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7.30 Report -

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I don't think it's unusual for players to take sedatives for players to take sedatives or sleeping
tablets after games.

Tonight on the 7:30 Report - the Cousins collapse that's ex-potioned a pill popping culture in

I thought that was just a bad look that a bucket of NoDoz would be handed down. There were 40 or 50

They 're living in really close proximity 're living in really close proximit -

And revealed after almost a century the century the inside account of Mawson's Antarctic

I think it's a very important record.

This Program is Captioned Live.

Gillard bites bullet on asylum seekers

TRACY BOWDEN, PRESENTER: The Prime Minister Julia Gillard has moved to seize the initiative on the
asylum seekers issue by announcing plans to set up an offshore processing centre in East Timor.

While the Greens and some refugee advocacy groups have slammed this as a direct steal of the Howard
Government's Pacific Solution, the Government insists this is not the case and claims it will act
as a disincentive to people smugglers.

As well, the Prime Minister announced today a lifting of the suspension on processing claims for
Sri Lankan asylum seekers, though the suspension for Afghans stays in place.

Shortly, political editor Heather Ewart will be talking to Immigration Minister Chris Evans, but
first, her analysis of today's developments.

JULIA GILLARD, PRIME MINISTER: Today I announce that we will begin a new initiative. In recent days
I have discussed with President Ramos-Horta of East Timor the possibility of establishing a
regional processing centre for the purpose of receiving and processing irregular entrants to the

HEATHER EWART, REPORTER: It was a masterful landmark speech to the Lowy Institute in Sydney this
morning was a surprising new element.

JULIA GILLARD: A regional processing centre removes the incentives once and for all for the people
smugglers to send boats to Australia. Why risk a dangerous journey if you will simply be returned
to the regional processing centre?

HEATHER EWART: Julia Gillard had said from day one of her prime ministership examining policy on
asylum seekers would be a priority. There was never for a moment the slightest hint that setting up
a processing centre in the struggling nation of East Timor would be the answer. But after a round
of behind-the-scenes talks with East Timor's leadership, the New Zealand Prime Minister and the
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, that's where Labor is now headed.

JULIA GILLARD: I told the High Commissioner that my government is not interested in pursuing a new
Pacific Solution. Instead, Australia was committed to the development of a sustainable, effective
regional protection framework.

SARAH HANSON-YOUNG, GREENS: Her announcements today are cruel, they mean a more harsher treatment
for refugees and asylum seekers, a more harmful policy for children in detention. Gillard's Pacific
Solution is going to lead to a harsher treatment of some of the world's most vulnerable people.

MARY CROOK, LAW, UNI. OF SYDNEY: There's a lot to be welcomed in this policy because something has
to be done to stop the boats. We have had over the last two years more than 150 people die trying
to reach Australia by boat. So I agree with that.

TONY ABBOTT, OPPOSITION LEADER: You cannot trust Labor to deal with this problem because Labor
created this problem. And my message to voters from now until polling day will be that if you want
to stop the boats, you've got to change the government.

HEATHER EWART: The announcement caught every participant in this long-running and divisive debate
unawares, none moreso than Tony Abbott. For Julia Gillard, it was her big chance not just to
outflank the Opposition, but also to lay her credentials on the table and try to neutralise an
issue that threatened to polarise the nation.

JULIA GILLARD: How appalling is it that for a long-running debate on asylum seekers, we are at this
point, at the point of an unedifying exchange of incendiary labels like "redneck" and hollow
slogans like "turn the boats around", with nobody asking how we can move the nation forward? Think
of the impasse the division has created. If you are hard-headed, you're dismissed as hard-hearted.
If you're open-hearted, you're marginalised as supporting open borders. I say to those engaged in
this type of rhetoric: stop selling our national character short. We are better than this. We are
much better than this.

HEATHER EWART: This was Julia Gillard at her best and most convincing as she sought to smash the
Opposition's claims it would turn back the boats. Not only had the Howard Government managed to
turn back just a handful of boats, she argued, but this was a policy that meant boats would be
scuttled and start to sink.

JULIA GILLARD: Today, let me say one thing loud and clear: our nation would not leave children to
drown. We are Australian and our values will never allow us to countenance that kind of evil. So,
inevitably, the so-called strategy of turning the boats back would become a strategy of rescuing
asylum seekers from the water, with all the risks that entails to the lives of Defence and Customs
personnel. The slogan is hollow and Mr Abbott knows it.

HEATHER EWART: What Tony Abbott does know is he has a very big fight on his hands on territory he
thought he'd claimed as his own. Minutes before Julia Gillard's speech this morning, he and his
Immigration spokesman sought to steal the limelight by making additions to the Opposition's "turn
back the boats" policy.

TONY ABBOTT: The first is that there will be a presumption, where boat people destroy their
identity documents, that they will be denied refugee status. The second is that we will increase
ministerial oversight of the process of approving refugee applications.

SCOTT MORRISON, OPPOSITION IMMIGRATION SPOKESMAN: So basically, no card, no entry. And that's an
important change, it's an important improvement to give Australians confidence that the refugees
that we are assisting are legitimate refugees.

SARAH HANSON-YOUNG: It seems fairly clear now that in the lead-up to this year's election that both
major parties are participating in a race to the bottom on the asylum seeker issues, on beating up
on vulnerable refugees in order to gain political ground.

HEATHER EWART: Whatever the take on Julia Gillard's speech, what is clear is that she's set Labor's
tone on this issue for the election campaign. The fact is the East Timor solution was only pounced
upon when she became Prime Minister two weeks ago and it will take several months to negotiate. But
she has now settled on the rhetoric she hopes will win over middle Australia without alienating the
more moderate elements of the Labor Party.

JULIA GILLARD: I've got no truck with constraining debate on the big questions. I'm for frank,
open, honest national conversation. So let's have a frank, open, honest national conversation about
the issues of border protection and asylum seekers.


HEATHER EWART, PRESENTER: Immigration Minister, Chris Evans, you're going to have to deal with all
the nuts and bolts of this policy. How is it going to be any different to the Howard Government's
Pacific Solution?

CHRIS EVANS, IMMIGRATION MINISTER: Well it's very different in that we're not trying to avoid our
international obligations, we're not trying to punish people. We're trying to get an orderly
process that allows people in the region to have their claims fairly and properly assessed. And at
its essence is to seek to try and break the incentive to use people smugglers, because people will
not need to travel on a boat to Australia to get their claims assessed or to get priority in their
claims. So it actually cuts the people smugglers out by saying, "It doesn't matter where you seek
asylum, you'll have your claims treated properly, assessed properly and you'll be processed in
order wherever you are in the region."

HEATHER EWART: Again, putting refugees onto Nauru in the Pacific, or putting them onto a struggling
nation like East Timor: what is the real difference in the public eye?

CHRIS EVANS: Well it's about them being a Refugee Convention country; so they've signed up to the
Refugees Convention. Secondly it's about being involved with the UNHCR. As you might recall, the
UNHCR and other international organisations were scathing about the Pacific Solution. Because it
was about punishing people, it was trynna convince the Australian people that they wouldn't be
found to be refugees, and of course we know they were and they were resettled in Australia.

HEATHER EWART: You were very scathing too. As soon as this government was elected, the Rudd
Government was elected, you said it had given you great pleasure to abolish the Pacific Solution.
Do you in any sense feel uncomfortable about what Julia Gillard has announced today in the light of
those statements?

CHRIS EVANS: No, absolutely not. I mean, as I say, the Pacific Solution was about conning the
Australian people and it was about punishing those who sought our protection. And when we came to
government there were 90 people on Nauru who'd been found to be refugees and the Howard Government
was denying their right to be resettled. What this is about is trynna deal with the major problem,
which is secondary movement: people who have found safety, but then that have to sort of seek
another journey, seek to employ people smugglers in order to get to a country like Australia, and
they think by doing that they're to get a chance that they won't get if they were, say, in Malaysia
and Indonesia. What we're saying is you'll all get processed, people will have their claims
assessed, you won't need to go down the path of using a people smuggler and you'll be treated
fairly, in accordance with international law and people will be resettled according to the
priorities of their need, not because they were able to access a particular people smuggler and get
on a dangerous journey to Australia.

HEATHER EWART: Just how long has this been in the pipeline for? Was it very much a last-minute
negotiation to get Labor out of a fix in the lead-up to the next election?

CHRIS EVANS: Look, this isn't a quick fix. Julia made that very clear today. I mean, this is about
a serious long-term public policy response.

HEATHER EWART: But how long have you been planning this for?

CHRIS EVANS: Well there's been discussions through the Bali process and through officials in board
terms for a long time in the sense of we need to solve this is a regional problem. This is not
Australia's problem alone and Australians are gonna see it through the prism of, "We're the only
ones dealing with unauthorised rivals." Every Western democracy is dealing with this and every
country in the region's dealing with it. Malaysia's got a million Bangladeshis in its territory.
So, we need regional solutions. What Julia did is said, "Look, I'm gonna seize this. I'm gonna
drive it. I'm gonna make it happen."

HEATHER EWART: So that's been in the last couple of weeks then?

CHRIS EVANS: Yes, that's very much the case.

HEATHER EWART: Is that enough time to be sure that what you're doing is the right thing and it's
going to work?

CHRIS EVANS: Well, I've been a supporter of the policy for a long time. I think it's the right way
to go.

And I think the Foreign Minister and I have both been supportive of the idea. But it's about
providing the leadership to get that to happen. And, as I say, it's not a quick fix and it will be
difficult in terms of, you know, foreign diplomacy, negotiations, taking people along with us. So,
we're not suggesting that it's all gonna be signed up next month, but Julia has seen this as a way
forward for Australia and she's keen to lead it.

HEATHER EWART: Do you need to get other countries on side, apart from East Timor and New Zealand
What about Indonesia?

CHRIS EVANS: Look, it's about engaging the whole region and Indonesia will be quite critical in
this because they are a country where a lot of people have sought to arrive and then seek to get to
Australia, a transit country.

HEATHER EWART: Well let's go to the logistics of this. How is it going to work in practice? East
Timor is a small, struggling nation. Are they up to this?

CHRIS EVANS: Well I think, you know, we're a preliminary stage with East Timor, but the reality is
we will need to develop some capacity to accommodate people and to process their claims while they
are accommodated in safety. And that will obviously require some infrastructure. But we would see
the countries who are party to the regional solution being part of funding that and supporting that
and we're keen to get IOM involved in terms of maybe managing the centre and obviously we'd look to
have UNHCR endorsement and support for the principles involved.

HEATHER EWART: Will the Australian Government pretty much have to bankroll this?

CHRIS EVANS: Look, we'll obviously have to be a major player in funding this, but equally, you'd
see New Zealand, you'd see other countries engaged in this, having to be part of it, because it's
about a regional solution.

HEATHER EWART: How are you going to divert boats to East Timor?

CHRIS EVANS: Well it's not about diverting boats. People, if they arrive in Australia as
unauthorised boat arrivals, will be returned to East Timor, will be taken to the centre. That will
be by plane.

HEATHER EWART: So you'll allow them to get here first.

CHRIS EVANS: Well we'd be intercepting them in the way we are normally, but you would then seek to
return them to East Timor. We currently have return agreements with a number of countries, for
instance like Papua New Guinea. So I have returned a couple of Sri Lankans to Papua New Guinea
because they've been resident there. So it's about taking them back to another country that has -
is a signatory of the United Nations Convention on Refugees. So, it's about saying there's no
advantage in coming here. You don't get priority processing, you don't get an advantage by
employing people smugglers. We've had the ridiculous situation of people who've been found to be
refugees in Indonesia employing a people smuggler to get to Australia because they think they won't
get a chance, they won't have a chance of resettlement. We've gotta make sure that they understand
that in regional context, they will have their claims assessed fairly and they'll be treated
according to their needs rather than ignored.

HEATHER EWART: Is the aim of this, the key aim of what was announced today, to neutralise an issue
that was seriously damaging Labor in key marginal seats?

CHRIS EVANS: Look I think Julia's made it clear she thinks there needs to be a better conversation
in Australia about the issue, that we have to engage with the issue and certainly this is part of
that. But it's not a quick fix. Julia's been very clear about saying there are no simplistic
solutions. Tony Abbott says he's gonna tow the boats back; it's a nonsense. It's been a nonsense
since 2003 when the people smugglers started disabling the boats. If Tony Abbott is seriously
saying he's gonna tow women, children and others out to sea and leave them there to drown, well let
him say that, but that's what he's gotta confront. Now, it's a serious issue, it requires a serious
public policy response, it's not a quick fix and Julia's really saying we're gonna have that
conversation, we're working at solutions, but she's not gonna mislead people about how easy this

HEATHER EWART: Do you have any more to announce in this area before the election? Say, for example,
I know you're concerned about shortage of skilled and unskilled workers in regional areas. Could
you possibly make an announcement to have refugees who have been successful in applying to settle
here move into those areas?

CHRIS EVANS: Well certainly we've already got programs that look to encourage people who come in
under the humanitarian program, refugees, to move to regional areas where there's employment

HEATHER EWART: Might you do more?

CHRIS EVANS: Yeah, no, look, I'm very keen on the idea. I mean, we have communities that are very
welcoming that are keen to rebuild the number of people in the town, a lot of farming communities
who have lost people who are keen to see their schools full again, keen to attract labour. And,
even with those seeking asylum now in Leonora, the community's been very welcoming. And so, I think
there's more that can be done in settling refugees who have been found to be refugees into those
communities, and they're keen to find work, so there's a natural match.

HEATHER EWART: Chris Evans, thankyou very much for joining us.

CHRIS EVANS: My pleasure.

TRACY BOWDEN, PRESENTER: Political editor Heather Ewart there.

Cousins collapse highlights pill popping culture

TRACY BOWDEN, PRESENTER: There there's a new drugs-in-sport scandal, but this time the drugs are
all legal. AFL star Ben Cousins' well-publicised visit to a hospital intensive care ward after a
severe reaction to a prescribed sleeping pill has brought to light what appears to be a
pill-popping culture that extends beyond one footy code's boundary. Media coverage of Cousins'
collapse has seen a number of other players not only openly discussing their own use of sleeping
pills to wind down after a match, but also describing taking caffeine pills to pep up before the

As Mary Gearin reports, there are now calls to blow the whistle on what appears to be a common

MARY GEARIN, REPORTER: And so Ben Cousins' dramatic life and times continue. Just days after
helping his club Richmond to a stirring win over Sydney, he was rushed into intensive care and
walked out 24 hours later, once again with the spotlight on his off-field endeavours.

PETER LARKINS, SPORTS PHYSICIAN: I think, boy, there's a message out of this for him, hopefully
that will be something that he will take on board. And whatever the error that he made this time,
I'm pretty sure he won't make it again.

MARY GEARIN: It's the third time Cousins' been hospitalised this year. In March, he was admitted
twice with abdominal pain and cramping, which was attributed to a stomach bug, and this time the
club has also defended the player's actions.

CRAIG CAMERON, RICHMOND FOOTBALL MANAGER: We've got no suspicion that there was any illicit -
anything illicit involved.

MARY GEARIN: In fact, Cousins has insisted on a drug test to prove that.

But once again, through the prism of his dramatic life, a hidden side of sport has come to light..
The man who was sacked from West Coast and banned for a year for his use of prohibited recreational
drugs has this time come undone, Richmond has said in a statement, because of, "... a severe
reaction to a prescribed sleeping medication."

CRAIG CAMERON: I don't think it's unusual for players to take sedatives or sleeping tablet it was a

MARY GEARIN: While the club says that's nothing new, others are taking the opportunity to call for
a wholesale review of the treatment of legal drugs in sport.

PAUL DILLON, DRUG & ALCOHOL RESEARCH TRAINING AUST.: What this incident has done is it's really
picked up this subject and thrown it into the public eye. All sports are going to have to really
examine how they hand out prescription medication to their players and to look at policies in that
area. ... But it is a problem, and unfortunately we've been so focused on illicit drugs in sport,
which is not a significant problem in most people's view, that we've tended to ignore those sorts
of issues that are significant problems, and one of those is pharmaceutical drug misuse.

PETER LARKINS: There'll be a rethink of policy - whether the policy can be changed, because, again,
no-one's done anything illegal here. No-one's done anything against a code. It's really against the
spirit of the sport or the image of the sport - I think the AFL would be unhappy about the
publicity from that point of view, understandably.

JOHN BRUMBY, VICTORIAN PREMIER: It's not ideal, and it's not to say it doesn't happen and it's not
to say people don't do it, but it's not ideal. Footballers are role models and I think the less you
can rely on, you know, drugs to lift you up or slow you down, the better.

MARY GEARIN: As Cousins was rested comfortably, others were fessing up.

JAMES HIRD, : There are players and several players that I've played with, done it myself, where
you actually take a sleeping tablet at the end of the game to get to sleep, 'cause otherwise you're
staring at the ceiling, at four o'clock in the morning you don't sleep.

CAMPBELL BROWN, HAWTHORN PLAYER: I wanna say that the doctors are very diligent in what they give
after games. They're not gonna give you a whole bottle of sleeping tablets. You know, you might
take - you might ask 'em and they might give you one or half a one. They're very good at what they

MARY GEARIN: When it comes to sleeping pills, neither the AFL nor the NRL has an overarching policy
on pharmaceutical drugs other than to leave it to clubs to oversee their responsible use and
mandate that through player contracts. Some AFL club doctors the 7.30 Report has spoken to have
downplayed the use of sleeping pills, as have the clubs themselves.

MARK THOMPSON, GEELONG COACH: Generally the doctor I think would probably advice, you know, do you
really wanna go down this path? Do you really need the sleeping tablets? As I said, I don't think
there's too many at Geelong that take them.

MARY GEARIN: But Paul Dillon says from his experience teaching drug awareness to players, the
problem with sleeping pills is rife.

PAUL DILLON: If you wanted to actually get a sleeping pill from a doctor as a member of the general
public, it would go through quite a strict regime there. But, in sport it doesn't seem to be the
case. Quite often they're handed out like Tic Tacs in some environments.

MARY GEARIN: Rugby league struggled with the issue after allegations that some Queensland State of
Origin players last year mixed the sleeping tablet Stilnox with caffeine-based energy drink Red
Bull as a homemade party drug. None of the allegations were ever proven, but it highlights the
problem with legal drugs.

PETER LARKINS: These little experiments with concoctions and cocktails are always gonna take place
if someone thinks they can get away with something that's legal and give them a little bit more of
a lift that they're not allowed to have because they're an elite sportsman and other circumstances.

MARY GEARIN: When mystery surrounded Cousins' condition, it was speculated that pre-match caffeine
tablets were also at play, and that unearthed plenty of testimony from current and former players
and officials to suggest the use of both caffeine and sleeping pill was not only common, but

TOM HARLEY, FMR GEELONG CAPTAIN: It's certainly happening. I won't deny it's happening. I've used
both in my time.

JOURNALIST: Can you just explain for people who wouldn't have had a caffeine tablet what the
advantages are to take one?

LENNY HAYES, ST KILDA PLAYER: Oh, look, it's just probably like havin' a coffee. You know, I'm
pretty sure that most people have had a coffee before.

MARY GEARIN: In Round 11, a member of Brisbane support staff was even telecast handing out
something from a cup labelled No-Doz.

PETER LARKINS: I mean, I know No-Doz was used, but I thought that was just such a bad look, that a
bucket of No-Doz would be handed around. There was about 40 or 50 tablets in the bucket, so enough
for each player to take two or three; a full 22 players took it. So, to me, I just thought, "Oh,
well, there's modern footy."

MARY GEARIN: The issue of caffeine is not new. Since pentathlete Alex Watson was famously thrown
out of the 1988 Olympics for caffeine use, the substance was taken off the world Anti-Doping Agency
prohibited list in 2004. Over the years its use has been sometimes controversially endorsed by
sportsman and medical professionals for its legally performance-enhancing properties across many

GEORGE GREGAN, FMR AUST. RUGBY UNION CAPTAIN (2005): I use it before certain competition matches,
yeah. Could be a match where I know I'm gonna be do a fair bit of running, like a hard pitch, a
firm pitch. So, you know, I'll make that decision on how I'm feeling too.

MARY GEARIN: The AFL wouldn't comments on this issue before having more information on Cousins'
case, but in 2005 this is what the AFL chief had to say about the use of caffeine.

ANDREW DEMTRIOU, AFL CHIEF EXECUTIVE (2005): It's not good for the image. And there's no doubt that
there are young children out there or young boys who are playing football who would hear the
message and think that it might be a good thing to give them an edge. And I don't think that's good
at all.

MARY GEARIN: Five years on and the AFL will need to decide if it's time for another policy

TRACY BOWDEN: Mary Gearin reporting from Melbourne.

Inside Mawson's Antarctic expedition

TRACY BOWDEN, PRESENTER: Although his image no longer graces the $100 note, Sir Douglas Mawson
remains one of Australia's most famous explorers. The geologist is best-known for his work in the
Antarctic, where during one of his trips, he survived brutal conditions that claimed the lives of
two of his companions. While much has been written about the physical endurance of Mawson and his
team, a new publication has shed light on the emotional survival techniques employed by the group.
Mike Sexton reports.

MIKE SEXTON, REPORTER: These days at Commonwealth Bay on the edge of the Australian Antarctic
Territory, the Adelie penguins are the custodians of Mawson's Hut. But almost a century ago, this
was modest wooden building was home for the 18 members of the Australasian Antarctica Expedition
led by geologist Douglas Mawson.

SUZANNE MILLER, SA MUSEUM DIRECTOR: It must have been really hard. They were facing really tough
climactic conditions. It wasn't pleasant, and of course, particularly during the winter, they would
have been inside that hut; they weren't going outside for any reason whatsoever. So everything they
had to do would have been inside that hut.

MIKE SEXTON: This part of the world is home to some of the most ferocious winds on Earth, and
during a sledging trip to conduct scientific experiments, Mawson lost companions Xavier Mertz and
Belgrave Ninnis and then almost died himself.

By the time Mawson staggered back to the hut, most of the expedition group had returned by ship to
Australia. Six men remained behind to wait for any sign of their colleagues. It would be 12 months
before the ship returned.

EMMA MCEWIN, MAWSON'S GREAT-GRANDAUGHTER: There were tensions and I think there's probably a bit of
resentment as well that they had to spend another year there. And Mertz and Ninnis were two very
popular members of the expedition, and when it was only Mawson who returned, I think it was pretty

MIKE SEXTON: Emma McEwin is Sir Douglas Mawson's great grand-daughter and has researched and
written about her famous ancestor. She believes after surviving the brutal conditions, Mawson faced
a mental battle to keep morale up among the small group couped up in the hut together. To add to
the tension, he had a fresh wireless operator to deal with.

EMMA MCEWIN: The man operating that, Sidney Jeffreys, was a newcomer to the expedition; he hasn't
been there in the first year and had come down on a ship with Davis. And he was a very good
wireless operator, but he became seriously mentally ill and was quite violent and it was very

MIKE SEXTON: To keep the other men busy, Mawson began an in-house newspaper called The Adelie
Blizzard and insisted that each man contribute. They wrote poems and articles that were combined
with births and death notices, weather reports and even international news received via the

EMMA MCEWIN: It was also a way of sharing their common experiences. So it brought them together
when there was problem a bit of dissension in the hut, and provided a bit of entertainment. They
only made one issue, which was then sort of passed around to each member of the hut to read.

MIKE SEXTON: When the ship finally arrived to collect them in December, 1913, the seven men left
their tiny home, taking their scientific data and some equipment with them. The gear is now part of
the South Australian Museum's polar collection, and among the artefacts are the well-worn pages of
The Adelie Blizzard.

EMMA MCEWIN: Mawson and Archie McLean, who was the editor of the newspaper in 1913, both tried to
publish it on their return to Australia.

MIKE SEXTON: They were unsuccessful, but now almost 100 years later, the Friends of the State
Library of SA has published the papers.

VALMAI HANKEL, FRIENDS OF STATE LIBRARY OF SA: You could almost say that it lay not quite
forgotten, but perhaps not appreciated.

MIKE SEXTON: Retired librarian Valmai Hankel is president of the friends group and proudly boasts
it's the oldest such library organisation in the country.

VALMAI HANKEL: The friends were established back in 1932 during the Depression when the library had
virtually nothing to buy books with, and as finances gradually improved, the friends started to buy
rare and special and beautiful books and manuscripts and other items that the library couldn't
otherwise afford.

MIKE SEXTON: The group raises money by publishing out-of-print books and has specialised in the
works of inland explorers such as Ernest Giles and John McDouall Stuart. Despite the vastly
different landscapes and climates they faced, Valmai Hankel believes these explorers had much in
common with Mawson.

VALMAI HANKEL: Tensions and psychiatric problems that such situations evolve.

MIKE SEXTON: Next year will mark the centenary of the Antarctic expedition and a group of
volunteers are gently restoring Mawson's hut. Thanks to another group of volunteers in Adelaide,
anyone can now visit the hut through the pages written by the men who lived there and the man who
led them.

SUZANNE MILLER: He had a very ferocious reputation, but actually I think he was an extremely
thoughtful, philosophical person and the sense that you get is that he really cared about the men
on his expedition.

TRACY BOWDEN: Mike Sexton with that report.


Mike Sexton with that report. That's the program for tonight. We will be back at the same time
tomorrow but for now goodnight.

Closed Captions by CSI

CC It's a sad observation about stories in this brutalised place but happy endings are rare and if
you find them, they're at the end of a long and winding trail of pain and suffering. But they do

I've seen people standing up for the first time, crying. You could see the tears in their eyes.
It's a very dramatic moment.

Tonight, one man and his team making them happen.

He is very good man.

And a story to ignite the human spirit.

You be a good fellow down there, you look after your dad, won't you?

Hello, and welcome to Foreign Correspondent, I'm Mark Corcoran on assignment out here in the wilds
of Bolivia. Our story tonight comes from another fairly extreme location, Afghanistan. The people
of Afghanistan know all too well about the good intentions of outsiders. For decades, they've had
to endure foreigners trying to run their affairs but there's a saying that goodness is the only
investment that never fails. It's a proverb many Afghans desperates want to believe in. Tonight,
South Asia correspondent Sally Sara meets one such altruistic foreigner who is quite literally
helping Afghans to find their feet again.