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(generated from captions) There's north-eastern a trough over Queensland and that may develop into a tropical low west of Darwin

cyclone. There's a ridge south of the ACT and which is heading towards our south of the ACT and a front

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24 hours a day at ABC online. Thanks for your company. Goodnight. Closed Captions by CSI

Tonight on the '7.30

Report' the fatal stabbing that

sparked a new and ugly overseas

backlash against Australia.

And the new threat to the

great Australian

backyard. We've made the world

probably more attractive for

This Program is Live Brown mistakes. - Brown Snakes.

Captioned. Welcome to the

program, I'm Chris Uhlmann.

Relations between Australia and

India are strained again

following the fatal stabbing of

an Indian student in Melbourne. The murder investigation

follows a string of violent

attacks against Indian students

in Sydney and Melbourne last

June, as Victoria Police hose

down talks of racist overtones, the Indian Government calls on

Australian authorities to do

more. What in question is

Australia's reputation has

copped a hammering and the drop

of students will affect the $13

billion international student

injury. Josephine Cafagna

reports. He was on his way to

work when he was attacked. For

every new assault on an Indian

student in Australia, the story

makes headlines in

India. Racist attack leading to

the death of an Indian... doit The weekend 21-year-old

accounting graduate Nitin Garg

was stabbed to death while

walking through a park in

Melbourne's west on his way to

washing at Hungry Jack's. He

was good, nice to other people,

other friends, to me even. He

always ready to help people,

for anything. The Indian

Government is calling for more action from Australian

authorities, or risk a

straining of relations between

the two countries. The

Australian Government should

realise that we have a

democracy in India, and public

opinion is getting polarised on

an issue like this, so they

should take note of the deep

anger that such incidents

cause. It certainly will - will

have some bearing on the

bilateral ties between our two countries. There's also the

risk to Australia's

multibillion dollar

international education sector,

which is expected to suffer a

slump of around 20% in take ups

this year. Students from the

subcontinent make up a large

portion of enrolments. Last

year anger over the rising

number of attacks sparked

street protests in Melbourne

and Sydney. Indian students are

welcome guests in our country. Prime Minister Kevin

Rudd, his deputy Julia Gillard

and the Victorian Premier John

Brumby visited India last year

to try to quell the growing

concern and restore Victoria's

battered reputation. According

to the Victoria Police there

were over 1,000 reported

attacks, there must be four to

five times more unreported. We

are talking about 10,000

attacks. On Indian

students. Despite the numbers,

Victoria Police are reluctant

to say the attacks are racially

motivated. I don't believe that

there has been any really

detailed racist motives around

assaults on Indian people in

the past. In some cases there

may well be. In the general

sense of it, a lot of it we

have seen has been around opportunistic theft and

robbery, particularly people

working in convenience stores,

it's not only Indian people

working in convenience

stores. As a community, I think

generally we send the message

out that we want visitors

here. That we are a welcoming

community. We abhor violence

and racism. And we will

continue to do everything we

can to stamp out crime and keep

Victoria as one of the safest

places in the world. He's never

made 100 in India, he made one

now. Cricket is one of the

strongest ties between India

and Australia. Gautam Gupta

from the Federation of Indian

Students of Australia called on

cricket icons such as Shane

Warne, Brett Lee and current captain Ricky Ponting to use

influence on young people in

condemning hate crimes. Australian cricketers

have gone to India more than

they visited any other country.

They have gained financially

from India more than any other

country. Obviously with a lot

of - they have a lot of

authority, Shane Warne, for

example, is captain of the

Rahja Stan Royals, they should

step up and take responsibility seriously. The Australian

cricket captain posted a

message on YouTube. The Australian cricket team has

lots of friends in India, it's

concerning the attacks on

Indian students in Australia. I

believe cricketers visiting

Australia should be made to

feel as welcome in our

countries as we are when we

visit other countries, it

doesn't hold just for cricket,

but should be the same or

anybody visiting our country,

it's not just the cricket way,

but the Australian way. The

External Affairs to Australia message from the Minister for

is blunt. I would like to

convoy that if more attacks of

this nature continue to take

place in Australia, then India

will have to seriously think as

to what other courses of action

that lie with the Government of

India. And I'm hoping that the

Government of India will not be

pushed to take such positions.

Well, as Josephine Cafagna reported, both the Prime

Minister and his Deputy

travelled to India last year to

try to soothe emotions rubbed

raw by a string of student

assaults. This latest tragedy

means there's more work to dork

as Julia Gillard is busy

travelling Australia - work to

do, as Julia Gillard is busy

travel Australia in relation to

the work force laws coming into

place on 1 Jan. Do you believe

the - murder of Nitin Garg wag

racially motivated. The - was

racially motivated. The police

are investigating, I hope not

ready to pre-empt their

investigation. I would unreservedly condemn this

violence, senseless attack. He

lost it in the west of

Melbourne , not far from where

I live. It will be a heart-felt

blow by Melbourne's western suburbs, that'll be the feeling

around the nation. We want the

nation to be known around the

world as a warm accepting

tolerant community, that's what

we really are, this is a

senseless act of violence. It's

unlikely to be the way it's

received in India, you know

that from first-hand

experience. When young people

come to study wlrks were India

or anywhere else in the world

families will be anxious about

them. Suggestions that there

are problems going to compound

those community or family

anxieties. What I would say to

people in India and around the

world is overwhelmingly this is

a very safe country. And in

terms of international

students, we know from the

surveys that we conduct that international students by and

large enjoy their time here,

and say that they would

recommend it to a family

member. The Indian Minister for

External Affairs say it will affect relationships between

Australia and India, did you

seek clarification, did he mean

people or Government. We talked to the Indian Government over the course of the past year

about international students in

our county, I attended India

personally. At a Government to

Government level. The Indian

Government wanted to be assured

we were acting to support international students, and we

are. On the basis of those

assurances, they understood

that Australia was doing

everything that it could to

address any problems that international students might

have experienced on our

shores. What could be

reasonably done by our Government. State governments

stepped up policing measures in areas where there's been problems. That's been

important. We, of course,

stepped up legislation and

regulation making sure students

get better information about

living conditions here before

they come, that there's better

regulation of education agents

from whom students tend to get

their information. We are

working with state and

Territory Government around

Territory Government around the country on international

student store strategy, there's

questions of accommodation,

transport condegs. Our Fair

Work Ombudsman had a crackdown

on employers employing

international students to make

sure that is being done

properly and no-one is

exploited. We are acting on all

fronts. Now, on a related issue

the Prime Minister said he

welcomes the population of 35

million people by 2020. A 65%

increase, what are you doing to

plan for the social pressures

it will inevitably

bring Certainly the Prime

Minister has very much engaged

with State Governments on urban

planning questions, on the

shape of Australian cities, we

need to plan our communities,

our environment, we need to do

that to cope with population

changes, the challenge of

climate change and make sure

our cities are liveable environments. It will bring

social pressures, won't it .

The built environment, how well

that works tends to also

address how social pressures

are felt. We are concerned about the built environment,

about the liveability of our

cities, ensuring that for the

long term. We are also very

concerned to address poverty

and disadvantage in those

pockets of our big cities and

regional and rural areas where

disadvantage clusters, that's

what our social inclusion

agenda is all about, looking at

those disadvantaged locations,

to see how Government can

better work with communities to

make a difference to long-term

disadvantaged. On to your

workplace laws and a raft of

them came into effect on 1

January. Do you continue to

maintain no employer or

employee will be worse off

under these laws? Well, what I can certainly say about our

Fair work laws, if we turn to

employees, they will enjoy new

rights and protection. They'll

be better off, far better off

than they were under

WorkChoices, where basic

conditions could be stripped

away without a cent of

compensation. For employers

this is a simpler system. The

point I have been making today,

and I think it's an important

one for employers is that we

have replaced 197,000 pages of

award regulation with 122 new

simply modern awards. We have created a workplace relations

system for the whole of the

private sector. When you were

doing that the tide lifted some

boats, meaning more costs for employers, there are more costs

on the way for employers,

pharmacists in Queensland for

example. There are benefits for

employers, less red tape. There

are undeniable tape Can I

answer it in two ways. No.1,

the award system in terms of

create ing the new 122 simple

modern awards, yes, things

changed from the days where

there were almost 4,000 old-fashioned industrial

instruments, yes, they have

changed. There's a fuel

five-year transitional period

for the - full 5-year

transitional period for the

changes. On the question of benefits we asked Access

Economics to model the benefits

of having a system for the

private sector, a uniformed

system, and that modelling

shows we are talking about

benefits in the order of 4.8

billion to the national

economy, reduced compliance

costs for employers, costs for employers, and

reduced expenditure by

taxpayers on multiple... A lot

of those benefits flow to State

Governments, there's 228

million in transitional costs flowing to business. This

Access Economics report shows

that over 10 years benefits to

business in terms of reduced

compliance costs are in the

order of billions of dollars.

Taking into account the transitional costs, we are

talking about 4.5 billion of

benefit. When we look at the

new flexibility arrangements

for people coming barks, having

a baby, a mother, can you tell

us how that works, what does

flexibility mean, are we

talking about a part time

position, job sharing, how wide

is that. Flexibility is as wide

as our enterprise s around the

country choose to make it. This

new right is a right of parents

of a new child to request a

second-year of unpaid parent

leave. It could be the mother

takes two years off rather than

one. It could be the mother

takes the first year off and

the father the second. It's a

right to request a return to

different work, arrangements,

part-time work, working from

home is possible in some

occupations. We aren't

mandating or lecturing what is

the right solution for any

individual workplace, that can

be worked through at the workplace level. There's a

right to request and a duty to

respond. The duty to respond is

that it's reasonable or unspog.

Who sets the test. This will be

a harder thing for small

businesses than large

businesses, won't T It's in the

interest of every business to

maximise their ability to hold

on to their skilled staff. What

we have based this right to

request on is the international

evidence that if you have the

conversation, if you actually

formally have the conversation

employer to employee things can

become possible as a result of

that conversation that wouldn't

have been thought about

otherwise. Flexible hours,

part-time work, perhaps job

sharing, perhaps working from

home. Of course there'll be

some occupations where that

can't work. If there is a

dispute arising between an

employer and employee about

what is reasonable, where does

that go. Well, there isn't an

arbitration of reasonableness

under our system. This is a

system where there is an

ability to request, and a duty

to respond to that request, to seriously think it

through. Quickly f there's a

dispute, can I take it to the Magistrates Court, Fair Work

Australia, what if I believe my

employer is unreasonable. The

conversation would be had at

the workplace level. There's

not an arbitration issue here

this, is based on the

international evidence that

just having the conversation

can make a difference. And I

know that there are people who

say, "Well, you know, maybe

employers won't employ women

because of this right to

request because they'll be so

fearful of it". The same thing

was said when we first

introduced unpaid maternity

leave in this country, people

said then, "People won't employ

women as a result", the number

of women in the workplace has grown exponentially

since. Julia Gillard, thank

you. At the heart of the

financial crisis the Prime Minister dubbed some executive

salaries obscenes, there's little will in Government to

say how much is too much. A

report released calls for

shareholders to have a greater

say, but hasn't recommended a

cap on salaries. That met with

approval from business but left

others demanding the Government

match tough talk with action.

Tracy Bowden reports. Well, big

business is certainly the

winner. There'll always be

people in the community who

feel executives are paid too

much. Finish Ministers sitting

around in offices capping,

setting pay rates for

executives is not how our

system works. We have members

of our group management

committee... It was a series of

supersized pay packets and

payouts prompting outrage,

leading to the Productivity

Commission inquiry into

executive salaries. More than

13.4 million to Telstra boss

Sol Trujillo. Almost 11 million

to former Qantas Chief Geoff

Dixon. Transurban holding

former CEO Kim Edwards scored

$15 million in bonuses on top

of a million plus annual

salary, Consolidated Media boss

John Alexander received a $15

million golden parachute. All

while the global economy was in meltdown. And the Prime

Minister Kevin Rudd called for more stringent scrutiny of

payments at the big end of

town. To get a better set of

rules in place to reign in any

executive greed. There's been

episodes of excess and

practices that the shareholders found problematic, and

therefore the inquiry was an

opportunity to look at all of

that, particularly in the

context of the global financial

crisis and the fallout from

that. The commission makes 17

recommendations. Including, in

broad terms, greater

transparency on remuneration,

limiting conflicts of interest

on committees determining

salaries and a greater say for

shareholders. We think this

package pass a whole should

mean that in the future

shareholders will have less to

complain about because they'll

have had more time and

opportunities to see what

companies are doing, to upside

why they are doing them, and to

have some assurance that boards

are making decisions about

executive remuneration without

the influence of executives

coming into play. We already have good corporate governance

in Australia, this report is

designed to improve it, make it

better, assume it's best practice, that's the

Government's intention. The

Commission rejected a proposal

to cap executive pay or give

shareholders the right to veto

big pay packets. There's no

reason to have a regulatory

constraint on the flexibility

and authority of boards to set

appropriate executive

remuneration. Graham Bradley,

the President of the Bown of

Australia supports the view of

the commission on salary

comes. The commission itself

finds that it's not only

unmerited and unnecessary, but

it's impractical and creates a

great deal of unnecessary

restraint on companies to do

what is in the interests of

shareholders, and to pay a

competitive rate for the

executive talent that they want

to employ. The salary caps

weren't the way to go. They'd

have diverse affects, be hard

to difficult ice, they'd have

uneven effects. It would be a

nightmare. We didn't think the

Government should be the

paymaster for Australia's

largest companies. Big

business has absolutely got to

them. They watered-down their

own recommendation on

shareholder authority. Sharan

Burrow, the President of the

ACTU believes the commission

has let down the public and

shareholders by not seeking to

cap corporate salaries. There

is no issue that resets the

benchmarks that undermines the

corporate greed that has

already been established.

There's no ceiling because

there's no cap on salaries,

even at the base level. The

controversial two strikes

proposal has been weakened.

This called for the spill of a

board after successive protest

votes by 25% of shareholders

against a company's executive

pay policies. The revised

recommendation is still - still

has impractical difficulties

associated with it. At least

it's introduced an element of

more Democratic approach

requiring more than 50% vote in

order for there to be a general

meeting to re-elect the

directors. The big focus of

this report has been about who

gets what in terms of seats on

the board and the rules for

voting on or off directors, it hasn't been about let's pay

people over a longer period of

time. That is the core

issue. Corporate governance

advise or Erik Mather says a

longer term approach is needed

in setting executive packages. Let's pay executives

over a longer period of time

and from our perspective make

sure that pay is in the form of

shares so the executive has the

same risk that we have as

superannuation investors. The

inquiry found that the top 20

CEOs in Australia took home an

average of 7.2 million each in 2008/2009. And they appear to

be paid in line with smaller

European countries, but below

the United Kingdom and the

US. This is the biggest crisis

in modern global economic

terms. If not now, when will we

see the courage of Government

and, indeed authorities to

reset benchmarks for CEO

salaries that are more

realistic, more in line with

community standards. A lot of

headlines are about the

minority of companies, what we

did in the recommendations is

given the shareholders an

opportunity to target the few

companies that aren't listening

to them, giving them extra

tools to ensure they get the

boards attention.

Tracy Bowden with that

report. Australian snakes are

known for two things - the

potency of their venom and

unimaginative name. A case in

point the Brown Snake found in

almost every corner of country

where it's known as Western,

Eastern or Common, antivenom

has been available since the

1950, the Brown snake is common

for more deaths. One reason,

they are adapting to the urban

sprawl and are more likely to

be in contact with humans. Mike

Sexton reports. In New Zealand

they don't have snakes. Which

is why these Kiwi quarantine

officers are in South Australia

learning what to do should a

serpent turn up on their

shores. If you suddenly uncover

a snake and it lunges at you

this, is on the ground, you may

trip over on it and that's not

good news. Taking the master

class is Geoff Coombe who has

been catching snakes for more

than 30 years. Scoop the snake

up any way you can, drop it

into a bag, and wind it con the

ground is probably

easier. Bagging a rubber snake

is one thing, catching the real

thing is something else.

If the snake comes up on its

- brings its head up off the

ground and even sort of starts

to lunge towards them, people

think they are about to be

attacked or its aggressive. In

fact, it's all a bluff. If you

give the snake a chance and

stand still, it will settle and

bolt. Geoff Qom's biz is brisk,

there's one species keeping him

busiest, the Brown Snake. 30

years ago Tiger Snakes were responsible for the most bites

and fatalities, they are

disappearing along with lost

habitat. In contrast the Brown

Snake is thriving. We provide

them with everything they need,

food, rats. Plenty of places to

live, backyards, they are the

prime snake species of

concern. Snake catchers say

Brisbane Lions are not

aggressive, - browns are not

aggressive. If they strike the

venom works through the

victim's central nervous system

and if untreated can be

fatal. It's the second most

deadly venom in Australia and

the world. Brown snakes are

living part of the great

Australian dream of home

ownership. Every mainland city

would have one of this group

around its margins, they like

open habitat. Because we

cleared forests and woodland we

made the world more attractive

for Brown snakes. Australians

have historically had an uneasy relationships with snakes,

since white settlement they

have been feared and hunted. A

few have been used as sideshow

props. But scientists from the SA Museum have been collecting

and studying them for more than

a century. Despite this body of

work the museum's latest

research carried out by evolutionary biologist Adam

Skinner answered the most basic

question about Brown snakes. We weren't sure how many different

kinds, species there were. So

my aim was to use genetic and

more fological data to work out

how much different kinds in

respect. By using specimens

stored in ethanol and fresh

ones sent by snake catchers

around the country, Adam

Skinner compared DNA and

exterior markings to draw up a

Brown Snake family industry As

a result of work we found more

species of Brown Snake than we

recognised before we

started. There was a Western

Brown Snake regarded as

occurring almost over the

entirety of Australia apart

from the westest south-east. It

was variable in colour and

pattern. Adam's work showed the

variation is split into three

different species. Through a

number of years a lot of us knew the taxonomy for Brown

Snakes wasn't that good, or

reliable and it's really good

that the SA Museum have got in

and sorted it out. The research

has been closely watched in the Barossa Valley, although best

known known as a wine growing

region, it's home to the

country's largest snake venom

farm. Snakes from all over the

world are milked here, one the

biggest demand is for local

Brown Snake venom The guys are

flighty, nervous, the ones we

are are used to the routine and

us. The Brown Snake has small

fangs, Nathan Dunstan puts a

small tube over each one,

massaging the animal to produce

the venom There's the average

yield from a backyard Brown Snake.

Because a bite from a Brown

Snake can kill a human, much of

the venom is used to create

antiven ox. Increasingly

scientists are looking at other

medicines that can be made from

it. It has a potent clotting

factor which has many possible

uses, especially in a

diagnostic area. It also has

some very potent neurotoxins in

the venom as well. Peter

Mirtschin provides Brown Snake

venom to researchers across the

country and overseas, believing

from Australia's there's commercial potential

snakes. Colleagues of ours

signed agreements for the use

of a compound called Textillian

and that is going to be used to

probably treat symptoms like

stroke, where it goes in and

can break down clots. When the

milking is over the serpent is

safely put away. Around the

country Brown snakes in the

wild are at their most active.

This means more work for

catchers like Geoff Coombe. He

believes for those in the

suburbs, the best advice is to

co-exist. If it's in the

backyard, keep an eye on it,

back off, let it go, see if it

will go off by itself. To

tackle it yourself, that's

crazy. That's good advice. Mike Sexton reporting. That's the

program for tonight. We'll be

back at the same time tomorrow. For now, goodnight. Closed Captions by CSI

ANDREW: We live in a society that worships youth. On television, in magazines, in advertisements, and on billboards, is youth. what sells, and what is sold to us, it is the elders of the community But in some cultures, and whose wisdom is sought. who are valued In this series, six prominent elders of our tribe... we are going to seek out each over the age of 65, to see what life has taught them. Welcome to the Elders. he has delivered hope and faith 'For almost 50 years on the planet. to some of the toughest places in a higher being has never wavered, In all that time his belief and it nearly broke him. but once his belief in himself did, was to his mum. The first blessing he ever gave No-one was more surprised than she, when her son became a priest. All his childhood, this Irish boy had talked of being a pilot, but life moves in mysterious ways, as few know better than Father Des Reid.' In Moine where you mostly grew up, you were right underneath the flight path from Dublin to New York. Yeah yeah. For me the notion of holiday was going to my sister's flat in Dublin, getting on a bicycle with a brown paper bag and a couple of sandwiches at Dublin Airport, and going out to the back road