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The Parliament



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Introduction

The Australian Constitution of 1901 established a Commonwealth Parliament to operate within a new federal political system unifying the six colonies into one nation. The States transferred certain specified powers to the Commonwealth. Powers not so specified remained the responsibility of the States. The people of the colonies approved the draft constitution at successive referenda. The federal structure was seen as the best basis for uniting the six colonies, because it retained much of the political autonomy of the States. The Commonwealth Parliament is the most basic of the three branches of government established by the Constitution—the others being the Executive Government and the Judicature. The Constitution provides the formal authority for the division of legislative responsibilities between the States and the Commonwealth in the Australian federation. During the constitutional debates of the 1890s, there was general agreement that the new national Parliament would follow the pattern of parliamentary government which the Australian colonies had inherited from Great Britain. That pattern was summed up in the phrase ‘responsible government’, meaning that the holders of government office—the Executive or Ministry—are responsible to the people’s elected representatives and that their tenure of office is dependent upon retention of the confidence of the Parliament. In the case of Great Britain, and in the Australian colonies, responsible government meant that the power to form governments which would be fully accountable for their administration of public affairs resided increasingly in the more democratically elected lower Houses. In the British case, the House of Lords was an appointed body; and in the Australian colonies, the Legislative Councils had evolved from being appointed bodies to being bodies elected on often quite restricted franchises.

In accepting responsible government, the constitutional framers welcomed the newly won supremacy of popularly elected and representative parliamentary Houses. The Australian Senate is an elected body, with each

State electing an equal number of Senators, and the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory each electing two Senators. Equality of State representation in the Senate was designed to protect the smaller States against those with larger populations. The House of Representatives, being elected directly by the people as a whole, is by strong convention accepted as the House from which the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition are drawn. Thus, the bicameral Federal Parliament has a House of Representatives which represents the people as a whole nation, and a Senate which represents the people as members of the federating States. The Senate functions as a House of review as well as a States House. Hence it may be something of a misnomer to describe the Australian federal parliamentary system as an example of the ‘Westminster system’, since both Houses are popularly elected and are, with certain exceptions noted below, equal in legislative power. The Commonwealth Constitution, written by Australian delegates to the various Constitutional Conventions, incorporated features from both the British Westminster system and from the Constitution of the United States of America.

The Governor-General Under the Constitution, the Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen (or Sovereign’s representative in the Governor-General), the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Governor-General is appointed by the British Sovereign, upon the advice of the Australian Government, and exercises the following powers with respect to the Parliament:

• the appointment of times for parliamentary sessions (one session at least must be held every twelve months)

• the prorogation or dissolution of Parliament • the appointment of the Ministry • the declaration of Royal Assent to

legislation passed by Parliament.

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Senate

The Senate is composed of an equal number of Senators from each State, with Senators directly elected by each State acting as one electorate. From the 1975 election the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory have elected two Senators each. The number of Senators has increased from an original total of 36 (six from each State), to 60 in 1949 (ten from each State), then to 64 in 1974 (including the four Territory Senators), and then to 76 in 1984 (12 from each State and the four from the Territories). Two features were designed to give the Senate a degree of independence from the House of Representatives. The first is a longer term of office for Senators—twice that of the Members of the House of Representatives (although Territory Senators serve for the same term as Members of the House of Representatives). The second is the system of rotation of office, whereby half the Senators for each State retire at 30 June every three years. Since 1949, the Senate has been elected on the basis of proportional representation, in an effort to give parliamentary representation to each sizeable proportion of community views. The proportional representation system, declining party loyalties of voters, and an increase in the number of parties and groups contesting elections, have combined to make it increasingly difficult for any government to obtain a majority in the Senate. This has strengthened the position of the Senate in relation to the House of Representatives. The qualifications of Senators and their electors are identical to the qualifications pertaining to Members of the House of Representatives and their electors.

House of Representatives Section 24 of the Constitution requires that the size of the House of Representatives must be, as nearly as practicable, twice that of the Senate. This is known as the nexus. This total excludes any Senators representing the Territories. This provision in the Constitution was designed to help maintain the relative strength and importance of the Senate. A referendum held in 1967 proposed that the nexus requirement should be deleted, but it was defeated. The nexus between the two Houses

of Parliament means that any substantial change in the size of the House of Representatives must occur at the same time as a change in the size of the Senate. Two such changes have been made, by the Representation Act 1948 and the Representation Act 1983, and took effect at the 1949 and 1984 elections. The overall size of the House has varied from 75 in 1901, to 123 in 1949, and to 148 in 1984. Minor fluctuations in numbers occur when redistributions are made because of a change to the representation entitlement of any State or Territory. For full details of the party representation from 1901 see the tables on pp. 562-564.

Electoral divisions Members are directly elected to represent single member electorates. The number of Members elected from each State is proportional to the population of each State, subject to the requirement that no original State shall have fewer than five Members. The determination of the representation of each State is made by the Australian Electoral Commission, during the thirteenth month after the first meeting of a new House of Representatives, and using the latest population statistics provided by the Australian Statistician. A quota is ascertained by dividing the number of people of the Commonwealth by twice the number of Senators representing the States (144). The population of each State is then divided by the quota to determine the number of seats for each State. If at any such division there is a remainder of more than one half the quota, that State is entitled to an additional Member. The Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory are also represented, by one and two Members respectively.

Electoral redistributions Electoral boundaries are determined by Redistribution Committees for each State and for the Australian Capital Territory. Since 1983, redistributions are no longer subject to disallowance by Parliament. Redistributions must take place whenever the representation entitlement of a State changes, if more than one third of electorates in a State deviates from the quota by more than ten per cent for more than

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two months, or otherwise, every seven years.

The last redistribution of all states took place in 1984, when the Parliament was enlarged. Since then various redistributions of the States and Territories have been made. The representation entitlement of the States and Territories for the 1998 election was: NSW - 50; Vic-37; Qld- 27; WA-14; SA-12; Tas-5; ACT-2; NT-1 - a total of 148. In 1999 there were redistributions of New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. These were required under the seven year rule.

Legislation The matters upon which the Federal Parliament may legislate are specified in section 51 of the Constitution. The most basic and fundamental power of the Parliament is the legislative power, which is shared virtually equally by the House of Representatives and the Senate. There are, however, limitations imposed by section 53 on the power of the Senate over financial matters. Proposed laws appropriating revenue or imposing taxation can be introduced only in the House of Representatives; and the Senate may not amend proposed taxation laws or proposed laws appropriating money for the ordinary annual services of the Government— the principal appropriation bills for the running of government departments and programs. Nor can the Senate amend any proposed law so as to increase any proposed charge or (financial) burden on the people. In almost all other respects, the two chambers possess equal legislative power.

Legislative conflict The Senate may reject any Bill, including those that it may not amend. Section 57 of the Constitution provides a scheme for the resolution of deadlocks which might arise in the event of protracted disagreement between the Houses in which the Senate fails to pass a Bill from the House of Representatives. Under certain specified conditions, the Governor-General may dissolve both Houses, in which case elections are held for all House of Representatives seats and for all Senate positions. This is known as a simultaneous or double dissolution. If, after a double dissolution, the legislation is rejected again, it can be passed at a joint sitting of both Houses.

This double dissolution procedure is the only exception to the general rule of fixed terms for Senators: such elections have been held in 1914, 1951, 1974, 1975, 1983 and 1987. The only joint sitting pursuant to section 57 was held after the 1974 double dissolution. After the 1987 double dissolution the Government had the numbers required to pass the Australia Card Bill 1986 at a joint sitting (this bill was the basis for the double dissolution). However, the bill provided that the commencement date for the legislation was to be fixed by regulation. As the Senate would have disallowed the regulation, the legislation was laid aside.

The Government By convention, the Governor-General commissions the leader of the majority party or the largest of the parties in the House of Representatives to form a Government. Generally, the leader of the party or the largest of the parties in the House opposed to the Government is the Leader of the Opposition. It is the practice to include a number of Senators, usually five or six, in the Ministry. The majority of the Bills examined by Parliament are introduced by the Government in the House of Representatives. Any Bill, other than one to raise a tax or appropriate money, may be introduced in the Senate.

Meeting of Parliament The Commonwealth Parliament must meet at least once each year. The first Parliament was opened in Melbourne at a grand ceremony on 9 May 1901 in the only building large enough for the purpose, the Exhibition Building. Under an agreement between the Commonwealth and the Victorian Governments, the Commonwealth Parliament met in the Victorian Parliament House in Spring Street, Melbourne. The Victorian Parliament moved to the Exhibition Building. This was intended to be a temporary arrangement until a permanent seat of government was chosen in New South Wales, but the arrangement continued until the Commonwealth Parliament first met in the provisional Parliament House in Canberra on 9 May 1927. In 1988 the Parliament moved to its permanent home on Capital Hill. The building was opened by the Queen on 9 May 1988. The

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first sittings in the new building took place on 22 August 1988.

Sitting periods There are three periods of sittings each calendar year: the autumn sittings in February/March; the Budget sittings in May/June; and the Spring sittings from August to December. Before 1994 there were traditionally two sitting periods: Autumn, from February to June, and Budget, from August to December. This arrangement may be reverted to when the electoral cycle makes a May budget impracticable. The following table shows the number of sitting days per decade for each House and the average number of Acts passed:

Sitting days

Decade H of R Senate

Acts

passed

1901-10 949 712 323

1911-20 708 514 401

1921-30 674 508 465

1931-40 584 426 751

1941-50 700 421 725

1951-60 626 451 955

1961-70 623 589 1 198

1971-80 687 707 1 733

1981-90 597 755 1 713

1991-98 502 580 1 393

The following table shows the number of sitting days and number of Acts passed for each year since 1983:

Sitting days

Year H of R Senate

Acts

passed

1983* 49 63 147

1984* 52 63 175

1985 66 74 202

1986 79 86 168

1987* 74 84 184

1988 65 89 155

1989 59 92 183

1990* 38 59 144

1991 67 83 216

1992 60 76 255

1993* 46 53 121

1994 68 80 184

1995 70 78 176

1996* 61 71 84

1997 76 82 222

1998* 54 57 135

*denotes election year

The basis for the statistics on the number of Acts passed per annum is that of the total of numbered Acts of Parliament for each calendar year.

Committees Although the legislative power is the most fundamental of Parliament’s powers, Senators and Members spend a great deal of their time on a range of committee activities. Each House has its own system of committees and there are also joint committees on which both Senators and Members serve and which report to both Houses. Most committees are standing committees created for the duration of the Parliament. Many committees hold public inquiries at which interested people and groups may put facts and views on the issues being investigated.

In 1990 the Senate adopted procedures to refer many bills to Legislative and General Purpose Standing Committees. In October 1994 the Senate modified its committee system by creating a new structure of Standing Committees to which, in additional to their previous responsibilities, were added the functions of the Estimates Committees and of Select Committees. Each of the eight broadly based subject Standing Committees now has two components: References and Legislation, with identical membership. References Committees now undertake the specific inquiries previously conducted by Select Committees, and the Legislation Committees examine bills and portfolio estimates.

The House has eight general purpose standing committees. These are investigatory or scrutiny committees, which between them cover most areas of government activity. Their function is to inquire into and report on any matters, including legislation referred to them by the House or by a Minister. Annual reports of government departments and authorities and reports of the Auditor-General are automatically referred to the relevant committee for any inquiry the committee may wish to make. The Main Committee of the House of Representatives was established in 1994 to provide an alternative venue to the

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Chamber for debate on a restricted range of business.

The Senate and House of Representatives Notice Papers give up-to-date information about parliamentary committees, their membership, current inquiries and reports presented. The Senate and the House of Representatives both maintain registers of Committee Reports from 1970, and the Annual Reports of the Departments of the Senate and the House of Representatives list committee reports and other publications, as well as much information about the operations of each House. Summaries and statistics of the work of each House are published in the House of Representatives’ Work of the Session and in the Senate’s Business of the Senate. The Parliamentary Handbook lists all Committees of the 39th Parliament.

Parliamentary debates Parliamentary debates are recorded daily and are published by the Department of the Parliamentary Reporting Staff. The Debates, or Hansard contain the full text of speeches, petitions, notices of motion, questions on notice and the answers thereto, questions without notice, and requests for detailed information concerning the Parliament made to the Presiding Officers. The official record of the proceedings of the House of Representatives is the Votes and Proceedings, and that of the Senate is the Journals of the Senate.

Parliamentary information on the Internet The Parliament of Australia World Wide Web Home Page, which has links to the House of Representatives, the Senate, the Department of the Parliamentary Library and the Department of the Parliamentary Reporting Staff, is:

http://www.aph.gov.au/

From this page users may access the Notice Papers and the Debates for both Houses, and the Journals of the Senate and the Votes and Proceedings, Committee Hansards and other parliamentary information. The World Wide Web Home Page of the Department of the Parliamentary Library is:

http://www.aph.gov.au/library/

Much of the current and historical information contained in the Parliamentary Handbook is available on this site. The full texts of the Department of the Parliamentary Library’s publications are available, and there are also subject guides to Internet resources.

Broadcasting of Parliament Since 1946, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) has broadcast each Parliamentary sitting day on radio, with each House being broadcast on alternate days. Question time for the chamber not broadcast on any day is broadcast during the other chamber’s dinner break. Broadcasts can be heard on the ABC’s Parliamentary and News Network radio stations.

Televised proceedings were introduced gradually, with televised broadcasts being initially limited to the official opening ceremony of Parliament and other special occasions by resolution. Approved film footage, or sound recording with approved film excerpts was permitted in news services. Televising of proceedings was authorised by the Senate in 1990 and by the House in 1991.

Question Time is televised live, with each House being broadcast on alternate days, and footage of proceedings may be used in news and current affairs programs. From 22 November 1999 live broadcasts of proceedings are available on the Internet.

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H E R M A J E S T Y Q U E E N E L I Z A B E T H T H E S E C O N D

Q U E E N O F A U S T R A L I A

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The Sovereign

Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Australia and her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth.

Her Majesty Elizabeth Alexandra Mary ascended the throne on 6 February 1952, was proclaimed Queen on 8 February 1952 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953.

The Queen has visited Australia twelve times during her reign. These visits have taken place between:

(i) 3 February 1954 and 1 April 1954; (ii) 18 February 1963 and 27 March 1963; (iii) 30 March 1970 and 3 May 1970; (iv) 17 October 1973 and 22 October 1973;

(v) 27 February 1974 and 28 February 1974; (vi) 7 March 1977 and 30 March 1977; (vii) 24 May 1980 and 28 May 1980; (viii) 26 September 1981 and 12 October 1981;

(ix) 5 October 1982 and 13 October 1982; (x) 2 March 1986 and 13 March 1986; (xi) 19 April 1988 and 10 May 1988; (xii) 18 February 1992 and 25 February 1992.

On the following occasions Parliament has been opened by Her Majesty:

(i) 15 February 1954; (ii) 28 February 1974; (iii) 8 March 1977.

During these visits Her Majesty has held a Privy Council on five occasions:

(i) at Government House, Canberra, on 17 February 1954; (ii) at Government House, Melbourne, on 25 February 1954; (iii) at Government House, Canberra, on 19 February 1963; (iv) at Government House, Canberra, on 24 April 1970;

(v) at Government House, Canberra, on 8 March 1977.

On the following occasions Her Majesty presided at a meeting of the Federal Executive Council:

(i) at Government House, Canberra, on 16 February 1954; (ii) at Government House, Canberra, on 19 October 1973; (iii) at Government House, Canberra, on 2 March 1986.

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The Governor-General

His Excellency the Honourable Sir William Patrick Deane, AC, KBE, Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia

William Patrick Deane was born in Melbourne, Victoria on 4 January 1931. He was educated at St Christopher’s Convent in Canberra, St Joseph’s College in Sydney, and the University of Sydney where he graduated in Arts and Law. After graduation, he worked for a period in the Commonwealth Attorney-General’s Department in Canberra and then spent a period studying International Law in Europe. In 1955 he was awarded the Diploma (cum laude) of the The Hague Academy of International Law.

After a period with the Sydney firm of Minter Simpson and Co, he was called to the Bar in 1957. During 1956 and 1957 he was Acting Lecturer in International Law at Sydney University. He was Teaching Fellow in Equity there from 1957 to 1961. He was appointed Queen’s Counsel in 1966. As a Queen’s Counsel, he had an extensive practice, mainly in appellate jurisdictions, specialising in constitutional, commercial and trade practices law.

In February 1977 Sir William was appointed a judge in the Equity Division of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Subsequently in 1977, he was appointed a judge of the Federal Court of Australia and the President of the Australian Trade Practices Tribunal. In July 1982, he was appointed a Justice of the High Court of Australia, serving on that court until 1995. He was appointed a Knight of the British Empire in 1982 and a Companion of the Order of Australia in 1988. On 21 August 1995 the Prime Minister announced that Her Majesty The Queen had approved the appointment of Sir William as Governor-General. He retired from the High Court on 10 November 1995 and was sworn in as Governor-General on 16 February 1996. His appointment is at The Queen’s pleasure but it was indicated at the time of the appointment that it would terminate on 31 December 2000.

As Governor-General, Sir William is Chancellor of the Order of Australia and Prior of the Order of St John of Jerusalem and Chief Scout of Australia. He is Patron of more than 200 charitable and benevolent organisations.

Sir William is the recipient of a number of Honorary Degrees. These include: the Degree of Honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Sydney, Griffith University (Brisbane), University of Notre Dame (Perth) and the University of Dublin (Ireland); the Degree of Doctor of the University (Southern Cross University, the Australian Catholic University and the Queensland University of Technology) and Doctor of Sacred Theology (Melbourne College of Divinity).

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Senate

President of the Senate

REID, Senator the Honourable Margaret Elizabeth

President of the Senate from 20.8.96. Born 28.5.35, Crystal Brook, South Australia. Educated at Balaclava Primary School; Methodist Ladies’ College, Adelaide; BA, LLB (University of Adelaide). Prior to entering Parliament, Senator Reid was a solicitor, and held a number of positions in the Liberal Party, including President of the Australian Capital Territory branch from 1976 to 1983.

Senator Reid was chosen to represent the Australian Capital Territory in the Senate at a joint sitting of the Federal Parliament on 5 May 1981 following the death of Senator John Knight. Senator Reid was re-elected in 1983, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1993, 1996 and 1998. She was Opposition Whip in the Senate from 1987 to 1995 and Deputy President of the Senate and Chair of Committees from 1995 to 1996. Senator Reid was elected President of the Senate on 20 August 1996.

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Office holders

President Reid, Senator the Hon. Margaret Elizabeth

Deputy President and Chairman of Committees West, Senator Suzanne (Sue) Margaret

Temporary Chairmen of Committees Bartlett, Senator Andrew John Julian Calvert, Senator Paul Henry Campbell, Senator George Chapman, Senator Hedley Grant Pearson Crowley, Senator the Hon. Rosemary Anne Ferguson, Senator Alan Baird Hogg, Senator John Joseph Knowles, Senator Susan Christine McKiernan, Senator Jim Murphy, Senator Shayne Michael Sherry, Senator the Hon. Nicholas John Watson, Senator John Odin Wentworth

Leader of the Government in the Senate Hill, Senator the Hon. Robert Murray

Deputy Leader of the Government in the Senate Alston, Senator the Hon. Richard Kenneth Robert

Leader of the National Party of Australia in the Senate Boswell, Senator the Hon. Ronald (Ron) Leslie Doyle

Deputy Leader of the National Party of Australia in the Senate Brownhill, Senator the Hon. David Gordon Cadell

Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Faulkner, Senator the Hon. John Philip

Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Cook, Senator the Hon. Peter Francis Salmon

Leader of the Australian Democrats Lees, Senator Meg Heather

Deputy Leader of the Australian Democrats Stott Despoja, Senator Natasha Jessica

Government Whip in the Senate Calvert, Senator Paul Henry

Government Deputy Whip in the Senate Coonan, Senator Helen Lloyd

Opposition Whip in the Senate O’Brien, Senator Kerry Williams Kelso

Opposition Deputy Whips in the Senate Quirke, Senator John Andrew Denman, Senator Kay Janet

National Party of Australia Whip in the Senate McGauran, Senator Julian John James

Australian Democrats Whip Bourne, Senator Vicki Worrall

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Senators1

State or

Senator Territory Party

Abetz, the Hon. Eric3 Tas LIB

Allison, Lynette (Lyn) Fay2 Vic AD

Alston, the Hon. Richard Kenneth Robert2 Vic LIB

Bartlett, Andrew John Julian2 Qld AD

Bishop, Thomas Mark2 WA ALP

Bolkus, the Hon. Nick3 SA ALP

Boswell, the Hon. Ronald (Ron) Leslie Doyle2 Qld NPA

Bourne, Vicki Worrall2 NSW AD

Brown, Robert (Bob) James2 Tas AG

Brownhill, the Hon. David Gordon Cadell2 NSW NPA

Calvert, Paul Henry2 Tas LIB

Campbell, George2 NSW ALP

Campbell, the Hon. Ian Gordon3 WA LIB

Carr, Kim John3 Vic ALP

Chapman, Hedley Grant Pearson2 SA LIB

Collins, Jacinta Mary Ann3 Vic ALP

Conroy, Stephen Michael3 Vic ALP

Cook, the Hon. Peter Francis Salmon3 WA ALP

Coonan, Helen Lloyd2 NSW LIB

Cooney, Barney2 Vic ALP

Crane, Arthur Winston2 WA LIB

Crossin, Patricia (Trish) Margaret4 NT ALP

Crowley, the Hon. Rosemary Anne2 SA ALP

Denman, Kay Janet3 Tas ALP

Eggleston, Alan2 WA LIB

Ellison, the Hon. Christopher Martin3 WA LIB

Evans, Christopher Vaughan3 WA ALP

Faulkner, the Hon. John Philip3 NSW ALP

Ferguson, Alan Baird3 SA LIB

Ferris, Jeannie Margaret2 SA LIB

Forshaw, Michael George3 NSW ALP

Gibbs, Brenda2 Qld ALP

Gibson, the Hon. Brian Francis, AM3 Tas LIB

Greig, Brian Andrew3 WA AD

Harradine, Brian3 Tas IND

Harris, Leonard (Len) William3 Qld PHON

Heffernan, the Hon. William (Bill) Daniel3 NSW LIB

Herron, the Hon. John Joseph2 Qld LIB

Hill, the Hon. Robert Murray2 SA LIB

Hogg, John Joseph2 Qld ALP

Hutchins, Stephen Patrick3 NSW ALP

Kemp, the Hon. Charles Roderick2 Vic LIB

1 As at 31.8.1999. 2 Indicates date of expiry of Senator’s term of service is 30.6.2002. 3 Indicates date of expiry of Senator’s term of service is 30.6.2005. 4 Pursuant to the Senate (Representation of Territories) Act 1973 , Senator’s term of service expires at the close of the day next preceding the polling day for the general election of Members of the House of Representatives.

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State or

Senator Territory Party

Knowles, Susan Christine2 WA LIB

Lees, Meg Heather2 SA AD

Lightfoot, Philip Ross1 WA LIB

Ludwig, Joseph (Joe) William2 Qld ALP

Lundy, Kate Alexandra3 ACT ALP

Macdonald, the Hon. Ian Douglas1 Qld LIB

McGauran, Julian John James2 Vic NPA

Mackay, Susan (Sue) Mary1 Tas ALP

McKiernan, James (Jim) Philip1 WA ALP

McLucas, Jan Elizabeth2 Qld ALP

Mason, Brett John2 Qld LIB

Minchin, the Hon. Nicholas Hugh2 SA LIB

Murphy, Shayne Michael2 Tas ALP

Murray, Andrew James Marshall1 WA AD

Newman, the Hon. Jocelyn Margaret1 Tas LIB

O’Brien, Kerry Williams Kelso2 Tas ALP

Parer, the Hon. Warwick Raymond2 Qld LIB

Patterson, the Hon. Kay Christine Lesley1 Vic LIB

Payne, Marise Ann1 NSW LIB

Quirke, John Andrew2 SA ALP

Ray, the Hon. Robert Francis1 Vic ALP

Reid, the Hon. Margaret Elizabeth3 ACT LIB

Ridgeway, Aden Derek2 NSW AD

Schacht, the Hon. Chris1 SA ALP

Sherry, the Hon. Nicholas (Nick) John1 Tas ALP

Stott Despoja, Natasha Jessica1 SA AD

Tambling, the Hon. Grant Ernest John3 NT CLP

Tchen, Tsebin2 Vic LIB

Tierney, Dr John William2 NSW LIB

Troeth, the Hon. Judith Mary2 Vic LIB

Vanstone, the Hon. Amanda Eloise2 SA LIB

Watson, John Odin Wentworth1 Tas LIB

West, Suzanne (Sue) Margaret1 NSW ALP

Woodley, John2 Qld AD

1 Indicates date of expiry of Senator’s term of service is 30.6.2002. 2 Indicates date of expiry of Senator’s term of service is 30.6.2005. 3 Pursuant to the Senate (Representation of Territories) Act 1973 , Senator’s term of service expires at the close of theday next preceding the polling day for the general election of Members of the House of Representatives.

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House of Representatives

Speaker of the House of Representatives

ANDREW, the Honourable John Neil

Speaker of the House of Representatives from 10.11.98. Born 7.6.44, Waikerie, South Australia. Educated at Waikerie Primary and High Schools; Urrbrae Agricultural College; Australian Nuffield Scholar in Agriculture 1975. Prior to entering Parliament, Mr Andrew worked as a horticulturalist. He also served as a member of various local government and community groups.

Mr Andrew was elected to the House of Representatives for the seat of Wakefield in South Australia at the Federal Election on 5 March 1983. He was subsequently re-elected in 1984, 1987, 1990, 1993, 1996 and 1998. He was Deputy Chair of Committees in 1985, 1989-90 and 1993-94 and was a Member of the Speaker’s Panel from 1994. Mr Andrew chaired the Public Works Committee in 1996-97 and served as Chief Government Whip in 1997-98. He was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives on 10 November 1998.

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Office holders

Speaker Andrew, the Hon. John Neil

Deputy Speaker Nehl, Garry Barr

Second Deputy Speaker Jenkins, Harry Alfred

Speaker’s Panel Adams, the Hon. Dick Godfrey Harry Andrews, Kevin James Causley, the Hon. Ian Raymond Crosio, the Hon. Janice Ann, MBE Gash, Joanna Hawker, David Peter Maxwell Hollis, Colin Kelly, De-Anne Margaret Mossfield, Frank William, AM Quick, Harry Vernon

Parliamentary Party Leaders and Whips

Liberal Party of Australia

Leader of the Party and Prime Minister Howard, the Hon. John Winston

Deputy Leader of the Party Costello, the Hon. Peter Howard Chief Government Whip Ronaldson, the Hon. Michael John Clyde

Government Whips McArthur, Fergus Stewart Elson, Kay Selma

National Party of Australia

Leader of the Party and Deputy Prime Minister Anderson, the Hon. John Duncan

Deputy Leader of the Party Vaile, the Hon. Mark Anthony James

Party Whips Forrest, John Alexander Neville, Paul Christopher

Australian Labor Party

Leader of the Party and Leader of the Opposition Beazley, the Hon. Kim Christian Deputy Leader of the Party and Deputy Leader of the Opposition Crean, the Hon. Simon Findlay

Chief Opposition Whip McLeay, the Hon. Leo Boyce

Opposition Whips Sawford, Rodney Weston Sercombe, Robert Charles Grant

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Members of the House of Representatives1

Member Electorate

State or Territory Party

Abbott, the Hon. Anthony (Tony) John Warringah NSW LIB

Adams, the Hon. Dick Godfrey Harry Lyons Tas ALP

Albanese, Anthony Norman Grayndler NSW ALP

Anderson, the Hon. John Duncan Gwydir NSW NPA

Andren, Peter James Calare NSW IND

Andrew, John Neil Wakefield SA LIB

Andrews, Kevin James Menzies Vic LIB

Anthony, the Hon. Lawrence (Larry) James Richmond NSW NPA

Bailey, Frances (Fran) Esther McEwen Vic LIB

Baird, the Hon. Bruce George Cook NSW LIB

Barresi, Phillip Anthony Deakin Vic LIB

Bartlett, Kerry Joseph Macquarie NSW LIB

Beazley, the Hon. Kim Christian Brand WA ALP

Bevis, the Hon. Archibald (Arch) Ronald Brisbane Qld ALP

Billson, Bruce Fredrick Dunkley Vic LIB

Bishop, the Hon. Bronwyn Kathleen Mackellar NSW LIB

Bishop, Julie Isabel Curtin WA LIB

Brereton, the Hon. Laurence John Kingsford-Smith NSW ALP

Brough, Malcolm (Mal) Thomas Longman Qld LIB

Burke, Anna Elizabeth Chisholm Vic ALP

Cadman, the Hon. Alan Glyndwr Mitchell NSW LIB

Cameron, Ross Alexander Parramatta NSW LIB

Causley, the Hon. Ian Raymond Page NSW NPA

Charles, Robert (Bob) Edwin La Trobe Vic LIB

Costello, the Hon. Peter Howard Higgins Vic LIB

Cox, David Alexander Kingston SA ALP

Crean, the Hon. Simon Findlay Hotham Vic ALP

Crosio, the Hon. Janice Ann, MBE Prospect NSW ALP

Danby, Michael David Melbourne Ports Vic ALP

Downer, the Hon. Alexander John Gosse Mayo SA LIB

Draper, Patricia (Trish) Makin SA LIB

Edwards, the Hon. Graham John Cowan WA ALP

Ellis, Annette Louise Canberra ACT ALP

Elson, Kay Selma Forde Qld LIB

Emerson, Dr Craig Anthony Rankin Qld ALP

Entsch, the Hon. Warren George Leichhardt Qld LIB

Evans, the Hon. Gareth John, QC Holt Vic ALP

Evans, Martyn John Bonython SA ALP

Fahey, the Hon. John Joseph Macarthur NSW LIB

Ferguson, Laurie Donald Thomas Reid NSW ALP

Ferguson, Martin John, AM Batman Vic ALP

Fischer, the Hon. Timothy Andrew Farrer NSW NPA

Fitzgibbon, Joel Andrew Hunter NSW ALP

Forrest, John Alexander Mallee Vic NPA

Gallus, Christine Ann Hindmarsh SA LIB

Gambaro, Teresa Petrie Qld LIB

Gash, Joanna Gilmore NSW LIB

Georgiou, Petro Kooyong Vic LIB

Gerick, Jane Frances Canning WA ALP

Gibbons, Stephen (Steve) William Bendigo Vic ALP

Gillard, Julia Eileen Lalor Vic ALP

1 As at 31.8.1999.

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Member Electorate

State or Territory Party

Griffin, Alan Peter Bruce Vic ALP

Haase, Barry Wayne Kalgoorlie WA LIB

Hall, Jill Griffiths Shortland NSW ALP

Hardgrave, Gary Douglas Moreton Qld LIB

Hatton, Michael John Blaxland NSW ALP

Hawker, David Peter Maxwell Wannon Vic LIB

Hoare, Kelly Joy Charlton NSW ALP

Hockey, the Hon. Joseph (Joe) Benedict North Sydney NSW LIB

Hollis, Colin Throsby NSW ALP

Horne, Robert (Bob) Hodges Paterson NSW ALP

Howard, the Hon. John Winston Bennelong NSW LIB

Hull, Kay Elizabeth Riverina NSW NPA

Irwin, Julia Claire Fowler NSW ALP

Jenkins, Harry Alfred Scullin Vic ALP

Jull, the Hon. David Francis Fadden Qld LIB

Katter, the Hon. Robert (Bob) Carl Kennedy Qld NPA

Kelly, De-Anne Margaret Dawson Qld NPA

Kelly, Jacqueline (Jackie) Marie Lindsay NSW LIB

Kemp, the Hon. Dr David Alistair Goldstein Vic LIB

Kernot, Cheryl Dickson Qld ALP

Kerr, the Hon. Duncan James Colquhoun Denison Tas ALP

Latham, Mark William Werriwa NSW ALP

Lawler, Anthony (Tony) John Parkes NSW NPA

Lawrence, the Hon. Dr Carmen Mary Fremantle WA ALP

Lee, the Hon. Michael John Dobell NSW ALP

Lieberman, the Hon. Louis (Lou) Stuart Indi Vic LIB

Lindsay, Peter John Herbert Qld LIB

Livermore, Kirsten Fiona Capricornia Qld ALP

Lloyd, James (Jim) Eric Robertson NSW LIB

McArthur, Fergus Stewart Corangamite Vic LIB

McClelland, Robert Bruce Barton NSW ALP

Macfarlane, Ian Elgin Groom Qld LIB

McFarlane, Jann Sonya Stirling WA ALP

McGauran, the Hon. Peter John Gippsland Vic NPA

Macklin, Jennifer (Jenny) Louise Jagajaga Vic ALP

McLeay, the Hon. Leo Boyce Watson NSW ALP

McMullan, the Hon. Robert (Bob) Francis Canberra ACT ALP

Martin, the Hon. Stephen Paul Cunningham NSW ALP

May, Margaret Ann McPherson Qld LIB

Melham, Daryl Banks NSW ALP

Moore, the Hon. John Colinton Ryan Qld LIB

Morris, Allan Agapitos Newcastle NSW ALP

Mossfield, Frank William, AM Greenway NSW ALP

Moylan, the Hon. Judith (Judi) Eleanor Pearce WA LIB

Murphy, John Paul Lowe NSW ALP

Nairn, Gary Roy Eden-Monaro NSW LIB

Nehl, Garry Barr Cowper NSW NPA

Nelson, Dr Brendan John Bradfield NSW LIB

Neville, Paul Christopher Hinkler Qld NPA

Nugent, Peter Edward Aston Vic LIB

O’Byrne, Michelle Anne Bass Tas ALP

O’Connor, Gavan Michael Corio Vic ALP

O’Keefe, the Hon. Neil Patrick Burke Vic ALP

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Member Electorate

State or Territory Party

Plibersek, Tanya Joan Sydney NSW ALP

Price, the Hon. Leo Roger Spurway Chifley NSW ALP

Prosser, the Hon. Geoffrey Daniel Forrest WA LIB

Pyne, Christopher Maurice Sturt SA LIB

Quick, Harry Vernon Franklin Tas ALP

Reith, the Hon. Peter Keaston Flinders Vic LIB

Ripoll, Bernard (Bernie) Fernando Oxley Qld ALP

Ronaldson, the Hon. Michael John Clyde Ballarat Vic LIB

Roxon, Nicola Louise Gellibrand Vic ALP

Rudd, Kevin Michael Griffith Qld ALP

Ruddock, the Hon. Philip Maxwell Berowra NSW LIB

St Clair, Stuart Roy New England NSW NPA

Sawford, Rodney Weston Port Adelaide SA ALP

Schultz, Albert (Alby) John Hume NSW LIB

Sciacca, the Hon. Concetto (Con) Antonio Bowman Qld ALP

Scott, the Hon. Bruce Craig Maranoa Qld NPA

Secker, Patrick Damien Barker SA LIB

Sercombe, Robert (Bob) Charles Grant Maribyrnong Vic ALP

Sidebottom, Peter (Sid) Braddon Tas ALP

Slipper, Peter Neil Fisher Qld LIB

Smith, Stephen Francis Perth WA ALP

Snowdon, the Hon. Warren Edward Northern Territory NT ALP

Somlyay, Alexander Michael Fairfax Qld LIB

Southcott, Dr Andrew John Boothby SA LIB

Stone, the Hon. Dr Sharman Nancy Murray Vic LIB

Sullivan, the Hon. Kathryn (Kathy) Jean Martin Moncrieff Qld LIB

Swan, Wayne Maxwell Lilley Qld ALP

Tanner, Lindsay James Melbourne Vic ALP

Theophanous, the Hon. Dr Andrew Charles Calwell Vic ALP

Thompson, Cameron Paul Blair Qld LIB

Thomson, the Hon. Andrew Peter Wentworth NSW LIB

Thomson, Kelvin John Wills Vic ALP

Truss, the Hon. Warren Errol Wide Bay Qld NPA

Tuckey, the Hon. Charles Wilson O’Connor WA LIB

Vaile, the Hon. Mark Anthony James Lyne NSW NPA

Vale, Danna Sue Hughes NSW LIB

Wakelin, Barry Hugh Grey SA LIB

Washer, Dr Malcolm (Mal) James Moore WA LIB

Wilkie, Kimberley (Kim) William Swan WA ALP

Williams, the Hon. Daryl Robert, AM, QC Tangney WA LIB

Wilton, Gregory Stuart Isaacs Vic ALP

Wooldridge, the Hon. Dr Michael Richard Lewis Casey Vic LIB

Worth, the Hon. Patricia (Trish) Mary Adelaide SA LIB

Zahra, Christian John McMillan Vic ALP

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The Ministry

The Second Howard Ministry1

Representation in

Title Minister other chamber

Prime Minister Howard, the Hon. John Winston Hill, Senator the Hon.

Robert Murray

Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Herron, Senator the Hon. John Joseph Ruddock, the Hon. Philip Maxwell

Minister Assisting the Prime Minister Tuckey, the Hon. Charles Wilson

Parliamentary Secretary to Cabinet Heffernan, Senator the Hon. William Daniel

Minister for Transport and Regional Services Deputy Prime Minister

Anderson, the Hon. John Duncan Macdonald, Senator the Hon. Ian Douglas

Minister for Regional Services, Territories and Local Government

Macdonald, Senator the Hon. Ian Douglas Anderson, the Hon. John Duncan

Parliamentary Secretary Boswell, Senator the Hon. Ronald Leslie Doyle

Treasurer Costello, the Hon. Peter Howard Kemp, Senator the Hon.

Charles Roderick

Assistant Treasurer Kemp, Senator the Hon. Charles Roderick Costello, the Hon. Peter Howard

Minister for Financial Services and Regulation Hockey, the Hon. Joseph Benedict Kemp, Senator the Hon. Charles Roderick

Minister for Trade Vaile, the Hon. Mark Anthony James Hill, Senator the Hon. Robert Murray

Minister for Foreign Affairs Downer, the Hon. Alexander John Gosse Hill, Senator the Hon. Robert Murray

Parliamentary Secretary (Foreign Affairs) Sullivan, the Hon. Kathryn Jean Martin Minister for the Environment and Heritage Leader of the Government in the Senate

Hill, Senator the Hon. Robert Murray Truss, the Hon. Warren Errol

Parliamentary Secretary Stone, the Hon. Dr Sharman Nancy

1 As at 31.8.1999. Cabinet Ministers are shown in bold type. As a general rule, there is one department in each portfolio. Except for the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, and the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the title of each department reflects that of the portfolio minister. There is also a Department of Veterans’ Affairs in the Defence portfolio.

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Representation in

Title Minister other chamber

Minister for Communications, Information Technology and the Arts Deputy Leader of the Government in the Senate

Alston, Senator the Hon. Richard Kenneth Robert McGauran, the Hon. Peter John

Minister for the Arts and the Centenary of Federation Deputy Leader of the House

McGauran, the Hon. Peter John Alston, Senator the Hon. Richard Kenneth Robert

Parliamentary Secretary Manager of Government Business in the Senate

Campbell, Senator the Hon. Ian Gordon

Minister for Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business Leader of the House

Reith, the Hon. Peter Keaston Alston, Senator the Hon. Richard Kenneth Robert

Minister for Employment Services Abbott, the Hon. Anthony John Alston, Senator the Hon. Richard Kenneth

Robert

Minister for Family and Community Services Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for the Status of Women

Newman, Senator the Hon. Jocelyn Margaret Anthony, the Hon. Lawrence James

Minister for Community Services Anthony, the Hon. Lawrence James Newman, Senator the Hon. Jocelyn Margaret

Minister for Defence Moore, the Hon. John Colinton Newman, Senator the Hon. Jocelyn Margaret

Minister Assisting the Minister for Defence Scott, the Hon. Bruce Craig

Minister for Veterans’ Affairs Scott, the Hon. Bruce Craig Newman, Senator the Hon. Jocelyn Margaret

Parliamentary Secretary Abetz, Senator the Hon. Eric

Minister for Health and Aged Care Wooldridge, the Hon. Dr Michael Richard Lewis

Herron, Senator the Hon. John Joseph

Minister for Aged Care Bishop, the Hon. Bronwyn Kathleen Herron, Senator the Hon. John Joseph

Parliamentary Secretary Tambling, the Hon. Grant Ernest John Minister for Finance and Administration Fahey, the Hon. John Joseph Ellison, Senator the

Hon. Christopher Martin

Special Minister of State Ellison, Senator the Hon. Christopher Martin Fahey, the Hon. John Joseph

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Representation in

Title Minister other chamber

Minister for Education, Training and Youth Affairs Vice-President of the Executive Council Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Public Service

Kemp, the Hon. Dr David Alistair Ellison, Senator the Hon. Christopher Martin

Parliamentary Secretary Worth, the Hon. Patricia Mary

Minister for Industry, Science and Resources Minchin, Senator the Hon. Nicholas Hugh

Moore, the Hon. John Colinton

Minister for Sport and Tourism Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for the Sydney 2000 Games

Kelly, the Hon. Jacqueline Marie Minchin, Senator the Hon. Nicholas Hugh

Parliamentary Secretary Entsch, the Hon. Warren George

Attorney-General Williams, the Hon. Daryl Robert, AM, QC Vanstone, Senator the Hon. Amanda Eloise

Minister for Justice and Customs

Vanstone, Senator the Hon. Amanda Eloise Williams, the Hon. Daryl Robert, AM, QC

Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Reconciliation

Ruddock, the Hon. Philip Maxwell Vanstone, Senator the Hon. Amanda Eloise

Parliamentary Secretary Patterson, the Hon. Kay Christine Lesley

Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Truss, the Hon. Warren Errol Alston, Senator the

Hon. Richard Kenneth Robert

Minister for Forestry and Conservation Tuckey, the Hon. Charles Wilson Hill, Senator the Hon. Robert Murray

Parliamentary Secretary Troeth, Senator the Hon. Judith Mary

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The Shadow Ministry 2

Leader of the Opposition Beazley, the Hon. Kim Christian

Deputy Leader of the Opposition Shadow Treasurer

Crean, the Hon. Simon Findlay

Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Shadow Minister for Public Administration and Government Services Shadow Minister for Olympic Coordination and the Centenary of Federation

Faulkner, Senator the Hon. John Philip

Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Shadow Minister for Trade Cook, Senator the Hon. Peter Francis Salmon

Shadow Minister for Industrial Relations Bevis, the Hon. Archibald Ronald

Shadow Minister for Environment and Heritage Bolkus, Senator the Hon. Nick

Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs Brereton, the Hon. Laurence John

Shadow Minister for Financial Services and Regulation Conroy, Senator Stephen Michael

Shadow Minister for Family Services and the Aged Evans, Senator Christopher Vaughan

Shadow Minister for Science and Resources Evans, Martyn John

Shadow Minister for Defence Science and Personnel Shadow Minister for Forestry and Conservation Ferguson, Laurie Donald Thomas

Shadow Minister for Employment, Training and Population Ferguson, Martin John, AM

Shadow Minister for Small Business and Tourism Fitzgibbon, Joel Andrew

Shadow Minister for Regional Development, Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Services Kernot, Cheryl

Shadow Minister for Justice and Customs Shadow Minister for the Arts Kerr, the Hon. Duncan James Colquhoun

Shadow Minister for Education Lee, the Hon. Michael John

Shadow Minister for Sport and Youth Affairs Shadow Minister Assisting the Shadow Minister for Industry and Technology on Information Technology

Lundy, Senator Kate Alexandra

Shadow Attorney-General McClelland, Robert Bruce

Shadow Minister for Regional Services, Territories and Local Government Mackay, Senator Susan Mary

2 As at 31.8.1999.

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Shadow Minister for Industry and Technology Manager of Opposition Business McMullan, the Hon. Robert Francis

Shadow Minister for Health Shadow Minister for Status of Women

Macklin, Jennifer Louise

Shadow Minister for Defence Martin, the Hon. Stephen Paul

Shadow Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Shadow Minister for Reconciliation

Melham, Daryl

Shadow Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry O’Connor, Gavan Michael

Shadow Minister for Veterans’ Affairs Schacht, Senator the Hon. Christopher Cleland

Shadow Minister for Immigration Shadow Minister Assisting the Leader of the Opposition on Multicultural Affairs

Sciacca, the Hon. Concetto Antonio

Shadow Minister for Communications Smith, Stephen Francis

Shadow Minister for Family and Community Services Swan, Wayne Maxwell

Shadow Minister for Finance Tanner, Lindsay James

Shadow Assistant Treasurer Thomson, Kelvin John

Parliamentary Secretaries

Parliamentary Secretary to the Shadow Minister for Family and Community Services Albanese, Anthony Norman

Representing the Shadow Minister for Communications in the Senate Bishop, Senator Thomas Mark

Manager of Opposition Business in the Senate Representing the Shadow Minister for Education in the Senate

Carr, Senator Kim John

Representing the Shadow Ministers for Industrial Relations and Employment, Training and Population in the Senate

Collins, Senator Jacinta Mary Ann

Representing the Shadow Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in the Senate Forshaw, Senator Michael George

Parliamentary Secretary to the Shadow Minister for Health Griffin, Alan Peter

Parliamentary Secretary to the Shadow Minister for Regional Development, Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Services

Horne, Robert

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Parliamentary Committees 3

Senate Committees

Standing Committees Appropriations and Staffing House Library Privileges Procedure Publications Selection of Bills Senators’ Interests

Legislative Scrutiny Standing Committees Regulations and Ordinances Scrutiny of Bills

Legislative and General Purpose Standing Committees Community Affairs Legislation Community Affairs References Economics Legislation Economics References Employment, Workplace Relations, Small Business and Education Legislation Employment, Workplace Relations, Small Business and Education References Environment, Communications, Information Technology, and the Arts Legislation Environment, Communications, Information Technology, and the Arts References Finance and Public Administration Legislation Finance and Public Administration References Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Legislation Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Legal and Constitutional Legislation Legal and Constitutional References Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport Legislation Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport References

Select Committees Information Technologies New Tax System Socio-Economic Consequences of the National Competition Policy

3 As at 31.8.1999.

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House of Representatives Committees

Standing Committees pursuant to Standing Orders Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Communications, Transport and the Arts Economics, Finance and Public Administration Employment, Education and Workplace Regulation Environment and Heritage Family and Community Affairs House Industry, Science and Resources Legal and Constitutional Affairs Library Members’ Interests Primary Industries and Regional Services Privileges Procedure Publications Selection

Joint Committees

Joint Statutory Committees Australian Security Intelligence Organization Broadcasting of Parliamentary Proceedings Corporations and Securities National Crime Authority Native Title and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Land Fund Public Accounts and Audit Public Works

Joint Committees Electoral Matters Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Migration National Capital and External Territories Treaties

Joint Select Committees Republic Referendum Retailing Sector