, AGPS, Canberra, 1994.

1995 Public Service and Merit Protection Commission

(PSMPC) established through the amalgamation of the Public Service Commission and the Merit Protection and Review Agency.

4 May 1995 Government announces plans to replace the Public Service Act 1922 in response to Report of the Public Service Act Review Group.

July 1995 Government and unions agree to a service-wide enterprise agreement for 1995-96.

14 September 1995 Administrative Review Council's report into the effectiveness of the merits review tribunals makes a

number of recommendations, including the

consolidation of five tribunals into a single new tribunal.

Administrative Review Council, Better decisions: review of Commonwealth Merits Review Tribunals, Canberra, AGPS, 1995.

September 1995 Service-wide APS agreement 1995-96 includes a strategy for securing further efficiencies. Continuous Improvement in the

APS, Agreement between the Commonwealth Government and public sector unions, September 1995.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

1996 Six departmental secretaries' appointments terminated following the change of government. The departures were:

• Christopher Conybeare (Immigration) • Peter Core (Transport) • Michael Costello (Foreign Affairs and Trade) • Stephen Duckett (Health) • Stuart Hamilton (Environment) • Derek Volker (Employment Education and

Training)

'Top bureaucrats victims of purge', Sydney Morning Herald, 9 March 1996.

1996 Industry Commission, Bureau of Industry Economics and Economic Planning Advisory Commission amalgamate on an administrative basis. In 1998 they become the Productivity Commission.

Productivity Commission Act 1998

Productivity Commission website: History of the Productivity Commission

June 1996 National Commission of Audit (established March 1996) recommends a more limited role for

government, a greater emphasis on effectiveness and efficiency, and the separation of policy formation from program delivery.

National Commission of Audit, Report to the Commonwealth Government, Canberra, AGPS, 1996.

November 1996 Discussion paper issued by The Hon Peter Reith MP, leads to the Public Service Act 1999 and the

Parliamentary Service Act 1999. It points to the potential benefits of flexibility, streamlining and cultural change.

P. Reith, Towards a Best Practice Australian Public Service, November 1996.

November 1996 Small Business Deregulation Task Force reports to the Government on ways to reduce the compliance burden on small businesses (e.g. single entry point for collection of information and effective use of information technology).

Small Business Deregulation Task Force, Time for Business, 1996.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

December 1996 Under the Workplace Relations Act 1996:

• illegal for agencies to pay employees while on strike, or using bans or limitations • limitations on union officials' access to workplaces • provision for agencies to make individual

agreements with staff • award simplification, removing some rights that had been negotiated under previous awards, and • move from paid rate awards to minimum rate

awards (eroding pay over time).

Workplace Relations Act 1996.

1997 Government introduces Public Service Bill (amended Bill passed in 1999).

March 1997 Agencies to be responsible for agreement-making, using certified agreements and/or Australian Workplace Agreements, and subject to the

Government's policy parameters.

Media release, Minister for Industrial Relations, 5 March 1997.

March 1997 All government departments, agencies and business enterprises dealing with the public to be required to develop customer service charters.

Media release, Putting service first in the public service, Minister for Small Business and Consumer Affairs, 26 March 1997.

20 March 1997 Attorney-General announces that the Government proposes to amalgamate the Administrative Appeals Tribunal, the Social Security Appeals Tribunal, the Immigration Review Tribunal and the Refugee Review Tribunal to create a single review body to be called the Administrative Review Tribunal (expected to commence operations in February 2001). Originally, the Veterans' Review Board was also to be amalgamated but this was reversed in February 1992.

Media release, Reform of merits tribunal, Attorney-General, 20 March 1997.

Media release, Establishment of the Administrative Review Tribunal, Attorney-General, 9 May 2000.

24 March 1997 Prime Minister responds to the Time for Business report, agreeing to a range of measures including the electronic facility, www.business.gov.au

J. Howard, More Time for Business, Canberra, AGPS, 1997.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

25 April 1997 Announcement that departments' information technology infrastructure will be outsourced to the private sector.

Media release, Outsourcing of Information Technology infrastructure, Minister for Finance, 25 April 1997.

July 1997 First Australian Workplace Agreement in the APS. The Hon. Dr David Kemp MP, 'An Overview of APS Reforms—What we are doing', 25 February 1998.

24 September 1997 Launch of Centrelink, a statutory authority that provides customer services on behalf of several

government agencies (a significant example of split between purchaser and provider of services).

Commonwealth Service Delivery Act 1997.

http://www.centrelin k.gov.au/

26 November 1997 First Certified Agreements in the APS (agreements at department or agency level)—Public Service and

Merit Protection Commission.

8 December 1997 Commitment that all appropriate government services will be Internet-deliverable by 2001.

Media release, OGIT to play leading role bringing Australia online, Minister for Finance and Administration, 8 December 1997.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

11 December 1997 Announcement of new purchasing arrangements, including the establishment of a new Purchasing

Advisory and Complaints Service.

Media release, Government purchasing: a better deal for business, Minister for Finance and Administration and Minister for Industry, Science and Tourism, 11 December 1997.

Media release, New Purchasing Advisory and Complaints Service, Minister for Finance and Administration, 9 March 1998.

1998 Charter of Budget Honesty Act 1998 is passed,

providing for the publication of:

• regular reports setting out fiscal strategy • an intergenerational report at least once every five years assessing the long term sustainability of government policies • a pre-election economic and fiscal outlook report,

and

• costing of election commitments.

Charter of Budget Honesty Act 1998.

Package of new financial management legislation comes into effect:

• responsibilities of agency heads in such areas as record keeping, fraud control and borrowing. Financial Management and

Accountability Act 1997.

1 January 1998

• reporting and auditing requirements for

Commonwealth authorities, as well as standards of conduct, and

Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Act 1997.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

• more independence for the Auditor-General and a

greater role for Parliament in advising of its audit priorities, approving the appointment of the Auditor-General and reviewing the budget of the Auditor-General.

Auditor-General Act 1997.

26 February 1998 Announcement that employment services will be contracted out to a range of organisations (to be

known as the Job Network).

Media release, New Job Network to replace the CES, Minister for Education, Training and Youth Affairs, 26 February 1998.

March 1998 Regulations are introduced into Parliament requiring the Public Service Commissioner to present an annual State of the Service Report to Parliament.

Regulation 12 of the Public Service Regulations.

11 March 1998 First fully audited accrual financial statements for the Commonwealth. Media release, Milestone reached

in shift to accrual-based budget, Minister for Finance and Administration, 11 March 1998.

April 1998 Productivity Commission established as the

Government's principal review and advisory body on microeconomic policy and regulation.

Productivity Commission Act 1998.

May 1998 New procurement guidelines provide 'core policies and principles intended to strike a balance between prescription and empowerment so as to encourage agencies to obtain the best value from procurement, on a whole of life basis'.

Procurement Guidelines—core policies and principles, Department of Finance and Administration, 1998.

1 July 1998 Commonwealth's policy of non-insurance is replaced with a policy of self-insurance, providing more incentive to manage risk.

Media release, Responsible Risk Management for the Commonwealth Government, Minister for Finance and Administration, 30 June 1998.

19

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

3 July 1998 Business Entry Point is launched (an electronic information and transaction facility for businesses). www.business.gov.au

3 August 1998 Launch of a booklet outlining the Government's expectations of the APS in areas such as customer focus, agreement making and performance

measurement.

APS Reform: Building on Good Practice, Public Service and Merit Protection Commission, 1998.

4 March 1999 Remuneration Tribunal determines a new approach to setting the remuneration levels for departmental secretaries which includes provision for an annual performance bonus, to become available during 1999-00 (the Prime Minister to make a recommendation to the Tribunal on the performance of a secretary after considering a report prepared by the Secretary to the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet and the Public Service Commissioner).

11 May 1999 First accrual Budget delivered (an agency is funded for an agreed price for its outputs, including non-cash items such as depreciation). The accrual budgeting framework includes the introduction of the Capital Use Charge and the Agency Banking Incentive Scheme. The first requires agencies to include the costs to their operations of capital use; the second requires agencies to conduct their own banking and manage their annual appropriations.

Media release, First accrual-based Budget in 1999, Minister for Finance and Administration, 24 November 1998.

19 May 1999 Senior Executive Leadership Capability Framework, prioritises:

• shaping strategic thinking • achieving results • cultivating productive working relationships • exemplifying personal drive and integrity, and • communicating with influence

Media release, Launch of the Senior Executive Leadership Capability Framework, Canberra, Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for the Public Service,19 May 1999.

20

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

1 July 1999 Agencies able to operate bank accounts with private sector banks, opening the Reserve Bank of Australia to competition.

Media release, Government to open its transactional banking to competition, Minister for Finance and Administration, 31 July 1998.

19 August 1999 Dismissal of Paul Barratt (Secretary of Defence) upheld by the Federal Court:

• Prime Minister does not require cause to dismiss a secretary, and

• a dismissed secretary is entitled to hear the grounds on which they are to be dismissed, and to put their case to the Secretary of the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet.

Barratt v Howard [1999] FCA 1183

1 September 1999 SES selection changed to be based on the Senior Executive Leadership Capability Framework.

PSMPC Circular1999/11, 25 August 1999.

5 December 1999 Public Service Act 1999 and Parliamentary Service Act 1999 take effect, establishing the separation of

parliamentary departments from public service departments and enshrining a range of features, including:

• values and codes of conduct • protection for whistleblowers • employment equity • prohibition on patronage and favouritism • streamlining of employment powers (including

those of dismissal) of departmental secretaries, and • making provisions for departmental secretaries to enter into collective and/or individual employment contracts and agreements.

The Act also replaces the Management Advisory Board with the Management Advisory Committee.

Public Service Act 1999.

Parliamentary Service Act 1999.

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Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

9 May 2000 The Department of Finance and Administration and the Office of Asset Sales and Information Technology Outsourcing to jointly implement the market testing of Commonwealth activities and services, commencing with corporate services.

Media release, 2000-01 Budget: Government initiative in competitive tendering & contracting in the Australian Public Sector, Minister for Finance and Administration, 9 May 2000.

June 2001 Senate agrees to a motion requiring all APS agencies to report twice a year on contracts greater than $100 000 in value, indicating the value of the contract, the person or organisation with which the contract was made, and whether any contract provisions or related matters include any confidentiality restrictions.

Senate Debates, 20 June 2001, p. 24755.

November 2001 Public Sector and Merit Protection Commission releases its State of the Service Statistical Bulletin for 2000-01, which shows that during the 2000-01 financial year the proportion of women in the public service reached 50 per cent for the first time in its history.

The same bulletin shows that the long-term decline in the total number of public servants has halted.

State of the Service Statistical Bulletin 2000-01

21 June 2002 Public Sector and Merit Protection Commission renamed as Australian Public Service Commission, and given increased priority to:

• indigenous employment in the APS

• evaluation responsibilities

• partnerships with agencies to improve

management practices

22

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Milestones Details

Source Documents

1 July 2002 Required rate of return used to decide whether

Commonwealth properties should be sold off is reduced from 14-15 per cent to 11 per cent. This was the result of a review that followed strong criticism from the Auditor-General in August 2001.

Media release, Reduction of the Commonwealth Property Principles hurdle rate, Minister for Finance and Administration, 14 May 2002.

Commonwealth Estate Property Sales, Audit Report No. 4 2001-02, Australian National Audit Office.

17 December 2002 Max Moore-Wilton, secretary of the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet and dubbed the 'second

most powerful man in the Federal Government' after the Prime Minister, announces his resignation after six years in the job. Moore-Wilton had been a driving force behind public service reforms, including seeking a controversial degree of responsiveness from the service and greater use of AWAs in Departments.

His replacement was Peter Shergold, former secretary of the Department of Education, Science and Training, who had also once been Public Service Commissioner (1996-98).

'Max saw off the frank and fearless and then axed himself', Sydney Morning Herald, 18 December 2002.

'Shergold appointed head of PM&C', Canberra Times, 3 February 2003.

May 2003 The 2003-04 Budget includes the scrapping of the Capital Use Charge and the Agency Banking Incentive Scheme (ABIS). These decisions were the result of the Budget Estimates and Framework Review, completed in November 2002 by the Department of Finance and Administration. The scrapping of ABIS effectively marks the end of accrual budgeting (but not accrual accounting) in that agencies are allocated money as and when they need it and are no longer responsible for the custody of funds.

Report not published.

Budget Measures 2003-04, Budget Paper No. 2, pp. 101, 237.

23

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Key Changes by Category

Openness

Equity and Welfare within the APS Efficiency and Effectiveness

Administrative Appeals Tribunal Workplace Diversity initiatives

Financial Management Improvement Program

Ombudsman Merit Protection and Review

Agency

Performance review and performance pay

Facilitation of judicial review OH&S initiatives Efficiency Scrutiny Unit

Freedom of Information EEO initiatives Devolution of responsibility

More independence for the Auditor-General Program management and

budgeting, and accrual management and budgeting

Annual State of the Service Report Private sector provision of

services to, and on behalf of, government

Purchasing Advisory and Complaints Service New employment arrangements

for departmental secretaries

Charter of Budget Honesty Workplace Relations Act 1996

Customer Service Charters Agency agreements and AWAs

Privacy Act 1988 Formation of SES

New purchasing arrangements

Delivery of services on the

Internet

Financial Management and

Accountability Act 1997 and Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Act 1997

Public Service Act 1999 and

Parliamentary Service Act 1999

Fewer public service employees

24

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Selected Publications by the Parliamentary Library

Creyke, R., 'The Administrative Appeals Tribunal—What's Happening?', Current Issues Brief no. 8, 1999-2000

De Laine, M., 'International Themes in Public Service Reform', Background Paper no. 3, 1997-98

Dippelsman, R., 'Thirty years of Parliamentary and Public Service Salaries', Research Note no. 50, Jan.-June 1995

Holland, I. 'Accountability of Ministerial Staff?', Research Paper no. 19, 2001-02

Holland, I. 'Members of Parliament (Staff) Act: Background', Research Note no. 14, 2002-03

Kryger, T. and D. James, 'The Changing Size of the Commonwealth Public Service', Research Note no. 46, 1995-96

Mulgan, R., 'Politicising the Australian Public Service?' Research Paper no. 3, 1998-99

Nethercote, J., 'New Public Service Legislation: the Public Service Bill 1997', Background Paper no. 2, 1997-98

Nethercote, J., 'Public Sector Executive Salaries', Research Note no. 23, 1998-99

Nethercote, J., 'Departmental Machinery of Government Since 1987', Research Paper no. 24, 1998-99

Ohlin, J., 'Will Privatisation and Contracting Out Deliver Community Services?' Research Paper no. 15, 1997-98

O'Neill, S., 'Agency Bargaining in the Australian Public Service: A Stocktake', Research Note no. 18, 1996-97

O'Neill, S., 'Report of the Public Service Act Review group: summary and contents', Research Paper no. 3, July-December 1995

O'Neill, S., Review of 'Towards A Best Practice Australian Public Service', Current Issues Brief no. 13, 1996-97

Spry, M., 'Procedural Fairness and the Right to Dismiss a Senior Public Servant', Research Note no. 3, 1999-2000

Verspaandonk, R., 'Accrual Budgeting—State of Play', Research Note no. 30, 1999-2000

Winter, G., 'Whither Public Sector Employment?' Research Note no. 17, 1997-98

25

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Changes in the APS: Selected Publications by Parliamentary Committees

The Joint Committee of Public Accounts and Audit 1

Report number Title Date of presentation

319 Review of the Independent Auditor—Watching the Watchdog 5 Nov 1992

323

Managing People in the Australian Public Service—Dilemmas of Devolution and Diversity 17 Dec 1992

331

An Advisory Report on the Financial Management and Accountability Bill 1994, the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Bill 1994 and the Auditor-General Bill 1994, and on a Proposal to Establish an Audit Committee of Parliament 22 Sep 1994

332 The Australian Government Credit Card 11 May 1994

338 Accrual Accounting—A Cultural Change 31 Aug 1995

341

Financial Reporting for the Commonwealth—Towards Greater Transparency and Accountability 29 Nov 1995

346 Guarding the Independence of the Auditor-General 10 Oct 1996

351 An Advisory Report on the Charter of Budget Honesty Bill 1996 20 Mar 1997

353 An Advisory Report on the Public Service Bill 1997 and the Public Employment (Consequential and Transitional) Amendment Bill 1997 29 Sep 1997

369 Australian Government Procurement 30 Jun 1999

374

Review of Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997 and the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Act 1997 16 Mar 2000

377

Guidelines for Government Advertising (The Report of Committee's Inquiry into Community Education and Information Programme) 4 Oct 2000

379 Contract Management in the Australian Public Service 2 Nov 2000

386 Inquiry into the Auditor-General Act 1997 27 Sept 2001

388 Review of the Accrual Budget Documentation 19 June 2002

The Joint Committee Reports, dating back as far as December 1998, are available on the parliamentary website, at: http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/jpaa/reports.htm

1. Prior to 1998 the Committee was known as the Joint Committee of Public Accounts.

26

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Senate Standing Committee on Finance and Public Administration

Report tabled Date

The Development of the Senior Executive Service—Performance Based Pay 9 May 1990

Development of the Senior Executive Service 18 Oct 1990

Estimates Committee Documentation and Procedures 9 May 1991

Review of the Office of the Commonwealth Ombudsman 25 Feb 1992

Performance Pay 1 Feb 1994

Public Service Reform; vol 1, Conference Papers; vol 2, Conference Proceedings 1 Sep 1994

Order of the Senate for the Production of Indexed Lists of Departmental Files 20 Sep 1994

27

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Senate Finance and Public Administration References Committee (REF) and Senate Finance and Public Administration Legislation Committee (LEG)

Report tabled Date

Report on Financial Management and Accountability Bill 1994; Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Bill 1994, Auditor-General Bill 1994 Audit (Transitional & Miscellaneous) Amendment Bill 1995. (LEG) 6 Mar 1995

Property Management in the Australian Public Service (REF) 29 Jun 1995

Report on Prime Minister and Cabinet (Miscellaneous Provisions) Bill 1995 (LEG) 23 Oct 1995 Service Delivery (REF) 14 Dec 1995

Review of the Operation of the Order for the Production of Indexed Lists of Departmental Files (REF) 5 Feb 1997

Ombudsman Amendment Bill 1996 (LEG) 13 Feb 1997

Towards a Best Practice Australian Public Service (REF) (Presented to the President 28 February 1997) 3 Mar 1997

Report on the Provisions of the Public Service Bill 1997 (REF) 2 Oct 1997

Format of the Portfolio Budget Statements (LEG) 30 Oct 1997

Contracting Out of Government Services (REF) 10 Nov 1997

Contracting Out of Government Services—Second Report (REF) 14 May 1998

Review of the Operation of the Order for the Production of Indexed Lists of Departmental Files—Second Report (REF) 2 Jul 1998

Format of the Portfolio Budget Statements: Second Report (LEG), (Tabled 22 November 1999) 29 Oct 1999

Presented

The mechanism for providing accountability to the Senate in relation to government contracts (Murray motion) (REF) 26 Jun 2000

Australian Public Service employment matters - First report: Australian Workplace Agreements (REF) 2 Nov 2000 The Format of the Portfolio Budget Statements: Third Report (LEG) 9 Nov 2000

The Government's Information Technology Outsourcing Initiative (Interim Report) Accountability in a commercial environment - Emerging Issues (REF) 5 Apr 2001 The Government's Information Technology Outsourcing Initiative - Accountability Issues - Two Case Studies (REF)

June 2001

Re-booting the IT agenda in the Australian Public Service - Final report on the Government's information technology outsourcing initiative (REF) Aug 2001 Commonwealth Contracts: A new framework for accountability - Final report on the inquiry into the mechanism for providing accountability to the Senate in relation to Government contracts (REF)

26 Sept 2001

Departmental and agency contracts - Report on the first year of operation of the Senate order for the production of lists of departmental and agency contracts (REF) 12 Dec 2002 Recruitment and Training in the Australian Public Service (REF) Current

The Senate Standing Committee Reports, dating back as far as 1997, are available on the parliamentary website, at: http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/fapa_ctte/index.htm

28

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Publications of the Management Advisory Board and the Management Improvement Advisory Committee13

Benchmarking—improving performance in the APS (1993) HTML

Beyond bean counting—effective financial management—1998 and beyond in the APS (1997) HTML

No. 1 Improving asset management in the public sector (1991)

No. 2 Devolution and regional offices (1991)

No. 3 Budget flexibility—carryover provisions between financial periods (1991)

No. 4 Resource agreements (1991)

No. 5 Accountability in the Commonwealth public sector: an exposure draft (1991)

No. 6 Devolution of corporate services (1992)

No. 7 The management of underperforming officers in the APS (1992)

No. 8 Contracting for the provision of services in Commonwealth agencies (1993)

No. 9 Strategic planning for training and development (1993)

No. 10 Performance management and the management cycle

No. 11 Accountability in the Commonwealth public sector (1993)

No. 12 Building a better public service (1993)

No. 13 Delegated authority handbook (1994)

No. 14 Legal issues—a guide for policy development and administration (1994)

No. 15 Ongoing reform in the APS (1994)

No. 16 Performance management—integrated use of recognition, rewards and sanctions (1994)

No. 17 Guidelines for managing risk in the APS (1994)

No. 18 Achieving cost effective personnel services (1995) HTML and ACEPS Stage 2: Re-engineering people management: from good intentions to good practice HTML

No. 19 Ethical standards and values in the APS (1996) HTML

No. 20 2 + 2 = 5—Innovative ways of organising people in the APS (1997)

No. 21 Raising the benchmarking—benchmarking for better government

No. 22 Guidelines for managing risk in the Australian Public Service

No. 23 Before you sign the dotted line—ensuring contracts can be managed (1998) PDF

29

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

Endnotes

1. This chronology only discusses reforms in the Commonwealth Public Service.

2. For a discussion of machinery of government changes in the late 1980s, see John Nethercote's research paper, 'Departmental Machinery of Government Since 1987', Research Paper no. 24, Department of the Parliamentary Library, 1998-99.

3. See Owen E. Hughes, Australian Politics, 3rd edition, Macmillan, South Yarra, 1998 (Chapter 11) for a concise discussion and critique of the 'old' APS.

4. Owen E. Hughes, Australian Politics, 3rd edition, Macmillan, South Yarra, 1998, p. 366.

5. John Halligan and John Power, Political Management in the 1990s, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992, p. viii.

6. A complete list of amendments to the Public Service Act 1922 can be found at http://scaletext.law.gov.au/html/histact/8/4049/0/HA002730.htm

7. The strong emphasis on efficiency improvement is reflected in this characterisation of the 'new' APS.

8. The top line shows the number of APS employees at a given time. The bottom line shows the number of employees in agencies that are currently designated as part of the APS. The reason for the difference is that the APS has had a net loss of functions. Therefore the unadjusted figure shows a more dramatic decline.

9. This chronology will focus on identifying reforms rather than explaining the reasons for them. For discussions of the latter, see Owen E. Hughes, New Public Management: A Parliamentary Perspective.

10. See Michele de Laine, 'International Themes in Public Service Reform', Background Paper no. 3, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 1997-98, for discussion of other Anglo-American democracies.

11. Fiscal austerity has been a feature of all Commonwealth governments since the Fraser Government.

12. The text of legislation is available at www.austlii.edu.au and http://scaleplus.law.gov.au/

13. The text of some of these reports can be accessed at www.apsc.gov.au

30

Changes in the Australian Public Service 1975-2003

References Curtin, J., 'New Public Management Meets Civic Discontent? The Australian Public Service in 1999', Australian Journal of Public Administration, vol. 59, no. 1, 2000.

De Laine, M., 'International Themes in Public Service Reform', Background Paper no. 3, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 1997-98.

Halligan, J., and Power, J., Political Management in the 1990s, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992.

Halligan, J., 'Australia: Balancing Principles and Pragmatism' in Olsen, J. and Peters, B., Lessons from Experience: Experiential Learning in Administrative Reforms in Eight Democracies, Scandinavian University Press, Oslo, 1996.

Hughes, O., 'New Public Management: A Parliamentary Perspective', Working Paper 27/00, Department of Management, Monash University, 2000.

Hughes, O., Australian Politics, 3rd edition, Macmillan, South Yarra, 1998.

Joint Committee of Public Accounts, 202nd Report—The Selection and Development of Senior Managers in the Commonwealth Public Service, AGPS, Canberra, 1982.

McCallum, B., The Public Service Manager: An introduction to personnel management in the Australian Public Service, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne, 1984.

Moore-Wilton, M., New Performance Paradigms for the Public Service (paper presented at the National Public Sector Accountants Conference, Adelaide).

O'Donnell, M., 'Creating a Performance Culture? Performance-based Pay in the Australian Public Service', in Australian Journal of Public Administration, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 28-40, 1998.

Power, J., ed., Public Administration in Australia: a watershed, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1990.

Royal Commission on Australian Government Administration, Report, AGPS, Canberra, 1976.

Singleton, G., ed., The Second Keating Government, Centre for Research in Public Sector Management, University of Canberra and the Institute of Public Administration Australia, Canberra, 1997.

Task Force on Management Improvement, The Australian Public Service Reformed: An evaluation of a decade of management reform, AGPS, Canberra, 1992.

Yates, B., 'Workplace Relations and Agreement Making in the Australian Public Service' in Australian Journal of Public Administration, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 82-90, 1998.

Zifcak, S., New Managerialism, Open University Press, Buckingham, 1994.

31