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MAN: Ahead on Catalyst, recovering our memories.

It's been a source of, at times, acrimonious academic debate.

And testing gravity.

Which one will hit the ground first?

? Theme music G'day, welcome to Catalyst. Also in this episode... Waves on the rise.

They're getting bigger and stronger.

And shuffling and huddling, penguin-style. But first, imagine being able to create replacement
parts in your shed for your household appliances or even for your car. Well, as Jonica Newby finds
out, it's not only possible, it's inexpensive and easy to do.

3D Printing

3D Printing

TRANSCRIPT

Comments

Imagine the industrial revolution in reverse, where it's as cheap to create single items as it is
to mass produce them. 3D printers have shrunk in size and cost over the past decade, enabling small
design teams to sidestep the mass manufacturing process to make unique creations. Jonica Newby
travels to the U.K. to sample a flashy commercial 3D printer and the ultimate DIY workshop. Whether
top of the range or in the backyard shed, 3D printers may have as profound an impact on the
commercial world as the factory conveyor belt.

Dr Jonica Newby

I'm in Bath. I've never been to Bath. So what I realise I really need right now is a souvenir Bath
Toy.

NARRATION

Now I could just buy one - but where's the fun in that?... when you can print one!

Dr Jonica Newby

It's been called the invention that will bring down global capitalism, start a second industrial
revolution and save the planet. Maybe a slight exaggeration - but there's no doubt the world will
be very different when every one of us has a 3D printer.

NARRATION

This pretty village just outside Bath is an unlikely hothouse of industrial subversion - and it's
chief subversive even less likely.

Dr Jonica Newby

So, this is the thing that's going to print my bath souvenir?

Dr Adrian Bowyer

It is, yes. It's called ReRap. It's a 3D printer. So what it does is it takes this plastic filament
here, it melts it and deposits it and it can build virtually any three dimensional shape that you
care to mention.

Dr Jonica Newby

And this is the thing that's going to bring down global capitalism?

Dr Adrian Bowyer

Well according to the Guardian, it is so it must be true.

Dr Jonica Newby

It must be true!

NARRATION

And Adrian makes this incendiary device for a mere 300 pounds.

Dr Jonica Newby

I have to say it's not pretty...

Dr Adrian Bowyer

No it's supposed to be, it's supposed to be functional.

Dr Jonica Newby:

... but it's cheap.

Dr Adrian Bowyer

But it is cheap.

NARRATION

The fact is 3D printing has been around for a decade. But it's been expensive, specialist kit -
priced upward of $200,000 dollars. Then along comes engineer Adrian Bowyer - who dreams of making
it available to any bloke or blokess with a shed - by designing a 3D printer that prints ...
itself! Well, it prints all the complex plastic bits ... and the metal bits holding it together you
can get from a hardware store. And here's the really radical bit - it's essentially free.

Dr Adrian Bowyer

The reason why we decided to give all the designs away was, was really two reasons. One was
frightfully high and moral and all that sort of stuff which is pretty uncharacteristic of me, and
that was, it was actually going to be a very powerful technology. And if you have people who have
access to it and people who don't, that makes for bad things happening. Anyway after about ten
seconds after I'd had that high and moral thought I realized that I had to make it free anyway.
You've got a machine that copies itself and you try and prevent people from exploiting it, you're
basically saying you want to spend the whole of your life in court, I've got better things to do so
I made it free.

NARRATION

And to give you an idea of what the future may hold, this is a true story that happened recently to
Adrian's daughter.

Dr Jonica Newby

You had something go wrong with your car recently?

Sally Bowyer

Yeah one of the plastic bits just snapped off ... so it was quite annoying.

So um, decided rather than going to the car dealership that we would ah design a new part and print
it off

Dr Jonica Newby

So how long did it take you?

Sally Bowyer

Probably a couple of hours including the design time.

Dr Jonica Newby

Is that all?

Sally Bowyer

Yeah.

Dr Jonica Newby

And what did it cost?

Sally Bowyer

About ten pence.

Dr Jonica Newby

Ten P?

Sally Bowyer

Yep, yeah. Laugh

NARRATION

Imagine being able to design or download the software for any fiddly little plastic part!

Dr Jonica Newby

Right. I'm going to make my Bath souvenir. I've downloaded the recipe, got the ingredients, got the
appliance - let's cook.

NARRATION

While that's printing ..... let's check what's happening to 3D printing in the smart end of town.

Over in Melbourne, this is Inition, where they're sporting one of the latest commercial 3D
printers.

Dr Jonica Newby

You can really see the detail can't you.

NARRATION

So let's see what it can do for me.

Dr Jonica Newby

Well we've agreed to make a 3D print of my head. Now because it might have a bit of trouble
printing fiddly whisps of hair, we've agreed on a French plait.

NARRATION

Here we go.I have to say, this is unexpectedly freaky - seeing my head captured inside a computer.
I feel like I'm in real life version of the Matrix. The first scanner captures everything in
superfine detail - then a second scanner gets an overall picture. Now the software starts
integrating it all. It's amazing technology - getting better and cheaper by the year - and its
going well beyond simple plastics to resins ... even metals.

Joe Farr

So in the case of formula one teams they will design pieces, and build them on rapid prototype
machines so they can have that quick turnaround between races. And they're already being used to
make bespoke body parts, and many other amazing high tech designs

Joe Farr

So this is a haptic device. It gives you forced feedback.

Dr Jonica Newby

Yeah. So you feel the contours. Oh - my cheek.

Joe Farr

So click that button.

Dr Jonica Newby

Ah! Okay ... So you can manipulate, oh my goodness, that's freaky. Uh oh! It's pretty easy to screw
your face up on this.

Dr Jonica Newby

Can I have elf ears?

Joe Farr

Let's see.

Dr Jonica Newby

Sold. That's how I want it.

NARRATION

And by the time I get home, there's a present waiting for me. It's already revolutionising some
workplaces - but the real revolution will come when we all have one.

Dr Jonica Newby

And this to me is the most exciting thing about this. You may notice I have here a milk bottle -
made of plastic. Their next project is to design a downloadable shredder that will take this bottle
and turn it into the substrate for the printer!

NARRATION

And here's an idea.

Dr Adrian Bowyer

When your children's feet grow, as they so inconveniently do, you shred the sandals, chuck in
another milk bottle and make a bigger pair.

Dr Jonica Newby

That is brilliant.

NARRATION

And if you think the music and the media industries have been shaken up by free downloads, consider
the future implications of this..

Dr Adrian Bowyer

Now think about how a conventional item like the coat hook gets to you. If somebody goes and drills
an oil well, somebody else turns it into plastic, somebody takes that plastic and turns it into
coat hooks and then they send it to a hardware store. Now, suppose you could make your own coat
hooks, you've suddenly bypassed an enormous great chunk of the value adding supply chain. That's
why people say, and I'm not to believe them incidentally, that it might be the end of capitalism,

NARRATION

And now it's ready, my plastic protest against the hegemony of mass manufactured materialism

Dr Adrian Bowyer

Here we go - a bath toy from Bath. Laughs

Dr Jonica Newby

Just what I wanted! And you know, I am going to keep this Bath souvenir just so I can bring it out
when I'm 80 and say to all the kiddies ... now there was a time before 3D printing you know - aww
gran!

Was it repressed, is it false or was it simply mislaid?

Wind And Waves

Wind and Waves

TRANSCRIPT

Comments

A new study of satellite data covering a twenty-year period - the most comprehensive research of
its kind ever undertaken - suggests that, in extreme weather conditions, wind speeds have increased
by 10 per cent and wave heights have grown by nearly 7 per cent. The research could inform the
design of coastal buildings, structures and shipping. But as Tanya Ha reports, this could also
adversely affect the cycle of heat exchange between the sea and the atmosphere.

Graham Slade

I've lived here for approximately fifty-five years. And I've surfed here for probably fifty years.
Severe swell action is probably more noticeable in the last ten years than it ever has been in the
last ten years before that.

Tanya Ha

There's plenty of anecdotal evidence to suggest that extreme weather events are worse and more
damaging than they used to be. Well now, for the first time, researchers have put some numbers to
those changes.

NARRATION

Satellites have been measuring wave heights in the world's oceans since 1985. A new study of those
wave records tells a surprising story.

Professor Alexander Babanin

The study looked at the variations of the wave climate and wind climate over the period of
twenty-three years. And the main outcome is that on average, the waves and winds have been growing.

NARRATION

A severe weather event recently struck the coastline near Point Lonsdale in Victoria.

Professor Alexander Babanin

The wave action apparently is not permanent, it only happens when the big storm comes. There are
indications that now they are becoming more frequent.

NARRATION

The huge waves caused damage and flooding right across south eastern Australia, including Port
Arthur in Tasmania. And it all started in the Southern Ocean.

Tanya Ha

So this map shows that weather that we saw in July?

Neal Moodie

Yeah, during that event we had three days in a row of hundred-kilometre an hour winds. That's the
reddish area in that map. Because the winds were so strong, we had waves up to ten metres, and
that's represented by this purple area hitting Tasmania.

NARRATION

It's extreme waves like these that are getting even bigger according to the results of the
Swinburne wind and wave study.

Tanya Ha

So this is visually the results of the study is it?

Professor Alexander Babanin

That's right. Here we have the wave trends for the extreme waves over this period of time. You can
see the darker areas where the trends are larger and the blue areas where the trends are smaller.

Tanya Ha

We're seeing a lot of dark colour under Australia so are we seeing a lot of change there is that
right?

Professor Alexander Babanin

Yes that's right and it's interesting to point out that that's the area where the waves are already
very large and also grow at the fastest rates here.

Tanya Ha

How do you drill down to the detail of what's happening to individual waves?

Professor Alexander Babanin

If we want to investigate the physics of the waves, how the waves interact with the wind and the
upper ocean we have to go into much more detail. It looks like a noise. But it really is
variantions that you see which tell us that the waves come in groups. THe group of high waves is
followed by realtively smaller waves.

Tanya Ha

So is that what surfers would call sets?

Professor Alexander Babanin

Absolutely.

NARRATION

The study models show that extreme waves are increasing most in the oceans that impact southern
Australia.

Tanya Ha

So this is the South Pole view of these oceans.

Neal Moodie

Yeah, that's right. You can sort of see the cold fronts moving around the Southern Ocean. And
that's part of the roaring forties coming all the way from Africa, directly at Australia.

NARRATION

Most of the weather we experience on land actually forms over vast expanses of water.

Neal Moodie

The weather around Australia is highly influenced by the ocean. And changes in the ocean patterns
can influence how much rainfall you might get in any different weather system, as it passes from
the ocean over the land.

NARRATION

On an even larger scale, the interaction of the wind with the world's oceans plays an important
role in regulating the earth's climate.

Professor Alexander Babanin

The winds generate the waves. The waves mix the ocean, so if you mix the ocean deeper, it can
absorb more heat from the atmosphere, it can cool it.

NARRATION

In fact the top two or three metres of the world's oceans can hold the same amount of heat as the
entire dry atmosphere. The next step in this research is to find out why the waves and winds have
been growing, and the impact it's having on our climate.

Neal Moodie

Getting an understanding of the wave patterns around the Australian coastline is quite important to
the marine community, in terms of knowing what the wave effects might be on the coastal
infrastructure.

Graham Slade

I've lived around the coast all my life, and it's a beautiful environment to be in. Extremes of
weather, temperature and wave action can only make it worse and I just hope that doesn't happen.

Gravity

Gravity

TRANSCRIPT

Comments

Dr Derek Muller takes to the streets with a medicine ball and a basketball and poses the question:
when dropped from the same height, which one will hit the ground first? You may know the correct
answer, but can you explain why? This bouncy segment has Derek playing with his hapless subjects
before delivering the goods and putting them out of their bemused puzzlement.

Dr Derek Muller

Now I want you to make a prediction. In my left hand I have a standard sized basketball and in my
right hand a 5kg medicine ball. If I drop them both at exactly the same time, which one will hit
the ground first?

Man 1

This is a trick one isn't it

Man 2

The heavier one will go down first

Man 3

Yeah, it'll drop faster

Man 4

They'll both hit the ground at the same time

Dr Derek Muller

Give me your prediction

Woman 1

I actually would have thought this one would go faster because it's heavier

Boys

Maybe it's that one. Maybe this one yeah

Man 1

So you reckon this one will be faster?

Woman 2

I reckon that one will be faster

Dr Derek Muller

So why does that make it go faster?

Woman 1

Because the weight pulls it down quicker?

Dr Derek Muller

What are we measuring when we say it is heavier, what are we feeling?

Man 1 and Woman 1

Gravity?

Woman 1

Objects being pulled to the earth I guess.

Dr Derek Muller

OK, so which of these objects is being more pulled to the earth?

Man 1

That one, the black one

Dr Derek Muller

Well, here's what we're going to do. I want you to hold those above your head. On the count of
three, ready, 3,2,1.

Man 1

Exactly the same

Woman 1

They fell at the same time

Woman 3

Exactly the same time

Man 5

They hit at the same time

Dr Derek Muller

Was that what you expected to see?

Man 5

No

Dr Derek Muller

So what do you make of that?

Woman 1

I need to go read more books.

Man 5

Magic?

Woman 3

Gravity is going to pull at the same rate no matter how heavy or how light it is.

Dr Derek Muller

But gravity is how light or heavy something is?

Woman 3

It's just one big massive mind (beep)

Man 4

There must be some force that's dragging them down and the actual weight of it doesn't matter

Woman 2

Something to do with mass or something

Man 1

I can't remember why

Woman 1

It's almost like the weight holds it back in a way, even though that doesn't seem to make sense.

Dr Derek Muller

I think you might be hitting on an interesting point there, weight holds it back

Dr Derek Muller

Now it's not actually weight that holds it back, but inertia. That's the tendency of matter to
maintain its state of motion, so to remain at rest if stationary or to continue with constant
velocity when in motion

Man 1

What's the big idea?

Dr Derek Muller

The big idea is this one has more mass, so it's got more weight which you can clearly feel, but
it's also got more inertia which means it's also more sluggish, it tends to resist acceleration, so
that greater force is required to accelerate it at the same rate as this ball.

Woman 1

Like a heavy car trying to accelerate

Dr Derek Muller

Like a heavy car trying to accelerate you need more force to get it going, exactly. So what does
all that mean? Well the force on the medicine ball is greater than the force on the basketball, but
it has more inertia and what's really important is that the ratio of force to inertia is the same
for all objects, so everything accelerates at the same rate and lands at the same time.

(Voices on TV)

Recovered Memories

Recovered Memories

TRANSCRIPT

Comments

IF YOU FEEL UNSETTLED OR DISTURBED BY THIS STORY PLEASE SCROLL TO BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE FOR LINKS TO
SUPPORT ORGANISATIONS

Unfortunately, our memory is not like a video recorder and limited understanding of exactly how
memory works has given rise to disagreements. None of these disagreements have been more vigorous
than the battle over recovered memories. Buried memories of traumatic events can be recovered - but
how reliable are they? Are traumatic memories repressed through a process of dissociation? Or, do
we simply forget? Jonica Newby explores the latest in thinking on recovered memories.

NARRATION

Here's a scenario. A girl is 29 years old. She's watching a movie, and suddenly she has a flashback
... she's seven, at home with her grandfather... later more memories emerge. She was abused as a
child. And she had no memory of it ... until now.

Dr Jonica Newby

So what happened to her memory over all this time? Was it repressed ... is it false ... or was it
simply mislaid? It's been a source of at times acrimonious academic debate, but with new ideas
emerging, it's worth taking a fresh look at recovered memories.

NARRATION

Before we dive in, a quick refresher on what memory is. Because one thing it isn't is a
video-recorder. First, we Encode. An event happens, we hold some details in short term memory. Then
there's Consolidation. Important bits are mentally rehearsed, then stored in long term memory -
which effectively means little groups of neurones hold a perception of the event. Then Retrieval.
The little neurones are activated, the perceptions are integrated ... and reconstructed and enter
consciousness. This newly "rehearsed" memory is then re-encoded - either just as it was before OR
altered, sometimes dramatically - and stored. So something interfered with the process here - but
what? There-in lies the big debate.Psychiatrist Warwick Middleton specialises in patients with
memories of extreme trauma. He believes what happens is a process known as dissociation and
repression.

Professor Warwick Middleton

Dissociation is a mechanism in which there is a disruption in the usually integrated processes of
consciousness, memory, identity and perception such that a person's identity may be split,
fractionated or put behind a, if you want to use a computer analogy, a firewall.

NARRATION

He sees it in combat veterans.

Professor Warwick Middleton

It was Sargant and Slater in 1940 who analysed a thousand evacuees from, from Dunkirk. A hundred
and forty four actually had partial or complete amnesia and the ones that were most likely to have
most extreme amnesias were also the ones that had the most severe traumas.

Dr Jonica Newby

Do they get those memories back?

Professor Warwick Middleton

Some of them do.

NARRATION

And that's where repression and later recovery of those memories comes in - or to use professor
Middleton's preferred term dissociative amnesia.

Professor Warwick Middleton

You talk about the thousand yard stare.

NARRATION

But Professor Richard Bryant, who also works with war veterans as a prominent researcher of post
traumatic stress disorder, disagrees. He says the battle situation is better described as largely a
failure to encode.

Professor Richard Bryant

In a case of real trauma like combat, you know when there are bombs exploding and people shooting
at me then that's really going to narrow my attention enormously. So it's very, very understandable
that people will have reduced encoding of it.

NARRATION

Just think of a parachute jump ... for the first time. Afterwards, few remember anything much.

Professor Richard Bryant

That's not necessarily dissociation in the sense that I have a fault in my remembering. A lot of it
I just didn't encode in the first place.

NARRATION

And our memory's need for narrative will sometimes try and fill in the gaps

Professor Richard Bryant

I saw a person years ago who had a severe brain injury in a car accident and he was knocked out for
nearly a month. About a year later, the first time they put him in a car, he just panicked and was
flooded with memories of the accident. Now this man did not remember anything about what happened
so how could he have memories? When I spoke to him, the pictures that were coming into his mind was
of himself lying mangled in the car. And what these pictures were, were actually a reconstruction
of photographs of his mangled car in the local newspaper except he had put himself into that
photograph.

Dr Jonica Newby

But failure to encode would not account for the longstanding memory loss in our scenario - not when
the abuse was repeated.

NARRATION

It could of course be a false memory - unintentionally implanted by sloppy therapy. And it was a
bizarre spate of these - paraded as repressed memories - that set off the so called Memory Wars of
the 80's and 90's.

Professor Warwick Middleton

Yeah, the issue of false memory actually coalesced into probably what was the most acrimonious and
polarizing debate in psychology psychiatry in the last century.

NARRATION

Unfortunately, the debate became either or: either you believed in dissociation and repression - or
that traumatic memories were so powerfully laid down, they were unforgettable - so recovered
memories must be false.

Professor Richard Bryant

I think at that point we got where the baby did get thrown out with the bath water where because we
said there's no evidence that repression exists now, we got to the point where saying well not only
does repression not exist but also the idea that somebody can actually have a memory, then forget
it, and then maybe have it again, that also doesn't exist.

NARRATION

So to be clear - recovered memories of childhood abuse can and do happen - a notion that got
muddied at the height of the Memory wars. The question remains though - how? Professor Middleton
says this is where the Dissociation Theory really comes to the fore.

Professor Warwick Middleton

I'm talking about compartmentalizing trauma so that you actually create a mechanism for containing
the memories and feelings that go with a traumatic event such that it doesn't overwhelm you in the
present. So you can actually get somebody who's compartmentalised, you know, the good daddy from
another compartment behind another firewall which contains the memory of the incestuous abuse. And
the two states may be relatively impervious to each other, at least for a time.

NARRATION

But a number of researchers are now working on another explanation. That is - that in many cases,
the abused kids simply forgot. Huh?

Professor Richard Bryant

Many will say that at the time they did limit their encoding and they did it very strategically. I
don't want to be aware about what this person's doing to me right now so I will engage in fantasy,
I will distract myself. But that doesn't' block it out necessarily. After that, he might've left
the room and then there's the consolidation phase. Now often at that point the person will tell me
I don't want to think about it then I will distract myself again. But they still know that things
happened. After that, as time goes on both in the consolidation phase and subsequently I'm just not
rehearsing it, because I don't want to. And so I can go through years and years and years and never
think about it. And then something tweaks and then hell yeah, that did happen to me. And then
they'll remember it. Now what was that mechanism? Was it repression? I don't think so. In most
cases I've seen I think it is often deliberate avoidance over many, many years, because people
don't want to think about something really really unpleasant.

NARRATION

So what are we to make of all this? In the end - does it just come down to a terminology dispute -
is there so much difference between dissociation and repression versus forgetting that the debate
still matters?

Dr Jonica Newby

There are some professors who say dissociation doesn't exist.

Professor Warwick Middleton

Yeah. There are some who say that. It's actually one of the phenomena in psychiatry that's got the
longest literature really.

NARRATION

Although the word "repression" does seem to be dropping out of favour.

Professor Warwick Middleton

I've given up trying to get a clear agreed definition of repression anymore because the waters have
been so muddied.

Professor Richard Bryant

My reaction to the whole notion of dissociation is that it's really not advancing the field. It's
just too big and too vague. So I think we have a clinical responsibility as well as a scientific
responsibility to understand what really is the mechanism. Then I think we can start to develop
better treatments.

NARRATION

And does this help our girl deal with her past? Maybe not. But it is worth knowing there's more
than one explanation for recovered memory. After all, memory is perception and perception becomes
memory.

Penguin Wave

Penguin Wave

TRANSCRIPT

Comments

NARRATION

Antarctica is the coldest, windiest continent on Earth. Emperor Penguins, the only vertebrate to
breed during the harsh Antarctic winter, have a nifty way to keep warm - by huddling.

By sticking together they can cut heat loss by half. Penguins on the periphery feel the cold more
than those in the centre, so it is crucial that the huddle is continuously reorganized to give each
penguin their time in the middle.

The challenge for the penguins is to huddle closely enough to conserve body heat, but not so
tightly that they can't rearrange themselves.So how do they manage this extraordinary act of
coordination?

Physicist Daniel Zitterbart and his team recorded time-lapse images of a huddle, then tracked the
movements of individual penguins .

Every 30-60 seconds, all penguins take small steps creating a 'wave' through the huddle.

The 'wave' keeps the huddle as dense as possible while moving it forward and, overtime leads to
reorganization.

Better than a group hug, a group wave ensures every penguin gets their chance to keep warm.

DR GRAHAM PHILLIPS: Next time, a special GM edition of Catalyst.

Virtually everything we eat has been genetically modified.

Is GM food really safe for us and the environment?

Remember the website to view and download stories. And, please, stay in touch with us on Facebook
and Twitter. I'll see you next time. If you're feeling unsettled or disturbed by the content of the
recovered memory story, please go to our website and follow the links for further information.