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Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968 - 2012



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Parliament of Australia Department of Parliamentary Services

BACKGROUND NOTE 28 September 2012

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

Dr John Gardiner-Garden, Social Policy Section Joanne Simon-Davies, Statistics and Mapping Section

Contents

Executive summary ............................................................................................................................ 1

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 1

Historical overview ........................................................................................................................ 2

The 2012-13 Budget...................................................................................................................... 3

Two recent Indigenous Expenditure Reports.................................................................................. 7

Strategic Review of Indigenous Expenditure ............................................................................. 7

2012 Indigenous Expenditure Report ........................................................................................ 7

The trend in expenditure ............................................................................................................... 9

Per capita expenditure ................................................................................................................ 11

Detailed expenditure tables and data sources ............................................................................. 12

The Tables .............................................................................................................................. 12

Compilations of Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure data................................... 13

Indigenous population data .................................................................................................... 14

GDP and Implicit Price Deflator data ....................................................................................... 14

Total Commonwealth expenditure data .................................................................................. 14

Appendix 1: Key findings of the 2010 Strategic Review of Indigenous Expenditure....................... 48

Appendix 2: Key points from 2012 Indigenous Expenditure Report .............................................. 54

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

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Executive summary

This paper attempts to plot, by agency and year, identifiable Commonwealth expenditure in the area of Indigenous affairs over the 44 years from 1968 to 2012.

The paper attempts to plot trends in the above expenditure—expressed in both the nominal and real terms, expressed as a percentage of total Commonwealth outlays and Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and expressed in per-capita terms. In nominal and real terms, identifiable Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure has trended up, but dipped in the last few years. As a percentage of total outlays or Gross Domestic Product it plateaued from about 2000 to 2007 and has since fallen. The per capita trend is found to be too problematic to characterise simply.

The paper also overviews recent relevant policy developments, Budget commitments and expenditure reports and notes the factors limiting the implications that can be drawn from the data presented.

Introduction

This paper updates one written by the same authors and published as an online Parliamentary Library Research Paper in September 2010.

It presents graphs, tables and commentary on the subject of identifiable Commonwealth expenditure in the area of Indigenous Affairs. By this the authors mean expenditure in any portfolio through programs or program components specifically intended to address Indigenous issues or needs—that is, identifiable Indigenous-specific expenditure. For recent years the authors have used the Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure (AGIE) figures presented in annual Portfolio Budget Statements. It should be noted that these figures represent expenditure by a narrower definition than that used in the two recent expenditure studies discussed later in this paper. Like the figures in those two other reports, the utility of these figures for policy purposes is limited by the fact that the authors have no way of splitting figures into service provision and administration components, and no way of directly linking these expenditure figures to particular policy thrusts (such as National Partnerships, Closing the Gap or Stronger Futures), to particular regions or to particular outcomes.

In the pdf version of this paper, the tables referred to are appended at the end of the document.

In the html version of this paper, links to tables will open the relevant table in an Excel spreadsheet. All of the tables and charts referred to are in this one spreadsheet and they can be accessed via the tabs along the bottom of the screen in Excel. There is no need, therefore, to return to the text to access another table.

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Historical overview

Identifiable Commonwealth expenditure in the area of Indigenous affairs began with the establishment of the Office of Aboriginal Affairs soon after the landmark referendum in 1967. 1 The expenditure was relatively low in the first few years but increased significantly with the creation of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs soon after the Whitlam Government came to office in December 1972, and continued to grow through the 1980s.

In 1990 the Department of Aboriginal Affairs was replaced by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) and, except for a slight dip in 1993-94, identifiable Indigenous expenditure continued to rise throughout the 1990s. ATSIC expenditure as a proportion of total Indigenous expenditure started, however, to fall in the mid-1990s. This was a result of areas such as health and land acquisition being shifted out of ATSIC and some areas that remained within ATSIC receiving a funding cut following the 1996 Budget.

Although overall expenditure continued to rise from the late 1990s onward, it is difficult to compare earlier figures with those from later years because in 1998 there was a move from cash to accrual accounting and from 2000-01 the annual Ministerial Budget-time statements on Identifiable Commonwealth Expenditure on Indigenous Affairs used different categories for reporting expenditure. Tracking expenditure becomes even more complicated from 2002, as the successive administrative rearrangements associated with the gradual demise of ATSIC led to the staged transfer of its funding and responsibilities to a range of other agencies.

In 2005-06 the Commonwealth introduced the reporting in the Portfolio Budget Statements of Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure (AGIE) figures and it is these that are used in this paper to plot expenditure over the years that followed.

In 2007, the last year of the Howard government, commitments made under the Northern Territory Emergency Response (the NTER or ‘the Intervention’) increased Commonwealth Indigenous expenditure, especially that directed to the Northern Territory. Though many of the NTER measures were controversial, the Howard Government’s overall legislative package and budget commitment received bi-partisan support.

The Rudd government changed the policy rhetoric to ‘closing the gap’, ‘Indigenous Reform agenda’ and ‘National Partnerships’. It also set benchmarks, goals and funding commitments inside a Council of Australian Governments (COAG) framework, and amended some procedures and legislation so that Commonwealth actions could withstand the reinstatement of all the provisions of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975. Though the rhetorical, administrative and legal context was very different from that surrounding the Howard Government budgets, the Rudd Government’s budgets of 2008, 2009 and 2010 generally supported the Intervention-initiated budget emphasis on funding programs intended to address the perceived needs of remote communities.

1. See J Gardiner-Garden, The 1967 Referendum—history and myths, Research brief no. 11, 2006-07, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2007.

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The Gillard government’s policy has been a continuation of the Rudd government’s policy. The process of establishing a National Congress of Australia's First Peoples was completed and the prospect of recognising Australia’s Indigenous people in the Constitution was advanced by the appointment in December 2010 of an Expert Panel, who undertook wide public consultations and presented their report, Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution, in January 2012. 2 Language in one area of policy did, however, change. Since 2011 there has been a determination to move still further away from speaking of an ‘Intervention’. Thus the Government distributed a Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory discussion paper in June 2011, produced a report on the consultations (and another on methodology) in October 2011, and introduced three bills into the House in November 2011: Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory Bill 2011 and its associated Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Bill 2011 and Social Security Legislation Amendment Bill 2011. For more on these bills see the Parliamentary Library’s Stronger Futures bills digest3http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Libra ry/pubs/rp/BudgetReview201213/IndigenousAffairs - _ftn4.

The 2012-13 Budget

The change in language gave rise to a change in some budget arrangements. Thus, the 2012-13 Federal budget reflected ongoing commitments through National Partnerships on Remote Indigenous Housing, Closing the Gap in Indigenous Health Outcomes, Indigenous Early Childhood Development and Indigenous Economic Participation, but added initiatives under the umbrella of a $3.4 billion over 10-year commitment to a new Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory National Partnership4. This did not, however, represent an increase in the Government’s overall commitment to Indigenous Affairs. Most of this expenditure was either to continue funding for Northern Territory Intervention programs, which was to end in the middle of 2012, or was money redirected from other programs.

The 2012 Budget’s Stronger Futures package included:

2. Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution, Report of the Expert Panel, 2012, viewed 13 September 2012, http://www.youmeunity.org.au/uploads/assets/3446%20FaHCSIA%20ICR%20report_text_Bookmarked%20PDF%201 2%20Jan%20v4.pdf 3. Dr J Gardiner-Garden and K Magarey, Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory Bill 2011, Parliamentary Library, Bills

Digest No.103, 2011-12, 8 February 2011 viewed 13 September 2012, http://parlinfo/parlInfo/download/legislation/billsdgs/1405426/upload_binary/1405426.pdf;fileType=application/pd f#search=%22Stronger%20Futures%20in%20the%20Northern%20Territory%20Bill%202011%20Digest%22 4. J Gillard (Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for Education, Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations),

J Macklin (Minister for Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs), N Roxon (Minister for Health and Ageing), R McClelland (Attorney General), Senator M Arbib (Minister for Employment Participation), P Garrett (Minister for Environment Protection, Heritage and the Arts), and W Snowdon (Minister for Indigenous Health), Closing the Gap—Strengthening Indigenous Communities, media release, 11 May 2010, viewed 13 September 2012, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/ministers/publishing.nsf/Content/mr-yr10-nr-nr098.htm

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• $254.4 million over four years ($713.5 million over 10 years) for better primary health care, and

better access to allied health services5 • $239.6 million over four years ($619.3 million over 10 years) to improve the safety of

communities (for example, policing)6 • an as yet not-for-publication sum to be provided over 10 years to support measures to tackle

alcohol abuse in communities7 • $187.3 million over four years ($411.8 million over 10 years) to continue to improve school

outcomes for Aboriginal children8 • $141.6 million over four years ($326.3 million over 10 years) to support the well-being of

Aboriginal children, youth and their families and continue eight programs under the Alice Springs Transformation Plan9 • $149.2 million over four years ($413.4 million over 10 years) to increase the number of

Indigenous Engagement Officers, ensure local services are effective, support governance and leadership and local planning, and continue to support interpreting services10 • $54.2 million over four years to improve remote Indigenous housing, including removing asbestos

from houses and community buildings11 and • $67.8 million over four years ($206.4 million over 10 years) to support the continuation of basic

municipal and essential services for up to 9000 Aboriginal people living in outstations and homelands.12

The Budget also included initiatives with more general relevance.13

With respect to remote jobs and the former community development employment projects (CDEP), the Budget features a commitment from 1 July 2013 of $1.5 billion for a new cross-portfolio Remote Jobs and Communities Program. As with the Stronger Futures commitment, this was not new money. Indeed, against prior relevant commitments in Budget forward estimates, the establishment of the new program was estimated to cost $9.3 million in 2012-13, but save $79.8 million in 2013- 14, $92.1 million in 2014-15 and $41.5 million in 2015-16. The cost of the program to the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations would be more than offset by

5. Australian Government, Budget measures: budget paper no.2: 2012-13, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2012, p. 205, viewed 13 September 2012, http://www.budget.gov.au/2012-13/content/bp2/html/index.htm 6. Ibid., p. 149. 7. Ibid., p. 152. 8. Ibid., p. 129. 9. Ibid., p. 148. 10. Ibid., p. 152. 11. Ibid., p. 150. 12. Ibid., p. 151. 13. J Macklin, Continuing our efforts to close the gap, op. cit., and J Macklin (Minister for Families, Housing, Community

Services and Indigenous Affairs), S Conroy (Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy), P Garrett (Minister for School Education, Early Childhood and Youth), W Snowdon (Minister for Indigenous Health), K Ellis (Minister for Early Childhood and Childcare), and J Collins (Minister for Indigenous Employment and Economic Development), Investing to close the gap on Indigenous disadvantage, media release, 8 May 2012, viewed 15 September 2012, http://ministers.deewr.gov.au/macklin/budget-2012-13-investing-close-gap-indigenous-

disadvantage

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savings to the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, and to the Department of Human Services. The program included:

• combining Job Services Australia, Disability Employment Services, and Community Development

Employment Projects to create a new single assistance provider which will work with communities to develop Community Action Plans as well as with individual job-seekers (this element producing savings of $62.0 million over four years) • $137.5 million over three years to establish a Community Development Fund to support

community development projects • $44.4 million over three years for a Remote Youth Development and Leadership Corps which will

provide up to 3000 places by 2015-16 for young people aged under 25. The National Congress of Australia’s First People particularly welcomed this commitment but noted that there will be $22.8 million in savings from ending new enrolments in the Indigenous Youth Leadership Program14 and • five more years of CDEP wages to approximately 4000 long-term CDEP participants (budget

neutral over six years).

Budget initiatives relating to services and infrastructure included:

• $43.4 million in 2012-13 for remote communities to continue the provision of municipal and

essential services to 38 000 Aboriginal people in approximately 350 remote communities across Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, Victoria and Tasmania.15 This measure was announced on 28 March 2012 and is intended to supplement the efforts of State and Territory Governments.16 With small homelands and outstations communities persisting and their need for better services being great, this commitment was well received by most but criticised by

some as too little, not involving sufficient Northern Territory Government contribution and not helping to clarify long-term responsibilities and expectations17 and • $21.2 million to deliver environmental health infrastructure in the Torres Strait region, including

water projects, sewerage infrastructure, roads and serviced housing lots.18

There were two small initiatives in the area of Indigenous education:

• $14.3 million over three years to attract and retain high-calibre teachers in remote areas, by

expanding the Teach Remote program19 and

14. National Congress of Australia’s First People, Congress Statement on the Federal Budget 2012-13, media release, 9 May 2012, viewed 10 May 2012;Australian Government, op. cit., p. 131, viewed 13 September 2010, http://nationalcongress.com.au/congress-statmenton-the-federal-budget-2012-13/

15. Australian Government, op. cit., pp. 141-2. 16. J Macklin (Minister for Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs), W Snowdon (Minister for Indigenous Health), and T Crossin (Senator for the Northern Territory), Municipal and essential services for outstations and homelands in the Northern Territory, media release, 28 March 2012, viewed 13 September 2012,

http://www.jennymacklin.fahcsia.gov.au/node/1815 17. J Altman, 'Homelands policy debacle set to continue for a decade', Crikey, 9 May 2012, viewed 13 September 2012, http://www.crikey.com.au/?p=289732 18. Australian Government, op. cit., pp. 154-155.

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• $4.8 million over three years to expand (through the Clontarf Foundation) the Sporting Chance

Program which helps promote school engagement amongst Indigenous boys, and to fund strategies to promote school engagement amongst Indigenous girls.20

These amounts were, however, more than offset by the redirection to Stronger Futures spending of savings of $56.3 million over four years ($152.9 million over 10 years) by ceasing the Closing the Gap—Intensive Literacy and Numeracy Programs for Underachieving Indigenous Students. 21

With respect to health and aged care, Budget initiatives include:

• $43.1 million over five years to deliver an extra 200 aged care places for older Indigenous people

who have high care needs so that they can stay close to home in culturally appropriate care22 and • $475.0 million over six years for new and extended regional and remote health care facilities,

including $48.6 million for 10 projects in regional and remote Indigenous communities which will deliver improved health care services.23

Other initiatives included:

• $63.0 million over four years for the Special Broadcasting Service Corporation to establish a free-to-air national Indigenous television channel24 • $55.7 million over four years for the Home Interaction Program for Parents and Youngsters to

better prepare children for school through a home-based parenting and early childhood program in 100 sites across Australia. Fifty of these will be targeted towards communities with a high proportion of disadvantaged Indigenous Australians.25 • $11.8 million to extend the Cape York Welfare Reform Trial until 31 December 2013

26 and

• $10.0 million to support activities to build community understanding and support for

constitutional recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians—with the cost being met from within the existing resources of the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs.27

19. Ibid., p. 125. 20. Ibid., p. 109. 21. Ibid., p. 130. 22. Ibid., p. 186. 23. J Macklin (Minister for Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs), Continuing our efforts to close the gap,

op. cit., p. 14. 24. Ibid., p. 96. 25. Ibid., pp. 112-113. 26. Ibid., p. 135. 27. Ibid., p. 135.

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Two recent Indigenous Expenditure Reports

Strategic Review of Indigenous Expenditure

In February 2010 the Australian Government’s Department of Finance and Deregulation completed its Strategic Review of Indigenous Expenditure , but the report was only made public in a freedom of information release in 2011. 28 The report estimated Indigenous specific program and Indigenous specific mainstream expenditure for the financial year 2009-10 and tabulated these figures in its ‘Attachment D: Indigenous Programs Classified by Portfolio’. The portfolio totals and grand total of expenditure are of the same order of magnitude as the totals offered in this publication, but are not based on the Portfolio Budget Statement AGIEs, the basis for this publication. The authors of the Strategic Review opted to survey Federal departments directly, to invite estimates not just of Indigenous specific expenditures but also of share of expenditures under programs that are not Indigenous specific, and to not report Indigenous expenditures only at Outcome levels (as is often the case in the Portfolio Budget Statements’ AGIE reporting) but against all the programs that contribute towards achieving those Outcomes, and where appropriate against the lower level programs that operate within many of the formal Programs.

The Review had hoped through their survey of departments to also be able to estimate the ratio of departmental to administered expenses for grant programmes, but the fact that most large agencies did not provide this information meant no conclusions could be drawn about these ratios.

The Review did not look at historical trends (referring readers instead in footnote 35 on page 54 to an early form of this publication). 29

For further discussion of the methodology behind the report’s expenditure estimates and why they vary from the PBS AGIEs which form the basis of this publication’s estimates, see the discussion on pages 54 to 57 of the Report. For snapshots of expenditure for 2009-10 by function and for key points from the Review see Appendix 1.

2012 Indigenous Expenditure Report

The second recent expenditure report of relevance is that released on 4 September 2012 by the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (SCRGSP), which has its secretariat in the Productivity Commission.30 In their 2012 Indigenous Expenditure Report 31, the SCRGSP attempted to estimate inputs into Indigenous service delivery and in doing so the report is

28. Department of Finance and Regulation, Strategic Review of Indigenous Expenditure, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, February 2010, viewed 13 September 2012, http://www.finance.gov.au/foi/disclosure-log/2011/docs/foi_10-27_strategic_review_indigenous_expenditure.pdf 29. J. Gardiner-Garden & M. Park, Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2008, Parliamentary Library

Research Paper, Parliament of Australia 2008, http://www.aph.gov.au/Library/pubs/RP/2008-09/09rp10.pdf. 30. See the Productivity Commission web-page http://www.pc.gov.au/gsp/review/steering-committee, viewed 13 September 2012. 31. Productivity Commission, 2012 Indigenous Expenditure Report, 2012, viewed 13 September 2012,

http://www.pc.gov.au/gsp/ier/indigenous-expenditure-2012 .

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intended to complement the long running Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage reports which examine outcomes in this same area (with the latest of the latter being Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Indicators 2011 and including sections on COAG targets and headline indicators and Strategic areas for action). 32 Released at the same time as the full expenditure report has been a series of all-state and state-by-state factsheets, a series of web expenditure tables and the 2012 Indigenous Expenditure Report Overview.33

In this 2012 Report the SCRGSP attempted, as they had in their first report in this series in 2010 34, to go beyond just Commonwealth expenditure and to estimate expenditure by all levels of government, and to go beyond easily identifiable Indigenous specific expenditures and estimate also share of expenditures under programs that are not Indigenous specific. At the Commonwealth level, that meant going beyond the Portfolio Budget Statement’s Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure figures (just as the above discussed Finance Department’s Strategic Review had attempted). The total expenditure figures presented in this report are, therefore, of an entirely different magnitude to those presented in this Background Note.

For more on the report’s key findings see Appendix 2.

The report’s release was announced by some newspapers under headlines highlighting the apparent expenditure discrepancies (see for example The Australian’s ‘Aboriginal split: 5.6pc of funds, 2.6pc of population’ ) and with some writers noting that expenditure has risen well in excess of inflation since the 2010 Overview (see for example David Crowe in The Australian’s ‘Indigenous spending topping $25bn The question is: has the two-year surge benefited the 575,000 people?’). 35 The Indigenous Affairs Minister Jenny Macklin and Assistant Treasurer David Bradbury have in their media release, emphasised the reasons for the level of expenditure (‘ The estimated government expenditure on Indigenous Australians reflects a greater use of government services because of higher level of need and disadvantage, as well as the additional cost of providing services in remote areas with significant Indigenous populations’), and observed that ‘Since 2008 governments have committed unprecedented investments to help close the gap in Indigenous Affairs’.36

It needs to be noted that definitions of various Portfolio Budget Statement (PBS) outcomes can change without it being noted in the PBS and thus without it being noted in the detailed expenditure

32. Productivity Commission, Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage web-page http://www.pc.gov.au/gsp/indigenous, viewed 13 September 2012. 33. See the Productivity Commission web-page http://www.pc.gov.au/gsp/review/steering-committee, viewed 13 September 2012. 34. See the Productivity Commission web-page http://www.pc.gov.au/gsp/ier/indigenous-expenditure-2010, viewed

13 September 2012. 35. D Crowe, ‘Aboriginal split: 5.6pc of funds, 2.6pc of population’ and ‘Indigenous spending topping $25bn The question is: has the two-year surge benefited the 575,000 people?’ Australian 4 September 2012, viewed 13 September 2012 http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/media/pressclp/1893228/upload_binary/1893228.pdf 36. J Macklin (Minister for Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs), ‘Second Indigenous Expenditure Report

released’, media release, 4 September 2012, viewed 13 September 2012, http://www.jennymacklin.fahcsia.gov.au/node/2060

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tables that follow, so care needs to be taken if wanting to compare individual intra-agency outcomes across years.

The trend in expenditure

Converting nominal expenditure to real terms37 shows a rising trend over the period, which means that increases in expenditure have been more than increases in inflation (see Table 1 and Chart 1). In real terms, identifiable Commonwealth expenditure in the area of Indigenous affairs saw a dramatic

rise in the early 1970s and a dramatic fall in the late 1970s. Expenditure returned to mid 1970s levels by the mid 1980s. From the mid 1980s to the 2007-08 there was an almost uninterrupted rise in real expenditure—the interruptions being small and quickly recovered declines in the mid 1990s and 2005-06. From 2007-8 to 2009-10 both real and nominal expenditure fell. Both rose again in 2010-11.

The trend can look a little different when this expenditure is plotted against total government expenditure and Gross Domestic Product (GDP), as shown in Chart 2.

When expressed as a percentage of total Commonwealth expenditure, identifiable Indigenous expenditure shows the same sharp increase and fall in the mid 1970s, followed by almost continuous growth to 1992-93 (see Table 1 and Chart 2). The mid to late 1990s saw fluctuations with the

37. The nominal expenditure is adjusted to remove the effect of inflation and expressed in 2008-09 dollars using the Implicit Price Deflator (IPD) for Non-Farm GDP. Essentially these figures are the expenditure of previous years expressed in current dollars, enabling a more useful comparison over time.

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

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percentage rising and falling year to year but still trending upwards. From 2000-01 onwards, however, the percentage of total Commonwealth expenditure allocated to Indigenous affairs has trended down. This appears more pronounced in the years 2008-09 and 2009-10 as stimulus expenditure associated with the Government’s response to the global financial crisis (GFC), increased overall expenditure without adding to Indigenous-specific expenditure.

When plotted as a percentage of GDP, Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure shows a pattern broadly similar to when it is plotted as a percentage of total Commonwealth expenditure. Growth is fairly constant up until the early 1990s with a very clear stabilisation at around one third of one percentage point over the next decade. There is then a fall in 2008-09 to 2009-10 followed by a rise in 2010-11. Therefore, relative to growth in the economy as a whole, as measured by GDP, growth in Indigenous-specific expenditure has been minimal and not sustained since the early 1990s

(see Table 1 and Chart 2).

Some commentators have also considered identifiable Indigenous expenditure in the light of the total government revenue. They have drawn attention to the fact that the plateauing of Indigenous expenditure relative to total expenditure and GDP from the late 1990s up to the GFC of 2008, happened in a period when the federal government had been generally presenting surplus budgets, so could theoretically (leaving all fiscal considerations and competing needs aside) have increased

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Indigenous expenditure.38 In the years 2008-09 and 2009-10, however, Commonwealth revenues declined as a result of the GFC and deficit budgets were recorded.

Per capita expenditure

Five-yearly census data covers the whole of the period of Aboriginal affairs expenditure. Census counts, however, are not considered a reliable indicator of the true size of the Indigenous population over this period. The data show periods of low and high population growth which cannot be accounted for by births and deaths only and which may be due in part to variations in the propensity to identify as Indigenous. As such, the per capita expenditure figures which are derived from these data and presented in Table 1 and Chart 3 should be used with caution. It is strongly advised that these figures not be used for an analysis of trends over the period.

It needs also to be noted that no comparison of Indigenous specific and total per capita expenditure can be meaningful without factoring in geography, because costs are generally lower per capita for the urban indigenous population and greatly increase it for the rural and remote one. 39

38. For example, Chris Graham in the National Indigenous Times, 29 May, 2008, pp. 15-16 calculated that Indigenous expenditure as a percentage of total revenue had been generally lower in Howard Government budgets than it had been in the Keating Government, and argued that ‘… it’s one thing to measure the amount of money allocated to Indigenous affairs. It’s another thing altogether to measure the amount of money available to be allocated to Indigenous affairs.’ 39. See Helen Hughes and Mark Hughes, ‘Money well spent’, Ideas@The Centre, 11 March 2011, viewed 17 August 2012,

http://www.cis.org.au/publications/ideasthecentre/article/2478-money-well-spent

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Further complicating the task of estimating per capita expenditure is the fact that much of Indigenous-specific expenditure has not been simply ‘on top of’ that which Indigenous Australians might benefit from by being Australians. A large proportion of it has substituted for expenditure that would normally be provided via mainstream assistance programs (for example, Community Development Employment Projects for Newstart, Community Housing for housing under the Commonwealth-State Housing agreement, Aboriginal Legal Aid for general legal aid, Aboriginal Medical Services for Medicare supported services). A further amount has been for services which are generally the responsibility of other levels of government (for example, state or local). At the same time, Indigenous Australians have often utilised mainstream services and benefits at a lower rate than other Australians (for example, Pharmaceutical Benefits and Aged Care). 40

To produce meaningful per capita expenditure figures, detailed studies of single-portfolio areas need to be conducted. An example of such a study is J Deeble et.al.’s Expenditures on health for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 2004-05 41 and a more recent and more comprehensive study is the Productivity Commissions 2012 Indigenous Expenditure Report discussed at greater length in a previous section of this paper.

Detailed expenditure tables and data sources

The tables listed below provide the most detailed identifiable Indigenous Specific Commonwealth expenditure data available. The data are drawn from various sources, but most notably those listed further below.

The Tables

Table 1: Identifiable Commonwealth Expenditure on Indigenous Affairs, 1968-69 to 2009-10

Table 2: Identifiable Commonwealth Expenditure on Indigenous Affairs, 1968-69 to 1989-90 ($ millions—cash basis)

Table 3: Identifiable Commonwealth Expenditure on Indigenous Affairs, 1990-91 to 1999-2000 ($ millions - cash then accrual basis)

Table 4: Identifiable Commonwealth Expenditure on Indigenous Affairs, 2000-01 to 2004-05 ($)

Table 5: Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure (AGIE) - Portfolio level, 2005-06 to 2007- 08 ($’000)

Table 6: Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure (AGIE) - Portfolio level 2007-08 to 2010-11 ($’000)

40. See J Deeble, J Shelton Agar and J Goss, Expenditures on health for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 2004-05¸ Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra, February 2008, viewed 15 September 2010, http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/hwe/eohfatsip04-05/eohfatsip04-05.pdf

41. Ibid.

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Compilations of Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure data

Expenditure data for the late 1960s to the late 1980s can be found in Appendix 15 of the Aboriginal Affairs Department, 1988-89 Annual Report, and in JC Altman and W Sanders, From exclusion to dependence: Aborigines and the welfare state in Australia, Discussion Paper No. 1/1991, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University, Canberra.

In 1991 and 1992 expenditure tables were included in the Budget Related Paper No.7, Social Justice For Indigenous Australians, circulated by the then Minister for Aboriginal Affairs, Robert Tickner.

From 1993 and 1995 expenditure tables were included in an annual, but no longer officially Budget related, Social Justice For Indigenous Australians, circulated by the then Minister Robert Tickner.

There was no equivalent compilation released in 1996 or 1997, but in 1998, the then Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Senator Herron released Commonwealth Programs For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 1995-1996, and Addressing Priorities in Indigenous Affairs an expenditure compilation that also included actual expenditures for 1995-96 and 96-97 and estimates for 97-98 and 98-99.

From 1999 to 2002 the Government released expenditure compilations at budget time in the form of a series of Ministerial statements:

• A Better Future for Indigenous Australians, Statement by Senator the Honourable John Herron,

Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, 11 May 1999. • The Future Together, Indigenous-Specific Measures in the 2000-01 Budget, Statement by Senator

the Honourable John Herron, Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, 9 May 2000. • Our Path Together, Statement by the Honourable Philip Ruddock MP, Minister for Immigration

and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, 22 May 2001, viewed 23 September 2008, http://www.budget.gov.au/2001-02/minst/html/atsic-13.htm#P297_65117, • Indigenous Affairs 2002-03, Statement by the Honourable Philip Ruddock MP, Minister for

Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Reconciliation, 14 May 2002.

In 2003 the then Minister for Indigenous Affairs, Senator Amanda Vanstone, simply included Indigenous-specific expenditure in a Budget time press release kit. Her 2003 release only included overall expenditure, but the 2004 and 2005 releases included more of the detail of the kind that had been in earlier Ministerial statements.

From 2006 there has been no single cross-portfolio compilation of Indigenous-specific Commonwealth expenditures. Instead portfolio specific summaries of ‘Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure’ (AGIE) have been included in nearly all the annual Portfolio Budget Statements.

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Indigenous population data

Historical: ABS, Australian Historical Population Statistics, 2008 (Cat no. 3105.0.65.001), at http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/allprimarymainfeatures/632CDC28637CF57ECA256F1F 0080EBCC?opendocument

2011: ABS, Census of Population and Housing 2011, Quickstats - Australia, at http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/0

GDP and Implicit Price Deflator data

ABS, National Income, Expenditure and Product, June 2012, Table 5 (Cat. no. 5206.0), at http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/allprimarymainfeatures/52AFA5FD696482CACA25768 D0021E2C7?opendocument

Total Commonwealth expenditure data

Australian Government, Budget Paper No. 1, 1999-2000, 2009-10 and 2010-11 editions, at http://www.budget.gov.au/past_budgets.htm

Australian Government, Budget Paper No. 1, 2012-13 at http://www.budget.gov.au/2012-13/content/bp1/html/index.htm , and

the 2012-13 edition’s Appendix I: Historical budget and net financial worth data at http://www.budget.gov.au/2012-13/content/bp1/html/bp1_bst10-04.htm

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

15

Table 1: Identifiable Commonwealth Expenditure on Indigenous Affairs, 1968-69 to 2009-10 Nominal and real dollars; percentages; per capita

1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78

Indigenous Commonwealth expenditure Nominal expenditure ($ millions) CASH 10.1 8.9 24.4 29 58.4 96.7 158.9 186.1 161.5 173.8

Real expenditure(a) ($ millions) CASH 110.0 91.7 241.3 267.6 509.8 780.9 1 115.8 1 073.4 810.8 787.0

Total Commonwealth expenditure(b)

Nominal expenditure ($ millions) CASH 5 670 6 131 7 176 7 987 9 120 10 829 15 275 19 876 22 657 25 489

Indig expend as % of Nominal expend.(%) 0.18 0.15 0.34 0.36 0.64 0.89 1.04 0.94 0.71 0.68

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

GDP ($ millions) 32 694 36 855 40 315 44 471 49 749 60 288 71 140 83 243 96 062 104 894

Nominal expend.as a % of GDP (%) 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.07 0.12 0.16 0.22 0.22 0.17 0.17

Indigenous population - Census counts(c) Population

115 953

160 915 Real expenditure(a) per capita ($) 2 308.1 5 039.0

1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88

Indigenous Commonwealth expenditure Nominal expenditure ($ millions) CASH 151.6 182 219.6 258.8 300.4 396.7 467.2 507.6 584.3 656.2

Real expenditure(a) ($ millions) CASH 638.7 728.8 788.1 838.7 856.1 1 038.9 1 146.1 1 188.1 1 281.0 1 347.2

Total Commonwealth expenditure(b)

Nominal expenditure ($ millions) CASH 27 753 31 041 35 260 40 394 47 907 55 966 63 639 69 838 75 392 79 440

Indig expend as % of Nominal expend.(%) 0.55 0.59 0.62 0.64 0.63 0.71 0.73 0.73 0.78 0.83

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

GDP ($ millions) 118 591 134 482 152 347 175 759 189 243 213 760 235 467 260 169 285 544 324 590

Nominal expend.as a % of GDP (%) 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20

Indigenous population - Census counts(c) Population

159 897

227 593 Real expenditure(a) per capita ($) 5 245.4 5 628.3

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

16

1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98

Indigenous Commonwealth expenditure Nominal expenditure ($ millions) CASH 777.6 874.1 1117.9 1257.3 1437.8 1361.8 1473.2 1715.1 1 670.5 1 852.3

Real expenditure(a) ($ millions) CASH 1 486.2 1 537.2 1 848.5 2 020.4 2 287.7 2 138.7 2 302.5 2 592.7 2 463.8 2 715.4

Total Commonwealth expenditure(b)

Nominal expenditure ($ millions) CASH 82 202 88 882 97 333 104 551 111 484 117 252 122 901 131 182 135 126 134 608

Indig expend as % of Nominal expend.(%) 0.95 0.98 1.15 1.20 1.29 1.16 1.20 1.31 1.24 1.38

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

GDP ($ millions) 368 130 404 735 415 607 423 383 444 497 467 501 496 425 529 706 556 981 589 345

Nominal expend.as a % of GDP (%) 0.21 0.22 0.27 0.30 0.32 0.29 0.30 0.32 0.30 0.31

Indigenous population - Census counts(c) Population

265 371

352 970 Real expenditure(a) per capita ($) 7 613.6 6 980.2

1998-99 99-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

Indigenous Commonwealth expenditure

Nominal expenditure ($ millions) CASH 1 888.0

Nominal expenditure ($ millions) ACCRUAL 1 997.1 2 217.8 2 323.4 2 396.8 2 572.6 2 831.1 2 930.1 3 016.3 3 509.9 3 852.2

Real expenditure(a) ($ millions) CASH 2 742.8

Real expenditure(a) ($ millions) ACCRUAL 2 901.3 3 183.8 3 211.6 3 194.6 3 355.1 3 595.4 3 576.0 3 512.9 3 900.3 4 101.9

Total Commonwealth expenditure(b)

Nominal expenditure ($ millions) CASH 142 159

Nominal expenditure ($ millions) ACCRUAL 146 772 155 558 180 094 193 041 201 259 215 361 229 245 242 173 259 156 280 107

Indig expend as % of Nominal expend.(%) CASH 1.33

Indig expend as % of Nominal expend.(%) ACCRUAL 1.36 1.43 1.29 1.24 1.28 1.31 1.28 1.25 1.35 1.38

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

GDP ($ millions) 621 525 662 037 706 895 754 949 800 911 859 487 920 899 994 803 1 083 060 1 175 948

Nominal expend.as a % of GDP (%) CASH 0.30

Nominal expend.as a % of GDP (%) ACCRUAL 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.32 0.30 0.32 0.33

Indigenous population - Census counts(c) Population

410 003

455 031 Real expenditure(a) per capita ($) 7 791.7 8 571.5

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

17

2008-09 (d) 2009-10 (d) 2010-11

Indigenous Commonwealth expenditure Nominal expenditure ($ millions) CASH Nominal expenditure ($ millions) ACCRUAL 3 507.2 3 348.1 3 685.7

Real expenditure(a) ($ millions) CASH Real expenditure(a) ($ millions) ACCRUAL 3 507.2 3 330.9 3 447.3

Total Commonwealth expenditure(b) Nominal expenditure ($ millions) CASH Nominal expenditure ($ millions) ACCRUAL 324 557 340 035 356 100

Indig expend as % of Nominal expend.(%) CASH Indig expend as % of Nominal expend.(%) ACCRUAL 1.08 0.98 1.04

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) GDP ($ millions) 1 252 218 1 293 380 1 399 071

Nominal expend.as a % of GDP (%) CASH Nominal expend.as a % of GDP (%) ACCRUAL 0.28 0.26 0.26

Indigenous population - Census counts(c) Population

548 369 Real expenditure(a) per capita ($) 6 286.5

Note: Expenditure data are presented on both a CASH and ACCRUAL accounting basis in this table and the two sets of data are not comparable. Expenditure for 1998-99 is available on both a cash and accrual basis and so both are included.

(a) Cash data are Australian Government general government sector payments/outlays and Accrual data are Australian Government general government accrual expenses. Please note that in 2008-09 Treasury revised historical data back to 1998-99 to improve the accuracy and comparability through time. This has resulted in the expenditure data for these years being significantly different from that published in previous Budgets. (b) Converted to 2008-09 dollars using the Implicit Price Deflator (IPD) for Non-Farm GDP. (c) The Census counts of Indigenous persons are not considered a reliable indicator of the true size of the Indigenous population over this period of time. The Census counts show periods of unexplained

low and high growth (which cannot be accounted for by births and deaths). The ABS has produced estimates and projections of the Indigenous population, but the latest of these only covers the period 1991-2006 (these are used in Table 2). The Census counts, however, are the only Indigenous population data that cover the whole period. It should also be noted that the total Indigenous population as counted in the Census does not necessarily equate with the population intended to be the beneficiaries of Indigenous expenditure. (d) IPD and GDP estimates for 2008-09 and 2010-11 are from “Economic Statement, July 2012

Sources: Expenditure: See detailed expenditure tables (3-6) for sources. Population: ABS, Australian Historical Population Statistics (3105.0.65.001), Table 9 GDP and Implicit Price Deflator: ABS, National Income, Expenditure and Product (5206.0) and Economic Statement, July 2010 Treasury Total Commonwealth expenditure: Budget Paper No. 1, 1999-2000 and 2012-13 editions, Table 8 Statement 10: Historical Australian Government Data (page 10-13)

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

18

Table 2: Identifiable Commonwealth Expenditure on Indigenous Affairs 1968-69 to 1989-90 ($ millions—cash basis) 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79

Main ATSI Agency (a)

Employment .. 1.4 0.4 0.6 4.1 4.8 14.6 5.7 5.3 6.8 6.9

Health 0.5 0.8 1.2 2.0 3.0 9.4 11.9 15.9 14.4 16.3 17.5

Law and justice .. .. .. .. 0.7 1.2 2.7 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.2

Housing 2.3 2.8 6.1 6.5 14.3 25.0 43.0 43.2 39.9 34.3 39.4

Community infrastructure . 0.3 7.5 8.2 10.5 15.7 16.4 27.5 25.2 26.1 22.5

Education (b) 0.8 0.9 2.9 3.0 3.1 4.8 6.0 9.0 8.5 9.2 9.1

Other 6.4 2.7 2.0 3.6 8.6 17.3 30.1 33.9 23.9 27.7 33.0

TOTAL 10.1 8.9 20.0 24.0 44.3 78.3 124.8 138.9 121.0 124.3 132.6

Other Commonwealth Agencies

Employment, Education and Training .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Housing .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Other .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

TOTAL .. .. 4.4 5.0 14.1 18.4 34.1 47.2 40.5 49.5 19.0

GRAND TOTAL 10.1 8.9 24.4 29.0 58.4 96.7 158.9 186.1 161.5 173.8 151.6

1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90

Main ATSI Agency (a)

Employment 7.0 10.1 10.4 10.4 18.4 27.0 29.9 40.2 65.5 99.0 133.2

Health 18.5 19.9 21.6 23.8 28.5 36.5 37.9 38.1 41.1 43.5 43.7

Law and justice 5.0 5.0 6.5 8.0 10.9 12.1 12.9 13.2 14.7 17.0 19.6

Housing 45.7 48.6 42.3 50.2 57.9 68.9 78.5 81.8 90.4 96.7 60.7

Community infrastructure 18.4 13.3 21.7 24.8 32.1 35.2 34.8 49.1 45.5 69.3 78.0

Education (b) 8.8 9.9 11.0 12.2 14.0 15.4 15.7 16.0 12.4 .. ..

Other 37.3 52.6 55.2 68.6 81.0 86.1 85.4 93.6 107.8 124.5 172.9

TOTAL 140.8 159.4 168.8 198.0 242.8 281.2 295.1 332.1 377.4 450.0 508.2

Other Commonwealth Agencies

Employment, Education and Training .. .. .. .. .. .. 148.6 167.3 180.6 190.9 210.6

Housing .. .. .. .. .. .. 59.4 60.0 83.0 111.7 132.5

Other .. .. .. .. .. .. 4.4 24.8 15.1 24.9 22.9

TOTAL 41.2 60.2 90.0 102.4 153.9 186.0 212.5 252.2 278.8 327.6 366.0

GRAND TOTAL 182.0 219.6 258.8 300.4 396.7 467.2 507.6 584.3 656.2 777.6 874.1

(a) Office of Aboriginal Affairs—1967-1971; Department of Aboriginal Affairs—1972-March 1990; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission—March to June 1990. (b) Function absorbed by other agencies from 1988-89. Sources: Annual Report of the main ATSI agency, various years and, for the ‘Other Commonwealth Agencies’ data up to 1984-85, JC Altman and W Sanders, From exclusion to dependence: Aborigines and the welfare state in Australia, Discussion Paper No. 1/1991, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research.

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

19

Table 3: Identifiable Commonwealth Expenditure on Indigenous Affairs 1990-91 to 1999-2000 ($ millions - cash then accrual basis)

Cash basis Accrual basis

1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1998-99 1999-00

Main ATSI agency (a)

Employment 194.1 204.5 240.8 251.9 278.3 336.3 336.0 360.1 380.1 378.8 423.8

Health 48.6 48.2 61.1 70.6 84.8 (b) .. .. .. .. ..

Legal aid 18.6 21.8 29.8 31.6 33.4 34.6 39.6 (c)54.8 (c)63.4 40.9 58.8

Housing 74.5 75.4 (d)37.2 106.0 123.1 143.2 (d)40.8 (d)43.5 (d)38.2 (d)49.7 162.7

Community infrastructure 98.3 99.0 (e)165.6 122.3 94.4 131.7 (e)204.3 (e)236.8 (e)217.2 (e)231.6 127.4

Native Title and Land Rights (f) .. .. .. 12.7 19.4 26.6 43.1 50.2 51.1 51.2 64.6

Other 170.2 160.9 262.4 293.0 308.1 296.1 230.3 228.2 210.3 203.5 197.8

TOTAL 604.4 609.8 796.8 888.1 941.5 968.5 894.1 973.6 960.3 955.8 1 035.1

Other specific ATSI agencies

ATSI Commercial Develop. Corp. (g) 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 .. .. .. .. 10.0 5.4 5.2

Aboriginal Hostels 22.6 23.6 29.6 35.8 29.1 28.9 27.9 28.4 28.6 38.6 43.4

Aboriginal Benefit Reserve(h) .. 37.3 31.1 27.0 29.1 31.3 34.9 27.1 33.1 29.0 32.9

AIATSIS .. 5.8 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.7 5.6 5.7 6.0 6.8 7.2

Torres Strait Regional Authority .. .. .. .. 21.9 36.3 31.7 34.8 40.3 41.3 45.1

Indigenous Land Corporation .. .. .. .. .. 24.5 25.4 48.3 49.7 23.4 60.0

TOTAL 32.6 76.7 76.5 78.4 85.7 126.7 125.5 144.3 167.7 144.5 193.8

Other Commonwealth Agencies

Employment, Education and Training 305.9 389.5 351.7 279.4 291.9 335.1 355.9 416.3 384.9 418.2 434.8

Housing 139.6 143.5 161.7 93.7 91.0 (b) .. .. .. .. ..

Family and Community Services (i) .. .. .. .. .. 102.2 102.5 102.7 107.8 128.7 155.3

Health .. .. .. .. .. 136.6 144.1 161.2 194.8 188.0 226.6

Other 35.3 37.8 51.1 22.3 63.1 46.0 48.4 54.2 72.5 161.8 172.2

TOTAL 480.9 570.8 564.5 395.4 446.0 619.9 650.9 734.4 760.0 896.8 988.9

GRAND TOTAL 1 117.9 1 257.3 1 437.8 1 361.8 1 473.2 1 715.1 1 670.5 1 852.3 1 888.0 1 997.1 2 217.8

(a) Estimates. (b) Functions absorbed by other agency(ies) from this year. (c) Includes Human Rights. (d) Excludes Community Housing. (e) Includes Community Housing. (f) Does not include ABTA/Aboriginal Benefit Reserve expenditure. (g) The cash basis figures are the Commonwealth capital injections, but the accrual basis figures are annual agency expenditures. The agency regards itself as self-funding. (h) Aboriginal Benefit Trust Account until 1996-97. Includes $0.2 million provided annually under the Ranger Agreement. (i) Includes $91.0 million for each year for the Aboriginal Rental Housing Programme previously funded under the Housing portfolio. Source: ATSIC, Annual Report, various years; Addressing priorities in Indigenous Affairs, Statement by the Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, 12 May 1998.

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

20

Table 4: Identifiable Commonwealth Expenditure on Indigenous Affairs 2000-01 to 2004-05 ($)

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

MAIN INDIGENOUS AFFAIRS PORTFOLIO RECON. AND ATSI AFFAIRS PORTFOLIO IMMIGRATION AND MULTICULTURAL AND INDIGENOUS AFFAIRS PORTFOLIO Policy and coordination on Indig. issues incl. reconciliation 2 734 000 4 739 000 4 739 000 4 303 000 to OATSIA

Living in Harmony - Indigenous-specific projects from IMA 64 700 65 000 167 487 167 000 81 293 75 000

Indigenous Flexible Funding Pool (COAG init.) 3 000 000 3 000 000 3 000 000

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission

Promotion of Cultural Authority 60 750 000 66 006 000 66 006 000 173 881 000 173 881 000 to ATSIS

Advancement of Indigenous Rights and Equity 84 005 000 89 174 000 89 174 000 88 980 000 88 980 000 to ATSIS

Improvement of Social and Physical Wellbeing (incl. CHIP) 371 304 000 361 078 000 361 078 000 610 384 000 610 384 000 to ATSIS

Economic Development (including CDEP) 544 335 000 574 430 000 574 430 000 231 510 000 231 510 000 to ATSIS

Capacity Building and Quality Assurance 13 164 000 11 982 000 11 982 000 27 371 000 27 371 000 to ATSIS

Payments - Aboriginal Benefits Account 32 259 000 31 416 000 31 416 000 31 577 000 44 800 000 44 800 000 49 900 000 to OIPC

Ranger Payment 200 000 200 000 200 000 200 000 200 000 to OIPC

Policy and Advocacy

from above 19 800 000 54 148 000 to OIPC

Evaluation and Audit

218 000 218 000 to OIPC

Home Loans

16 868 000 16 868 000 to OIPC

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Services

Promotion of Cultural Authority

from ATSIC 181 481 000 181 709 000 to OIPC

Advancement of Indigenous Rights and Equity

from ATSIC 87 792 000 84 053 000 to OIPC

Improvement of Social and Physical Wellbeing (incl. CHIP)

from ATSIC 593 339 000 610 563 000 to OIPC

Economic Development (including CDEP)

from ATSIC 252 789 000 248 561 000 to OIPC

Capacity Building and Quality Assurance

from ATSIC 39 149 000 30 741 000 to OIPC

Office of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs

Policy and coordination on Indig. issues incl. reconciliation

5 798 000 5 933 000 19 728 000 to OIPC

Office of Indigenous Policy Coordination

Policy and coordination on Indig. issues incl. reconciliation

from OATSIA 7 408 000

Policy and Advocacy

from ATSIC 43 800 000

Evaluation and Audit

from ATSIC 293 000 to Finance

Departmental

113 185 000

Departmental - ATSIC Operating Expenses

23 887 000

Cross Portfolio Indig. Flexible Funding Arrangements

3 115 000

Indigenous Affairs Litigation

440 000

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

21

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

Indigenous Women

5 157 000

Native Title and Land Rights

52 921 000

Public Information

2 357 000

Reconciliation Place in Canberra - continuous development

1 000 000

Repatriation

400 000

Shared Respons. Agreements and community engage.

19 944 000

Payments - Aboriginal Benefits Account

from ATSIC 50 200 000 60 000 000

Ranger Payment

from ATSIC 200 000 200 000

Promotion of Cultural Authority

from ATSIS 190 503 000 see below

Advancement of Indigenous Rights and Equity

from ATSIS 84 465 000 see below

Improvement of Social and Physical Wellbeing (incl. CHIP)

from ATSIS 638 094 000 below & EWR

Economic Development (including CDEP)

from ATSIS 257 783 000 see below

Capacity Building and Quality Assurance

from ATSIS 41 517 000 see below

Home Loans

from ATSIC 37 368 000 see below

Community Development and Employment

from above 177 780 000

Community Housing and Infrastructure

from above 50 073 000

Legal and Preventative

from above 23 786 000

Business Development

from above 241 000

Business Development Loans (capital)

from above 886 000

Art, Culture and Language

from above 9 692 000

Broadcasting

from above 7 867 000

Sport and Recreation

from above 5 738 000

Family Violence Prevention

from above 3 195 000

Effective Family Tracing and Reunion

from above 1 121 000

Maintenance and Protection of Indigenous Heritage

from above 1 311 000

Payments from Housing Loan Fund (HOP) - capital

from above 90 000 000

Torres Strait Regional Authority

Economic Development 3 001 000 3 381 000 2 291 000 2 883 000 2 276 978 2 776 649 2 812 440 2 845 000 3 153 000

Community Development and Training (including CDEP) 26 408 000 28 986 000 28 548 000 29 767 000 30 032 086 30 996 195 31 043 040 32 078 000 32 478 000

Native Title 1 541 000 1 732 000 1 572 000 1 487 000 1 229 589 1 424 163 1 445 200 1 464 000 1 446 000

Housing and Environmental Health Infrastructure 8 733 000 7 913 000 8 097 000 7 977 000 8 775 401 8 036 877 8 055 880 8 147 000 8 311 000

Social, Cultural and Development 5 733 000 6 581 000 7 182 000 7 179 000 6 627 587 6 834 441 6 874 080 6 726 000 7 069 000

Policy and Information 1 307 000 1 214 000 1 693 000 1 426 000 2 252 379 1 486 675 1 535 360 1 374 000 1 793 000

Aboriginal Hostels Limited

Company Owned and Operated Hostels 33 832 000 35 366 000 36 737 000 36 743 000 36 267 000 33 004 000 33 065 000 33 364 000 to FACS

Community Operated Hostels 9 171 000 9 171 000 7 800 000 7 800 000 9 600 000 8 300 000 8 300 000 8 300 000 to FACS

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

22

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

Aust. Inst. of Aborig. and Torres Strait Islander Studies

Publications, Products and Archives 2 892 000 4 365 429 4 440 000 4 332 000 see below

Collections 2 020 000 2 928 103 2 728 000 2 668 000 see below

Research / Directed Research 1 714 000 2 213 580 3 353 000 3 093 000 3 647 000 3 255 000 3 904 000 3 644 000 to EST

Grants / Dissemination of Information 1 247 000 1 568 888 1 651 000 1 623 000 1 047 000 933 000 862 000 1 131 000 to EST

Collection Development and Management 5 604 000 4 453 000 5 524 000 4 242 000 to EST

Indigenous Business Australia

Project Development 2 293 000 2 761 000 3 744 000 2 942 000 3 233 000 3 722 000 4 609 000 4 116 000 to EWR, E&I

Project Management 3 804 000 4 961 000 6 085 000 4 753 000 5 224 000 6 015 000 7 449 000 6 653 000 to EWR, E&I

Indigenous Land Corporation

Assistance in the acquisition & management of land 65 522 000 63 750 000 65 376 000 66 595 000 59 533 000 66 734 000 77 571 000 77 761 100 87 886 000

Indigenous Affairs Portfolio

1 277 769 000

1 315 717 000

1 320 386 700

1 349 539 000

1 358 440 507

1 423 507 000

1 492 820 293

1 468 790 000 796 432 000

AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FORESTRY PORT. 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Indigenous Land Management Facilitators Network 575 000

Rural and Remote Water Supplies 52 000 150 000 50 000 150 000 10 000

Nth Aust. Quarantine Strat. Aborig.l Communic. Strat. (NT) 100 000 100 000 100 000 100 000 100 000 150 000 129 000 129 000 140 000

Nth Aust. Quarantine Strat. pest and disease monit., surveill. 2 200 000 2 200 000 2 207 000 2 207 000 2 261 693 2 471 254 2 530 921

Agriculture Advancing Aust. - Indig. public relations camp. 46 929 12 683

AAA FarmBis - Indig. consultancy and communication camp. 32 858 0

AAA FarmBis funding for Indig. Land Corporation project 108 109 159 845 34 500 141 300 115 144 0 6 667

AAA FarmBis funding Indig. Sponsorship - Rural Leadership 37 500 0

Indigenous People in Rural Industries Program 281 000 316 700 391 000 0 128 000

Indigenous Aquaculture Development 25 000 162 500 345 750 365 000 365 000

Indigenous Forestry Development 150 000

Sub-total Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Portfolio 727 000 250 000 2 525 396 2 472 528 2 697 500 3 127 500 3 252 587 2 965 254 3 320 588

ATTORNEY-GENERAL’S PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Com. Community Legal Serv. Prog. -Indig. Women’s Initiat. 1 084 881 1 084 881 972 954 992 413 994 129 994 129 1 016 995 1 027 365 1 037 335

National Aboriginal Justice Advisory Committee Secretariat 15 000 15 000 12 000 15 000 15 000 15 000 65 000 15 000 15 000

Nat. Crime Prevention - Projects addressing indig. 458 141 419 000 469 000 454 000 803 500 10 000 205 000

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

23

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

needs Northern Territory Aboriginal Interpreter Service 880 000 630 000 630 000 673 000 936 574 936 574 722 250 900 000

Native Title 4 637 000 5 331 000 5 331 000 5 478 000 5 037 533 5 523 021 5 903 000 5 685 000 5 847 000

Native Title Financial Assist. Payments: States and Territories 11 000 000 500 000 11 000 000 11 000 000 0 11 000 000 0

Legal Aid from ATSIS 28 279 205

Law & Justice Advocacy from ATSIS 1 268 594

Prevention, Diversion & Rehabilitation from ATSIS 3 751 201

Family Violence Legal Services from ATSIS 3 008 000

Departmental ex ATSIC-ATSIS from ATSIC/S 6 176 000

Australian Institute of Criminology

Violence Prevention Awards 24 000

Australian Customs Service

Engage and Train Torres Strait Islanders as Marine Crew 237 520 170 850 187 850 170 850 180 000 170 000 175 777 176 000 387 291

Indigenous Cadetship Programme 40 000 40 000 40 000 46 200 137 000 217 000 169 696 170 000 146 359

Australian Federal Police

ATSI Career Development and Recruiting Strategy 40 000 23 000 32 663 40 000 40 000 125 000 95 000 180 585 180 585

Criminology Research Council

Hearing Loss and Com. Disability within Crim. Just. Syst. 7 500

Develop. Unique risk of violence tool for Indig. Offenders 10 263 10 000

Aborig. Youth Suicide - towards model of explan. and allev. 11 864

A survey of Aborig. Comm. Attitudes to Domestic Violence 12 840

Emergency Management Australia

Emergency Risk Management with Indigenous communities 35 000 40 000 38 000 37 000 37 000

Family Court of Australia

Resolution of Family Disputes involving Indigenous people 372 000 382 000 348 000 359 000 359 000 370 000 389 000 401 000 401 000

Determination of family disputes involving Indig. people 97 000 104 000 116 000 119 000 119 000 123 000 130 000 134 000 134 000

Federal Court of Australia

Native Title Jurisdiction Matters 10 204 000 11 903 000 11 280 738 12 991 000 11 874 269 11 200 063 11 184 216 11 415 851 9 557 248

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission

Community Affairs HREOC 925 000 925 000 1 079 000 988 000 960 000 965 000 1 021 000 1 021 000 944 852

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

24

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

National Native Title Tribunal

Recognition and Protection of Native Title 25 883 000 28 493 000 28 493 000 33 484 000 31 643 000 34 093 000 32 172 000 33 747 000 34 018 000

Sub-total Attorney-General’s Portfolio 44 940 009 60 530 731 49 527 205 66 850 463 53 137 005 65 741 787 53 285 934 65 009 801 96 051 670

COMMUNICATIONS, INFO. TECH. AND THE ARTS 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Construction of new facilities for AIATSIS 4 258 979

190 000

Construction of National Museum’s First Australias’ gallery 9 742 751

234 000

Return of Indigenous Cultural Property 500 000 500 000 500 000 0 727 291 907 838 890 000 1 083 000 256 378

Support for Community Broadcasting 576 265 591 250 591 250 608 396 608 400 626 650 621 211 637 950 639 930

Telecommunication needs of discrete Indig. communities 400 000 400 000 2 300 000 2 300 000 3 800 000 3 100 000 3 804 000 1 502 000

National Aboriginal and Islander Skills Development Assoc. 900 000 914 000 924 000 929 000 948 000 943 000 943 000 957 000 to below

Cultural Develop. Prog. Funding for Indig. Dance Training

from above 957 000

Cultural Develop. Prog. Funding for Indig. Art - training & facilities

1 000 000

Indigenous Community TV Roll out

2 000 000

Indigenous Broadcasting Services

from IMIA 4 992 000

Maint. and Prom. of Indig Arts and Cult., Languages & Records

from IMIA 9 227 000

Sporting Opportunities for Indigenous Peoples

from IMIA 5 554 000

Departmental ex ATSIC-ATSIS

from IMIA 9 066 000

National Council for the Centenary of Federation

Yeperenye Federation Festival 1 400 000 1 104 000 992 732

Indigenous Media 120 000 30 000 353 418

Australia Council

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Arts Board 4 400 000 4 300 000 4 200 000 4 200 000 4 921 000 5 014 000 5 034 700 5 036 000 4 095 000

Australian Broadcasting Corporation

Indigenous online/Programmes and Education/Development 2 070 000 2 154 000 2 242 000 2 086 000 2 523 000 2 069 000 2 684 000 2 613 000 2 778 000

Australian Film Commission

Indigenous Programme 1 102 000 986 000 1 104 000 1 306 000 1 400 000 1 500 000 1 671 000 1 760 000 1 859 000

Australian Film, Television and Radio School

Indigenous programme initiative 47 000 51 756 55 661 52 000 70 340 73 200 73 500 75 000 68 000

Australian National Maritime Museum

Saltwater country collection of bark paintings 100 000 100 000 100 000 100 000 153 750 40 000

Indigenous Acquisitions Fund

15 000 15 000 108 469

ANU research Linkage Grant

10 000 10 000

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

25

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

Australian Sports Commission

Indigenous Sports Programme

1 500 000 1 500 000 1 500 000 1 500 000 1 500 000 1 500 000 1 500 000

National Archives of Australia

Access to Records - Bringing Them Home indexing project 550 000 499 000 499 000 200 000 193 000 200 000 160 000 160 000 60 000

Community Consultation - Aboriginal Advisory Groups

6 584 9 500 6 000 6 000 5 560 6 838

ScreenSound Australia

Indig. Policy Implementation and Cadetships/Trainee Prog. 23 000 55 000 52 000 23 000 23 000 46 147

National Gallery of Australia

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander arts programmes 560 000 777 000 235 000 450 000 201 000 211 000 215 000 215 000 300 500

National Library of Australia

Bringing Them Home Oral History Project 600 000 300 000 448 000 94 000 93 401

Guide to materials relating to ATSI people held by NLA 60 000 30 000 30 000 0 102 655

National Museum of Australia

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Programme 483 910

450 000 450 000 500 000 550 000 515 000 550 000 649 792

Tracking Kulttja 135 646

550 000 0

National Science and Technology Centre - Questacon

Shell Questacon Science Circus Aborig. Comm. Visits Prog. 40 058 42 000 51 371 70 000 76 022 154 000

Special Broadcasting Service

Indigenous Radio 129 989 140 000 174 440 175 000 246 733 230 000 240 672 246 000 238 224

Indigenous Television 2 323 300 2 640 000 2 992 906 2 400 000 1 790 850 3 477 500 2 835 000 3 500 000 5 130 000

Indigenous New Media

23 000 20 000 20 000

Telstra

Remote Community Service Programme 100 000 150 000 150 000 130 000 130 000

Telstra Countrywide Indig. Strategy

100 000 120 000 500 000

Sub-total Communications, Info.Techn. and the Arts Portfolio 30 222 898 15 764 006 19 026 362 17 182 896 18 634 442 21 848 335 20 536 643 22 188 788 52 001 293

DEFENCE PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Australian Defence Force Cadets - Indigenous 845 000 0 400 000 75 000 480 000 167 000 250 000 270 000

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Programme 95 000 120 800 55 000 68 000 68 000 83 000 189 000 199 000 127 000

Indig. Liaison Officers and Review into Indig. Heritage Issues

105 000 100 000 91 503 92 000 188 667

ATSIC/Army Community Assistance Project

4 000 000 4 000 000 4 198 643 722 292 3 600 000

Sub-total Defence Portfolio 95 000 965 800 55 000 468 000 4 248 000 4 663 000 4 646 146 1 263 292 4 185 667

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

26

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TRAINING PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Assistance for School Students with Special Needs 309 298 091 312 101 634

Infrastructure Funding for the Post Compulsory Ed. System 133 485 833 135 739 271

Indigenous Education Direct Assistance (IEDA)

63 588 000 64 929 000 64 929 000 66 296 000 66 298 000 67 725 000 34 234 000

Indigenous Education Strategic Assistance Prog. (IESIP)

201 350 000 167 908 000 188 345 000 174 231 000 171 238 000 184 216 000 to below

Indigenous Education (Targeted Assistance) Amendment Act 2004

247 758 000

ABSTUDY Secondary

68 266 000 85 312 000 83 473 000 91 049 000 91 347 000 100 354 000 107 536 000

ABSTUDY Tertiary

55 011 000 74 614 000 73 434 000 77 980 000 80 002 000 87 803 000 92 265 000

ABSTUDY Loan Supplement

23 449 000 23 810 000 47 695 000 28 580 000 28 580 000 13 027 000 12 433 000

Indigenous Support Funding Programme (ISP)

23 719 000 24 263 000 24 263 000 24 900 000 24 879 000 27 072 000 27 108 000

Vocational Education and Training Funding Act

2 936 000 4 000 000 4 000 000 4 000 000 4 000 000 4 000 000 4 124 000

Higher Education reforms

420 000 157 000 558 000 to 2 below

Indigenous Higher Education Advisory Council

from above 522 000

Indigenous Staff Scholarships

from above 170 000

Australian Research Council

Indigenous Researchers’ Development scheme 225 000 229 000 230 000 230 000 230 000 235 000 235 000

323 000

Questacon

Indigenous Outreach Programs

140 000 140 000 155 000

Aust. Inst. of ATSI Studies (AIATSIS)

Research

4 493 000

Dissemination of Information

1 203 000

Collection Development and Management

3 553 000

Sub-total Education, Science and Training Portfolio 443 008 924 448 069 905 438 549 000 445 066 000 486 369 000 467 691 000 466 876 000 484 895 000 535 877 000

EMPLOYMENT AND WORKPLACE RELATIONS PORT. 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Regional Assistance and Small Business 1 577 213 2 000 000

Indigenous Related Employment activities 65 485 395 71 822 682 66 829 000 67 241 000 77 789 000 83 410 000 104 879 000 89 967 000 to below

Indigenous Employment Programme (IEP)

from above 92 714 000

Community Develop. Employ. Projects Progr.

from IMIA 383 776 000

Disability Employment services

from FACS 244 602

Job Placement Employment & Training (JPET)

from FACS 332 090

Indigenous Business Australia

Equity and Investments

from IMIA 6 457 000

Departmental

from IMIA 3 191 000

Business Development (Grants)

from IMIA 10 192 000

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

27

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

Business Loans - capital

from IMIA 27 063 000

Payments from Housing Loan Fund (HOP) - capital

from IMIA

Sub-total Employment and Workplace Relations Portfolio 67 062 608 73 822 682 66 829 000 67 241 000 77 789 000 83 410 000 104 879 000 89 967 000 523 969 692

ENVIRONMENT AND HERITAGE PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Kakadu Region Social Impact Study 15 000

Coasts and Clean Seas (Indigenous Prog.) 52 000 54 600 14 310

Cultural Heritage Projects 183 476 200 000 800 000 800 000 264 481 287 457 837 798 468 125 to below

Indigenous Cultural Assessment

from above 250 000

Aborig. and Torres Strait Isl. Heritage Protection Act 1984 102 300 100 000 200 000 300 000 245 000 130 000 223 982 200 000 200 000

Indigenous Land Management Facilitators Network 1 065 442 1 000 000 1 383 897 1 400 000 1 276 649 1 850 000 1 800 000 1 800 000 1 800 000

Indigenous Protected Areas 1 200 000 1 500 000 1 310 000 0 1 654 250 2 500 000 2 500 000 2 500 000 2 430 000

National Wetlands Programe

54 025

Waterwatch

28 000 0 25 000

Envirofund

1 481 212 1 500 000 1 000 000

Indigenous Advisory Committee

136 900 130 000 70 000 70 000 70 000

Enhancing Indig. Engagement in region natural resource manage.

400 000 400 000 378 000

COAG ACT Indigenous Trial

0

Maint. and Protect. of Indig. Heritage and the Environ.

3 256 000

Bureau of Meteorology

National Indigenous Cadetship Project

4 000 8 000 11 469 7 500 32 000 32 000 23 265

Indigenous Climatology Website Project

10 000 11 000 11 000 11 000 11 000 11 000 11 000

Cross Cultural Training - Indigenous

7 500 4 500 4 500 4 500 2 300 4 500 4 500

Australian Greenhouse Office

Renewable Remote Power Generation Programme

900 000 3 300 000

Indig. Renewable Energy Services Project (Bushlight)

2 000 000 2 000 000 800 000 2 000 000 2 000 000 2 000 000 2 000 000

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

Indigenous Programmes 512 000 580 000 500 000 646 000 466 985 500 000 480 000 500 000 436 000

Sub-total Environment and Heritage Portfolio 3 130 218 3 434 600 7 211 732 8 469 500 6 377 446 8 920 457 9 357 080 7 985 625 10 858 765

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY SERVICES PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Indigenous Family Relationship Services 4 860 000 5 290 000 5 767 821 5 450 569 to below

Indigenous Parenting and Family Well Being

from above 2 084 000 1 869 000 1 807 000 1 912 000 1 903 000

Family Relationships Services Prog. - Indig. component

from above 269 061 269 061 275 250 280 755 708 000

Com. Financial Counselling Program -Indig. component

from above 372 483 372 483 410 931 417 992

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

28

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

Early Intervention & Parenting - Indigenous component

from above 230 400 285 985 315 000

429 000

Aboriginal and Islander Child Care Agencies

from above 3 041 105 3 041 105 3 197 652 2 911 626 3 581 000

Emergency Relief - Indigenous component

from above 2 244 160 2 244 160 2 311 601 2 371 760 2 349 000

Secretariat National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care

from above 149 260 149 260 393 812 179 588

Centrelink - Indigenous services 27 064 000 27 100 000 38 081 600 38 111 000 46 584 000 48 178 400 85 365 600 85 822 000

to FA, HumSer.

Indigenous Child Care Services 25 500 000 25 500 000 25 675 000 26 418 000 21 000 000 22 000 000 20 500 000 21 000 000

Aboriginal Rental Housing Programme 91 000 000 91 000 000 91 000 000 100 000 000 100 000 000 101 000 000 101 000 000 101 000 000 102 072 000

Supported Accom. Assistance Prog Indig.component 23 200 000 23 800 000 28 888 000 29 495 000 17 893 000 18 305 000 17 905 000 18 264 000 19 930 000

Indigenous Housing Independent Assessments 500 000 500 000 2 500 000 2 500 500 3 000 000 3 000 000 3 000 000 3 000 000

Stronger Families and Communities Strategy

3 866 000 6 510 000 8 115 971 10 470 980 10 092 576 11 000 000 7 215 000

Innovative and Collaborative Youth Servicing Projects

367 000 857 000 918 539 0

First Australians Business

175 000 140 000 140 000 70 000 63 637 0

Supporting Families Coping with Illicit Drug Use

967 000 600 000 760 000 760 000

Reconnect

1 528 486 2 616 746 2 784 158 3 463 448

Youth Activity Services/Family Liaison Workers

608 531 631 340 646 897 783 140 460 000

National Indigenous Youth Leadership Group

175 000

100 000 100 000 140 000

FaCS Indigenous Policy and North Australia Office

3 869 067 4 200 000 4 602 612 4 602 612 1 843 000

Indigenous research

222 000 803 000 803 427 1 307 327 1 467 000

Personal Support Program Indigenous pilots

60 000 350 000 155 000 311 000 68 000

Family and Community Networks Initiative

195 000 1 776 000 1 776 000 1 829 000 2 324 000

Disability Employment Services

3 400 777 3 400 777 3 960 922 3 960 922 121 000

Disability Targeted Support Services

from above 137 000

Disabilities - Buddies Program

140 000 260 000 262 640 262 640 30 000

Mentor Marketplace

from ?? 172 000

Indigenous Disability Advocacy Service

265 657 278 000 0 278 000 479 000

Nat. Priorities Funds - Nat. Homeless. Strat. - Indig.comp.

311 499 45 047 128 488 57 500 50 000

Personal Support Program Remote Service Delivery Project

60 116 0

Indigenous Financial Management

-PMC, FIM 1 100 000 1 720 000

Indigenous Women’s Activities

from PMC 246 000

Multifunctional Aboriginal Child Care Services (MACS)

11 568 000

Flexible / multipurpose centre-based services

5 009 000

Mobile services / toy libraries

1 164 000

Outside School Hours Care / Vacation Care Services

4 332 000

Indigenous playgroups

1 392 000

Indigenous JET creches

1 538 000

Reconnect

2 893 000

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

29

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

Community Business Partnership

77 000

Transition to Independent Living Arrangements (TILA)

219 000

Departmental: Healthy Indigenous Housing - Continuation

Community Housing and Infrastructure

from IMIA 205 981 000

Family Violence Regional Activities Program

from IMIA 2 936 000

Family Violence Partnership Program

from IMIA 300 000

Departmental ex ATSIC-ATSIS

from IMIA 21 137 000

Job Placement, Employment & Training (JPET)

from IMIA 310 000

less Revenue received from other agencies

- 9 185 000

Aboriginal Hostels Limited

Company Owned and Operated Hostels

from IMIA 33 364 000

Community Operated Hostels

from IMIA 8 300 000

Sub-total Family and Community Services Portfolio 171 624 000 173 190 000 194 320 421 209 481 569 217 285 496 226 216 344 262 678 319 266 975 310 441 779 000

FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Office of Evaluation and Audit

from IMIA 4 164 000

Australian Electoral Commission

2001 Fed. Election Indig. Enrolment and Info. Prog. 250 000 240 000 0

School and Community Programme 20 000 20 000 8 000 20 000 8 550 9 400 61 604 432 348 to below

Election Indigenous Program

from above 432 348

Non-Election Indigenous Program

0

Commonwealth Grants Commission

Dev. Meas. of Rel. Disadv.to Target Res. to Indig. Austr. 4 000 000

Department of Human Services

Centrelink - Indigenous Services

from FACS 54 500 000

Health Insurance Commission

3 533 500

Sub-total Finance and Administration Portfolio 4 020 000 270 000 248 000 20 000 8 550 9 400 61 604 432 348 62 629 848

FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND TRADE PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Programme 161 500 162 000 150 000 150 000 220 000 200 000 237 800 170 000 200 000

Indigen. Recruitment (incl. cadetships and training) 74 290 44 625 20 957 37 629 37 288 50 319 130 869 112 068 48 308

AusAid

Indigenous Cadetships / Scholarships 50 000 60 000 46 000 65 000 45 000 48 000 8 912 30 000 5 000

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

30

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

Austrade

Indigenous Cadetships 16 862

11 000 30 500 38 193 40 000 0 34 000 0

Indigenous Exporters Program

9 600 25 000 20 000 20 000 73 179 70 000 67 326

Sub-total Foreign Affairs and Trade Portfolio 302 652 266 625 237 557 308 129 360 481 358 319 450 760 416 068 320 634

HEALTH AND AGEING PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Pathology Services to Rural and Remote NT 3 090 780 3 557 070 581 583 0

Infrastr. to Supp. High Quality Health Care Services 21 982 000 28 586 000 16 535 000 15 117 000 14 954 000 15 471 000

Alternative Arrangements for the Delivery of Pharm. Benefits 6 500 000 9 000 000 11 318 000 12 375 000 15 016 000 16 050 000 16 500 000 19 000 000 19 874 508

General Practice Services to rural and remote NT 845 100 537 300 625 000 588 000

618 000 650 000 600 000

Section 19(2) exemptions for AMS under the HI Act 11 593 118 12 056 842 12 100 000 12 930 000 12 930 000 14 000 000 17 400 000 20 362 240 17 835 000

Aged Care Strategy for ATSI - Residential Care 8 521 000 11 150 000 11 150 000 13 086 000 13 459 000 14 221 000 14 221 000 13 796 000 15 860 000

Indigenous Coordinated Care Trials 263 000

2 248 000 2 715 000 8 057 000 13 675 584 12 999 830 13 827 494 13 847 249

Aust. Hearing Special Prog. for Indig. Aust. 650 000 650 000 650 000 665 000 680 000 760 000 800 000 820 000 2 000 000

Health services in ATSI Communities 160 682 000 169 006 000 174 323 000 194 185 000 193 280 000 202 301 000 232 834 064 220 855 031 292 330 000

ATSI Primary Health Care Access Programme 17 035 000 22 707 000 20 494 000 32 754 000 33 519 000 53 158 000 50 561 140 73 101 271 to above

ATSIC/Army Community Assistance Programme 3 902 000 3 792 000 3 662 000 4 362 000 4 530 000 4 557 000 4 285 000 4 463 665 4 277 000

Indigenous Research Grants 3 234 000 3 330 000 3 406 476 3 800 000 6 230 838 10 929 690 9 452 805 9 022 056 12 774 013

Petrol Sniffing Diversion Pilot project 500 000 400 000 470 000 261 035 382 000 382 000 0 381 668

National Child Nutrition Programme - Indigenous round 670 000 398 000 795 000 1 686 500 725 000 567 280 592 475 280 641

Nat. Indig. Chronic Disease Self Manag. Serv. Delivery Proj. 340 000 204 680 409 886 409 886 282 153 852 277 700 000 733 000

Fringe Benefits Tax Supplementation for ATSI Health 3 715 000 9 145 885 7 886 000 7 367 000 7 569 000 7 409 796 7 630 000 7 699 000

Croc Festivals

325 000 600 000 1 520 377 1 701 000 1 600 000 2 211 000 712 119

Rural and Remote Areas of the Northern Territory

433 000

Tough on Drugs

400 000 3 655 000 1 748 891

Quality Assurance in Aboriginal Medical Services (QAAMS) Prog.

256 115

NHMRC Community Guide for the ethics of health research

34 970

National ATSI Tobacco Project

340 000

National Suicide Prevention Strategy

600 000

Regional Health Services Program

308 707

Access to Effective Family Tracing and Reunion Services

from IMIA 2 895 000

Sub-total Health and Ageing Portfolio 238 297 998 269 597 212 267 566 624 302 737 886 314 333 636 355 728 427 370 883 192 390 686 232 395 387 881

IMMIGRATION AND MULTICULTURAL AFFAIRS PORT. 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

31

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

Living in Harmony - Indigenous-specific projects 163 952 70 200

Sub-total Immigration and Multicultural Affairs Portfolio 163 952 70 200

INDUSTRY, TOURISM AND RESOURCES PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Mining industry/Aborig.Communities Regional Partnership 300 000 300 000 300 000 203 150 315 000 200 000 330 000 to below

Indigenous Comm. Mining Ind. Working in Partnership Prog.

from above 320 000

Indigenous Cadetship

32 000 7 500 9 300 13 900 28 482

Indigenous Tourism Business Ready Program

865 000 865 000

Tourism Australia

Tourism Niche Market Development (Indig. Prog. Delivery)

200 000

Australian Sports Commission

Indigenous Sports Programme 1 085 000 1 500 000

Sub-total Industry, Tourism and Resources Portfolio 1 085 000 1 800 000 300 000 300 000 235 150 322 500 209 300 1 208 900 1 413 482

PRIME MINISTER AND CABINET PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Indigenous Policy and coordination 4 389 950

Reconciliation 9 103 640

Partnerships Against Domestic Violence - Indig. grants 2 000 000 2 000 000 3 320 000 1 442 718 902 000 1 265 000 807 000 0

Mentoring

187 300 100 000 113 000 117 000 174 000 0

Indigenous Women in Leadership

50 000 76 000 110 300 76 000 300 000 200 000

Family Income Management

850 000 to FACS, IFM

Indigenous Women’s Activities

36 000

Indigenous Functions - New Arrangements

from IMIA 695 000

Australian Public Service Commission (APSC) Ind. Empl.

from IMIA 1 501 000

Sub-total Prime Minister and Cabinet Portfolio 15 493 590 2 000 000 3 557 300 1 618 718 1 125 300 1 458 000 2 131 000 200 000 2 232 000

TRANSPORT AND REGIONAL SERVICES PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Local Govern. Incentive Prog. - Aborig. Councils 284 300

Safety Inspect. Remote Aerodromes Indig. Com. Nth Aust. 160 000 160 000 124 312 171 809 171 809 171 809 171 809 171 809 166 909

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

32

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

Wreck Bay Aboriginal Community Council 235 900 495 900 486 000 654 000 449 133 242 000 243 578 255 000

Local Government Financial Assistance Grants 16 811 419 17 366 196 19 407 465 20 104 193 21 139 516 21 917 450 25 228 665 25 909 412

Rural Transaction Centres

401 313

Regional Solutions Programme

801 701

Regional Assistance Programmes

1 125 051

Sustainable Regions

900 000 1 114 917 1 208 383

Remote Air Services Subsidy Scheme

2 600 000 1 794 000

Roads to Recovery Programme

300 000 250 000

Regional Partnership Programme

2 710 410

Regional Partnerships Programme - Crocfest

67 273

COAG Western Australia Indigenous Trial

1 147 000

Sub-total Transport and Regional Services Portfolio 17 491 619 18 022 096 20 017 777 20 930 002 24 088 523 23 231 259 32 369 379 29 588 604 1 381 182

TREASURY PORTFOLIO 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

GST Start-up Assistance Office - Educ. & Training Material 2 699 730

Productivity Commission

Developing Reporting key indicators of Indig. disadvantage

558 000 735 000 565 000 728 000

Australian Bureau of Statistics

Developing, Collecting and Reporting Indigenous Statistics 4 379 000 6 166 000 6 085 000 7 009 000 7 227 000 4 704 000 5 547 000 7 121 000

Australian Competition and Consumer Commission Information for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 190 000 110 000 110 000

110 000

153 893 57 500

Australian Taxation Office

Indigenous Reference Centre 318 500 322 000 60 000 45 490 42 000 42 000 113 400 118 600 333 320

The New Tax Reform Business Education Centre 528 876 528 876 174 865 810 200 52 000 300 000 105 000 120 000 139 790

GST Field Compliance and Advisory Work 5

1 102 500

Sub-total Treasury Portfolio 8 116 106 7 126 876 6 429 865 7 864 690 7 431 000 5 604 000 6 654 293 7 982 100 2 303 610

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-5

Total from above italics portfolio sub-totals (a) 2 323 386 622 2 390 827

533

2 396 787 939

2 500 550 381

2 572 561 036

2 691 837 328

2 831 091 530

2 840 554 322

2 930 144 312

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

33

Portfolio/Agency/Description

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual Budget Actual

Total as given in Ministerial Statement (b) 2 323 560 412 2 390 867

733

2 396 787 939

2 500 550 381

2 572 561 036

2 691 837 328

2 831 091 530

2 918 315 322

2 930 144 312

Difference between totals from italics and statements (c) 173 790 40 200 0 0 0 0 0 77 761 000 0

(a) The sum of the portfolio sub-totals of the data as keyed above and checked by the compiler of this table. (b) The total as presented in the Minister’s statements. (c) The compilers totals deviated from those in the Minister’s statement at only 3 points. The first two deviations are relatively minor and probably result from a miscalculation within the Minister’s statement. The third and more significant one probably resulted from the double counting in the Minister’s statement of the $77 761 000 spent on the Indigenous Land Corporation.

Source: Annual Ministerial Budget Statements

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

34

Table 5: Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure (AGIE - portfolio level 2005-06 to 2007-08 ($’000)

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2006 PBS May 2007 PBS

2005-06 2006-07 2006-07 2007-08

actual budget actual budget

Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Portfolio

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

Outcome 1: More sustainable, competitive and profitable Australian agricultural, food, fisheries and forestry industries 659 931 980 1 064

Total Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Portfolio 659 931 980 1 064

Attorney-General’s Portfolio

Attorney General’s Department

Outcome 1: An equitable and accessible system of federal civil justice 82 043 99 116 88 920 100 735

Australian Crime Commission

Outcome 1: Enhanced Australian law enforcement capacity .. .. 5 038 4 450

Australian Customs Service

Outcome 1: Effective border management that, with minimal disruption to legitimate trade and travel, prevents illegal movement across the border, raises revenue and provides trade statistics 555 555 1 387 617

Australian Federal Police

Outcome 1: The investigation and prevention of crime against the Commonwealth and protection of Commonwealth interests in Australia and overseas 252 301 151 675 Outcome 2: policing activity creates a safe and secure environment in the ACT 145 94 94 102

Total Australian Federal Police 397 395 245 777

Family Court of Australia

Outcome 1: Serving the interests of the Australian community by ensuring families and children in need can access effective high quality services 560 581 516 526 Federal Court of Australia

Outcome 1: Through its jurisdiction, the Court will apply and uphold the rule of law to deliver remedies and enforce rights and in so doing, contribute to the social and economic development and wellbeing of all Australians 9 661 9 769 9 769 9 870

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission

Outcome 1: An Australian society in which the human rights of all are respected, protected and promoted 1 006 994 1 080 1 215

National Native Title tribunal

Outcome 1: Resolution of native title issues over land and waters 32 227 32 881 32 881 33 221

Total Attorney General’s Portfolio 126 449 144 291 139 836 151 411

Communications, Information Technology, and the Arts Portfolio

Department of Communications, Information Technology, and the Arts

Outcome 1: 27 274 28 483 27 281 27 938

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

35

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2006 PBS May 2007 PBS

2005-06 2006-07 2006-07 2007-08

actual budget actual budget

Outcome 2: 14 464 14 816 11 956 12 451

Outcome 3: 19 507 41 675 20 873 45 764

Total Department of CITA 61 245 84 974 60 110 86 153

Australia Council

Outcome 1: 5 600 5 700 4 369 3 629

Australian Broadcasting Corporation

Outcome 1: 2 601 2 659 2 560 2 600

Australian Film Commission

Outcome 1: 2 791 2 555 3 236 3 646

Australian Film Television and Radio School

Outcome 1: 117 73 119 79

Australian National Maritime Museum

Outcome 1: 90 90 33 15

Australian Sports Commission

Outcome 1: 1 500 1 500 1 500 1 500

National Gallery of Australia

Outcome 1: 530 510 491 647

National Museum of Australia

Outcome 1: 870 1 002 1 128 1 532

Special Broadcasting Service

Outcome 1: 3 961 4 391 1 665 1 704

Total CITA Portfolio 79 305 103 454 75 212 101 505

Education Science and Technology Portfolio

Department of Education Science and Technology

Outcome 1: (Schools in 2006) 473 192 461 358 .. ..

Outcome 2: (Post-school in 2006) 110 027 108 860 .. ..

Outcome 3: (Research in 2006) 535 451 .. ..

Total Department of Education Science and Technology 583 754 570 669 587 983 580 751

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies 13 227 14 028 14 201 15 071

Australian Research Council 402 400 590 626

Total Employment, Science and Technology Portfolio 597 383 585 097 602 774 596 448

Employment and Workplace Relations Portfolio

Department of Employment and Workplace Relations

Outcome 1: 107 530 139 760 100 128 146 175

Outcome 3: 562 433 608 469 556 545 542 404

Total Department of Employment and Workplace Relations 669 963 748 229 656 673 688 579

Indigenous Business Australia

Outcome 1: 40 925 89 876 238 309 199 287

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

36

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2006 PBS May 2007 PBS

2005-06 2006-07 2006-07 2007-08

actual budget actual budget

Total Employment and Workplace Relations Portfolio 710 888 838 105 894 982 887 866

Environment and Heritage Portfolio

Department of Environment and Heritage

Outcome 1: 10 000 10 688 11 545 18 885

Bureau of Meteorology

Outcome 1: 27 75 76 46

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

Outcome 1: 1 479 1 500 1 456 1 500

Total Environment and Heritage Portfolio 11 506 12 263 13 077 20 431

Families, Community Services and Indigenous Services Portfolio

Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Services

Outcome 1: (Indigenous services) 439 544 601 353 753 373 833 942

Outcome 2: 4 095 4 071 4 906 4 982

Outcome 3: 36 809 37 996 36 970 72 406

Outcome 4: 122 995 124 196 129 162 132 168

Total Department of FaCSIA 603 443 767 616 924 411 1 043 498

Aboriginal Hostels Limited

Outcome 1: 47 416 44 570 44 898 61 686

Indigenous Land Corporation

Outcome 1: 56 358 40 517 128 528 21 176

Torres Strait Regional Authority

Outcome 1: 55 549 56 833 58 498 54 178

Total Families, Community Services and Indigenous Services Portfolio 762 766 909 536 1 156 335 1 180 538

Finance and Administration Portfolio

Finance

Outcome 1: 4 819 4 996 5 084 5 161

Australian Electoral Commission

Outcome 1: (Electoral roll) 136 145 287 259

Outcome 2:

104 104

Outcome 3: (Education) 26 27 118 118

Total Australian Electoral Commission. 162 172 509 481

Total Finance and Administration Portfolio 4 981 5 168 5 593 5 642

Foreign Affairs and Trade Portfolio

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

37

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2006 PBS May 2007 PBS

2005-06 2006-07 2006-07 2007-08

actual budget actual budget

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Outcome 1: 42 39 151 177

Outcome 3: 169 169 170 168

Total Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 211 208 321 345

Australian Trade Commission 84 86 94 107

Total Foreign Affairs and Trade Portfolio 295 294 415 452

Health and Ageing Portfolio

Department of Health and Ageing

Outcome 1: Population Health 8 225 8 240 16 044 14 647

Outcome 2: Access to Pharmaceutical Services 24 842 28 074 28 074 31 306

Outcome 3: Access to Medical Services 21 554 23 445 26 274 31 923

Outcome 4: Aged Care and Population Ageing 17 391 17 884 19 436 21 502

Outcome 5: Primary Care 746 471 465

Outcome 6: Rural Health 5 782 8 070 9 700 9 802

Outcome 7: Hearing Services 4 109 4 609 4 609 4 758

Outcome 8: Indigenous Health 387 720 425 523 435 872 504 270

Outcome 10: Health System Capacity and Quality 1 008 808 20 20

Outcome 11: Mental Health 1 189 1 320 1 320 700

Outcome 14: Health and Medical Research 18 315 17 276 - -

Outcome 15 in 2006 Outcome 14 in 2007: Biosecurity and Emergency Response 616 320 842 611

Total Health and Ageing Portfolio 491 497 536 040 542 657 619 538

Human Services Portfolio

Centrelink

Outcome 1: 56 677 57 232 63 387 62 333

Medicare Australia

Outcome 1: 3 372 1 552 1 551 1 592

Department of Human Services

Outcome 1: .. .. .. 454

Total Human Services Portfolio 60 049 58 784 64 938 64 379

Immigration and Multicultural Affairs Portfolio

Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs

Outcome 3: (Innovative whole of government policy on Indigenous Affairs) 160 698 to FaCS .. ..

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

38

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2006 PBS May 2007 PBS

2005-06 2006-07 2006-07 2007-08

actual budget actual budget

Total Immigration and Multicultural Affairs Portfolio 160 698 to FaCS .. ..

Industry Tourism and Resources Portfolio

Department of Industry Tourism and Resources

Outcome 1:

Business Ready Program for Indigenous Tourism 1 010 1 395 1 300 1 138

Indigenous Communities/Mining Industry Working in Partnership Program 427 500 500 470

Indigenous graduate recruitment, traineeships and cadetships 63 107 36 52

Total outcome 1 1 500 2 002 1 836 1 660

Outcome 2: Indigenous graduate recruitment, traineeships and cadetships 16 26

Total Department of Industry Tourism and Resources 1 516 2 028 1 836 1 660

Tourism Australia

Outcome 1 .. .. .. ..

Tourism Niche Market Development (Indigenous Program Delivery) 300 300 .. ..

Total Industry Tourism and Resources Portfolio 1 816 2 328 3 672 3 320

Prime Minister and Cabinet Portfolio

Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet

Outcome 1: 702 715 926 736

Australian Public Service Commission

Outcome 1: 2 871 4 338 4 290 4 663

Total PM&C Portfolio 3 573 5 053 5 216 5 399

Transport and Regional Services Portfolio

Department of Transport and Regional Services

Outcome 2: Assisting regions to develop their own futures 1 880 1 923 1 501 1 182

Total Transport and Regional Services Portfolio 1 880 1 923 1 501 1 182

Treasury Portfolio

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

39

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2006 PBS May 2007 PBS

2005-06 2006-07 2006-07 2007-08

actual budget actual budget

Australian Taxation Office 1 937 1 752 1 953 1 959

Productivity Commission 578 590 724 729

Total Treasury Portfolio 2 515 2 342 2 677 2 688

Total Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure 3 016 260 3 205 609 3 509 865 3 641 863

Note: These figures are drawn from the Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure (AGIE) tables within the 2006 and 2007 Portfolio Budget Statements (PBS). Names for outcomes are only included when they are used in the AGIE tables. On the few occasions when some paraphrasing of an outcome seems appropriate, these have been included in brackets.

It should also be noted that although the 2006-07 PBS for the Defence Portfolio (p.44) notes the existence of several indigenous programs funded from within the defence budget (to do with recruitment, army community assistance, cadets and Indigenous liaison officers) it did not include an AGIE table or separate figures for these - so no figures have been included in this table nor in the total of AGIE.

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

40

Table 6: Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure (AGIE) - portfolio level 2007-08 to 2010-11 ($’000) Note: Definitions of various Portfolio Budget Statements (PBS) outcomes can change without it being noted in the PBS and thus without it being noted in this table

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2008 PBS May 2009 PBS May 2010 PBS May 2011 PBS May 2012 PBS

2007-08 2008-09 2008-09 2009-10 2009-10 2010-11 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12 2012-13

actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget

Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Portfolio

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

Outcome: Australian agricultural, fisheries, food and forestry industries that are based on sustainable management of and access to natural resources, are more competitive, self-reliant and innovative, have increased access to markets, are protected from diseases and are underpinned by scientific advice and economic research.

697 342 1 116 678 578 470

Outcome 1: Tackling climate change 1299 840 863 140

Fisheries research and Development Corporation

Outcome: The natural resources on which the fishing industry (commercial, Indigenous and recreational sectors) depends are used sustainably and for the benefit of all stakeholders. 220 440 5

Total Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Portfolio 917 782 1 116 678 818 470 1 299 840 863 140

(a)

Attorney-General's Portfolio

Attorney-General's Department

Outcome 1: A just and secure society through the maintenance and improvement of Australia's law and justice framework and its national security and emergency management system

127 319 128 720 127 072 123 957

Total Attorney General's Portfolio 123 252 121 024 127 319 128 720 127 072 123 957

Climate Change and Energy Efficiency

Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency

Outcome 1: Indigenous Carbon Farming Fund

1 035

Total Climate Change and Energy Efficiency Portfolio

1 035

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

41

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2008 PBS May 2009 PBS May 2010 PBS May 2011 PBS May 2012 PBS

2007-08 2008-09 2008-09 2009-10 2009-10 2010-11 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12 2012-13

actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget

Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy Portfolio

Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy

Outcome 1: Develop broadband, broadcasting and communications through policy development, advice and program delivery, which promotes the digital economy for all Australians 3 125 12 546 5 851 5 191 6 196 5 628 5 627 35 475 34 475 19 852

Total Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy Portfolio 3 125 12 546 5 851 5 191 6 196 5 628 5 627 35 475 35 475 19 852

Defence Portfolio

Department of Defence

Indigenous Recruitment and Retention Strategy 490

Australian Defence Force Cadets - Indigenous Participation Program 330

Army Aboriginal Community Assistance Program 3 011 2 223 3 270 4 730 7 800

Indigenous Liaison Officers 1 235 720

Defence Indigenous Employment Strategy 2 639 2 702 2 102 2 783

Defence Indigenous Development Program 5 849 5 994 6 174 5 994

Department of Veteran's Affairs

Outcome 1: Australian War Memorial 180 184 246 253

Total Defence Portfolio 3 831 180 184 12 192 12 939 12 826 16 757

Education, Employment and Workplace Relations Portfolio

Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations

Outcome 1: Early Childhood Education and Childcare 38 772 38 772 63 304 50 951 49 966 63 142 61 552 71 174 78 723 86 139

Outcome 2: School Education 479 166 484 988 410 490 412 399 373 201 407 634 414 818 413 934 506 724 465 982

Outcome 3: Higher Education 93 052 93 736 106 018 100 281 113 707 120 062 125 099 130 248 167 791 183 033

Outcome 4: Vocational Education and Training 8 448 8 508 145 318 166 977 167 487 177 814 179 447 185 569

Outcome 7: Labour Market Assistances 194 289 175 982

Total Education, Employment and Workplace Relations Portfolio 813 727 801 986 725 130 730 608 704 361 768 652 780 916 800 925 753 238 735 154

Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs Portfolio

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

42

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2008 PBS May 2009 PBS May 2010 PBS May 2011 PBS May 2012 PBS

2007-08 2008-09 2008-09 2009-10 2009-10 2010-11 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12 2012-13

actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget

Department of FaHCSIA

Outcome 1 (Families and Children 2008/09 onwards)

1 478 400

1 807 007 31 201 36 368 52 089 54 465 42 404 40 059 48 178 39 305

Outcome 2 (Housing 2008/09 onwards) 324 366 49 094 2 690 2 773

Outcome 3 (Community capability and the vulnerable 2008/09 onwards) 57 728 53 137 10 416 24 747 26 165 20 642 42 368 28 051 14 692 13 137

Outcome 4 198 178 9 298

Outcome 5 (Disability and caring 2008/09 onwards 2009) 505 591 654 602 584 493 14 042 14 321

Outcome 7 (Indigenous 2008/09 onwards)

1 767 330

1 652 335

1 437 810

1 298 851

1 272 899

1 265 974

1 251 825

1 083 222

Program 7:1 Economic development and participation (CDEP) 300 455 213 829

Program 7:2 Indigenous housing and infrastructure 145 312 102 105

Program 7:3 Native Title and Land Rights 92 030 94 567

Program 7:4 Indigenous capability and development 573 163 576 908

Program 7:5 Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory 140 865 95 813

Aboriginal Hostels Limited (AHL)

Outcome 1 61 431 53 002

Indigenous Business Australia (IBA)

Outcome 1: 316 947 136 933

Indigenous Land Corporation (ILC)

Outcome 1: 13 542 48 199

Torres Strait Regional Authority (TSRA)

Outcome 1: 53 425 53 789

Total Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs Portfolio 2 179 975 2 161

731

1 858 546

1 714 041

1 519 408

1 377 333

1 358 255

1 334 577

1 328 737

1 149 985

Finance and Deregulation Portfolio

Department of Finance

Outcome 1: 5 178 5 307 4 989 5 305 2 194

Australian Electoral Commission

Outcome 1:

3 221 3 626

Total Finance and Deregulation Portfolio 5 178 5 307 4 989 5 305 2 194

3 221 3 626

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

43

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2008 PBS May 2009 PBS May 2010 PBS May 2011 PBS May 2012 PBS

2007-08 2008-09 2008-09 2009-10 2009-10 2010-11 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12 2012-13

actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget

Foreign Affairs and Trade Portfolio

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Outcome 1: 301 395 205 309 507 788 738 1 075 852 1 000

Outcome 3: 166 170 164 168

Total Foreign Affairs and Trade Portfolio 467 565 369 477 507 788 738 1 075 852 1 000

Health and Ageing Portfolio

Department of Health and Ageing

Outcome 1: Population Health 16 560 16 782 18 664 43 498 117 093 140 082 122 366 141 385

Programs 1.1, 1.3, 1.5 16 891 24 231

Outcome 2: Pharmaceutical Services 31 306 34 538 46 665 63 354 63 267 81 097 49 998 52 146

Outcome 2.2 34 499 46 243

Outcome 3: Medical Services 31 390 39 643 49 133 70 491 15 560 9 263 21 950 27 976

Programs 3.1, 3.2, 3.4 32 541 44 089

Outcome 4: Aged Care and Population Ageing 21 770 23 807 149 970 157 318 60 792 55 621 42 454 41 664

Programs 4.4, 4.5, 4.8 118 270 129 056

Outcome 5: Primary Care 698 23 109 31 707 34 763 26 417 24 037 19 793

Programs 5.1, 5.2 211 22 459

Outcome 6: Rural Health 10 823 21 798 29 624

Programs 6.1 8 256 1 501

Outcome 7: Hearing Services 4 914 5 017 1 713 2 273 5 152 4 774 5 215

Programs 7.1 5 469 4 936

Outcome 8: Indigenous Health 558 150 591 951 655 621 723 490 688 434 783 110 737 965 760 079

Programs 8.1 564 299 678 382

Outcome 10: Health systems and capacity and quality 4 384 11 016

Programs 10.1 0 3 417

Outcome 11: Mental Health 1 370 1 303 2 198 4 850 5 780 12 10 125 11 977

Programs 11.1 3 365 466

Outcome 12: Health workforce capacity 5 328 4 769 15 502 16 178 13 357 14 580

Programs 12.2 0 5 053

Outcome 13: Acute care 1 462 2 973 2 851 3 346 4 237 3 429

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

44

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2008 PBS May 2009 PBS May 2010 PBS May 2011 PBS May 2012 PBS

2007-08 2008-09 2008-09 2009-10 2009-10 2010-11 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12 2012-13

actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget

Programs 13.1, 13.3 446 1 316

Outcome 14: Biosecurity and Emergency Response 628 378 571 428 263 110 1 184 1 024

Programs 14.1 478 426

Outcome 15: Development of a Stronger and Internationally Competitive Australian Sports Sector and Encouragement of Greater Participation in Sport by All Australians 12 698 12 869

Programs 15.1 13 493 12 757

Total Health and Ageing Portfolio 690 309 726 287 798 218 974 332 990 020

1 158 765

1 009 457

1 120 010

1 032 888

1 074 053

Human Services Portfolio

Department of Human Services

Outcome 1: Support individuals, families and communities to achieve greater self-sufficiency; through the delivery of policy advice and high quality accessible social, health and child support services and other payments; and support providers and businesses through convenient and efficient service delivery

10 058 4 108 11 595 8 624 8 624 6 259

160 349 163 141

Total Human Services Portfolio 10 058 4 108 11 595 8 624 8 624 6 259 8 624 6 259 160 349 163 141

Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government Portfolio

Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government

These 2 portfolios were split into the 3 portfolios below (Sustainability, Environment, Water,

Population and Communities; Regional Australia, Regional

Development and Local Government; and Infrastructure and Transport).

Outcome 3: Assisting regions and local government to develop and manage their own futures 1 021 357

Total Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government Portfolio 1 021 357

Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts Portfolio

Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

Outcome 1: The environment, especially those aspects that are matters of national significance, is protected and conserved 19 922 15 004 32 285 54 612 48 643 70 531

Outcome 2 1 050 1 100

Outcome 4: Development of a rich & stimulating cultural sector for all Australians 1 310 317

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

45

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2008 PBS May 2009 PBS May 2010 PBS May 2011 PBS May 2012 PBS

2007-08 2008-09 2008-09 2009-10 2009-10 2010-11 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12 2012-13

actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget

Outcome 5: 64 221 64 446 64 402 90 643

Total Environment, Water Heritage and the Arts Portfolio 21 232 15 321 97 556 120 158 113 045 161 174

Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities Portfolio

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities

Outcome 1 70 599 73 703 77 660 80 448

Outcome 5: Participation in, and access to, Australia’s culture and heritage through developing and supporting cultural expression, and protecting and conserving Australia’s heritage

3 645 3 645 3 645 3 645

Total Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities 72 244 77 348 81 305 84 093

Regional Australia, Regional Development and Local Government Portfolio

Department Regional Australia, Regional Development and Local Government (b)

Move to RALGAS (b)

Outcome 1: Coordinated community infrastructure and services in rural, regional and Local Government areas through financial assistances

235 750

Outcome 2: Good governances in the Australian Territories through the maintenance and improvement of the overarching legislative framework for self-governing the territories, and laws and services for non self-governing territories

248

Total Regional Australia, Regional Development and Local Government 483 750

Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sports Portfolio

Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sport (RALGAS) (b)

Outcome 1: Strengthening the sustainability, capacity and diversity of regional economies including through facilitating local partnerships between all levels of government and local communities; and providing grants and financial assistances

2 131 240

Outcome 3: Participation in, and access to, Australia's arts and culture through developing and supporting cultural expression

20 086 64 351

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

46

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2008 PBS May 2009 PBS May 2010 PBS May 2011 PBS May 2012 PBS

2007-08 2008-09 2008-09 2009-10 2009-10 2010-11 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12 2012-13

actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget

Outcome 4: Improving opportunities for community participation in sport and recreation, and excellence in high-performance athletes, including through investment in sport infrastructure and events, research and international cooperation

8 330 19 385

Total Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sport 30 547 83 976

Infrastructure and Transport Portfolio

Department of Infrastructure and Transport

Outcome 2: An efficient, sustainable, competitive, safe and secure transport system for all transport users through regulation, financial assistance and safety investigations. 6 691 1 740 9 205 5 819

Total Infrastructure and Transport 6 691 1 740 9 205 5 819

Innovation, Industry, Science and Research Portfolio

Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research

Outcome 1: Indigenous graduate recruitment, traineeships and cadetships 38 54 47 52 63 256 256 51 51 71

Outcome 2: Questacon - Indigenous Outreach Programmes 66 88 260 260 180 180 180

Outcome 3: Questacon - Indigenous Outreach Programmes 119

Outcome 3: Improve the teaching quality, learning and tertiary sector infrastructure . . . [includes various forms of Indigenous education support]

60 643 61 596

Total Innovation, Industry, Science and Research Portfolio 157 54 113 52 151 516 516 231 60 784 61 847

Prime Minister and Cabinet Portfolio

Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet (PM&C)

Outcome 1: Policy and support 1 336 736 1 040 1 092 1 336 1 316 1 194 918

Outcome 2: Arts and cultural development 88 741 62 575 36 503

Move to RALGAS (b) Outcome 3: Sport and recreation 15 996 17 307 10 096

Total PM&C Portfolio 1 336 736 1 040 1 092 2 060 1 896 106 073 81 198 47 793 918

Resources, Energy and Tourism Portfolio

Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

47

Portfolio/Agency/Outcome

May 2008 PBS May 2009 PBS May 2010 PBS May 2011 PBS May 2012 PBS

2007-08 2008-09 2008-09 2009-10 2009-10 2010-11 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12 2012-13

actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget actual budget

Outcome 1:

Indigenous Tourism Business Ready Program 884 1 781 2681 500 500 500

Indigenous Communities/ Mining Industry Working in Partnership Program 517 500 500 500 500 500

Total Resources, Energy and Tourism Portfolio 1 401 2 281 2 681 500 500 500 500 500 500 500

Total Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure

3 852 155

3 856 916

3 507 204

3 561 058

3 348 064

3 482 165

3 490 934

3 602 587

3 685 655

3 524 818

(a) Although this total is not the sum of the figures above, these are the numbers presented in the PBSs (b) Midway through the 2011-12 financial year, the Office of the Arts and the Office of Sport were merged with the Department of Regional Australia, Regional Development and Local Government, to create the new Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sport (RALGAS)

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

48

Appendix 1: Key findings of the 2010 Strategic Review of Indigenous Expenditure

The 2010 Strategic Review of Indigenous Expenditure42 (released 2011 and discussed on page 7 of this paper) offered the following useful snapshots of expenditure for 2009-10 by function:

42. Department of Finance and Regulation, Strategic Review of Indigenous Expenditure, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, February 2010, viewed 13 September 2012, http://www.finance.gov.au/foi/disclosure-log/2011/docs/foi_10-27_strategic_review_indigenous_expenditure.pdf

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

49

Though the basis and scope of their data may be different from that offered in this publication, the Strategic Review’s Key findings may be relevant to our consideration of the data offered in this Background Note:

Policy needs to be supported by effective implementation.....

F.1 Despite the concerted efforts of successive Commonwealth, State and Territory governments to address Indigenous disadvantage, progress has been mixed at best: modest improvements in some areas have been offset by static or worsening outcomes elsewhere. Even in the few areas where clear improvements have been made, the outcomes for Indigenous Australians remain far short of those for non-Indigenous Australians. Past approaches to remedying Indigenous disadvantage have clearly failed, and new approaches are needed for the future.

F.2 The new policy framework developed by COAG (as reflected in the National Indigenous Reform Agreement and the Closing the Gap strategy) represents a comprehensive, coherent and ambitious agenda for reform. The key challenge from this point lies not so much in further policy development as in effective implementation and delivery. In the Indigenous area, more than any other, there has been a huge gap between policy intent and policy execution, with numerous examples of well-intentioned policies and programs which have failed to produce their intended results because of serious flaws in implementation and delivery.

F.3 The Commonwealth’s total expenditure on its Indigenous-specific programs amounts to some $3.5 billion annually. This major investment, maintained over many years, has yielded dismally poor returns to date. Even so, significant funding pressures are evident in a number of areas: Indigenous housing, remote infrastructure, community safety, Indigenous capability development, legal aid, Native Title reform and mobility assistance, amongst others.

F.4 Notwithstanding these current funding pressures, in many cases the need is not so much for higher levels of spending as to use existing resources (both Indigenous-specific and mainstream) far more effectively. Improvements in Indigenous schooling outcomes are a case in point.

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

50

.....and a sharper focus is needed on the performance of mainstream services

F.5 Achievement of the Closing the Gap targets and other Indigenous policy goals will depend critically on improvements in the quality of the mainstream services delivered to Indigenous Australians - particularly for Indigenous communities in urban and regional settings. ‘Supplementary programs’ may sometimes play a useful role, but should not be relied on to remedy serious deficiencies in mainstream services. A major role for the Commonwealth under the new COAG framework should be to ensure that mainstream service providers are held properly and fully to account, using the new array of instruments at its disposal (such as the wide range of National Partnership Agreements). Where mainstream programs and services fail to deliver their intended results the appropriate policy response should be to reform those mainstream services rather than to invent new funding programs.

There is considerable scope to rationalise the Commonwealth’s Indigenous programs

F.6 The current set of Indigenous-specific programs across the Commonwealth is unduly complex and confusing. There are too many programs sometimes with poorly articulated objectives and an excess of red tape. In some cases, program logic is weak, with little evidence of any real, testable strategy for change or methodology for reform. In other cases, underlying assumptions are flawed or unrealistic, especially in

F.7 Robust evidence is lacking on the performance and effectiveness of many Indigenous programs. Program evaluation activity in this area has been patchy at best, and many of the evaluations which have been conducted have lacked a suitable measure of rigour and independence. More robust evaluation arrangements are needed for the future. Evaluation efforts should be concentrated on those key policy measures (such as the Northern Territory Emergency Response (NTER) and Remote Service Delivery (RSD) strategies) and major programs in which significant resources are invested, and which have the potential to contribute materially to the achievement of the Closing the Gap targets. Data improvements are also needed, both for evaluation and reporting purposes: the lack of robust baseline data, for example, has been a key weakness in many evaluation studies.

F.8 There is a strong case to reduce the number of Indigenous-specific programs operating across the Commonwealth. A smaller number of programs, with more clearly defined objectives, would have benefits both in clarity and flexibility. For the future also there would be benefit in examining the performance of programs, and assessing priorities for future investment, across a number of broadly defined ‘functional groups’ (along the lines of those employed in this Review, based on the COAG Closing the Gap Building Blocks).

F.9 The Review’s proposals for change to current program arrangements fall into three broad categories, although the latter two overlap:

• the consolidation or broad-banding of closely related programs: the Review is proposing or endorsing the consolidation of some 51 currently separate Indigenous-specific programs into 18 continuing programs. Most often the continuing program is Indigenous specific but in a few cases it is a mainstream program. Savings are estimated at around $1.5 million per annum in a full year. Savings from refocussing ICC operations could be of the order of $3.5 million per annum in a full year; • the cessation or restructuring of programs: the Review has identified 25 instances in which there

is a case to cease a program on the expiry of current funding commitments (or confirm cessation

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

51

of a terminating program), or alternatively to restructure the program when evaluation results are available and circumstances permit (subject, in some cases, to negotiations with the States and Territories). Programs that could be considered in the 2010-11 Budget could save in the order of $6 million to $9 million per annum in the out-years. In the case of eight terminating programs the out year funding is in effect fully committed but decisions can confirm that they will then cease; and regard to the scale and timing of investment needed to drive lasting change. Too often, programs offer little more than temporary respite from the worst of the symptoms they are designed to treat, or are able to assist only a small proportion of those eligible. • the transfer of program responsibilities to the States and Territories: the Review has identified

15 programs which should be considered for transfer to the States and Territories on the grounds that the activities supported fall within their mainstream responsibilities, as defined by COAG. Transfers would usefully free up Commonwealth Departmental funds.

F.10 A more stringent approach is needed to the assessment of future proposals for the establishment of new Indigenous-specific funding programs. A key requirement should be to demonstrate why an existing program (whether mainstream or Indigenous) could not be used or adapted to meet the stated objectives of the proposal. There should also be a critical appraisal of the intended program logic: that is, the means by which the actions to be taken under the program can be expected to lead to changes consistent with the program’s objectives. As part of a revitalised Single Indigenous Budget Submission (SIBS) process, Finance should play a more active role in evaluating such proposals and identifying areas of possible savings and offsets.

Effective service delivery continues to be a major challenge.....

F.11 A clear message from the recent past is that policies and programs must be targeted to local needs, in close engagement and active partnership with the people they are designed to assist. From this viewpoint, strategic priorities in improving service delivery include:

• enhancing the on-going professionalism and service capability of the Australian Public Service (APS); • increasing agency presence ‘on the ground’; and • giving priority to flexible joined-up-government solutions and services.

F.12 Key challenges to effective service delivery include:

• equipping those delivering services (whether public servants, health professionals, teachers, contractors, or community advisers) with the skills, support services and infrastructure they need to engage effectively with the Indigenous people they are supporting (e.g., young people and families in troubled circumstances); • identifying a range of suitable governance and decision-making processes that effectively balance

the variety of Indigenous governance styles with governments’ responsibilities for properly managing public funds. These governance approaches should be designed to empower Indigenous people and communities, including equipping them with relevant skills, so that they can progressively take meaningful control of their futures; and • tackling the multiple dimensions of Indigenous disadvantage: even with skilled intervention and

stronger community leadership, social and economic disadvantage are often deep-seated and involve complex relationships that are difficult to address in any setting.

Commonwealth Indigenous-specific expenditure 1968-2012

52

F.13 Notwithstanding efforts in recent years, whole-of-government coordination remains a major challenge. Program management and service delivery remains fragmented rather than coordinated, with weak linkages even within agencies, let alone across them. The multitude of separate disconnected

programs runs contrary to the need for flexibility of service delivery, most obviously in remote locations, and creates a surfeit of unnecessary red tape. Communication between agencies is too often poor, even where their responsibilities and interests are closely related. Significant efficiencies could be gained by pooling expertise and coordinating efforts in areas where individual agencies are currently ‘doing their own thing’ (as in the planning and provision of staff housing in remote parts of the country, governance and leadership programs, and contracting).

An effective partnership with the States and Territories is essential.......

F.14 An effective partnership between the Commonwealth and the States will be critical to the implementation of the Indigenous reform agenda and to the achievement of the Closing the Gap targets. Within the framework of roles and responsibilities agreed by Council of Australian Governments (COAG), a major challenge remains to coordinate the efforts of the Commonwealth and the States in ways which promote seamless and effective service delivery ‘on the ground’. A package approach should be taken in negotiating a response with the States and Territories to relevant recommendations arising from this Review.

F.15 Like the Commonwealth, State and Territory governments administer a large number of Indigenous-specific funding programs which interact with, and in some cases duplicate, the Commonwealth’s programs. There is a case for these programs to be subject to a similar process of review, under COAG auspices, noting that this would be facilitated by the information to be provided in the new whole-of-government Indigenous Expenditure Report.

.....but this is also an area of high risk

F.16 There are real risks that the States and Territories will not deliver on key aspects of the agreed COAG agenda. The capacity of the Northern Territory Government is a particular concern, as evidenced by its performance to date in the housing and schooling domains. Similar, if lesser, concerns apply to other jurisdictions as well. To guide its strategic management of this risk the Commonwealth should develop a risk management plan which identifies key milestones and options for action in the event that the States fail to deliver on key commitments.

Priorities for investment

F.17 The Review identifies a number of areas for funding priority in the near term:

• Some areas of significant funding pressure (such as infrastructure requirements and funding for negotiated settlements of Native Title claims) are expected to be addressed in Cabinet submissions over coming months. • Subject to decisions by Government, it is recommended that funds freed up as a result of this

Review be directed to a range of measures - community safety/legal aid, capability development, mobility programs, professional development in the APS and increased evaluation effort. • A number of proposed measures that are subject to evaluation, or negotiation with the States and Territories, or are sensitive programs that could be reviewed in the light of changing

circumstances, have the potential to free up additional resources that could also be reassigned to other priorities in the near term.

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The need for a long-term view

F.18 The deep-seated and complex nature of Indigenous disadvantage calls for policies and programs which are patient and supportive of enduring change (including in the attitudes, expectations and behaviours of Indigenous people themselves). A long-term investment approach is needed, accompanied by a sustained process of continuous engagement. Broad budget allocations should be reviewed every few years to identify medium-term budget priorities that support a balanced approach to meeting the Government’s Indigenous policy goals. The proposed thematic and cross-program evaluations, such as that envisaged for the NTER, should serve to inform those judgements.

F.19 Consistent with the highly youthful age structure of the Indigenous population, the critical objective of improving the outcomes achieved by young Indigenous people, and particularly their education outcomes, can serve as a prism that can guide policy priorities and gauge the overall success of the COAG strategies. Unless Indigenous children secure a good start in life, including a strong base of skills through the schooling system, their prospects for a healthy and productive life will remain bleak and progress in addressing Indigenous disadvantage overall will continue to be painfully slow.

F.20 Some 25 per cent of Indigenous Australians live in locations classified as ‘remote’ or ‘very remote’, in many of which the multiple dimensions of Indigenous disadvantage are starkly evident. While the need for policy intervention in these communities is clear and compelling, a key consideration is the long-term economic viability and sustainability of a community. Consistent with the principles agreed by COAG, priority for infrastructure support and service provision in the future should be directed to larger and more economically sustainable communities where secure land tenure exists, with outreach services and other forms of access provided for the residents of smaller surrounding communities. At the same time, there should be support for voluntary mobility by individuals and families to areas where better education and job opportunities exist, or where there are higher standards of services.

F.21 A number of significant policy initiatives have recently been put in place and now need time to prove their efficacy. The RSD, in particular, represents a bold experiment in testing new approaches to community engagement and coordinated service delivery. Its emphasis on sustained engagement and long-term development is welcome and appropriate, as is its recognition of the need to target policies and programs to local needs. While the strategy offers considerable promise and potential, it is still at a very early stage of implementation, and no doubt many lessons will be learned as implementation proceeds. It would be prudent to evaluate the performance of the strategy within the 29 communities in which it is currently operating before considering any extension to a wider range of communities.

F22. With 75 per cent of Indigenous Australians now resident in urban and regional locations, the achievement of COAG’s Closing the Gap targets will not be possible unless significant gains can be made in these localities. Concerted efforts are needed to leverage both Indigenous-specific and mainstream funding, as agreed by COAG, to improve the outcomes achieved by Indigenous Australians in metropolitan areas and major regional centres.

.....as does co-ordination of effort across different Commonwealth agencies

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Appendix 2: Key points from 2012 Indigenous Expenditure Report

The expenditure estimates of the 2012 Indigenous Expenditure Report43 (discussed on pages 7 and 8 of this paper) are made up of 3 components. The report tabulates and explains these components as follows:

It is only the Commonwealth level expenditure in the category ‘Directly identified from Indigenous specific (targeted) programs’ which is the subject of this publication, and the report discusses at length some of the limitations of their broader estimates. The report also notes issues which limit the usefulness of comparisons between the expenditure figures they offer in their 2012 report (based on 2010-11 data) and those they offered in their 2010 report (based on 2008-09 data). With these and other caveats, the report goes on to offering estimated Commonwealth, plus State and Territory expenditure per person (not necessarily the same as per user) for a range of service areas. Here are some of the main figures presented in the Report’s Overview:

43. Productivity Commission, 2012 Indigenous Expenditure Report, 2012, viewed 13 September 2012, http://www.pc.gov.au/gsp/ier/indigenous-expenditure-2012 .

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Drawing on the estimates behind the above tables, the report summarises some ‘key points’ as follows:

• Total direct Indigenous expenditure in 2010-11 was estimated to be $25.4 billion, accounting for 5.6 per cent of total direct general government expenditure. Indigenous Australians make up 2.6 per cent of the population.

- The Australian Government accounted for $11.5 billion (45 per cent) of direct Indigenous expenditure, with the remaining $13.9 billion (55 per cent) provided by State and Territory governments.

- Mainstream services accounted for $19.9 billion (78 per cent) of direct Indigenous expenditure, with the remaining $5.5 billion (22 per cent) provided through Indigenous specific (targeted) services.

• Estimated expenditure per head of population was $44 128 for Indigenous Australians, compared with $19 589 for other Australians (a ratio of 2.25 to 1).

The report notes that the $24 538 per person difference reflected the combined effects of:

- greater intensity of service use ($16 109 or 66 per cent) — Indigenous Australians use more services per capita because of greater need, and because of population characteristics such as the younger age profile of the Indigenous population

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- additional cost of providing services ($8429 or 34 per cent) — it can cost more to provide services to Indigenous Australians if mainstream services are more expensive to provide (for example, because of location), or if Indigenous Australians receive targeted services (for example, Indigenous liaison officers in hospitals) in addition to mainstream services.

The Report also includes a number of focus areas of expenditure and in the following areas the ratio of Indigenous to non-Indigenous expenditure per head of population was, to quote the Overview’s ‘Key point’:

- school education — 2.99:1 ($5359 per Indigenous Australian compared with $1792 per non-Indigenous Australian), mainly reflecting higher per capita use of school services, driven by the younger age profile of the Indigenous population

- public and community health services — 4.89:1 ($3152 per Indigenous Australian compared with $644 per non-Indigenous Australian), mainly reflecting higher per capita use of health services, driven by the poorer health status of Indigenous Australians

- housing — 4.85:1 ($1708 per Indigenous Australian compared with $352 per non-Indigenous Australian), mainly reflecting higher per capita use of social housing by indigenous Australians, driven by socio-economic disadvantage.

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