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(generated from captions) be at 6.52, sunset at WA, it's used in the Simon, our The UN is calling on the Gaddafi. Independent MP

Welcome to the program.

Tonight - milk wars, bargain

prices as supermarkets slug it out, but

farmers? The pricing of the out, but at what cost to

milk down to this sort of level

is really a sort of a kick in the teeth for us. This is also an assault on the

sustainability of Australian

agriculture. One of the main

things is we'd like to see a supermarket This Program is Captioned

Live. the latest on the crisis in That

Libya, where Colonel Gaddafi

continues to reject calls for

him to step down, despite mounting international

pressure. Earlier this week, the United States moved

warships and aircraft closer to

Libya and froze $30 billion

worth of assets. Now the US ambassador to the United

Nations Susan Rice has warned

of a possible humanitarian

crisis as refugees - many of

them foreign workers - flee in

fear of their lives. Around

border of Libya and Tunisia

posing a logistical nightmare

for relief workers as they struggle to provide adequate water, food short time ago I spoke to ABC water, food and shelter. A

correspondent Tim Palmer from

the town of Rasajdir on the

border.

Tim, it sounds an increasingly

chaotic situation, tell us what

you've been seeing there? The

crisis here

the day. What we've seen every

night are people sleeping out

here in virtually a desert

countryside, coastal area. It's not are a few trees around and

they've been ripping the trees

to pieces to make fires to keep

warm. There are thousands of

men sleeping by the side of the

road, sleeping out on the sand.

Very few have got any cover at

all, most of them a blanket, a

few shreds of plastic here and

there they can scramble under. Last night it

here were soaked, all of the people just a kilometre behind

us right on the border who were

in that holding area between the Libyan frontier and the last last Tunisian gate were soaked

where they stood. The press in

that area at times yesterday it

was incredible. It looks one

of the UNHCR officials said it looks at some stage as if the

walls would collapse and they

would pour in. At one stage

they stampeded and were driven into the air. Once they get back

out here, it's no less

miserable for them. I've

spoken to a man who on the way

to the border had all of his

money taken by Libyan soldiers.

He's here with nothing, he's

been asleep out here in the

open for two days. They are

furious with the Egyptian

Government, the Egyptians here.

A lot of them say "We're going

to Tahrir Square in Cairo when

we get back and make sure

Mubarek is really gone" they

in attending to them. Off to government has still can't believe the

the left over here, there's a

row of white tents going up,

probably enough for a few

probably thousand, but there are

the holding no-man's-land when probably 10,000 people inside

we left there last night. At

this stage they simply this stage they simply can't cope with the growing tide. And

as the crisis in Libya continues to intensify, clearly

there are going to be more

people coming to the border,

what are the United Nations and trying to do about this? Well, international aid agencies

yesterday the UN did declare

this a crisis and they've

called on foreign governments to solve what is essentially a logistics problem. There are

good roads to here. These

people are in reasonable health

when they arrive. There's some

food and water, although

sanitation is collapsing. They

need to get some aid on the

ground here - and I'm just seeing a helicopter, it's the

first aircraft we've seen in

the entire time we've been down

That gives you an idea of how

out of touch they are down

foreign governments to here. The UN has called for

foreign governments to send

ships and aircraft to Tunisia ships and aircraft and beyond and obviously they need many

that, they need hundreds of

buss and trucks to get down

here and ferry people the few

hundred kilometres to any working airstrips and ports where they can be transited

back to home countries. This

looks like it's going to take a

day or so to get moving this

logistic exercise and in the

interim all these men are getting is the hope of maybe having a tent from the UNHCR. I

gather you've also been at a

border crossing in the south of the country in the last 24

hours, what's been going on there? Certainly the flow of people there

people there isn't as great.

We saw probably 1,000 Thai and

a few Vietnamese workers stream

across. In a couple of hours

it's a significant number and

it's growing there too. They

are right out in the middle of

absolutely nothing out there. the desert. There is

They're 100 kilometres from any

cross and go into a barbed wire

compound onto the sand in the

blazing sun and that's it. One

of the interesting things

there is that at of the interesting things down

there is that at that border point yesterday essentially

security collapsed on the

Libyan side and people were

crossing to and fro without any control.

control. Now since then, we've

seen Libyan forces reinforce

that border point including

helicopters coming down, troops

interesting about that is that being brought in. What's

the border point of Wazir is a

few dozen kilometres from a Nalut, that's fallen to the

opposition and a blow for the

Gaddafi regime, and the people there are concerned that a counterattack will be mounted.

Certainly, the arrival of those extra reinforcements to the

border does give some weight to

that. Also, of course, when

you see the troops being moved

support it raises this issue of around like that with some air

the no-fly zone in terms of

stopping counteroffences.

There is no unanimity amongst international officials about the no-fly zone. concern there is that once the no-fly zone. The clear

established, it will probably

require Western air strikes to

be launched on some of the

Libyan air force's assets to

reduce its ability to fly, or

to support flying missions and

that, of course, is a very big

step indeed. Tim Palmer, we'll have

have to leave it

time to talk to us.

For years, policymakers and

consumer groups have called for greater competition and lower

prices from Australian

supermarkets and finally, it

seems to be happening as the leading supermarkets go head-to-head trumpeting price

cuts in the hope of being able

to claim they're delivering the

lowest prices. It began with

milk slashed to $1 a litre and

soon spread to other leaving many suppliers worried

they'll be hurt in the price

war crossfire. Greg Hoy

reports. As a dairy farmer I

find the pricing of milk down

to level is a kick in the teeth

for us. I like a bargain in the supermarket as much as

everybody else, we're all

trying to make ends meet and

provide a good lifestyle for our families but at the end of

the day, I think we will end up

paying for this well as farmers. Marion

Macdonald, who runs a Macdonald, who runs a 260-cow dairy farm in Victoria's Gippsland district is like many

Australian farmers, fearful and

furious about possible

repercussions from a rock'n'roll advertising jingle

now flooding the nation's airwaves.

SONG: # Down, down, prices are down # A promotional price war between major supermarkets triggered which under new management of

the Wesfarmers group has thrown down

down the gauntlet to its old

rival Woolworths, slashing bulk

milk to $1 a litre, along with

similar price cuts for other

staples. Woolworths and others soon followed, but between them

Coles and Woolworths control

more than 70% of the $80

billion grocery sector, so

should consumers be celebrating

such competition in what

traditionally has been regarded as a near duopoly

can you have true competition

where they match each other

blow for blow, price reduction

for price reduction and really

it's the collateral damage in terms of terms of dairy farmers in this

case, or other independent

retailers. There may be a temporary temporary outbreak of competition that is very

welcome. There are not many

third party pressures on those

two on their prices. There are

not many constraints from other

player s that would keep the prices still at the mercy of the

duopoly. Coles wasn't available for interview, insisting its

prices will stay down and that

it will absorb any losses

rather than pass them on to suppliers. Any suggestion the

milk industry might be

destroyed it says, are

ludicrous, but in a meeting

with the Council of the National Farmers' Federation, Coles

Coles has failed to soothe the

rising anger felt across rural Australia. There was lot of defence and a lot of

anger in the room against

Coles. Obviously the focus has

been on the dairy sector, but nevertheless this is much bigger. Coles is taking a

significant change in marketing

their fresh produce and it's

not confined to milk. It is

also the beef industry, the egg industry, the pork industry and

who knows into the future.

There have been so many calls

for greater transparency and

for the ACCC to investigate

what's been going dairy farmer, right at the end

of the chain, I couldn't applaud that more. Coles

insists it recently increased

payments to large milk processors for its house brand

milk. In one case it says on

the strict proviso the

processor Fonterra pass on 5

cents a litre extra to dairy

farmers. Coles told us

Fonterra then reneged on the

deal and refused to pass on the

money to farmers. money to farmers. Fonterra would not comment, nor would

comment on the so-called milk

price war - soon to be examined

by a special Senate inquiry

that begins next Tuesday. that begins next Tuesday. The

ACCC won't confirm or deny if

it is now examining this issue,

but appearing before another

parliamentary inquiry recently,

it appeared the ACCC chairman

may be sympathic to the Coles

argument that processors like

Fonterra may have something to

answer for here. It may that the issue is not so much

the retail price of milk that's

been charged to the consumer

that is the centre of the

potential problem for the dairy farmer, but it may well be that

the relationship to the dairy

farmer and the processor is the

farmer and the processor is the

issue, and some of the focus in more recent times on Coles,

Woolworths, the IGA group, Aldi

and the like, may be - and I

have to emphasise the word "

may be" in this case - may be

misdirected and it maybe the

relationship between the processor and the farmer. Others farmer. Others aren't convinced

that Coles can wash its hands

of any risk to suppliers. Those

complexities mean that

processors have the upper hand

when it comes to its relationship with the farmers

and that's why we say Coles

can't make guarantees that

farmers are going to be worse off. Consumer group 'Choice' says it's

price cuts are, in fact, offset

with price rises on other

items, suggesting that unlike

Woolworths, Coles will not

publish its prices on-line to

assist with independent price

monitoring. 'Choice' says it's time to end traditional

reliance on the ACCC to

investigate and resolve such

issues. The ACCC seems to have

had a fairly hands off view in

terms of the supermarkets.

We've been pushing for more

action, more scrutiny. One of

the main things is we'd like to see a

and this is really someone who

can have some expertise in this industry, some oversight,

someone who can give some

leadership to it and where necessary, order early market

investigations if things are

going on which are potentially in

in breach. In the meantime,

the rock'n'roll promotion the rock'n'roll promotion of supermarket price cuts

continues, with opinion divided

as to where it might all end. We're currently

ascertaining legal advice our lawyers about what if any

legal avenues are available to

us. Obviously this is a very

political issue. We will

maintain that campaign and maintain that campaign and ramp

it up if and when we think it's

necessary. Downward pressure

on price is not illegal under

the Trade Practices Act and

also there isn't that much

recourse that farmers can have.

I don't think we're going to

bring back a minimum price for milk. milk. That went in the year

2,000. That system was fairly

harmful to consumers. For every

litre of milk, you have to pay

the farmer's family to survive,

you have to pay the processor's

family to survive and also the

Coles employees families to

survive. By shrinking the size

of the pie so dramatically,

there just isn't enough money to go round all those families, so at the end of the day,

somebody will have to be

squeezed out and that means less competition ultimately, that puts more power in the hands of the big

players and the little players

like you and me, the consumers and the farmer - we're the ones

that are going to suffer. Greg

Hoy with that report. In the

United States, the political

stand-off over the country's

ballooning debt is becoming

more complex. Flush with

confidence after their victory

at last year's mid term

elections, Republicans in the

US Congress are pushing bigger cuts to the Budget than

the President has proposed.

Unless a compromise can be

reached soon, there's a danger the Government will be forced

to shut down. The to shut down. The fight is a

headache for the president and

for the Democrats, but it's

also proving to be a big

challenge for Republicans.

North America correspondent Michael Brissenden reports. SONG: # This land was made for

you and me #

At every level of government

in America today, there is one

crushing central issue -

money... or rather, the lack of

it. In the State of Wisconsin

, the Republican governor is

fighting public sector unions

over plans for big cuts to

benefits, services and health

care. Democratic senators have

fled the State to avoid a

quorum that would put the cuts into law. to State governments and, of

course, all the way to Washington, debt has become the

big ideological faultline. In

other words, we're broke.

Broke going on bankrupt and

just as the bankrupt businesses have trouble creating jobs, so

does a bankrupt country. We

need a balanced approach to

deficit reduction. We all need

to be willing to sacrifice, but

we can't sacrifice our

future. Both sides recognise

the public is concerned about

trillions, but the fight - as

always - is over how much and

what to cut. The President has

proposed a budget with cuts of

$17 billion. The Republicans, who now control the House of

Representatives, want $61 billion worth of cuts. The

battles now are presumably over

trying to deal with burgeoning

deficits and debt. It's really

over very different visions of

what role governments should

play and that brings out some

of the toughest partisan and ideological

to pass a continuing

resolution, or CR as it's

known, to keep things running

for another few weeks, the budget stand-off remains. We've

added $3 trillion to the debt

since the beginning of the

Obama Administration while

we've lost 3 million jobs. I think you could argue pretty

persuasively that's the worst

way to run the government. The

only message that we have from

the Republicans is to wipe out

programs that are so important

to people, especially who can't help themselves. If it's not resolved, the

government will be forced to

shut down completely. A third

of the Republican majority in

the House is new this year.

Almost all of them were backed

by the Tea Party, even those

who weren't don't want to

alienate those people. They

can't settle for 25 cents on

the dollar when it comes to the

budget cuts they've promised,

but if they ask for something

more, then they're likely to

see a shutdown wouldn't be the first time. In 1995, the Clinton Administration faced the same problems with problems with a newly-hostile Congress. It is wrong for Congress to shut the government

down just to make a political point.

point. For us to walk off now

and take a vacation giving up

on balancing the budget I think would be a tragedy that would

haunt us for the rest of our

lives. In 1995, the

Gingrich , did close the

government down, but the public

backlash was severe. It was a

political setback for them and

it helped revive it helped revive the Clinton

Administration. Some of the

Republicans who are in the

Congress now weren't in Congress at that time. In

fact, quite a few of them

weren't although the new

Speaker was a member of

Congress, so he's seen this

movie before, he knows what happens. Martin Frost retired

from Congress in 2005, but in

1995 he'd already been there for 16 years and he was about

to become chair of the Democratic Congressional

Campaign Committee. The Gingrich shutdown certainly

helped his planning for the 1996 election that delivered

clenton a second term and clenton a second term and he

says everyone is approaching

this budget crisis with one eye

firmly fixed on the past. I

think they know it was trouble

for them, the Republicans, and

they know they have to be more

careful this time. But cautious

or not, long-time political from the Conservative American Enterprise Institute believes

this stand-off is as much a challenge for the Republicans

as it is for Obama and the

Democrats. I think the new

members need a shutdown, even

if it's a short one, so they

can go back home and say "Look, we pushed it that was as far as

we could get right now". That xikts matters for the Speaker

and his colleagues. The Tea

Party success has been a

double-edged sword for the

Republicans, hasn't it? When you encourage a rapid

Rottweiler and it gives you

victory, you can feel victory, you can feel good for

a while, but after a while that

Rottweiler can turn on you and

I'm afraid one of the problems

that the Republicans have is

they use some extreme rhetoric

and some unlikely promises to

get this group of people really

charged up, and it helped them

move into a majority. Now they

have to deliver on things that are not

get devoured themselves. But

whatever happens, this skirmish

is just a warm-up for a bigger

one to come. Some time in

April, the US will April, the US will reach its debt criming and Congress will have

have to vote to extend it. The

consequences of a protracted

battle over that one could be a lot lot more serious than just

shutting down the government.

The debt ceiling is the amount

of money Congress says the

nation can legally borrow. It

now sits at $14.3 trillion, but

if it's not

the US simply won't be able to pay its bills or service its

debt. This is somewhat unpredictable. It's

potentially a graver situation

than occurred in 1995, because 1995 everyone knew that

eventually they would pass a CR

and these government employees

would be brought back to work

and paid their back wages, which is exactly what would

happen now. It wasn't a

question of the United States

defaulting on its debt. Michael Brissenden reporting from

Washington. As the world's most most popular tourist

destination, Italy has been a

source of inspiration for

writers and painters for centuries. But a new exhibition depicts exhibition depicts the Italian

island of Sicily in a way it's never been seen before -

through the eyes of an

Aboriginal artist. The show is

now touring Italy's major

museums. Lisa Whitehead reports. This Melbourne

Aboriginal hostel seems an

unlikely place for an artist

studio, but it's here Indigenous painter Billy Doolan

has created what some consider to be his most inspired

work. We have a little

verandah, but it was too cold

for me to paint, so I done all

these paintings on my little

single bed in my room at the

North Queensland. For more than 30 years he's been

painting in the traditional

figurative style of figurative style of his people. And the herringbone and

the half circle is what I

usually do a lot. Billy Doolan,

who's 59, was born on Palm

Island. 18 months ago he

ventured across the globe to a

vastly different island -

Sicily on the southern tip of

I was told there that was very

similar to Aboriginal culture.

Stories about seasons and being

Indigenous people themselves, I

just felt comfortable with them. Back in Melbourne, he

created eight paintings based

on his experience, with some of

his earlier works - they're now

hanging in Billy Doolan's first

major exhibition at the

Australian Institute of Culture in in Melbourne. When they first embraced Christianity they had

to bury their dead underground

and avoid prosecution from and avoid prosecution from the

Romans. These birds are like a

little finch native to Sicily

and they live in these thorny

bushes and they were known to

come down when Jesus was on the

cross and they're coming down

to try to pick the thorns off Jesus's crown-of-thorns. These

Indigenous paintings. They're

not Italian, they're not European-style paintings. They

have created almost... they

live in a genre of live in a genre of their own.

I like how you go about

bringing out these kind of

lyric shapes. The paintings are

the result of a cultural

exchange project initiated exchange project initiated by Melbourne-based sis sillian born arts promotor Mario Sanciolo-Bell. I'm very proud

of my land and I look at paintings and I discover new

beauty in the landscape, in the

budget, in the stories. As an

Australian and an art lover and

an entrepreneur, I look at

these paintings and I think

that they're a wonderful

experiment. Billy Doolan's first overseas trip opened his

eyes and the door to the old

world of Europe, but the

involves traveller had some

cross-cultural moments he'd

rather forget, like getting

lost in Rome Airport for three

days with no money and no

never been so scared in my life. Confusion about his itinerary meant he failed to

meet up with Mario Sanciolo-Bell at the airport,

so she had to turn to the police and the Australian

Embassy for help. Poor Billy

was lost in the limbo of Rome's

airport, which is probably not

so much a limbo, but hell. So where did you sleep? There was a from the Rome Airport, I found

a little bush that was perfect

and I needed other stuff so

looked and found a cardboard

box that I used for a mattress

and the other half to cover up

with. While the start of the

trip was a tourist's worst

nightmare, the end result is

this unique and remarkable set

of paintings. Billy Doolan's

visit also sparked the visit also sparked the interest of the

Culture. It approached Mario Sanciolo-Bell with the idea of

bringing a show of Indigenous

art to Italy. The result is

Rainbow Serpent, the biggest non-commercial exhibition of Aboriginal art to leave

Australia. It was seeded by one

woman who really wanted to

share her passion of Italy and Australia between cultures Australia between cultures and from that, it features a

private collection and private

collections are rarely able to

be displayed in the public, certainly of this scope and this size. Billy Doolan is one

of 90 artists from across Australia featured Australia featured in Rainbow

Serpent, with 350 paintings,

sculptures and artefacts on

show. To go to Italy, home of

one of the great artistic

cultures of the world and be shown in their museums, and later going to Milan, as well.

That's an opportunity that

doesn't come every day. The

Italian Government seized the

opportunity, too, putting up $600,000 to cover the staging costs.

costs. But the organisers

failed to secure any funding from the Australian Government to send selected artists and Indigenous performers to Italy

to accompany the exhibition. I feel

feel really let down. It's heartbreaking. I think the

rest of the world need to

where we're coming from and who

we are and what we have to

offer and that we're not just

lazy people and alcoholics, we're a lot more. There's a

reason behind all this. He also

wants to show his own people

what can be achieved. I'd like

to show to the younger

generation what you can do if

you just stick to your culture

and be proud of your culture

and where it can take you. It

will take Billy back next year, with this exhibition called "Between Sea and Sky -

Songs of a Voyage", but this

time he won't be travelling

alone. I'll make sure that he's

chained to my suitcase! Lisa

Whitehead with that report, and

that's all from us tonight.

Join us at the same time

tomorrow night. For now,

goodnight. Closed Captions by CSI

? Theme music Hello. Welcome. I'm James O'Loughlin. Now, it's all very well for people to invent things that improve the way we do our jobs, and make us a more productive country. But all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy, and Jill an even duller girl. So tonight, three inventions to help you relax, chill out and get fit. Kris Tressider liked hitting punching bags, but it wasn't a fair fight. The bag never had a chance - it couldn't fight back. Steve Scott was on the New Inventors four years ago, with an invention that loaded boats onto car roofs. That day, Bernie Hobbs said something to him that stuck in his mind, and prompted him to invent again. And Melissa Dooley knows a lot about teenagers, because, well, she is one. She knows that keeping out of the sun may be smart, but it's not very cool. So she set out to make shade cool. Now, to welcome our panel - we have designer Sally Dominguez, and science journalist Bernie Hobbs. Hello! And our special guest judge this week, please welcome champion marathon runner Steve Moneghetti. (Applause) Steve, g'day. James, how are you? Good. A lot of inventors talk about inventing as a marathon. They get an an idea, and then, literally 18 years later, they're on the show. There's all those dark days between idea and execution, like a marathon runner. 'I want to be able to run a marathon - but all those months of months of training.' How do you get through the dark, middle bit? Very good analogy. I suppose you keep focussed on the end goal, and that keeps you motivated, and, you know, you're focussed. And pretty single-minded, I think's probably a good attribute to have. But what about when you don't want to be single-minded anymore? Yeah, well, you try and bring in external sources. You take inspiration from other people, other inventors, and other areas of success, and think, 'Oh, that's going to be me in a few short, 18 years time.' (Laughs) Lovely. Well, it's great to have you here. Great to be here. Steve Moneghetti, ladies and gentlemen. Thanks, James. Now, whenever I see a boxer hitting a punching bag, I think, 'Well, how's that gonna help?' I mean, it's not as if when you get in the ring, you're gonna be fighting someone with no arms, who just stands in one place, gently swaying back and forth. Hi. My name's Kris Tressider. This is my partner, Jenny, and my son, Tommy. I'm a draughtsman, and I mostly do civil and structural work. I like to exercise, when I can. I don't have a lot of time. I used to do a bit of gymnastics when I was younger, and I excelled at that. Later in life, I did a bit more martial arts training, and a bit of boxing, sparring. I did get a punching bag, and I punched on with it for a while, but I found, after a while, that it wasn't really improving my skills. I was thinking about better ways to train on my own, in my own backyard. I went to work designing some mechanisms. I wanted something that was cheap, and I came across this design almost by accident - just putting things together, and realised that it would work ideally. But does it work ideally? And what happens when it hits you back? Please welcome Kris Tressider. Hey, Kris. Hi, Sally. Alright. So, you're not a boxer, but you've invented a really complex-looking boxing gizmo. How about you have a go, and show us how it works. No probs. I'll stand right back, over here. So can you talk and box? (Chuckles) I can, yeah, yeah. Alright. You got a couple of settings. Tell us what the settings are.