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Referendums and Plebiscites



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REFERENDUMS AND PLEBISCITES

ECCE PARLIAMENTARY HANDBOOKof the Commonwealth of Australia ctÜà H

29à{ Xw|à|ÉÇ 2002

Referendum results 548

Plebiscite results 573

547 29th EDITION 2002 ECCE cARLIAMENTARY H A N D B O OK of the Commonwealth of Australia

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REFERENDUMS AND PLEBISCITES Constitutional referendums The referendum is used in Australia as part of the formal process of amending the Commonwealth Constitution. Section 128 of the Constitution requires that a proposal to amend the Constitution must first take the form of a Bill submitted to the Commonwealth Parliament. Between two and six months after it leaves the Parliament, the proposal 'shall be submitted' to the voters in the States and Territories in the form of a referendum.

The Constitution originally provided that Bills to alter the Constitution had to be approved by referendum in a majority of States and by a majority of all electors voting. Following an amendment in 1977, the Constitution now allows electors in the Territories, as well as electors in the States, to vote in constitutional referendums. Territory votes are included in the national total only. No proposed amendment diminishing the proportionate representation of any State in either House of the Parliament, or the minimum number of representatives of a State in the House of Representatives, or altering the boundaries of a State, may become law unless the majority of the electors voting in that State approve the proposed law.

The Referendum (Machinery Provisions) Act 1984 provides the machinery for conducting referendums. Constitutional referendums have been held on nineteen separate occasions, involving forty-four separate amendment attempts.

Only eight of the forty-four proposals have been carried by referendum:

• Senate Elections (12 December 1906) made minor alterations concerning Senate elections and terms of Senators

• State Debts (13 April 1910) allowed the Commonwealth takeover of State debts

• State Debts (17 November 1928) formalised the position of the Loan Council

• Social Services (28 September 1946) gave the Commonwealth power to provide certain social services

• Aboriginals (27 May 1967) gave the Commonwealth power to make laws for Aboriginal people resident in the States and to include all Aboriginal people in the national census

• Casual Vacancies (21 May 1977) aimed at ensuring that a replacement Senator should be from the same party as the departing Senator

• Te rritory Votes (21 May 1977) gave residents of the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory the right to vote in constitutional referendums

• Retirement of Judges (21 May 1977) provided for a retirement age of 70 for all federal judges.

National plebiscites In Australia referendums on questions that do not affect the Constitution are usually called plebiscites. They have no legal force. Three national plebiscites have been held: two on the conscription of troops during World War I and one on a national song in 1977.

The following pages show the voting figures at each constitutional referendum* and national plebiscite. In all cases the italicised words provide the question asked of voters on the referendum ballot paper.

The numbering of the referendums and plebiscites has been given for the convenience of the reader. It is not an official numbering.

* For all referendums up to and including that for 13 December 1919 the sum of 'For', 'Against' and 'Informal' does not equal ‘Ballot papers issued'. The difference is 'Ballot papers issued but not accounted for'.

12 December 1906

(1) Senate Elections

Question Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Senate Elections) 1906'?

Constitution Alteration (Senate Elections) 1906 sought to amend section 13, including altering Senators' terms so as to commence on 1 July (previously 1 January) and end on 30 June (previously 31 December).

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 737 599 381 019 286 888 83.85 55 261 16.15 37 929

Victoria 672 054 380 953 282 739 83.10 57 487 16.90 38 936

Queensland 271 109 124 352 81 295 76.84 24 502 23.16 15 325

South Australia 193 118 70 479 54 297 86.99 8 121 13.01 7 892

Western Australia 145 473 52 712 34 736 78.93 9 274 21.07 6 312

Tasmania 90 209 48 762 34 056 81.32 7 825 18.68 5 761

Total for Commonwealth 2 109 562 1 058 277 774 011 82.65 162 470 17.35 112 155

Obtained majority in all six States and an overall majority of 611 541 votes.

Carried

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Referendum results

13 April 1910

(2) State Debts; (3) Surplus Revenue

Question 1 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (State Debts) 1909'?

The Constitution gave the Commonwealth Parliament power to take over debts of the States in existence at the establishment of the Commonwealth. Constitution Alteration (State Debts) 1909 sought to give the Commonwealth unrestricted power to take over State debts.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 834 662 512 802 159 275 33.34 318 412 66.66 34 060

Victoria 703 699 468 535 279 392 64.59 153 148 35.41 33 824

Queensland 279 031 170 634 102 705 64.57 56 346 35.43 9 971

South Australia 207 655 110 503 72 985 73.18 26 742 26.82 10 252

Western Australia 134 979 83 893 57 367 72.80 21 437 27.20 4 324

Tasmania 98 456 57 609 43 329 80.97 10 186 19.03 3 778

Total for Commonwealth 2 258 482 1 403 976 715 053 54.95 586 271 45.05 96 209

Obtained majority in five States and an overall majority of 128 782 votes.

Carried

Question 2 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Finance) 1909'?

Constitution Alteration (Finance) 1909 sought to amend section 87 (the 'Braddon Clause') which was due to lapse in 1910, in order to give constitutional effect to a financial agreement reached between the States and the Commonwealth to replace the section.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 834 662 512 802 227 650 47.35 253 107 52.65 31 411

Victoria 703 699 468 535 200 165 45.26 242 119 54.74 24 299

Queensland 279 031 170 634 87 130 54.58 72 516 45.42 9 489

South Australia 207 655 110 503 49 352 49.06 51 250 50.94 9 679

Western Australia 134 979 83 893 49 050 61.74 30 392 38.26 3 890

Tasmania 98 456 57 609 32 167 59.99 21 454 40.01 3 669

Total for Commonwealth 2 258 482 1 403 976 645 514 49.04 670 838 50.96 82 437

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 25 324 votes.

Not carried

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26 April 1911

(4) Trade and Commerce; (5) Nationalisation of Monopolies

Question 1 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Legislative Powers) 1910'?

Constitution Alteration (Legislative Powers) 1910 sought to extend the Commonwealth Parliament’s powers over trade and commerce, the control of corporations, labour and employment and combinations and monopolies. All of the proposed changes were contained within one question.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 868 194 384 188 135 968 36.11 240 605 63.89 7 396

Victoria 723 377 448 566 170 288 38.64 270 390 61.36 7 554

Queensland 293 003 162 135 69 552 43.75 89 420 56.25 3 002

South Australia 216 027 133 802 50 358 38.07 81 904 61.93 1 374

Western Australia 138 697 61 482 33 043 54.86 27 185 45.14 870

Tasmania 102 326 58 053 24 147 42.11 33 200 57.89 673

Total for Commonwealth 2 341 624 1 248 226 483 356 39.42 742 704 60.58 20 869

Obtained majority in one State and an overall minority of 259 348 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Monopolies) 1910'?

Constitution Alteration (Monopolies) 1910 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to nationalise any industry declared by both Houses of Parliament to be the subject of a monopoly.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 868 194 384 188 138 237 36.72 238 177 63.28 7 618

Victoria 723 377 448 566 171 453 38.95 268 743 61.05 8 041

Queensland 293 003 162 135 70 259 44.26 88 472 55.74 3 200

South Australia 216 027 133 802 50 835 38.42 81 479 61.58 1 344

Western Australia 138 697 61 482 33 592 55.84 26 561 44.16 898

Tasmania 102 326 58 053 24 292 42.43 32 960 57.57 753

Total for Commonwealth 2 341 624 1 248 226 488 668 39.89 736 392 60.11 21 854

Obtained majority in one State and an overall minority of 247 724 votes.

Not carried

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Referendum results

31 May 1913

(6) Trade and Commerce; (7) Corporations; (8) Industrial Matters; (9) Trusts; (10) Nationalisation of Monopolies; (11) Railway Disputes

Question 1 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912'?

Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 sought to extend the Commonwealth Parliament's power to make laws with respect to trade and commerce.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 036 187 717 855 317 848 46.93 359 418 53.07 39 333

Victoria 830 391 626 861 297 290 49.12 307 975 50.88 21 268

Queensland 363 082 280 525 146 187 54.34 122 813 45.66 11 304

South Australia 244 026 195 463 96 085 51.32 91 144 48.68 8 017

Western Australia 179 784 132 149 66 349 52.86 59 181 47.14 6 286

Tasmania 106 746 80 398 34 660 45.16 42 084 54.84 3 528

Total for Commonwealth 2 760 216 2 033 251 958 419 49.38 982 615 50.62 89 736

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 24 196 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Corporations) 1912'?

Constitution Alteration (Corporations) 1912 sought to extend the Commonwealth Parliament's power to make laws with respect to corporations.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 036 187 717 855 317 668 46.79 361 255 53.21 37 676

Victoria 830 391 626 861 298 479 49.14 308 915 50.86 19 139

Queensland 363 082 280 525 146 936 54.31 123 632 45.69 9 736

South Australia 244 026 195 463 96 309 51.34 91 273 48.66 7 664

Western Australia 179 784 132 149 66 595 52.84 59 445 47.16 5 776

Tasmania 106 746 80 398 34 724 45.08 42 304 54.92 3 244

Total for Commonwealth 2 760 216 2 033 251 960 711 49.33 986 824 50.67 83 235

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 26 113 votes.

Not carried

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Question 3 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Industrial Matters) 1912'?

Constitution Alteration (Industrial Matters) 1912 sought to extend the Commonwealth Parliament's power to make laws with respect to industrial matters.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 036 187 717 855 318 622 46.88 361 044 53.12 36 933

Victoria 830 391 626 861 297 892 49.02 309 804 50.98 18 837

Queensland 363 082 280 525 147 171 54.36 123 554 45.64 9 579

South Australia 244 026 195 463 96 626 51.40 91 361 48.60 7 259

Western Australia 179 784 132 149 66 451 52.71 59 612 47.29 5 753

Tasmania 106 746 80 398 34 839 45.20 42 236 54.80 3 197

Total for Commonwealth 2 760 216 2 033 251 961 601 49.33 987 611 50.67 81 558

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 26 010 votes.

Not carried

Question 4 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Trusts) 1912'?

Constitution Alteration (Trusts) 1912 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to trusts.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 036 187 717 855 319 150 47.12 358 155 52.88 39 294

Victoria 830 391 626 861 301 729 49.71 305 268 50.29 19 536

Queensland 363 082 280 525 147 871 54.78 122 088 45.22 10 345

South Australia 244 026 195 463 96 400 51.67 90 185 48.33 8 661

Western Australia 179 784 132 149 67 342 53.59 58 312 46.41 6 162

Tasmania 106 746 80 398 34 839 45.38 41 935 54.62 3 498

Total for Commonwealth 2 760 216 2 033 251 967 331 49.78 975 943 50.22 87 496

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 8 612 votes.

Not carried

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Question 5 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Nationalisation of Monopolies) 1912'?

Constitution Alteration (Nationalisation of Monopolies) 1912 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to monopolies.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 036 187 717 855 301 192 46.85 341 724 53.15 73 683

Victoria 830 391 626 861 287 379 49.07 298 326 50.93 40 828

Queensland 363 082 280 525 139 019 54.17 117 609 45.83 23 676

South Australia 244 026 195 463 91 411 51.26 86 915 48.74 16 920

Western Australia 179 784 132 149 64 988 53.19 57 184 46.81 9 644

Tasmania 106 746 80 398 33 176 45.22 40 189 54.78 6 907

Total for Commonwealth 2 760 216 2 033 251 917 165 49.33 941 947 50.67 171 658

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 24 782 votes.

Not carried

Question 6 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Railway Disputes) 1912'?

Constitution Alteration (Railways Disputes) 1912 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power over industrial relations in the State railway services.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 036 187 717 855 316 928 46.70 361 743 53.30 37 928

Victoria 830 391 626 861 296 255 48.79 310 921 51.21 19 357

Queensland 363 082 280 525 146 521 54.19 123 859 45.81 9 924

South Australia 244 026 195 463 96 072 51.28 91 262 48.72 7 912

Western Australia 179 784 132 149 65 957 52.38 59 965 47.62 5 894

Tasmania 106 746 80 398 34 625 45.01 42 296 54.99 3 351

Total for Commonwealth 2 760 216 2 033 251 956 358 49.13 990 046 50.87 84 366

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 33 688 votes.

Not carried

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13 December 1919

(12) Legislative Powers; (13) Nationalisation of Monopolies

Question 1 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Legislative Powers) 1919'?

Constitution Alteration (Legislative Powers) 1919 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament a temporary extension of its legislative powers in regard to trade and commerce, corporations, industrial matters and trusts.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 079 439 717 565 259 751 39.95 390 450 60.05 67 132

Victoria 837 408 638 098 369 210 64.65 201 869 35.35 66 227

Queensland 389 200 330 231 175 225 57.35 130 299 42.65 24 397

South Australia 268 235 178 092 40 520 25.28 119 789 74.72 17 656

Western Australia 163 544 103 235 48 142 51.75 44 892 48.25 9 854

Tasmania 112 036 65 716 18 509 33.43 36 861 66.57 10 128

Total for Commonwealth 2 849 862 2 032 937 911 357 49.65 924 160 50.35 195 394

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 12 803 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Nationalisation of Monopolies) 1919'?

Constitution Alteration (Nationalisation of Monopolies) 1919 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to monopolies.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 079 439 717 565 227 156 38.31 365 847 61.69 124 330

Victoria 837 408 638 098 324 343 63.29 188 129 36.71 124 834

Queensland 389 200 330 231 162 062 56.92 122 650 43.08 45 209

South Australia 268 235 178 092 38 503 25.54 112 259 74.46 27 203

Western Australia 163 544 103 235 45 285 53.99 38 584 46.01 19 019

Tasmania 112 036 65 716 16 531 34.08 31 982 65.92 16 985

Total for Commonwealth 2 849 862 2 032 937 813 880 48.64 859 451 51.36 357 580

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 45 571 votes.

Not carried

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4 September 1926

(14) Industry and Commerce; (15) Essential Services

Question 1 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Industry and Commerce) 1926'?

Constitution Alteration (Industry and Commerce) 1926 sought to extend the Commonwealth Parliament's power to make laws in relation to corporations, and to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to trusts and combinations in restraint of trade, trade unions and employer associations.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 241 635 1 131 656 566 973 51.53 533 284 48.47 31 399

Victoria 968 861 888 661 310 261 36.23 546 138 63.77 32 262

Queensland 440 632 399 664 202 691 52.10 186 374 47.90 10 599

South Australia 303 054 281 492 78 983 29.32 190 396 70.68 12 113

Western Australia 190 286 164 555 46 469 29.29 112 185 70.71 5 901

Tasmania 110 484 98 356 41 711 44.86 51 278 55.14 5 367

Total for Commonwealth 3 254 952 2 964 384 1 247 088 43.50 1 619 655 56.50 97 641

Obtained majority in two States and an overall minority of 372 567 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Essential Services) 1926'?

Constitution Alteration (Essential Services) 1926 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to take measures necessary to protect the public against an actual or probable interruption of essential services.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 241 635 1 131 656 545 270 50.39 536 734 49.61 49 652

Victoria 968 861 888 661 296 548 35.55 537 560 64.45 54 553

Queensland 440 632 399 664 188 473 50.56 184 320 49.44 26 871

South Australia 303 054 281 492 81 966 31.32 179 740 68.68 19 786

Western Australia 190 286 164 555 39 566 25.90 113 222 74.10 11 767

Tasmania 110 484 98 356 43 679 48.59 46 217 51.41 8 460

Total for Commonwealth 3 254 952 2 964 384 1 195 502 42.80 1 597 793 57.20 171 089

Obtained majority in two States and an overall minority of 402 291 votes.

Not carried

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17 November 1928

(16) State Debts

Question Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (State Debts) 1928'?

Constitution Alteration (State Debts) 1928 sought to insert section 105A which would in effect ratify the Financial Agreement which had already been accepted by all the Australian Governments. This terminated the system of per capita payments which had been in operation since 1910, and restricted the right of each State to borrow for its own development by subjecting that borrowing to control by a Loan Council.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 335 660 1 244 918 754 446 64.47 415 846 35.53 74 626

Victoria 1 006 463 953 477 791 425 87.78 110 143 12.22 51 909

Queensland 465 423 435 298 367 257 88.60 47 250 11.40 20 791

South Australia 319 584 301 179 164 628 62.68 98 017 37.32 38 534

Western Australia 203 146 183 475 96 913 57.53 71 552 42.47 15 010

Tasmania 114 490 106 153 62 722 66.89 31 044 33.11 12 387

Total for Commonwealth 3 444 766 3 224 500 2 237 391 74.30 773 852 25.70 213 257

Obtained majority in all six States and an overall majority of 1 463 539 votes.

Carried

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6 March 1937

(17) Aviation; (18) Marketing

Question 1 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Aviation) 1936'?

Constitution Alteration (Aviation) 1936 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power with respect to air navigation and aircraft.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 550 947 1 461 860 664 589 47.25 741 821 52.75 55 450

Victoria 1 128 492 1 074 278 675 481 65.10 362 112 34.90 36 685

Queensland 562 240 519 933 310 352 61.87 191 251 38.13 18 330

South Australia 358 069 341 444 128 582 40.13 191 831 59.87 21 031

Western Australia 247 536 221 832 100 326 47.58 110 529 52.42 10 977

Tasmania 133 444 125 016 45 616 38.94 71 518 61.06 7 882

Total for Commonwealth 3 980 728 3 744 363 1 924 946 53.56 1 669 062 46.44 150 355

Obtained majority in two States and an overall majority of 255 884 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Marketing) 1936'?

Constitution Alteration (Marketing) 1936 sought to remove the restraints imposed on the Commonwealth Parliament by section 92.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 550 947 1 461 860 456 802 33.76 896 457 66.24 108 601

Victoria 1 128 492 1 074 278 468 337 46.58 537 021 53.42 68 920

Queensland 562 240 519 933 187 685 38.78 296 302 61.22 35 946

South Australia 358 069 341 444 65 364 20.83 248 502 79.17 27 578

Western Australia 247 536 221 832 57 023 27.77 148 308 72.23 16 501

Tasmania 133 444 125 016 24 597 21.88 87 798 78.12 12 621

Total for Commonwealth 3 980 728 3 744 363 1 259 808 36.26 2 214 388 63.74 270 167

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 954 580 votes.

Not carried

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19 August 1944

(19) Post-War Reconstruction and Democratic Rights

Question Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Post-War Reconstruction and Democratic Rights) 1944'?

Constitution Alteration (Post-War Reconstruction and Democratic Rights) 1944, the ‘Fourteen Powers’ or ‘Fourteen Points’ Referendum, sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power, for a period of five years, to legislate with respect to the fourteen specified matters, which included the rehabilitation of ex-servicemen, national health, family allowances and ‘the people of Aboriginal race’ as well as, in some form, many of the matters on which powers to legislate had been sought in 1911 (i.e. corporations, trusts, combines and monopolies). There were also to be inserted constitutional guarantees of freedom of speech and religion and safeguards against the abuse of delegated legislative power. All of these proposed alterations were put to voters in the form of one question.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 758 166 1 694 119 759 211 45.44 911 680 54.56 23 228

Victoria 1 266 662 1 227 571 597 848 49.31 614 487 50.69 15 236

Queensland 633 907 599 568 216 262 36.52 375 862 63.48 7 444

South Australia 403 133 392 443 196 294 50.64 191 317 49.36 4 832

Western Australia 278 722 272 339 140 399 52.25 128 303 47.75 3 637

Tasmania 143 359 139 411 53 386 38.92 83 769 61.08 2 256

Total for Commonwealth 4 483 949 4 325 451* 1 963 400 45.99 2 305 418 54.01 56 633

* Including 417 082 votes by members of the Forces, of which 218 452 were for, 195 148 against and 3482 informal.

Obtained majority in two States and an overall minority of 342 018 votes.

Not carried

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28 September 1946

(20) Social Services; (21) Marketing; (22) Industrial Employment

Question 1 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Social Services) 1946'?

Constitution Alteration (Social Services) 1946 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power over a wide range of social services.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 858 749 1 757 150 897 887 54.00 764 723 46.00 94 540

Victoria 1 345 537 1 261 374 671 967 55.98 528 452 44.02 60 955

Queensland 660 316 612 170 299 205 51.26 284 465 48.74 28 500

South Australia 420 361 399 301 197 395 51.73 184 172 48.27 17 734

Western Australia 300 337 279 066 164 017 62.26 99 412 37.74 15 637

Tasmania 154 553 144 880 67 463 50.58 65 924 49.42 11 493

Total for Commonwealth 4 739 853 4 453 941* 2 297 934 54.39 1 927 148 45.61 228 859

* Including 37 021 votes by members of the Forces of which in the case of (1) 22 824 were for, 13 211 against and 986 informal; (2) 19 924 for, 15 997 against, 1100 informal, and (3) 20 445 for, 15 239 against, 1337 informal.

Obtained majority in all six States and an overall majority of 370 786 votes.

Carried

Question 2 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Organised Marketing of Primary Products) 1946'?

Constitution Alteration (Organised Marketing of Primary Products) 1946 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to the organised marketing of primary products, unrestricted by section 92.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 858 749 1 757 150 855 233 51.83 794 852 48.17 107 065

Victoria 1 345 537 1 261 374 624 343 52.37 567 860 47.63 69 171

Queensland 660 316 612 170 251 672 43.74 323 678 56.26 36 820

South Australia 420 361 399 301 183 674 48.74 193 201 51.26 22 426

Western Australia 300 337 279 066 145 781 56.21 113 562 43.79 19 723

Tasmania 154 553 144 880 55 561 42.55 75 018 57.45 14 301

Total for Commonwealth 4 739 853 4 453 941* 2 116 264 50.57 2 068 171 49.43 269 506

* See note under (1) above.

Obtained majority in three States and an overall majority of 48 093 votes.

Not carried

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Question 3 Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Industrial Employment) 1946'?

Constitution Alteration (Industrial Employment) 1946 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to the terms and conditions of industrial employment (but not so as to authorise any form of industrial conscription).

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 858 749 1 757 150 833 822 51.72 778 280 48.28 145 048

Victoria 1 345 537 1 261 374 609 355 52.08 560 773 47.92 91 246

Queensland 660 316 612 170 243 242 43.42 316 970 56.58 51 958

South Australia 420 361 399 301 179 153 48.20 192 516 51.80 27 632

Western Australia 300 337 279 066 142 186 55.74 112 881 44.26 23 999

Tasmania 154 553 144 880 52 517 41.37 74 440 58.63 17 923

Total for Commonwealth 4 739 853 4 453 941* 2 060 275 50.30 2 035 860 49.70 357 806

* See note under (1) on previous page.

Obtained majority in three States and an overall majority of 24 415 votes.

Not carried

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Referendum results

29 May 1948

(23) Rents and Prices

Question Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Rents and Prices) 1947'?

Constitution Alteration (Rents and Prices) 1947 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament ongoing power to make laws with respect to rents and prices.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 880 779 1 762 091 723 183 41.66 1 012 639 58.34 26 269

Victoria 1 351 853 1 270 037 559 361 44.63 693 937 55.37 16 739

Queensland 669 555 617 678 187 955 30.80 422 236 69.20 7 487

South Australia 422 809 402 778 167 171 42.15 229 438 57.85 6 169

Western Australia 301 223 278 282 105 605 38.59 168 088 61.41 4 589

Tasmania 157 668 145 135 50 437 35.45 91 845 64.55 2 853

Total for Commonwealth 4 783 887 4 476 001* 1 793 712 40.66 2 618 183 59.34 64 106

* Including 11 905 votes by members of the Forces, of which 6557 were for, 5213 against and 135 informal.

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 824 471 votes.

Not carried

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Referendum results

22 September 1951

(24) Communists and Communism

Question Do you approve of the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'Constitution Alteration (Powers to deal with Communists and Communism) 1951'?

Constitution Alteration (Powers to deal with Communists and Communism) 1951 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to communists and communism where this was necessary for the security of the Commonwealth.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 944 219 1 861 147 865 838 47.17 969 868 52.83 25 441

Victoria 1 393 556 1 326 024 636 819 48.71 670 513 51.29 18 692

Queensland 709 328 675 916 373 156 55.76 296 019 44.24 6 741

South Australia 442 983 427 253 198 971 47.29 221 763 52.71 6 519

Western Australia 319 383 305 653 164 989 55.09 134 497 44.91 6 167

Tasmania 164 868 158 596 78 154 50.26 77 349 49.74 3 093

Total for Commonwealth 4 974 337 4 754 589* 2 317 927 49.44 2 370 009 50.56 66 653

*Including 9472 votes by members of the Forces, of which 6478 were for, 2917 against and 82 informal.

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 52 082 votes.

Not carried

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Referendum results

27 May 1967

(25) Parliament; (26) Aboriginals

Question 1 Do you approve the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'An Act to alter the Constitution so that the number of members of the House of Representatives may be increased without necessarily increasing the number of Senators'?

Section 24 of the Constitution requires that the number of Members of the House of Representatives must be approximately double the number of Senators. Constitution Alteration (Parliament) 1967 sought to alter the Constitution so as to remove this 'nexus'.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 2 315 828 2 166 507 1 087 694 51.01 1 044 458 48.99 34 355

Victoria 1 734 476 1 630 594 496 826 30.87 1 112 506 69.13 21 262

Queensland 904 808 848 728 370 200 44.13 468 673 55.87 9 855

South Australia 590 275 560 844 186 344 33.91 363 120 66.09 11 380

Western Australia 437 609 405 666 114 841 29.05 280 523 70.95 10 302

Tasmania 199 589 189 245 42 764 23.06 142 660 76.94 3 821

Total for Commonwealth 6 182 585 5 801 584 2 298 669 40.25 3 411 940 59.75 90 975

Obtained majority in one State and an overall minority of 1 113 271 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 Do you approve the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'An Act to alter the Constitution so as to omit certain words relating to the people of the Aboriginal race in any state so that Aboriginals are to be counted in reckoning the population'?

Constitution Alteration (Aboriginals) 1967 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to Aboriginal people wherever they lived in Australia. It also sought to make it possible to include Aboriginal people in national censuses.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 2 315 828 2 166 507 1 949 036 91.46 182 010 8.54 35 461

Victoria 1 734 476 1 630 594 1 525 026 94.68 85 611 5.32 19 957

Queensland 904 808 848 728 748 612 89.21 90 587 10.79 9 529

South Australia 590 275 560 844 473 440 86.26 75 383 13.74 12 021

Western Australia 437 609 405 666 319 823 80.95 75 282 19.05 10 561

Tasmania 199 589 189 245 167 176 90.21 18 134 9.79 3 935

Total for Commonwealth 6 182 585 5 801 584 5 183 113 90.77 527 007 9.23 91 464

Obtained majority in all six States and an overall majority of 4 656 106 votes.

Carried

ECCE cARLIAMENTARY H A N D B O OK of the Commonwealth of Australia 564 29thEDITION 2002

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Referendum results

8 December 1973

(27) Prices; (28) Incomes

Question 1 Do you approve the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'An Act to alter the Constitution so as to enable the Australian Parliament to control prices'?

Constitution Alteration (Prices) 1973 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to prices.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 2 827 989 2 618 673 1 257 499 48.55 1 332 485 51.45 28 689

Victoria 2 129 494 2 001 924 891 144 45.18 1 081 120 54.82 29 660

Queensland 1 128 417 1 055 299 402 506 38.47 643 770 61.53 9 023

South Australia 737 573 700 333 282 754 41.16 404 181 58.84 13 398

Western Australia 588 789 542 122 169 605 31.90 362 121 68.10 10 396

Tasmania 241 207 229 016 85 631 38.22 138 416 61.78 4 969

Total for Commonwealth 7 653 469 7 147 367 3 089 139 43.81 3 962 093 56.19 96 135

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 872 954 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 Do you approve the proposed law for the alteration of the Constitution entitled 'An Act to alter the Constitution so as to enable the Australian Parliament to make laws with respect to incomes'?

Constitution Alteration (Incomes) 1973 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to incomes.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 2 827 989 2 618 673 1 041 429 40.31 1 542 217 59.69 35 027

Victoria 2 129 494 2 001 924 657 756 33.44 1 309 302 66.56 34 866

Queensland 1 128 417 1 055 299 331 163 31.70 713 562 68.30 10 574

South Australia 737 573 700 333 193 301 28.25 490 943 71.75 16 089

Western Australia 588 789 542 122 133 531 25.21 396 199 74.79 12 392

Tasmania 241 207 229 016 63 135 28.31 159 862 71.69 6 019

Total for Commonwealth 7 653 469 7 147 367 2 420 315 34.42 4 612 085 65.58 114 967

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 2 191 770 votes.

Not carried

565 29th EDITION 2002 ECCE cARLIAMENTARY H A N D B O OK of the Commonwealth of Australia

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Referendum results

18 May 1974

(29) Simultaneous Elections; (30) Mode of Altering the Constitution; (31) Democratic Elections; (32) Local Government Bodies

Question 1 Proposed law entitled 'An Act to alter the Constitution so as to ensure that Senate elections are held at the same time as House of Representatives elections'.

Do you approve the proposed law?

House and Senate elections need not be held simultaneously, though they usually are. Constitution Alteration (Simultaneous Elections) 1974 proposed to make simultaneous elections compulsory.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 2 834 558 2 702 903 1 359 485 51.06 1 303 117 48.94 40 301

Victoria 2 161 474 2 070 893 1 001 111 49.19 1 033 969 50.81 35 813

Queensland 1 154 762 1 098 401 481 092 44.32 604 444 55.68 12 865

South Australia 750 308 722 434 332 369 47.14 372 666 52.86 17 399

Western Australia 612 016 577 989 248 860 44.07 315 786 55.93 13 343

Tasmania 246 596 237 891 96 793 41.37 137 156 58.63 3 942

Total for Commonwealth 7 759 714 7 410 511 3 519 710 48.30 3 767 138 51.70 123 663

Obtained majority in one State and an overall minority of 247 428 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 Proposed law entitled 'An Act to facilitate alterations to the Constitution and to allow electors in territories, as well as electors in the states, to vote at referendums on proposed laws to alter the Constitution'.

Do you approve the proposed law?

Constitution Alteration (Mode of Altering the Constitution) 1974 sought to make two alterations to section 128. The first was to provide electors in the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory with the right to vote in constitutional referendums. The second was to enable amendments to be made to the Constitution if approved by a majority of Australian voters and a majority of voters in half the States.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 2 834 558 2 702 903 1 367 476 51.35 1 295 621 48.65 39 806

Victoria 2 161 474 2 070 893 1 001 753 49.22 1 033 486 50.78 35 654

Queensland 1 154 762 1 098 401 480 926 44.29 604 816 55.71 12 659

South Australia 750 308 722 434 311 954 44.26 392 891 55.74 17 589

Western Australia 612 016 577 989 240 134 42.53 324 435 57.47 13 420

Tasmania 246 596 237 891 95 264 40.72 138 674 59.28 3 953

Total for Commonwealth 7 759 714 7 410 511 3 497 507 47.99 3 789 923 52.01 123 081

Obtained majority in one State and an overall minority of 292 416 votes. Not carried

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Question 3 Proposed law entitled 'An Act to alter the Constitution so as to ensure that the members of the House of Representatives and of the parliaments of the states are chosen directly and democratically by the people'.

Do you approve the proposed law?

Constitution Alteration (Democratic Elections) 1974 sought to make population instead of electors the basis of determining the average size of electorates in each State.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 2 834 558 2 702 903 1 345 983 50.55 1 316 837 49.45 40 083

Victoria 2 161 474 2 070 893 970 903 47.71 1 064 023 52.29 35 967

Queensland 1 154 762 1 098 401 474 337 43.70 611 135 56.30 12 929

South Australia 750 308 722 434 310 839 44.11 393 857 55.89 17 738

Western Australia 612 016 577 989 241 946 42.86 322 587 57.14 13 456

Tasmania 246 596 237 891 95 463 40.81 138 430 59.19 3 998

Total for Commonwealth 7 759 714 7 410 511 3 439 471 47.20 3 846 869 52.80 124 171

Obtained majority in one State and an overall minority of 407 398 votes.

Not carried

Question 4 Proposed law entitled 'An Act to alter the Constitution to enable the Commonwealth to borrow money for, and to grant financial assistance to, local government bodies'.

Do you approve the proposed law?

Constitution Alteration (Local Government Bodies) 1974 sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament powers to borrow money for, and to make financial assistance grants directly to, any local government body.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 2 834 558 2 702 903 1 350 274 50.79 1 308 039 49.21 44 590

Victoria 2 161 474 2 070 893 961 664 47.38 1 068 120 52.62 41 109

Queensland 1 154 762 1 098 401 473 465 43.68 610 537 56.32 14 399

South Australia 750 308 722 434 298 489 42.52 403 479 57.48 20 466

Western Australia 612 016 577 989 229 337 40.67 334 529 59.33 14 123

Tasmania 246 596 237 891 93 495 40.03 140 073 59.97 4 323

Total for Commonwealth 7 759 714 7 410 511 3 406 724 46.85 3 864 777 53.15 139 010

Obtained majority in one State and an overall minority of 458 053 votes.

Not carried

567 29th EDITION 2002 ECCE cARLIAMENTARY H A N D B O OK of the Commonwealth of Australia

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Referendum results

21 May 1977

(33) Simultaneous Elections; (34) Senate Casual Vacancies; (35) Referendums; (36) Retirement of Judges

Question 1 It is proposed to alter the Constitution to ensure that Senate elections are held at the same time as House of Representatives elections.

Do you approve the proposed law?

Constitution Alteration (Simultaneous Elections) 1977 proposed to introduce simultaneous elections for both Houses of Parliament.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 3 007 511 2 774 388 1 931 775 70.71 800 331 29.29 42 282

Victoria 2 252 831 2 083 136 1 325 708 65.00 713 929 35.00 43 499

Queensland 1 241 426 1 138 842 534 968 47.51 590 942 52.49 12 932

South Australia 799 243 745 990 480 827 65.99 247 762 34.01 17 401

Western Australia 682 291 617 463 292 344 48.47 310 765 51.53 14 354

Tasmania 259 081 246 063 82 785 34.26 158 818 65.74 4 460

Total for Commonwealth 8 242 383 7 605 882 4 648 407 62.22 2 822 547 37.78 134 928

Obtained majority in three States and an overall majority of 1 825 860 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 It is proposed to alter the Constitution to ensure as far as practicable that a casual vacancy in the Senate is filled by a person of the same political party as the Senator chosen by the people and for the balance of his term.

Do you approve the proposed law?

Constitution Alteration (Senate Casual Vacancies) 1977 sought to ensure as far as practicable that a casual vacancy in the Senate would be filled by a person of the same political party as the Senator chosen by the people, and that the new Senator would hold the seat for the balance of the original term.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 3 007 511 2 774 388 2 230 218 81.62 502 171 18.38 41 999

Victoria 2 252 831 2 083 136 1 552 558 76.13 486 798 23.87 43 780

Queensland 1 241 426 1 138 842 662 732 58.86 463 165 41.14 12 945

South Australia 799 243 745 990 557 950 76.59 170 536 23.41 17 504

Western Australia 682 291 617 463 344 389 57.11 258 655 42.89 14 419

Tasmania 259 081 246 063 129 924 53.78 111 638 46.22 4 501

Total for Commonwealth 8 242 383 7 605 882 5 477 771 73.32 1 992 963 26.68 135 148

Obtained majority in all six States and an overall majority of 3 484 808 votes.

Carried

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Question 3 It is proposed to alter the Constitution so as to allow electors in the territories, as well as electors in the states, to vote at referendums on proposed laws to alter the Constitution.

Do you approve the proposed law?

Constitution Alteration (Referendums) 1977 sought to allow electors in Territories to vote in constitutional referendums. Their votes would count in the national tally only.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 3 007 511 2 774 388 2 292 822 83.92 439 247 16.08 42 319

Victoria 2 252 831 2 083 136 1 647 187 80.78 391 855 19.22 44 094

Queensland 1 241 426 1 138 842 670 820 59.58 455 051 40.42 12 971

South Australia 799 243 745 990 606 743 83.29 121 770 16.71 17 477

Western Australia 682 291 617 463 437 751 72.62 165 049 27.38 14 663

Tasmania 259 081 246 063 150 346 62.25 91 184 37.75 4 533

Total for Commonwealth 8 242 383 7 605 882 5 805 669 77.72 1 664 156 22.28 136 057

Obtained majority in all six States and an overall majority of 4 141 513 votes.

Carried

Question 4 It is proposed to alter the Constitution so as to provide for retiring ages for judges of federal courts.

Do you approve the proposed law?

Constitution Alteration (Retirement of Judges) 1977 proposed to establish a retiring age of 70 for judges of federal courts.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 3 007 511 2 774 388 2 316 999 84.84 414 070 15.16 43 319

Victoria 2 252 831 2 083 136 1 659 273 81.43 378 505 18.57 45 358

Queensland 1 241 426 1 138 842 734 183 65.24 391 227 34.76 13 432

South Australia 799 243 745 990 622 760 85.57 104 987 14.43 18 243

Western Australia 682 291 617 463 472 228 78.37 130 307 21.63 14 928

Tasmania 259 081 246 063 174 951 72.46 66 478 27.54 4 634

Total for Commonwealth 8 242 383 7 605 882 5 980 394 80.10 1 485 574 19.90 139 914

Obtained majority in all six States and an overall majority of 4 494 820 votes.

Carried

569 29th EDITION 2002 ECCE cARLIAMENTARY H A N D B O OK of the Commonwealth of Australia

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Referendum results

1 December 1984

(37) Terms of Senators; (38) Interchange of Powers

Question 1 An Act to change the terms of senators so that they are no longer of fixed duration and to provide that Senate elections and House of Representatives elections are always held on the same day.

Do you approve this proposed alteration?

Constitution Alteration (Terms of Senators) 1984 proposed to introduce simultaneous elections for both Houses of Parliament.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 3 423 624 3 216 256 1 621 894 52.86 1 446 150 47.14 148 212

Victoria 2 617 291 2 475 891 1 244 451 53.20 1 094 760 46.80 136 680

Queensland 1 549 749 1 447 284 642 768 45.65 765 329 54.35 39 187

South Australia 908 424 856 226 398 127 49.98 398 463 50.02 59 636

Western Australia 858 763 806 637 358 502 46.47 412 996 53.53 35 139

Tasmania 289 142 277 100 102 762 39.29 158 777 60.71 15 561

Australian Capital Territory 150 416 140 982 76 901 56.68 58 764 43.32 5 317

Northern Territory 68 857 58 668 28 310 51.87 26 265 48.13 4 093

Total for Commonwealth 9 866 266 9 279 044 4 473 715 50.64 4 361 504 49.36 443 825

Obtained majority in two States and an overall majority of 112 211 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 An Act to enable the Commonwealth and the States voluntarily to refer powers to each other.

Do you approve this proposed alteration?

The Constitution places some hurdles in the way of easy cooperation between the Commonwealth and State governments. Constitution Alteration (Interchange of Powers) 1984 sought to introduce more flexibility into the constitutional provisions relating to Commonwealth‐State relations.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 3 423 624 3 216 256 1 475 971 49.04 1 533 799 50.96 206 486

Victoria 2 617 291 2 475 891 1 139 565 49.86 1 146 136 50.14 190 190

Queensland 1 549 749 1 447 284 578 674 41.69 809 249 58.31 59 361

South Australia 908 424 856 226 355 588 45.94 418 433 54.06 82 205

Western Australia 858 763 806 637 336 184 44.28 423 022 55.72 47 431

Tasmania 289 142 277 100 87 933 34.65 165 878 65.35 23 289

Australian Capital Territory 150 416 140 982 74 741 56.10 58 487 43.90 7 754

Northern Territory 68 857 58 668 25 684 47.78 28 066 52.22 4 918

Total for Commonwealth 9 866 266 9 279 044 4 074 340 47.06 4 583 070 52.94 621 634

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 508 730 votes.

Not carried

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Referendum results

3 September 1988

(39) Parliamentary Terms; (40) Fair Elections; (41) Local Government; (42) Rights and Freedoms

Question 1 A Proposed Law: To alter the Constitution to provide for 4 year maximum terms for members of both Houses of the Commonwealth Parliament.

Do you approve this proposed alteration?

Constitution Alteration (Parliamentary Terms) 1988 sought to increase House of Representatives terms from a maximum of three years to a maximum of four years, and to reduce Senate terms from a six-year fixed term to a four-year fixed term. It also sought to introduce simultaneous elections for the Houses.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 3 564 856 3 297 246 1 032 621 31.66 2 228 503 68.34 36 122

Victoria 2 697 096 2 491 183 886 128 36.20 1 561 759 63.80 43 296

Queensland 1 693 247 1 542 293 538 779 35.15 993 822 64.85 9 692

South Australia 937 974 873 511 229 938 26.76 629 454 73.24 14 119

Western Australia 926 636 845 209 255 556 30.67 577 555 69.33 12 098

Tasmania 302 324 282 785 70 698 25.34 208 297 74.66 3 790

Australian Capital Territory 166 131 149 128 64 458 43.62 83 328 56.38 1 342

Northern Territory 74 695 56 370 21 092 38.13 34 222 61.87 1 056

Total for Commonwealth 10 362 959 9 537 725 3 099 270 32.91 6 316 940 67.09 121 515

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 3 217 670 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 A Proposed Law: To alter the Constitution to provide for fair and democratic parliamentary elections throughout Australia.

Do you approve this proposed alteration?

Constitution Alteration (Fair Elections) 1988 sought to ensure that democratic electoral arrangements would be guaranteed for Commonwealth, State and Territory elections.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 3 564 856 3 297 246 1 159 713 35.57 2 100 604 64.43 36 929

Victoria 2 697 096 2 491 183 981 508 40.12 1 465 119 59.88 44 556

Queensland 1 693 247 1 542 293 686 765 44.81 845 767 55.19 9 761

South Australia 937 974 873 511 263 006 30.61 596 102 69.39 14 403

Western Australia 926 636 845 209 266 639 32.02 566 145 67.98 12 425

Tasmania 302 324 282 785 80 608 28.89 198 372 71.11 3 805

Australian Capital Territory 166 131 149 128 76 815 51.99 70 937 48.01 1 376

Northern Territory 74 695 56 370 23 763 42.99 31 512 57.01 1 095

Total for Commonwealth 10 362 959 9 537 725 3 538 817 37.59 5 874 558 62.41 124 350

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 2 335 741 votes.

Not carried

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Referendum results

Question 3 A Proposed Law: To alter the Constitution to recognise local government.

Do you approve this proposed alteration?

The Constitution recognises government at the Commonwealth and State levels but makes no mention of local government. Constitution Alteration (Local Government) 1988 sought to give such constitutional recognition to local government.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 3 564 856 3 297 246 1 033 364 31.70 2 226 529 68.30 37 353

Victoria 2 697 096 2 491 183 882 020 36.06 1 563 957 63.94 45 206

Queensland 1 693 247 1 542 293 586 942 38.31 945 333 61.69 10 018

South Australia 937 974 873 511 256 421 29.85 602 499 70.15 14 591

Western Australia 926 636 845 209 247 830 29.76 584 863 70.24 12 516

Tasmania 302 324 282 785 76 707 27.50 202 214 72.50 3 864

Australian Capital Territory 166 131 149 128 58 755 39.78 88 945 60.22 1 428

Northern Territory 74 695 56 370 21 449 38.80 33 826 61.20 1 095

Total for Commonwealth 10 362 959 9 537 725 3 163 488 33.61 6 248 166 66.39 126 071

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 3 084 678 votes.

Not carried

Question 4 A Proposed Law: To alter the Constitution to extend the right to trial by jury, to extend freedom of religion, and to ensure fair terms for persons whose property is acquired by any government.

Do you approve this proposed alteration?

Constitution Alteration (Rights and Freedoms) 1988 sought to guarantee various civil rights in relation to trials, freedom of religion and compulsory acquisition of property.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 3 564 856 3 297 246 965 045 29.65 2 289 645 70.35 42 556

Victoria 2 697 096 2 491 183 816 057 33.42 1 625 484 66.58 49 642

Queensland 1 693 247 1 542 293 503 217 32.88 1 027 218 67.12 11 858

South Australia 937 974 873 511 223 038 26.01 634 438 73.99 16 035

Western Australia 926 636 845 209 233 917 28.14 597 322 71.86 13 970

Tasmania 302 324 282 785 70 987 25.49 207 486 74.51 4 312

Australian Capital Territory 166 131 149 128 60 064 40.71 87 460 59.29 1 604

Northern Territory 74 695 56 370 20 503 37.14 34 699 62.86 1 168

Total for Commonwealth 10 362 959 9 537 725 2 892 828 30.79 6 503 752 69.21 141 145

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 3 610 924 votes.

Not carried

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Referendum results

6 November 1999

(43) Establishment of Republic; (44) Preamble

Question 1 A Proposed Law: To alter the Constitution to establish the Commonwealth of Australia as a republic with the Queen and Governor-General being replaced by a President appointed by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Commonwealth Parliament.

Do you approve this proposed alteration?

Constitution Alteration (Establishment of Republic) 1999 sought to establish the Commonwealth of Australia as a republic with the Queen and Governor-General being replaced by a President appointed by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Commonwealth Parliament.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 4 145 650 3 948 714 1 817 380 46.43 2 096 562 53.57 34 772

Victoria 3 163 934 3 016 737 1 489 536 49.84 1 499 138 50.16 28 063

Queensland 2 225 835 2 108 694 784 060 37.44 1 309 992 62.56 14 642

South Australia 1 027 535 986 394 425 869 43.57 551 575 56.43 8 950

Western Australia 1 176 311 1 114 326 458 306 41.48 646 520 58.52 9 500

Tasmania 327 729 315 641 126 271 40.37 186 513 59.63 2 857

Australian Capital Territory 212 586 202 614 127 211 63.27 73 850 36.73 1 553

Northern Territory 108 149 91 880 44 391 48.77 46 637 51.23 852

Total for Commonwealth 12 387 729 11 785 000 5 273 024 45.13 6 410 787 54.87 101 189

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 1 137 763 votes.

Not carried

Question 2 A Proposed Law: To alter the Constitution to insert a preamble.

Do you approve this proposed alteration?

Constitution Alteration (Preamble) 1999 sought to alter the Constitution to insert an additional preamble.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 4 145 650 3 948 482 1 647 378 42.14 2 261 960 57.86 39 144

Victoria 3 163 934 3 016 716 1 268 044 42.46 1 718 331 57.54 30 341

Queensland 2 225 835 2 108 659 686 644 32.81 1 405 841 67.19 16 174

South Australia 1 027 535 986 535 371 965 38.10 604 245 61.90 10 325

Western Australia 1 176 311 1 114 455 383 477 34.73 720 542 65.27 10 436

Tasmania 327 729 315 664 111 415 35.67 200 906 64.33 3 343

Australian Capital Territory 212 586 202 618 87 629 43.61 113 293 56.39 1 696

Northern Territory 108 149 91 906 35 011 38.52 55 880 61.48 1 015

Total for Commonwealth 12 387 729 11 785 035 4 591 563 39.34 7 080 998 60.66 112 474

Obtained majority in no State and an overall minority of 2 489 435 votes.

Not carried

573 29th EDITION 2002 ECCE cARLIAMENTARY H A N D B O OK of the Commonwealth of Australia

Plebiscite results 28 October 1916

(1) Military Service

Question Are you in favour of the Government having, in this grave emergency, the same compulsory powers over citizens in regard to requiring their military service, for the term of this war, outside the Commonwealth, as it now has in regard to military service within the Commonwealth?

This plebiscite, conducted under the Military Service Referendum Act 1916 , was held due to the Commonwealth Government's desire to increase its available forces for overseas service.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 055 986 858 399 356 805 42.92 474 544 57.08 27 050

Victoria 824 972 696 684 353 930 51.88 328 216 48.12 14 538

Queensland 366 042 309 921 144 200 47.71 158 051 52.29 7 670

South Australia 262 781 211 252 87 924 42.44 119 236 57.56 4 092

Western Australia 167 602 140 648 94 069 69.71 40 884 30.29 5 695

Tasmania 107 875 88 231 48 493 56.17 37 833 43.83 1 905

Federal Territories 4 572 3 468 2 136 62.73 1 269 37.27 63

Total for Commonwealth 2 789 830 2 308 603* 1 087 557 48.39 1 160 033 51.61 61 013

*Including 133 813 votes by members of the Australian Imperial Force, of which 72 399 were for, 58 894 against, and 2520 informal.

Obtained majority in three States and an overall minority of 72 476 votes.

Not carried

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Plebiscite results

ECCE cARLIAMENTARY H A N D B O OK of the Commonwealth of Australia 574 29thEDITION 2002

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Plebiscite results

20 December 1917

(2) Military Service

Question Are you in favour of the proposal of the Commonwealth Government for reinforcing the Australian Imperial Force overseas?

This plebiscite, conducted under the War Precautions (Military Service Referendum) Regulations 1917, was held due to the Commonwealth Government's desire to conscript men for overseas service in sufficient numbers to make the total reinforcements (including volunteers) up to 7000 a month.

Result State Number Ballot papers For Against Informal

on rolls issued % %

New South Wales 1 055 883 853 894 341 256 41.16 487 774 58.84 24 864

Victoria 807 331 678 806 329 772 49.79 332 490 50.21 16 544

Queensland 378 378 310 164 132 771 44.02 168 875 55.98 8 518

South Australia 261 661 197 970 86 663 44.90 106 364 55.10 4 943

Western Australia 162 347 135 593 84 116 64.39 46 522 35.61 4 955

Tasmania 106 803 78 792 38 881 50.24 38 502 49.76 1 409

Federal Territories 4 037 3 002 1 700 58.22 1 220 41.78 82

Total for Commonwealth 2 776 440 2 258 221* 1 015 159 46.21 1 181 747 53.79 61 315

* Including 199 677 votes by members of the Australian Imperial Force, of which 103 789 were for, 93 910 against, and 1978 informal.

Obtained majority in two States and an overall minority of 166 588 votes.

Not carried

575 29th EDITION 2002 ECCE cARLIAMENTARY H A N D B O OK of the Commonwealth of Australia

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Plebiscite results

21 May 1977

(3) National Song

Question Against the background that ‘GOD SAVE THE QUEEN’ is the NATIONAL ANTHEM to be played on Regal and Vice Regal occasions, electors may indicate their preferences as to which of the TUNES OF THE SONGS listed below they would prefer to be played on other occasions.

The National Song Poll was held in 1977 by the Fraser Government to find a national song. Until 1974 God Save the Queen/King was Australia’s national anthem. The Whitlam Government, following the result of a public opinion poll conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in February 1974, changed the anthem to Advance Australia Fair, except on specifically royal occasions. In January 1976, the Fraser Government reinstated the use of God Save the Queen for royal, vice-regal, defence, and loyal toast occasions and decided to find a national song for use on ceremonial occasions when it was necessary to mark a separate Australian identity. Advance Australia Fair won the National Song Poll.

Result

Ballot papers God Save the Queen Advance Australia Fair

State Number on rolls issued Number % Number %

NSW 3 007 511 2 537 805 348 885 15.32 1 169 421 51.35

Vic. 2 252 831 1 951 160 352 603 20.68 683 451 40.09

Qld 1 241 426 1 056 804 204 453 21.38 438 929 45.90

SA 799 243 706 392 114 477 18.07 152 507 24.07

WA 682 291 235 525 113 054 23.17 183 159 37.54

Tas. 259 081 253 525 47 346 22.38 88 825 41.98

ACT 120 875 22 136 1 448 6.65 7 857 36.11

NT 38 209 2 951 423 14.93 1 143 40.35

Total 8 401 467 7 069 046 1 182 689 18.78 2 725 292 43.29

Song of Australia Waltzing Matilda

State Number % Number % Informal

NSW 121 456 5.33 637 795 28.00 260 248

Vic. 110 591 6.49 557 991 32.73 246 524

Qld 61 234 6.40 251 609 26.31 100 579

SA 215 085 33.95 151 434 23.90 72 889

WA 75 524 15.48 116 142 23.81 68 394

Tas. 21 091 9.97 54 329 25.68 23 934

AC T 1 863 8.56 10 593 48.68 375

NT 413 14.58 854 30.14 118

Total 607 257 9.65 1 780 747 28.28 773 061