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Australian Prime Ministers -

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(generated from captions) for more than 20 years. one of his clients. The Governor-General had been When that didn't work, carrying an illegal cutting weapon. they tried to do him for was able to prove His barrister, Ernest Lamb, in such a way that de Groot was holding the sword thrusting, not cutting. Next! that it could only be used for Well, what about offensive behaviour? that any of His Majesty's subjects Lamb dug up an archaic law that said even a ribbon, was allowed to remove any object, on the King's highway. which barred progress for the magistrate, It was all too much who found de Groot guilty. in costs. He was fined ?5 and ordered to pay ?4 that legally, Ironically, the guilty finding meant had opened the bridge. de Groot, and not Lang, of the calculated plan The trial was all part to embarrass Jack Lang. for every charge. De Groot had an offence for false arrest, and won. To top it all off, he then sued He was awarded ?68, on the whole affair. so he actually came out ?59 ahead in 1949 and died 20 years later. 'Francis de Groot returned to Ireland the sword from de Groot's nephew In 2004, collector Paul Cave bought and returned it to Australia. Two months after opening the bridge, nationalist policies Jack Lang's controversial Sir Philip Game.' saw him sacked by the Governor,

defeated, With their supposedly communist enemy quickly died out. the right-wing militias Francis de Groot's name lived on. But in true ratbag fashion, road and bridge openings in NSW For some time afterwards, official doing a de Groot. were regularly upstaged by pranksters Out! Idiot. Get a job. 'Francis de Groot is still party crasher, Australia's most famous slashed the ribbon and that makes the sword that Harbour Bridge a national treasure.' that unofficially opened the Sydney Closed Captions by CSI in Collingwood, Melbourne, NARRATOR: Alfred Deakin was born the son of English immigrants. he became a teacher, A writer of poetry and essays, a barrister and a journalist. three times. Deakin was prime minister as prime minister, In his first two terms he led the Protectionist Party. he formed a Fusion government In his third term, with free trade parliamentarians. in the House of Representatives The new party defeated Labor in May 1909. of fairly evenly matched parties By reducing the number from three to two, two-party-preferred system. Deakin helped create Australia's of parliament's finest speakers. He's remembered as one for the unborn millions - We are the trustees for posterity, unknown and unnumbered - we may help them to fulfil whose aspirations we may assist to determine. and whose destinies cultures - Japan, China, India - He was fascinated by foreign remained outside Australia. as long as their people the White Australia policy, He played a key role in developing depended on having a united race. and believed that Australian unity require to be excluded I contend that the Japanese because of their high abilities. but the good qualities It is not the bad qualities

that make them dangerous to us. of these alien races It is their inexhaustible energy, to new tasks, their power of applying themselves low standard of living their endurance and... MEMBERS: Hear! Hear! that make them such competitors. the thinking at the time. Deakin's views reflect by the United States of America, He was intrigued the American Great White Fleet and in 1908, invited to visit Australia - independence from Britain. a symbolic act of growing in 1919 at the age of 63. He was deeply mourned when he died (Chatter) Closed Captions by CSI NARRATOR: Born in Valparaiso, Chile, grew up in New Zealand. John Christian Watson to work on the railways. He was only ten when he left school (Whistle blows) to a local newspaper He was later apprentice and became a typesetter. Watson came to Sydney at 19. he was an active trade unionist Described as a born leader, the Sydney Trades and Labor Council. and at only 23, became President of Federal Parliamentary Labor Party, He was the first leader of the youngest-ever prime minister. and at 37, is our prime minister in the world. Watson was the first Labor He established the solidarity rule of the Labor Party of having all parliamentary members follow the official party policy. he struggled to hold office. But without a clear majority,

to unionists failed to win support, When a Labor bill to give preference four months in office. Watson resigned after only He remained in politics until 1917, (Cheering) the former Labor prime minister when he supported Billy Hughes, in calling for conscription. This was against Labor Party policy, his own solidarity rule, so for breaking

from the Labor Party. Watson was expelled After politics, Watson helped found Association - the NRMA - the National Roads and Motorists' for over 20 years and was its president until his death in 1941, aged 74. Closed Captions by CSI

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and dramatic coastline Australia has some of the most wild in the world. of cliffs and rough seas One section famous for its section is the Great Australian Bight. in South Australia, From Cape Catastrophe to Cape Pasley in Western Australia, the Bight arches around a distance of more than 1,400km. An amazing coastline, forbidding place. the Bight has proved to be a hostile, of spectacular beauty. But it's also a place the coastline is uneven and jagged. In the east,