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Friday, 18 November 1938

Dr MALONEY (Melbourne) .- I. resent very strongly the action of Judge Dethridge, who is known in Chancerylane as the " talking judge," in attacking my friend, the honorable member for Melbourne Ports (Mr. Holloway). I am sorry that the Attorney-General (Mr. Menzies) went out of his way to support the judge in that attack. All I can say is that the Attorney-General forgot himself for once, and I suppose we must pass it over.

I intend this afternoon to make two appeals, one for the children who are too young to go to school, and, therefore, do not share in the distribution of milk to school children, and the other is on behalf of the Jews.

As for the children, I regret that in some schools one pint of milk is diluted with two pints of water to m.;ke it go further. 1 hope the Commonwealth Government will make enough money available to enable every child in Australia to receive two pints of milk a day, the same as is done in Russia, throughout the whole of its vast domain. In Germany, the children are given more milk than we give, while in England, good luck to them, millions of pounds are devoted to this purpose. Though T know the wisest among the Greeks sard in regard to the study of life, " J udge the end ", I say rather " Let us judge the beginning." There is no one in this House, whether he be engaged in agricultural pursuits, or in merely looking after a garden, who does not know that plants will not thrive unless they have good food, water and sunlight. So with a little child. Unless he has milk in his first two years, he cannot hope to grow up into a thriving, strong adult. I should like to see the mothers, in the pre-natal stage of the child's life, also receive a proper allowance of milk. I have some pictures here of .children in a Salvation Army Home in Victoria, to which a cow was recently presented. I am sure that there is not one honorable member in this House whos would not vote te give each of these children two pints of milk a day. Some time ago, I made an appeal throughout the whole of Victoria, for financial assistance in order that milk might be bought for the children. I spoke personally in as many centres as possible, and, in order that the appeal might be made everywhere, I, in my 81st year, tried to become a movie actor so that a film might be prepared to curry the appeal throughout the country. In the film, I was introduced to the public by my old friend, now dead, Mr. Prendergast, and when I afterwards saw myself wobbling across the lawn, as I was depicted in the picture, I realized what a lame duck I was. .1 never asked for more than a donation of a penny or a half-penny. More, of course, was given, and honorable members will bo interested to know that we raised moTe than £4,000 in order that milk might be supplied to children in creches and kindergartens. It is the duty of the Commonwealth Government to ensure that every child in Australia shall have a chance. No child asks to come into the world ; no child can come into it except at or by the will of its parents. Every child, once he comes into the world, is a unit of the State, and as such has the right to proper food and clothing, so that he may grow into a healthy adult, and be a credit to the nation. I wish that the example of New Zealand could be followed in respect of this matter and others. Already, in New Zealand, "the old-age pension has been increased to 30s. a week, and the allowance for children to 10s. a week. There is one provision in connexion with the appointment of

Ministers to the NewZealand Government which might well be copied here.If it were, it would prevent much of the internecine strife between Ministers' and members of Parliament, and would remove the possibility of member's being bribed by the offer of posts in the" Government. I quote from a publication called History in the Making, being a summaryof the actions of New Zealand's first Labour Government, by David Wilson, in which the following occurs -

Aunique system of shaving ministerial and members' salaries has been adopted by the partyand as a result; the yearly income of Labour members has been increased by nearly £100 per annum with a consequent reduction in ministerial salaries. The only proviso is that all ordinary members who participate must give all their time to the discharge' of their parliamentary duties and be willing at all times to co-operate with Ministers in administrative and research work. The scheme also provides that each Minister shall co-opt a number of members whose duty it will be to assist in drafting new legislation and administering the department concerned. 1 am certain that there is a great deal of merit in that system. If it were in operation here, we Should not hear so" much about rights of precedence in the Cabinet. There would not be the same desire to obtain highly-paid posts in the Government. They would all be paid at theonerate. Of course, all expenses in connexion with the administration of the party would be met, The system would have the great advantage that it would tend to train men in the rules and procedure of Parliament, and in that way a great deal of time would be saved.

My next appeal is oh behalf of the Jews. I have studied this race for over 60 years'. My earliest memory in connexion' with them is associated with the' teaching of my mother-God rest her; she has passed away many years. She was in California at the time of the second fire, and was" one of the firstEnglishwomen who walked across the Isthmus of Panama to' reach the Californian gold-fields. While my father was absent at the gold-fields at Sacramento, she was employed in a hotel in San' Francisco. There she fell sick with what was known as Panama fever. She was taken into the home of a Jewish family, perfect strangers to her, and they nursed her back to health as if she were a sister. She brought me up with a sense of gratitude to the Jewish people which I have carried through all my life. On one point, she Avas very severe; and my mother was oiie of the few persons of whom I Was ever afraid. If I attended the Jewish Synagogue she did hotmind; if I went to the Anglican church, of which she was a member, she did not mind; if I attended the Catholic church she did not mind ; but woe betide me if I attended a service in any other church.

Thelaws of Moses will appeal to the most advanced democrat in the world for their justice and goodness. The jubilee

Avas something which no nation has ever yet bettered. Every 50 years, or seven times seven, the sabbatical year, all lands and houses which had been mortgaged or pledged,- had to be returned to the family. One of my greatest regrets is that the Jews were never allowed to give their system a proper trial. Wars were as numerous, and probably as blood-thirsty, then as now, though I do not think that the Jews ever had to suffer as much as they arenow suffering' under Hitler. The jubilee was a wonderful piece of lawgiving, and one that could be imitated with profit by any country in the world, no matter how, advanced its civilization. The Jewish race has produced many great' men. When reading the Scriptures, wecannot but be impressed with the roll of great names such as Isaiah, Nathan, John the Baptist, Samuel, Job, Jeremiah, Daniel and Malachi. Burns, the Scottish poet, it was who said-

Man's inhumanity toman

Makes countless thousandsmourn.

It was Malachi who uttered thesewords -

I willbe a Swift witness ..... against thosewho oppress the hireling inhis wages, the widow and the fatherless, and that turn aside the stranger fromhis right.

I have here a letterwhich I received recently from thewifeof a good friend of mine. It is as follows: -

My dear Dr. Maloney,

How strange the hand of fate works. For two weeks I have dreamed, thought and talked of you, and to-day a letter arrives from you, tomy son. Ernest.

Nowmydear doctor,I am going to ask you to do the greatest and most noble deed of your remaining years. Will you please help my people, the JewishRace. There is not a home in the world where Jewry exists that do does not feel thepain and anguish: for the fate and suffering of my people in Europe.

Dear Dr. Maloney, I implore you in the name of God Almighty to use your influence and put forth a suggestion' before your Government to help these poor sufferers

Is it not possible, for our people to purchase a- large state somewhere in Australia, which will enable them to cull home. Australia will pro. per by their brains, culture an.1 intellect and work.

Please be a Moses, and load thom out of their bondage in Europe, to a land flowing with love and kindness. They have suffered long and plenty. Please use . your noble influence to help us.

My heart and my soul is too full to write more to-night. Kindly hand this letter to your Prime Minister and nsk his aid, I arn prepared to do everything in my power to help with thu good work.

Again I implore you with the help of God to help save my people.

Our united good-wishes, (sgd.) Rae Lever.

I commend that appeal to the Prime Minister (Mr. Lyons), who I know is a big-hearted man. He has eleven children in his family.

Mr Brennan - Big enough, but the quality is not good enough.

Dr MALONEY - Dearly beloved friend, you will permit me to disagree with you sometimes. I disagree with you now.

In the north-west portion of our continent there is a great fertile strip which I suggest could under certain conditions be provided by this country as a home for the Jews. That piece of country was surveyed more than 100 years ago by one of the greatest ambassadors that England ever sent from its shores, Sir George Grey. His report of his survey contains a reference to the splendid physique" of the natives in the area and to the fertility of the soil. The honorable member for the Northern Territory (Mr. Blain) could verify the fact that the natives in. that district are of splendid physique.- Some of them-, I understand, are 7-ft. tailzie is due to the wonderful nature of the country that they are so splendidly built. The only objection which could be raised by any honorable member against allowing the settlement of Jewish refugees in that portion of Australia would be that there would be a danger of their gravitating to the cities and overcrowding them. That objection has been made in the press, even bv Jews already in Australia. I have a suggestion, however, that could overcome that objection. When the Arabs overran Spain and Portugal, the Jews were held in high esteem, but later were expelled from Spain and fled to Prance and Holland, mainly to Holland. Then, when Cromwell, whom they saw to be, in many ways, a just man, ruled England, they felt that he would give them a home in England. They approached him and he granted their request for a home in England On a strict agreement, which was signed and honored. The congregations of Jews in Germany and Poland, learning how happy die Jews were in England - there were no immigration barriers then - followed them to England. They, however, were not bound by any agreement, and 1 suppose they thought that they could take liberties. To show how faithfully the Portugese and Spanish Jews observed the agreement which was made with Oliver Cromwell5 I cite the fact that, even when I was pursuing my studies in England between 1880 and 18S7, it was considered a mesalliance for a Spanish ov Portugese Jewess to marry a German or Polish JeW. We have brains enough among our lawyers to formulate a contract which Jewish settlers would have to sign and abide by. They could be supplied with life cards containing their photographs as a check on their movements, but I know enough about the Jews to know that they would abide by any contract they make. If Australia offered those people a home, it would be the first time in- centuries that they would realize that they were welcome in a country. Every honorable member is a Christian or a professing Christian, and as the Jewish people were good enough from which to take our Messiah it is good enough for us to give the Jews a home. The settlement of the Jewish refugees in the north-west of this continent would bc worth many ironclads in the defence of Australia. How they would fight! Honorable members should know from the good Book how Judas Maccabees rose against the might of Rome, whose power in Europe was greater evan than the power of Germany in Europe to-day. I make this appeal in the hope that the Commonwealth Government will give' a lead to the world. The issue of the Argus of Wednesday contains the following report of what that great 'man, Mr. Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, said -

Thu news of the last few days from Germany has deeply shocked public opinion in the United States. Such news from any part of the world would inevitably produce a similar profound reaction among American people in every part of the nation. 1, myself, could scarcely believe that such things could occur in 20th century civilization. With a view to gaining a first-hand picture of the situation in Germany, I have asked the Secretary of State (Mr. Hull) to order our ambassador in Berlin (Mr. Hugh Wilson) to return at once to report to me and to confer with Mr. Hull and myself.

The report continues -

There was a moment of stunned surprise among the journalists and then the President was bombarded with questions. He refused to amplify his statement. He said that it spoke for itself. Asked whether a formal protest had been sent to Germany, he replied: " None has yet been dispatched ", hut he' gave a hint that that might bc the next step.

I hope it will he to the honour of the British race that it is first in the race to give the Jewish people a new home.

My appeal on behalf of the J ewish race is based, not only on my love of humanity, but also on the gratitude which I feel for what they did for my mother close on 90 years ago.

War! We talk about war. Why do we not call it murder? For murder it is. If from every pulpit preachers declaimed, " Thou shalt not kill ", there might be an end to all this talk. We are to-day, however, confronted with the need to defend Australia. The fear, of course, is' of a dictator. The tyrants of ancient Greece and Rome, we know from our reading of Plutarch, were magnificent men. Napoleon has been .eulogized by poets and writers, Byron among the poets, and Abbott, the American, among the writers. In Abbott's introduction to his Napoleon, he says -

I have written this history as if I were on my dying bed, and would not wish to alter one single sentence.

I commend to honorable members the book Blackmailor War, by Genevieve Tabouis, in which she says -

Emil Ludwig, in his hook on Mussolini, reproduces a conversation which he had with the Duce. In a sudden burnt of frankness, which he rarely reveals, Mussolini told Ludwig that Fascism was bound to end with him. In the Italian edition, this statement was coyly omitted.

Samuel Albert Rosa, in 1920, published The Invasion of Australia. The arguments he advanced then are sound to-day.

I asked the following questions recently of the Minister for Defence -

1.   What are the estimated costs of up-to-date submarines as used by (a) the British Navy, and (6) the Italian Navy?

2.   What are the costs of up-to-date aeroplanes as used by the British Air Force?

I received the following replies: - 1. (o) Costs vary from £230,000 to £500,000 (sterling) according to class and tonnage;

(b)   No figures are available.

2.   The approximate average costs (landed in Australia and in Australia currency) of representative types of modern aircraft in use in the Royal Air Force are: - Primary trainer type, £2,000; fighter type. £9,000; bombers, from £9,000 to £40,000 per aircraft according to type; flying-boats, £00,000.

To the foregoing costs in sterling 25 per cent, exchange must be added. There was a feeling that the late Signor Marconi, the Italian genius, has invented an appliance to render aeroplanes powerless. I sought information as to whether there was any foundation for that belief, but none was available. It would cost £10,000,000 in Australian currency for Australia to purchase a battleship. On the basis of the figures supplied in answer to my questions, for that expenditure we could buy sixteen of the most expensive types of submarines. Admiral Jackie Fisher, one of the greatest admirals since Nelson, says that submersibles would make Australia impregnable. For. the same outlay of money, 250 of the most expensive bombing aircraft could be obtained and 1,111 of the least expensive. I cannot imagine any battleship of an opposing power wanting to approach our shores if the admiral of the fleet knew that there were more than 1,100 bombing aircraft available to repulse him. Aeroplanes are the most mobile force in the world. It is interesting to note the number of lives risked on battleships, submarines and aeroplanes respectively. A battleship carries 61 officers and 1.304 other ratings, making a total of 1,365 ; a submarine carries five officers and 55 men; and a twin-engined medium bomber carries one officer and three men. Yet the bomber may sink a battleship which

Budget[18Novermber,1938]1938-1939.1743 cost ?10,000,000. I offer strong objection to the building of battleships. We should use our resources in a much more effective way if we bought submersibles and aircraft. We could get more than 3,000 aircraft of useful kinds for the price of one battleship.

I now direct the attention of honorable members to the following letter which I received from Captain C. W. McCulloch, Royal Navy retired, on the subject of Australia's defence: -

May I offer you my most sincere congratulations on your advocacy of submarines and aeroplanes in the House yesterday.

I am a retired captain, Royal Navy, and my wife and I came out here ten years ago for climatic reasons.

During that time, I have written many letters to the West Australian on the subject of Australian defence, especially the naval side of it.

Recently, I wrote a private letter to the editor of the Sydney Bulletin urging him to take up the subject.

Briefly, my convictions are: First, that the original conception of an independent Australian navy was a mistake, but that cannot now be altered; secondly, that the ships now in service in her Navy are oil-burners, which is a vital mistake. And she has just bought two more. They should have been dualburners. A splendid quality of steaming coal is available in New South Wales, whereas, in all probability, oil supply would he the first tiling Japan would try to cut off.

Then the question of submarines. Australia now has none. They are the ideal defensive weapons nf small poor nations. They are the only type of warship which wou'd deter Japan from sending a battle squadron to bombard coastal ports such as Sydney.

After settling down here, I was amazed to find the confirmed belief that the Singapore Naval Base would be a tower of strength in the defence of Australia.. I proceeded to show that in the first place a naval base was of no earthly (or should I say "watery") use to any one unless there was a fleet based on it; and that, in the second place, there was no British fleet in existence to spare for that purpose.

I found that Australia did not seem to have any definite policy for defence; it was merely a political shuttlecock. 1 am not interested in politics. Early this year, I wrote to and saw Mr. Curtin on these very points. But since then, we have had a very startling reminder of Australia's defenceless condition. In my opinion, there should be a permanent council of defence, a body of men competent to study the subject from all angles, and to recommend suitable action. Defence is not only a matter of men and guns, it is also the art of cultivating friendly relations with one's neighbours, and is no less economic than military. Those blundering wool and iron ore embargoes, for instance. Have they had no effect on Japanese feelings towards this country 1

There is strong professional opinion in England that the exclusive use of oil fuel in the Navy is a tragic blunder.It renders the fleet dependent on neutral friendliness for its mobility, instead of using the finest steam coal a beneficent nature has provided the country with. And the oil supplies call for a considerable proportion of naval protection.

I notice that you received the standard reply to your suggestions, " adopted on the advice of the bust naval experts." That is just where Australia makesher greatest mistake. Who are these "' experts " Are they responsible for the condition of the British Navy to-day? Are they the same type of " experts " who are responsible for the appalling revelations we are now reading of - Great Britain's unpreparedness, after two or three years " rearming "?

You have been inflicted with the advice of visiting experts ", the most recent being the advice of Admiral Kelly to exchange two cruisers for a battleship. The one, battleship presumably being to fight the Japanese Navy! Then I believe you had Admiral Jellicoe recommending eight battleships, which automatically entailed sixteen cruisers, thirty-two destroyers, &c, &c, with two complete naval liases, docks, workshops, storehouses, &c.

Mr. Thorbyquoted the costs of up to date submarines. Australia does not need up todate ones. In any case, she could not at present get them from Great Britain. But she probably could get a flotilla from the United States of America of what are classed as " over-age " vessels, completed after the war. All that Australia requires are small seaworthy vessels; the mere fact of having them in commission would ensure that they would never be required in action.

As for the nil versus coal question, the present ships could not be converted. Coalburners can be adapted for oil fuel, but not vice versa. But asI see no useful purpose in Australian cruisers, they are of little consequence.

There is too much of the 1014-18 mentality in service minds. They think in terms of the last war, not the next one. Those who try to think of the future are classed as cranks. The experts " still prattle about protection of trade routes." Australia will not worry about trade routes when she is fighting to the death on her own soil for her own existence! Like China to-day.

Australia might with great benefit study the composition of the Netherlands naval forces. She realizes the usefulness of submarines in the defence of her eastern possessions.

I hope, sir, that you will persevere with your arguments and at least arouse the nation to the danger of the present haphazard methods of providing for its defence.

Yours sincerely,

Chas. W. McCulloch.

The book by Samuel Albert Rosa, entitled The Invasion of Australia, to which I referred a few moments ago, contains the following statements by Admiral Fisher that are relevant to this subject : -

Any sailor who attacks a fort is a fool. The attack on the Dardanelles did not " nearly succeed ". Kitchener's conscription was not needed in Australia. Submarines would make Australia impregnable. The Dardanelles adventure was a deplorable massacre.

A good deal has been said from time to time about the necessity for ships to protect our trade routes; but, so far as I know, no big shipping company that is really Australian in character engages in the overseas trade. For this reason, I contend that those who are really interested in the overseas shipping business should protect the trade routes. I have no doubt that surplus Australian wool, wheat and edible commodities would be of great value to people overseas in the event of war. We may, therefore, leave to those other interests the responsibility to provide for the safe transit of these commodities abroad. Unfortunately, a great deal of foodstuffs is destroyed from time to time for commercial reasons. A year or so ago, when the Government was preparing the questions on the alteration of the Constitution for submission to the people, I asked the Prime Minister to include this question in the list: "Do the people of Australia consider that the man who destroys good food, which is provided by God through nature for the sustenance of human beings, should he regarded as guilty of a crime; if so, what should the punishment for the crime be ? " Unfortunately, the Prime Minister was not willing to include this question in his list. Had he done so, the people would have fixed a very heavy penalty.

Lord Fisher in his memoirs declared -

Australia does not need conscription. It is an island, and submarines would make it impregnable.

The book in which those statements first appeared was published about twenty years ago; but it shows the absolute absurdity of wasting money upon the construction of modern battleships.

I have had sent to me a letter which was submitted to the Sydney Morning Herald for publication. For some reason which

I cannot understand that newspaper refused to print it. The letter made replies to certain statements by T. Ogata, a Japanese, and read as follows: -

T.   Ogata, on Japanese Appeasement.

To the Editor of the Herald.

In the Herald of 13th October.

Mr. T.Ogata, in referring to Mr. Spenser Watt's letter in a previous issue of the Herald, travels far and wide of the mark in his attempt to justify Japan's conquest of Manchuria and her present war to conquer China.

He compares the invasion of Japanese into Manchuria, and ipso facto, the invasion of China and the consequent ruthless butchery of Chinese men, women and children " to the settlement of Australian squatters who sought pasturage for their flocks ". Such a statement implies a strong concept of the ignorance or gullibility of Australians. Australia was a land well nigh uninhabited when white men sought to find pasturage for their cattle and sheep. Those who pioneered Australia, in the main, offered to the aboriginals better conditions of life than those under which they previously existed. In a pamphlet The StruggleintheFar East, published in San Francisco in 1932, the author, James M. Rafferty, under heading " Japan Violates Her Pledge ", stated, "Japan successfully rejected any interference with her claims of special privilege in Manchuria and Mongolia, although she signed the nine power pact agreeing to respect the integrity of China ", and not to take advantage of China's weakness or disorganization totrespass on her rights.

Mr. Ogatais not correct in stating that the Italian conquest of Abyssinia was based on the economic starvation of Italy ". The so-called Government of Abyssinia had raided, and were continually raiding, the adjoining Italian and French Somaliland and the British Kenya, taking over 2,000,000 of their subjects, and treating them as the most abject of slaves. Lord Noel Buxton and Lord Polworth sent to the League of Nations after a long journey in Ethiopia on behalf of the Antislavery Society the following report: "Slavery constitutes the basis of the entire economic system of Ethiopia. The rich possess a great number of slaves amounting sometimes to thousands, but slaves are owned by people of inferior social position ". Lady Simon, wife of the British ex-Minister of Foreign Affairs, in a recent book stated, " Slavery is so woven into the pattern of Abyssinian existence that one can only fear that the country will never be able to free itself from the chains of this disgraceful institution without the generous intervention of other nations moved by the intention of establishing a new State in Ethiopia ".

The invasion of Manchuria by Japan is not on any parallel with that of Italy into Abyssinia referred to by Mr. Ogata in his special pleading. Professor T.O'Conroy. in his book The Menace of Japan, wrote, " The history of Manchuria is part of the history of China. Definite mention of this territory can be traced back to 'the twelfth century B.C., and its development is one of the most interesting sections in Chinese history . . . Until theend of the nineteenth century Manchuria witnessed peace and prosperity, and the population increased very considerably . . . Manchuria is approximately the size of France and Germany combined. Its area is 360,000 square miles. Its population amounts to a little more than 30,000,000; 29,000,000 out of this figure arc Chinese. Koreans total about 800,000; Japanese 220,000. By 1907 Chinese farmers were to be found almost everywhere in Manchuria. Its natural wealth is immense and is, as yet, hardly exploited. It has vast mineral areas where coal, iron and gold are to be found, and its agricultural possibilities are enormous. There are huge tracts of timber, especially in the northern districts ". Yet with all the conquest, of this area, as large as France and Germany, and with less than onethird of the population, Japan is not satisfied. Mr. Ogata attempts to justify the invasion an attempted conquest of China and its population of 450,000,000..

Professor O'Conroy writes of Manchuria: " The greatest field in the matter of production is in agriculture. Arable land in Manchuria is placed at 54,900,000 acres. To-day, out of this total, 32,000,000 acres are undercultivation. The annual production of crops has shown a steady advance for the past twenty years. In 1929 it had reached the peak of 786,799,333 bushels valued at $200,000,000. . . According to the estimate of experts, the coal deposits for the whole of Manchurian area are approximately 1.556,000,000 tons. In 1930 the output of all active mines was 10,040,652 tons.. The gold deposits in Manchuria are the richest in the whole of China, and their output is estimated at around 430,000 oz. There are 30 places where copper is found, and 58 lead and silver mines ". With all this, Japan's rulers are not satisfied. Professor O'Conroy further stated: "To-day the military cliques, the modern descendants of the old Samurai, arc in the saddle, and the world must be made to realize the menace that accompanies this ". General Araki, exMinister of War, Stated - the essence of his speech is taken from the Japan WeeklyChironicle, 16th March of this year (1933) - "It is a big mistake ", says General Araki, " to consider the Manchurian problem from a merely materialistic point of view, and regard it simply as a question of interests of ' life line '. The trouble has arisen from the corrupt materialistic ideas of the Chinese people, imported from the west, have defiled the racial spirit and national morality of the Japanese to the firing point. We Japanese are not afraid of blood . . . What is the present state of the East? India, with its population of 300,000,000, lives in dire misery under Britain's oppressive rule. . . The countries of the Far East are the object of pressure on the part of the white races. But awakened Japan can no longer tolerate further tyranny and oppression at their hands ... If anybody impedes the march of this country he should be beaten down ruthlessly, and without giving any quarter, whatever the body may be ".

In the pamphlet above quoted, The Struggle in the Far East, J. J. Rafferty refers to the famous Tanaka. Memorial. " This memorial was presented to the Emperor of Japan on 25th July, 1927 ", Rafferty stated, "the Japanese scoff at its authenticity . . . The path of the Japanese procedure in Korea, Manchuria, Mongolia and China seem to lend colour to the authenticity of the document".

The Tanaka Memorial states - " 1. For settling difficulties in Eastern Asia, Japan must adopt a policy of blood and iron ' ".

2.   In order to conquer the world, Japan must conquer Europe and Asia. In order to conquer Europe and Asia Japan must conquer China, Japan must first conquer Manchuria and Mongolia. Japan expects to fulfil the above programme in ten years ". " Australian ".

Sydney, 19th October, 1938. [Leave to continue given.]

Montague Grover, a distinguished journalist, formerly reporter for the Melbourne Age and Melbourne Argus, subeditor of Sydney, Morning Herald, editor of Sydney Sun for twelve years, editor of Melbourne Sun Pictorial, editor of Melbourne Herald subsidiary publications, and Melbourne editor for the Sydney Bulletin, in his book The Time is now Ripe, says that the day of capital has ended. He said: -

The Russian revolution hung in the balance for months, if not years, and would have had no chance whatever had it not been for the soldiers, returning from the Great War with their arms, throwing in their lot with the Bolsheviks.

In another chapter he makes reference to the task of the Attorney-General. I say in all kindness to the honorable gentleman that although he is one of my political enemies, if he ever accepts the leadership suggested by Mr. Grover, I shall be his sincere and honest follower, and I shall join with him in the singing of " The Red Flag", as long as my old lungs will permit rae to do so.

Progress reported.

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