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(generated from captions) across fire-ravaged Victoria - The devastating scene is repeated More than 7,000 left homeless, a million football ovals burnt out.' the equivalent of a quarter of

The next morning, the greyness of the road, I just remember it was just like ash. It was barren and grey at what's happened, and you want to look it looks like a bomb went off but everything looks,

and there's nothing there. green and normality And then all of a sudden,

not even a kilometre, in just a few hundred metres, it was fine, from where it had all been, just like nothing had happened. amongst the ruins. 'But there is new life for the fires to pass Casper Densem waited on the stroke of midday.' before arriving It was just fantastic. having that feeling of, And yet, while you're "Wow, this is just brilliant,"

at the pit of your stomach you just couldn't lose that feeling

with the world that all was not right where we were. even though it felt so good

is tinged with sadness. 'The Densems' joy of his students, Matthew Leasfield, Jonathon, a teacher, learns that one his mother and brother. died alongside who lost their lives They are amongst 173 people as Black Saturday. on the day that will be forever known worst bushfire disaster, For those who survived Australia's life goes on.

Closed Captions by CSI

This program is not subtitled

THEME MUSIC 'Ahead on Compass...' we get blessed by our ancestors Before every performance, by doing the joss sticks. would actually do the joss sticks Every member of the group bring us good luck, and that would in turn any troubles during that day. and making sure that we don't have CYMBALS CRASH, CROWD CHEERS Hello there. of Compass programs for the year. Welcome to a new season We look forward to your company. Australia's Chinese community, In our first program, most important event on its calendar, which is this week gearing up for the Chinese New Year. it's colourful festival. Now, as you'll know, and food and good fortune, It features firecrackers dancing dragons and lions. and, of course, And who celebrates? But what does it really mean? we followed a couple of families Well, to find out, the festivities last year. as they welcomed in the emphasis on family life And as you'll see, will, I think, really stay with you. until Chinese New Year, 'It's January, with only a week are having a spring clean. homes all over Australia is busy getting its house in order.' In suburban Sydney, the Boikov family we normally clean the house. For the Chinese New Year, it gets rid of all the dirt We do the sweeping outside, and the bad luck. and the evil spirits for the New Year. 'The Leung family is also preparing that's being cleaned. But it's not the house working week of their year. They're at the start of the busiest

to perform the Lion Dance.' The Leung's are getting ready we are pretty much fully booked. During the Chinese New Year period All my friends know not to call me. it's loud. It's the loudest thing. I do the cymbals and I love that

LION ROARS is the most important 'Chinese New Year of the traditional Chinese holidays. of the lunar calendar year It marks the start of all nationalities and faiths. and is celebrated by Chinese families (FAMILY CHATS)

western Sydney suburb of Fairfield Willa and George Boikov live in the with their three children.' there's three of us. There's only girls in our family, and we have 15 cousins I think. I have two younger sisters so it's a huge family. 15 grandchildren altogether, You. Who's this? Scary. (ALL LAUGH) New Year's Eve in their own home. 'The Boikovs won't be celebrating family members gather together Every year, about 30 Boikov of Villawood, in the neighbouring suburb Valentina and Valentine.' to visit grandparents, In our Chinese New Year, go to our elder people. the tradition is we all but not my side. My husband's side,

for the family in Chinese tradition. Because the son is really important will be, we still need to go there. It doesn't matter how crowded it and then the aunties and uncles, And then all the friends come it's scary, there's a lot of people.

she arranges the dishes, Our Mother-in-law is the boss, what we should not bring what we should bring, for the New Year's Eve.

by herself. OK! She loves to do everything (ALL LAUGH)

in Sydney's south-west. 'The Leung family lives in Campsie, Yau Kung Mun Martial Arts Club. They are members of the Australian and the art of Lion Dancing, The club practices Kung-Fu during Chinese New Year. traditionally performed at temples, restaurants and parades. This year there will be many shows ancient arts from his father, James Leung learned these Grandmaster Leung Cheung.

James was a young man when his family from Hong Kong in 1978. came to Australia

a natural therapy practice His father set up in Sydney's Chinatown.' and Kung-Fu club CYMBALS AND DRUMS Lion Dance through city streets.' 'The club regularly performed the

CYMBALS AND DRUMS met his future wife, Betty.' 'It was in a kung-fu class that James the hidden shadow behind everything. My mum, Betty, she is like smoothly, keeps everybody in line. She makes sure everything flows

(CONVERSATION IN CHINESE LANGUAGE) nobody really knows. What my dad does,

the performances, Usually, he's the guy behind he organises most of the stuff. (SPEAKS IN CHINESE LANGUAGE) Eight, nine, ten. Sifu mark, turn left. once a week, maybe twice a week. During the year we train about to train every alternate day. But towards the lead-up we tend by two dancers, 'The lions are each played the other in the Lion's tail.' one at the head, Hoi! to move as one.' 'It takes skill and practice I'm usually the Lion tail. In the group, Because of my size, I sort of lift my brother Kwan onto the poles. And we've done that for a couple of years already.

Kwan is the head, he's the Lion's head. He's the most athletic one out of us. Most heads are really light and can jump, so the tail can lift them up and do all sorts of tricks with them. Now I'm getting too heavy, so soon I'll have to be the tail. 'Whether they're head or tail, the challenge is to jump between the Jong, the high red poles on which the Lion dances at dizzying heights. It's even more precarious when the Lion costumes go on.' There are always casualties in rehearsal. The first time they were actually in a competition, I was about to cry. ALL: Hoi! Imagine if they did fall. 'The Leungs are Taoists. Taoism emphasises balance of opposing forces in the universe, and within the individual. Along with Buddhism and Confucianism, it's one of China's three great religions. Reverence for the ancestor spirits is an important part of Taoism.'

Before every performance we get blessed by our ancestors by doing the joss sticks. Every member of the group would actually do the joss sticks and that would in turn bring us good luck, and making sure we don't have any troubles during that day. We kind of believe in our ancestors actually stopping the rain every time we perform.

'The Boikov's follow the practice of Falun Gong, a spiritual discipline outlawed in China. It aims to teach truthfulness, compassion and forbearance by the practise of meditation.' From my understanding it's not a religion, it's definitely not a cult. And just to say people doing exercise in their home or in the park together if they want to. We just look forward into our hearts to be less and less selfish, and consider others more and benefit our society.

I've been doing it since I was really little, so it's just like a part of my life for me. It makes me feel really relaxed because you don't really think about anything. 'But faith is not the main point of Chinese New Year. It's mostly about getting good luck and avoiding bad luck. Having a haircut in the first few weeks of the New Year is seen as washing away the good luck.

So Valentine's getting in before the big day. He's been coming to this hairdresser in Cabramatta

since he arrived in Australia more than 25 years ago. And while Valentine attends to his grooming, Valentina goes shopping.'

Grandma actually walks very, very fast, she is light as a bird. Because we always end up chasing her around, sometimes we lose her and we say, "Where is she? Where is she?" We have to check every shop. Lobster. Lobster? No! We're going to buy some traditional food like the whole chicken with head and foot on and we're going to buy the whole fish. My mother-in-law tells me lots of things, in Chinese New Year every food has meaning. Sweet means you are very lucky in a sweet year. 'The right colour also brings good fortune. With only a few days left before New Year's Eve, the Leung home has turned into the Yau Kung Mun Club's

central meeting place. During Chinese New Year, everyone pretty much stays here. Some people live further away, so they stay over sometimes. Everybody comes here in the morning and they eat breakfast here. This is pretty much home for them. You haven't had breakfast yet? No... 'Chinese New Year usually starts in February, the festivities last for 15 days. But the Lion Dance is most in demand in the week before New Year's Eve. As well as performing for large crowds at public events, the club dances for smaller audiences.' The nursing homes we perform at are Chinese nursing homes and we perform for the elderly there. CYMBALS AND DRUMS 'This Lion Dance tells the story of a small village in China terrorised by a lion.'

CYMBALS AND DRUMS CONTINUE 'With pots and pans, the villagers made a thunderous noise and scared the lion away. Now it is said that the beating drum, the deafening sounds of the cymbals and the face of the lion dancing aggressively can evict bad or evil spirits.' CYMBALS AND DRUMS CONTINUE 'The club hands out red packets with money inside, and it encourages audience members to feed these to the lion.' CYMBALS AND DRUMS CONTINUE

'While some traditions have faded over time, the ritual of the red packets is still a favourite, it doesn't matter how much money they contain,

it's the giver who gets the New Year luck.' We have to put the red packets under our pillow, we're not allowed to open them until the next morning. Just go to sleep. Just sleep on top of them, don't let yourself open them. Sometimes we give $10 or $20, if there's too many people we give $5, it's OK. We've got 17 kids in this family,

we don't want to give Grandpa and Grandma a big pressure. 'Grandpa Valentine and Grandma Valentina came to Australia in 1983 from Inner Mongolia, a northern Chinese province on the Russian border.' My father-in-law, he was a very good mechanic in China. He was one of the first few people who could drive in his area. He loved to repair cars, motorcycles when they were broken down. He really enjoyed doing that.

'Despite a recent health scare, Valentine still loves his motorbikes.' My Grandad had two strokes and then the next day he went out and bought a motorbike. Everyone was like, "Well, that's just scary." But he really likes them, I've never seen him ride it ever. 'Cos he just fixes them but we don't see him ride them. Sometimes on special occasions, he will get his bike out and ride around the house. My mother-in-law has got vegies in her garden. Vegies like tomatoes, chives, some beans and cucumbers. They change every year and they've got a good harvest this year. So she will pick lots of cucumbers for the salads. My mother-in-law's going to get some chives from the garden for the special dumplings for New Year. MAN: Happy new year! Oh, Happy new year! Thank you. 'It's New Year's Eve, the Boikovs will cook for most of the day and their celebrations will go on into the early morning.' So from the afternoon, my sisters-in-law will come into my mother-in-law's house a bit earlier, prepare the food, start to do cooking. My sister-in-law, she's a really good chef, I think she should open a Chinese restaurant. (LAUGHTER) At six o'clock we're going to have the dinner. And you can see my mother-in-law's house is not that big, and that the dinner table can only fit about ten people maximum. So, we eat in shifts, and the kids bring their plates to eat in the lounge and outside the house as well. People will go around the house, watching TV and eating. 'There's no washing-up on New Year's Eve, doing the dishes would wash away the good luck. It's the tradition to clean up the next day.'

(CHATTER) HORN BEEPS 'The celebrations and the feasting aren't quite over yet. There's one more course to go.' Every year, my grandma makes dumplings, which we have at midnight. And in one of the dumplings she puts a gold coin, whoever gets the gold coin is said to get good luck for the year. So everyone fights over the dumplings at midnight. We make sure at 12 o'clock sharp, the dumpling is ready on the table. Excuse me! 'It's close to midnight.' OK, that's it, that's it, that's it. No more. 'The Leung's are setting up for their most important performance of the day, the 12 o'clock Lion Dance at an inner Sydney temple. Here, it's the busiest night of the year, as Chinese people who have their roots in Sze Yup,

in the province of Guangdong, come to worship and pray. These gatherings are based on tradition, rather than one particular religion. Gifts are offered. Orange coloured fruits are symbols of wealth. Here, people participate in whatever way they choose. They may burn offerings to the dead. Sheets of gold-coloured paper become pretend bars of gold, jewellery, clothes, even shoes, all made from paper, are offered up in the flames. Around 2,000 people will pass through this temple throughout the night and most of them will burn incense. Inside the temple, the air is thick with smoke and it can be hard to breathe. There's one last chance for the Lion dancers to pray to the ancestors before the show. For us to perform here on Chinese New Year, it's a real privilege and it's really special to us.

It's all to do with the crowd, everybody loves the crowd. If everybody claps and celebrates and cheers,

we do a much better performance.

Hoi! Hoi! APPLAUSE

'Back at the Boikovs, it's midnight and the children are out to find the dumpling with the gold coin.' OK! Let's go! Some people are very smart like Rebecca, she grabs lots of dumplings on her plate and she starts to stab some. And she always eats lots of dumplings every year.

And if you stab it, you have to eat it, cos that's the rule. After eating the dumplings, the elders get the red packets out and the kids quickly line up in a queue and they give a kiss

to the Grandpa and Grandma first and say greetings to them

and they get their red packets. Grandpa loves me! Yeah, Eva gets them, too. She gets lots of money. She has more money than all of us. In Chinese culture, we always say, "Giving is equal to getting." So giving people good luck is you getting the good luck too. So you're helping people, you're being kinder to people, it's always a good thing for yourself. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MUSIC Giving is equal to getting, a noteworthy sentiment. Tracey Spring produced that story, which I absolutely loved. And Chinese New Year celebrations in this the year of the tiger, start next weekend around Australia, so look out for them. Next week -

'A spiritual journey across the airwaves in Far North Queensland.' Good morning, and welcome to the program. How are you this morning? Hope and pray, you're well. 'Now nearing 70, Evelyn has been reinvented. Her faith renewed, she's very much a feature of Cairns' thriving community radio scene.

In fact, she's a minor celebrity in her hometown.' Here we go, Tom. Are you ready? Yes. Kingdom Airwaves is a Christian program and we play Christian music, then we play a country, country Christian or country gospel, and then contemporary, which can be anything. This is the word of the Lord. Thanks be to God. God is in the house. 'Kingdom Airwaves - that's next Sunday on Compass. Until then, goodnight.' Closed Captions By CSI - Michelle Montgomery

MAN: 'In 1747 in an attic room in Gough Square in London, a remarkable literary project was under way. Embracing the spirit of the 18th century, a dictionary had been commissioned, a book that would do for the English language what Newton had done for the stars  classifying words, fixing their meaning, bringing order to the chaos of language.' If I had a farthing for every cup, he'd be making ME tea. Careful! That's a whole day's work there, you know. 'Nine years in the making, this landmark of English literature was the brainwork of one man.' He was a frightful figure - huge, shambling, twitching, blind in one eye. Often his wig would be singed at the front from holding a candle too close to his short-sighted eyes. Lots of people, when they first met him, thought he was a lunatic until they were able to talk to him. 'Samuel "Dictionary" Johnson  an unlikely hero, an eccentric, unknown hack writer destined to become a literary superstar.'

'Samuel Johnson's dictionary is one of the most important books ever written in the English language. In the 250 years since its publication, it has served as a model for dictionary writing throughout the world. Today, rare first editions are proudly preserved in the world's great libraries.' So here is the dictionary. Two volumes, 42,773 words, over 100,000 illustrative quotations,

2,300 pages and, as you can see, these are huge, cumbersome books.

You couldn't pick one of the volumes up with one hand. You might struggle to do it with two hands. What's more, I can't even touch this particular copy of it because this was the personal copy of King George III. Usually today when we see a book on this kind of scale, it's something that's been produced by people collaborating, large teams of people who've come together, and when it sits in front of you like this you're reminded of what a remarkable accomplishment it was for one man, essentially unaided. This is his work, but it's also a book that's produced by one person who had to overcome incredible difficulties to do that

in his personal life, in the life of his mind. We're talking about a guy who had incredible psychological difficulties, obstacles and obstructions to his labours, and this really very orderly production is at odds with that, and that's a tribute, really, to Johnson's personal qualities. 'What we know about the author of this extraordinary book

is largely gleaned from one of the most celebrated biographies in the English language, Boswell's Life of Johnson. James Boswell was a young Scottish lawyer who met Johnson some eight years after the publication of the dictionary. Boswell immediately fell under the author's spell, and for over 20 years he doggedly pursued Johnson, filling notebook after notebook with records of their many conversations, intending one day to publish the story of Johnson's life.' You know, the happiness of London can only be truly conceived by those who've been here. Indeed, I venture to say there's more science and learning within the circumference of ten miles of where we now sit than there is in all the rest of the world. Well, the only disadvantage is the very great distance at which people live from one another. Well, that's just occasioned by its largeness, which in turn is the very cause of all the other advantages. There are times when I would willingly leave London and retire to a desert. Aye, there are deserts enough in Scotland. A man of intellect would never willingly leave London. No, when a man's tired of London he's tired of life, for there is in London all that life can afford. 'Johnson's passion for London is legendary. He wrote his famous dictionary here, in Gough Square, a house off Fleet Street which was, in the 18th century, the very heart of literary London.' Welcome, everybody, to Dr Johnson's house. I'd like to roll back in time a little bit, just tell you a little bit about Johnson's earlier years. If we can just have a look at the picture on the wall here, now, this is a rather quirky picture. It's by Johnson's friend Joshua Reynolds, and obviously it's retrospective as Reynolds didn't know Johnson when he was about six months old, or however old he is. And you can see even then he's having great thoughts about...about something. Now, Johnson was born in quite poor health. I mean, he was baptised on the spot and was...and Johnson himself said that he was a diseased and sickly infant. He contracted scrofula from his wet nurse's milk, which is TB of the lymph nodes. He managed to throw it off naturally, but this was notwithstanding the several rather odd cures,

one of which is to have a cut made on the child's arm which was then not allowed to heal up for several years. But the scrofula did leave him badly affected

in terms of his eyesight and his hearing. He described himself as being nearly blind in one eye, and certainly his hearing was very bad as well. 'Johnson was born in Lichfield in the Midlands in 1709. The son of a bookseller, he was from the very start a voracious reader. In his sickness, he sought refuge in Greek and Latin classics taken from his father's shelves. But Johnson's mother disapproved of much of his reading, preferring instead to steer him towards Christian texts.' Here, I have this for you.

You'll find good things here, things you'll need. This one. Now, don't just read it. Learn it, know it. You'll find things in here you'll never regret in life, Sam. MAN AS BOSWELL: 'When Johnson was a child in petticoats and had learned to read, his mother one morning put the Common Prayer Book into his hands, pointed to the Collect for the day and said, "Sam, you must get this by heart." She went upstairs, leaving him to study it, but by the time she had reached the second floor she heard him following her. "What's the matter?" she said. "I can say it," he replied. And he repeated it distinctly, though he could not have read it more than twice.' 'Throughout his life Johnson was a stern moralist, doubtless the result of his mother's early influence. The family bookshop was equally significant in developing Johnson's precocious intellect, but it failed to generate enough income to send him to university. Indeed, it was only when he was 19 years old that a chance legacy gave the family just enough money to get Johnson started at Pembroke College, Oxford.' BELL CHIMES

This is the college chapel which was, in the 18th century,

regarded as one of the greatest monstrosities to be erected, so it was being built when Johnson first came here as an undergraduate, but the rest of the quad didn't exist at all. There was just works being carried out on this. There were about 40 students, 40 students and fellows in total and that would be all. So you would know...Johnson would have made his presence felt because he would know simply everybody in the college and everyone would know him, so, you know, you can't be inconspicuous. You can't fade into the background if you're in a college of only 40 people. So he was, you know... And this would be...up here would be where his rooms were, so, in the gatehouse, which we can go and have a look at. BELL CHIMES Right, lovely. That's good. I'm just going up here. Now, you have to imagine these stairs in Johnson's time. There'd be no lighting. Oxford, 18th century Oxford is just full of hierarchy, and where you lived proclaimed very visibly the kind of student you were. So Johnson may have defined himself as a gentleman but his rooms, as you can see,

were not necessarily those pertaining to gentleman-like status. This would have been the bedroom  hardly larger than a cupboard, as it is recorded at the time. I mean, he'd been reading assiduously for years before that, so he came equipped with a massive store of knowledge, and it was in this room that he would have set his 100 volumes which he came equipped with, you know, on horseback, travelling the 76 miles from Lichfield. So this is where it all happened, where he would have written his essays and prepared his themes. Well, Johnson's account of his time here is that he disregarded all power and all authority, and I think that's what we can see almost from his first moments in the college. I mean, his first week he's missing tutorials, which is certainly something you wouldn't expect a student in their first week of their course to do. He writes extraordinarily good pieces of work, but not necessarily the ones he was asked to write. He goes off sliding when he should be attending lectures. He goes off drinking in taverns when he's supposed to be on college premises. And again, this is extraordinary. In your first week as an undergraduate you expect this, you know, extraordinarily dutiful observance of everything you're supposed to do, but there's Johnson wilfully taking the opportunity to slide instead. And this was the source of the first of Johnson's many fines in the college, actually, where he was fined tuppence, as he said, for a lecture not worth a penny, which also is not guaranteed to give you an easy passage through the college. BELL CHIMES 'When Johnson arrived at Oxford he appears to have been ashamed of his family circumstances, deciding to register as the son of a gentleman rather than the more appropriate title of "tradesman".

The college record books of the time contain further clues to Johnson's life at Oxford.' OK, fine. And these are the battles books for 1728 and 1729, and these contain all the records of the expenditure of every individual student and fellow in the college, and they're written in an as yet unbroken 17th century code