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The Prime Minister says the

Government's new refugee policies

will send a clear message to people

smugglers. Deals to process asylum

seekers are still being negotiated

with Malaysia and Papua New Guinea. But Julia Gillard

group of asylum seekers to arrive by But Julia Gillard insists the latest

boat will be processed overseas. And

now Thailand says it's interested in

striking a similar deal. The

the International Montetary Fund, striking a similar deal. The head of

been arrested in New York, over an the International Montetary Fund, has

alleged sexual assault. Dominique

Strauss-Kahn was taken into custody

at JFK International

at JFK International Airport - just

moments before he was due to fly out

to Paris. It's understood the

allegations relate to an incident

involing a chambermaid. Six

Florida involing a chambermaid. Six people in involing a chambermaid. Six people

charged with providing - or Florida and Pakistan have been

conspiring to provide 'material

support' to the Pakistani Taliban.

Three of the men are

Pakistani-Americans living in

the others live in Pakistan. It Pakistani-Americans living in Florida

amid heightened tensions between the the others live in Pakistan. It comes

US and Pakistan, following the

killing of Osama bin Laden. US Army engineers have opened engineers have opened a spillway

along the rising Mississippi River

Louisiana the water is being along the rising Mississippi River in

Louisiana the water is being diverted

into the countryside in a bid to

avoid a potentially bigger disaster

in heavily populated urban

kilometres of land known for small downstream. Around 5000 square

farms and fisheries could end up

under 7 or 8 metres of water. Thats farms and fisheries could end up

the latest

the latest from the Newsroom. This Program is Captioned Live. # Theme music the cotton harvest wrapping up On Landline today - and commodity prices. with growers celebrating record crops

with genetic modification, People are realising now the crop is easier to grow we have the ability not to spray, a lot safer crop to grow and it's certainly profitable crop to grow. and it's quite a planning to peer into deep space We meet the star gazers cattle station. from a West Australian the discovery potential It has 10,000 times best telescope. of the current existing an outback troop train And war veterans climb aboard the siege of Tobruk. to mark the 70th anniversary of welcome to Landline, Hello, I'm Anne Kruger, exhibition grounds. coming to you today from Brisbane's may still be months away Now, the Royal Queensland Show the best from the rest but the business of sorting is well under way. in terms of food industries Chief Judge Russel Smith A little later we'll hear from

in the dairy competitions. on the explosion of interest in entries this year, We had a big increase

and 50% in ice cream. 30, 40% over the cheese and dairy from the industry. So there's a really good response biggest beef producer, AACo, And David Farley, boss of Australia's a new export abattoir in Darwin. confirms the company's plan for quite impatient about it. Well, time frame - we're plant up and running in 2012. We're very, very keen to get a a July/August completion. It looks more like now being First up though, means record prices for cotton, strong demand around the world Australian cotton growers this year. and that's good news for most The harvest is nearly over, caused some big crop losses, and although the summer floods across eastern Australia the widespread rains for irrigated crops. meant plenty of water of dry land cotton. It's also meant huge plantings something over 4 million bales, The crop estimate amounts to an all-time high. pickers are are flat out. In the Namoi Valley the cotton in this part of north-west NSW For weeks the rhythm of life has moved to the drone of harvesters of the cotton gins. and the incessant roar they're going around the clock, Here at Namoi, cotton's Bogabrie gin, modules at one end, slowly ingesting the raw cotton removing the dirt, leaves and twigs, separating the seeds, a tightly packed bail of cotton and at the end of the line there's ready for export -

at today's prices. each worth close on $1,000 Give me a hand here? they're in the thick of it, too. On Andrew Watson's farm, two-part season, Chris. It's been a sort of a they're in the thick of it, too. On Andrew Watson's farm, sort of October, November We had a very wet early season - and the start of December in this area where we had four floods on it just stopped raining. and then from about Christmas time

season and then a very dry finish. So we've had a very wet start to the Managing a cotton crop but particularly water. is about managing many things, yield and fibre quality. Too much or too little can affect on the quality, Hopefully it won't really impact to make up any rainfall deficit. given that we can actually irrigate Yield wise this year, pretty much around average. I think the yields are going to be season but it will be OK. It hasn't been the most astronomical is the world price for cotton. What growers can't influence have aligned in their favour. Fortunately this year the planets Prices have never been better. it's been fantastic. Absolute record prices, It's just unprecedented to see that, at the moment. a bit of a world shortage But that is good. coming out of a drought I mean, it helps people who are

paying back some debt. actually start coming out of a drought I mean, it helps people who are quarter of US production this year's record crop might be a and barely a tenth of Chinese output. Australia's cotton growers make up What they lack in scale, quality and productivity. through an enviable reputation for genetically modified cotton Widespread adoption of use fall by as much as 90%. has seen herbicide and insecticide industry body, Cotton Australia, And in Andrew Watson - the peak is to see how close he can get has a chairman whose personal passion to an insecticide free farm. We're trying to encourage a habitat marsupials, so little bats, etc, for beneficial insects and who can fly out. establishing green belts That means maintaining and around the property. The idea being those beneficial insects is to see how close he can get those beneficial insects That's right, I mean some of the research shows beneficial bats will only fly 400 metres from their vegetation so we probably need tree lines throughout the place. He uses integrated pest management, encouraging beneficial insects to attack pests. Andrew Watson has some insect damage in his crop this year. To spray or not to spray, it's a tricky question Andrew Watson has some insect damage in his crop this year. because damaged cotton will take a price hit. It's the threat of discount, I guess, that scares many people. So there are big discounts if you have poor quality fibre or majority a big portion of poor quality fibre. The thing we're experiencing is we're not seeing below base grade cotton off this farm, we haven't done for 4 years despite rarely spraying or zero spray regime. So I think people sometimes get a bit concerned about things like aphid and honey dew, like cotton stainer damage.

And they want to spray because they want to be safe? That's correct. Pests aside, Andrew Watson believes an approach which puts overall plant health first gives him the best return. I think the two single biggest factors on yield and profitability

is watering and water, and the second is nutrition and soil nutrition. They're the two that we principally focus on here and I think that gives a much better return They're the two that we principally focus on here on the sort of investment in the crop than insecticides are. Water efficiency and soil nutrition remain important areas of research for the Australian cotton industry.

About 40% of this year's cotton crop was dry land,

reliant entirely on direct rainfall. Dr Rose Brodrick from the CSIRO is researching water efficiency in cotton crop. In these field trials she's looking at the effects of different row spacings. Skipping rows allows an individual plant access to more of the available water.

Growers in different regions can choose between different row spacings

and assess that risk and while they may take a yield penalty there's some assurance that quality and a certain level of yield potential will be maintained. While cotton is likely to remain a mostly irrigated crop in Australia the work being done here is looking at more flexible systems. We're looking at semi-irrigated situations where you might choose to start off with a dry land situation with some water, irrigate it a couple of times and to maximise your yield and profit based on that land. And we're doing some experiments where we're looking at what timing of irrigations is critical

in a semi-irrigated situation. Another important area of research in cotton, as elsewhere, is nitrogen efficiency. The cotton industry is a little bit concerned about the amount of nitrogen that's used. Too much nitrogen means foilage at the expense of fruit, too little and plants don't reach their potential. About a third of the growers that we've assessed are probably using slightly to a fair bit more nitrogen than they need to. Growers can do soil tests to measure nitrogen and test plants while they're growing and soon there will be a new tool to help them. CSIRO's Dr Ian Rochester has been developing a scanner

which can give an instant analysis of nitrogen uptake. The scanner looks at a sample of cotton seeds and measures protein levels to produce a rating for nitrogen efficiency. A sample was 3.9% nitrogen. Which is high or low? That's high, Chris.

Anything over 3.5% nitrogen indicates high seed nitrogen and the crop that this came from was over-fertilised with nitrogen.

The scanner's been developed with funding from the cotton CRC and the idea is to slot it into the ginning process. What the scanner's doing is it's actually taking a reading on each of the bale lot of seed as it's coming through and it's measuring each of those seed on each of the bale lot of seed as it's coming through So nitrogen efficiency will be another piece of information traceable back to grower and farm but it can go further than that. These new pickers are increasingly popular. They make a round module which can be dropped off at will. And on the plastic cover of every module is a print out which gives the GPS coordinates, latitude and longitude.

It will be possible to say which part of the paddock a bale came from and whether that part of the crop

was over or under fertilised with nitrogen. What this does is it allows us to be able to measure where we're at from a nitrification perspective and how we perform in the season and fine tune that - particularly important as we move into a carbon farming area that nitrous oxide as carbon emitter is something we need to manage, and getting that nitrogen optimised on a per bale basis is critical. It's a big season for Australia's cotton growers. Record harvest, record prices and Cotton Australia's Andrew Watson sees reasons for continued optimism. Price certainly makes a difference,

we have the ability not to spray, the crop is easier to grow and it's certainly a lot safer crop to grow and it's a profitable crop to grow. As an increasing population an increasingly wealthy population in the world,

we're seeing greater demand for apparel, and as cotton makes up around about 50% of the world apparel market there's certainly going to be increasing demand for cotton around the world. Coming up in the program, we're all aboard an epic rail journey. Reliving the era of war time troop trains. The soldiers used to get that bored, they used the get out and march alongside the train aboard an epic rail journey.

until their carriages caught up with them and then they'd jump back on. To our news summary now, and the two supermarket heavy weights have been pinged for passing off imported produce as home grown. For the first time Coles and Woolworths have been fined for incorrectly labelling imported fruit in two Sydney stores. Both companies say it was an honest mistake but they're being named and shamed by the State Government. There really is no excuse for getting it wrong. The major supermarkets have to exercise true vigilance when it comes to country of origin labelling. A Woolworths store in store in Sydney has been fined more than $1,500 for advertising American lemons as Australian. There's absolutely no deceptive conduct here

we've got actually pretty good processes in place to manage this. In this case it was human error and for that we apologise. And Coles is blaming a computer glitch

for not indicating it grapefruits are from Israel. Coles and Woolworths have got to get their act together. Don't let this happen again. It's deceptive isn't it. You believe you're supporting Australian farmers get their act together. Australian farmers When you buy an imported product and you think you've bought Australian then it's fairly deceptive, I think. And it seems, that fruit's not the only thing we're importing in greater numbers. As the picking season ramps up, there's been a spike in Pacific Islanders involved in short stay seasonal labour schemes. More than than 200 Tongan nationals have arrived to work on Queensland citrus and vegetable farms including women for the first time. Last year we had about 32 Tongans, so it's quite an increase this year and we're really, really happy to have 20 ladies in this year. So it's really great.

It was an easy choice for 28-year-old Anna Fianu

and we're really, really happy to have 20 ladies in this year. to be part of the Federal Government's Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot scheme.

to pay for my school fees so I can move out, and continue on to finish my studies. Citrus froer Peter Smith says

the scheme is an ideal alternative to backpacker labour. They will basically pick for the whole year and we won't have the turnover, we won't have the administration costs. Meantime the mining boom is proving costly Six months ago, Paul Taylor lost his best worker to the lure of $600 a day in the mines, and he hasn't found anyone to fill his boots. Anyone who's a realist can't compete with that sort of money and so he's gone and then you start training again, and so really you train them up and when they get experienced enough they move on. The Farmers and Graziers Association is trying to head off the problem by developing a program with Skills Tasmania

to recruit and train young people for farm work. It started as a pedal-powered radio classroom with students scattered around some of the more remote parts of Central and Southern Australia. 60 years on from its first broadcast, the School of the Air is still going strong thanks to digital technology and now reaches students right across the country. Because the child can see the teacher now their interaction is a lot greater. You can actually see if a child's there and hasn't taken out the door, which they can do. And finally, the treacherous sea journeys that brought the first migrants to South Australia And finally, the treacherous sea journeys for the newly proclaimed province. # And to sail across the sea, stormy sea.

The maritime museum hosted a feast of ye-old sea fare, including English cheddar, pickled cabbage and beef stew,

all washed down with rum punch. Some of the dishes are very strictly following recipes of the period. The pea soup in the entree is based on an 1838 recipe. It tastes alright. We did a lot of research into what people were eating. Whilst the food is quite bland in those days, we sort of put our own take on it. Before I check how far the bulls have bolted this past week, some bullish news from the Top End. AACo's plans to open a meatworks in Darwin has met with a lot of scepticism from within the beef industry. Many have tried and all have failed has been the usual comment. AACo boss David Farley has revealed to Landline the time frame for the project and its budget. Well time frame, we're quite impatient about it. We're very, very keen to get a plant up and running in 2012. It looks more like now being a July/August completion to build it. By the time we do all the infrastructure work, it will be based off a hot boning model at the start, but there will be room left in there for extra chilling capacity if we ever want to change our model. At the moment,

circle wise it's somewhere between a $40 and $50-million spend. $50 million plus, that sounds pretty good.

I guess the only problems now would be labour, supply and markets. But having said that, I have to say there seems to be less cynicism now than there has been in the past about the viability of such a project, so good luck to AACo, they'll certainly need it. Moving on, and let's start with the live trade out of the north where there's been strong activity as the mud clears, and prices have eased a fraction. Out of Darwin, prices put steers at $2 Now to the sale yards, where numbers offered were way down last week

as producers reacted to an easing market, checked the grass in their paddocks, and decided to hang on for a few more weeks. Queensland yardings were down 38% and NSW was off 26%. But the processors, at least one of them, kept their hands in their pockets and prices, well if they didn't crash, they certainly tumbled. It's also worth a mention, that our dollar is making life very tough for the exporters. And this action last week, left the eastern young cattle indicator at $3.87 - down 9 cents for the week, but still 12% above this time last year. Lamb and sheep numbers were also down. Victoria slumped 35%

and obviously the icy wetter kept the sheep buyers at home as well. Priced headed south, for lambs the slump was dramatic. Once again a bit of relativity is worthwhile noting, Both these prices are up on this time last year and in the case of lamb, more than $1.50 above the 5 year average. And it's also worth noting for the first time in memory the retail price of lamb is now higher than that for beef. Let's move to grains now, and some OK business news in America helped stop a slide on commodity markets, prices finished on an up after sessions of limit down losses. Wheat is at its lowest since mid March, corn is travelling adjacent to the oil price, while soy beans closed with some strength despite weak exports.

And local old crop prices were steady, traders are keeping a close watch on planting conditions,

which seem to be pretty good everywhere except in Western Australia.

Canola and sorghum lifted a fraction, I'm told there's a massive amount of sorghum around. Wheat was firm at $270 a tonne. And local futures trading was subdued as buyers noted Chicago trading. The ASX reports that WA wheat dropped about 1% while east coast milling wheat, January delivery,

was down just a fraction. and buyers who paid top dollar for cotton a few weeks back are now walking away from these contracts.

and buyers who paid top dollar for cotton a few weeks back but they are. So cotton closed limit-down, while the December contract is 30c less. Sugar continues on the toboggan, as reports emerge of a massive sugar beet crop in France,

the world's biggest grower of that crop. And the dairy business in Australia remains very strong. It's worth $2-billion in exports for Australia each year and although the dollar is a problem, Dairy Australia says, demand in new markets is sustaining export numbers.

We've seen really strong demand out of China, in particular for milk powders, and we've also seen Russia re-entering the market

So that's taken a lot of product off that international market and really tightened the demands and supply balance and, I guess, out of the Southern Hemisphere, and really tightened the demands and supply balance We've had some drought conditions in New Zealand and some - while it's been a wet season, it's also been a tough one in terms of production. We haven't seen much of a production increase out of here either. So, that's tightened the market considerably

and the demand outlook is still pretty good. Oceania prices last week remained firm, both those prices are well up on this time last year. And finally to wool, where there's been a bit of a worry wool prices might tumble alongside cotton, but that's not been the case. Last week prices actually rose 1.3%. Two lots of 12 and 12.1 microns sold for 20,000 cents in Melbourne last Wednesday. And the eastern market indicator closed at 1,323 cents and as usual China was the dominant buyer. And that's the Landline check on prices. I'm at the Royal Queensland Food and Wine Show competiton and joining me now is Chief Judge Russell Smith, welcome the Landline. Hi. You've been supervising the judging in the dairy section and I believe that it's really expanded this year, you've had a good response from competitors. It has, we've had a big increase in entries this year, 30-40% over the cheese and dairy and 50% the ice cream so it was a good response from the industry. Why do you think the increase?

I think the show's seen to be becoming more and more professional, and I think at the RNA here,

we're really setting some standards in judging and I think the industry's responding to that. We've got some examples here, and I believe this is the award winning cheese.

This is the champion product actually comes from Victoria. Would you like to try that? Let's have a try, thank you very much. Blue cheese. One of my favourites. Beautiful. What made this special? Texture, that Texture is just superb, beautiful, creamy texture, lovely, subtle blue flavours, quite complex favours, just beautifully balanced, I think,

a beautifully balanced cheese,

and I think all the judges thought that was just a stand out product. I'll keep enjoying this, what else have we got here? We've got a raclette here, this is from Tasmania, a Swiss style cheese, beautiful melting cheese. Again it's got a blue shot spot on it, indicating it won a gold medal, and I think it was about number three in line for the champion. So it was just below that product in terms of quality, as the judges saw it. And what's this one here? Parmesan, an 18 month old parmesan. Probably the best of the parmesans you see made in Australia, really showing some age, some lovely textures, beautiful, fruity flavours coming out of that now. Tell us about ice cream, Yeah, gelato, and we had sorbets as well. Now, Olympic standards, I believe, who's the winner? There is an Olympic standard, yes, Tatiana won, this is a banana-flavoured gelato from a small maker here. Tatiana Grigorieva, I believe? That's right, exactly, so she's gone from - Tatiana won, It's just fantastic to be recognised on such a high level, I guess, for what we we do, and for me it really doesn't matter whether you're doing a pole vault or gelato, on such a high level, I guess,

it's fantastic to get recognition for what you do. Have a taste of this, this is just magic. I think our farmers will be very pleased to hear - banana. That their local bananas are going into this champion product. That's superb. That really is superb. Is banana particularly difficult?

Particularly difficult one to get right. There's some beautiful chocolate examples in there, but the judges really thought, they hadn't seen a banana flavour done as well anywhere. And remember, the judges were actually three judges from NSW, so, not local people, and they just thought this was just a magic product. Well, I'm in heaven here. It's a tough job, someone's got to do it, but thanks very much for joining us and I'm going to continue to enjoy this. Thank you very much. Fantastic. The historic Murchison pastoral region has seen many changes over its long history such as the move from wool to cattle. But an emerging industry on one of the oldest stations could literally be described as out of this world. Boolardy station has been chosen as Australia's site for an international science project which may investigate very origins of the universe. The Square Kilometre Array radio telescope is a $2-billion project which will be awarded to Australia or South Africa next year, but already scientists are beating a path to the Murchison to test the site and its emerging observatory.

(Crickets chirping) At Boolardy Station in the Murchison region of Western Australia, Mark Halleen runs up to 2,000 head of cattle on his own. It is frustrating. There's a lot of infrastructure that's starting to go downhill because you just can't cover the territory. And it's economics, and it's not only on this property, it's happening on a lot of other properties around the place as well, so how long people can sustain that, it's hard to tell. A lot of the younger generations are just not coming back. They've got mining jobs or other jobs A lot of the younger generations are just not coming back. it's all gone, compared to what it was. The region's historic pastoral industry may be in decline but Boolardy Station is being re-invented as the centre of one of the world's biggest scientific endeavours. NARRATOR: In a remote and inhospitalable desert something incredible is being planned. Something that will enable us to explore the universe, its past and its ultimate fate.

A masterpiece of scientific engineering that will be the world's largest, most powerful radio telescope. The Square Kilometre Array is a $2-billion radio telescope observatory and next year a choice will be made between Australia and South Africa to host the project. The project's been going for about 10 years now and the excitement is just building, especially as we can see it's becoming more of a reality. The design process is ongoing, the site selection process has added a little bit of additional excitement to the whole process with the competition between Australia and South Africa. But the astronomers, the scientific community, they really can't wait

It's very difficult to quantify discovery potential but we say, according to some measures, it has 10,000 times the discovery potential of the current existing best telescope. As part of the bidding process, the CSIRO is now building the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder at Boolardy Station. As the name suggests it's a trailblazer for the main project, proving the site is quiet enough for the world's most sensitive radio telescopes. Murchison Shire is an area the size of the Netherlands with a population of under 200 so it's very sparsely populated,

wide open areas, few people travelling through. So there's none of the interference you'd get close to modest-sized towns or large cities. And we've measured this, we've demonstrated it to be true. It really is one of the best sites in the world.

(Machine whirrs) Antony Schinckel is overseeing the Pathfinder project, we've demonstrated it to be true. with engineers in the Netherlands, Canada and the United States. The six antennas we have here are the beginning of ASKAP. CSIRO's got another 30 antennas that will be delivered this year as well as all the infrastructure around the site, foundations for those antennas, buildings, fibre optic communication, etc. How crucial is the job you do with this path finder

for securing the main bid? It's pretty important, we think, at a couple of levels. One, it will demonstrate the incredible radio-quiet nature of the site, it will also demonstrate some of the technologies we think that are appropriate for the Square Kilometre Array, and then finally, of course, ASKAP by itself will be an absolutely fantastic radio telescope. The ASKA's Pathfinder will be operational by 2013 will be an absolutely fantastic radio telescope. is already providing the world's astronomers

with new discoveries courtesy of this telescope. It's the $30-million Widefield Array project developed by Australian, Indian and American scientists. We have a 32-antenna prototype instrument and we've already used that to make some observations of the sun

that have shown some really interesting new characteristics

of the sun. So, already we're using it in that respect and we're also using it to make observations of other galaxies and things in the distant universe. Project manager, Steven Tingay, says the Widefield Array

is another precursor to the SKA project. When completed it will be powered by a super computer in Perth. The full instrument, 500 tiles, will be used to study the very early evolution in the history of the universe. So we're looking back over 10 billion years with this telescope

to look at the first stars and galaxies form in the universe. So as a radio astronomer is this about as good as it gets? This is pretty close to the best when you're building a really new instrument and galaxies form in the universe. with cutting-edge technology in a pristine location like the Murchison area which is fantastic because it's away from a lot of people, there's very little interference

and we really need a very radio-quiet location to make these observations. Radio astronomers from all over the world are keenly watching what happens at Boolardy Station. And some, like Hamdi Mani and Judd Bowman, from Arizona State University

have already visited the site to test the technology. These antennas look very simple but they're actually pretty complicated devices so the interaction between the various parts of antenna are very important for us to know and are very sensitive astronomical measurement that we're going to attempt, so we're here to confirm some of those properties and see how the different pieces of the antenna interact we can put in a model when we observe the actual sky. How are you coping with the flies? Oh, we're doing our best. We're getting used to them little by little

but we have our nets that we wear most of the time and we're surviving. Astronomers and engineers from more than 70 institutes in 20 countries are working on the SKA project. It's a massive undertaking and, in fact, are working on the SKA project. because of its hugely international nature. No one country can afford the SKA. Phil Diamond moved to Australia last year to chair the SKA steering committee. What's happening today, guys? G'day, Phil. We're just about to install the cooling system. He may now be an administrator but at heart he remains a radio astronomer and is captivated by the potential of the project. So this is to keep all the electronics cool when it's up on the telescope? I want to make it a reality. I want to actually use it for some of the science that I'm interested in. Understanding pre-biotic molecules, try and gain some information on how life has evolved in the universe, things like that is some of my science interest and I would like to be able to use the SKA to do that. When its 3,000 antennas are finally built, the SKA will answer some of the great questions about the origins of the universe. It's absolutely mind blowing,

the power that it will have to survey the universe. Not only will we be able to see a much larger area of the universe right out to 13.5 billion years ago right at the very edge, we'll also be able to survey the sky much faster so it's not only more sensitive, it's more powerful and the discovery potential is vast. You can look literally at 10 billion years ago you can look at things that were happening at the very start of the universe, which is just mind-blowing. Does that mean you can also look into the future? Unfortunately not, no, not that we understand. You know, space and time are things we're - you know, our endeavours are to understand space and time

but we don't think we can look forward in time, no. At just 31, Lisa Harvey-Smith is the SKA project scientist. Once operational, she says it will herald a new age of discovery providing answers to questions such as how did galaxies evolve. We'll be able to see with the SKA over a billion galaxies in the first year - that's a thousand million galaxies - through a huge volume of the cosmos. Now, using special techniques looking at hydrogen atoms and measuring the distance to those galaxies we'll be able to measure whether or not there are ripples in space which are predicted by theories that emanate from the very early universe, to those galaxies

we'll be able to understand whether or not there's this mysterious dark matter pervading the universe, and also to the probe dark energy which we think is something that might exist in the universe. Dark energy is something which we think is expanding causing the universe to expand more quickly than we think it should because gravity should be pulling all the galaxies together and we think dark energy might be pushing them apart.

At Boolardy Station, every step is being taken to ensure the Australian bid is a success.

At Boolardy Station, every step is being taken to ensure the Australian bid is a success. So, it was that one again. Traditional owners have signed a land-use agreement and are overseeing anything which may impact on their country such as the laying of the National Broadband Network cables. But there may still be a potential roadblock for the bid.

The Murchison is now on the verge of a mining boom, with 13 billion tonnes of iron ore surveyed across the mid-west region of WA. It's a $1.3-trillion resource and digging it up, processing it and transporting it will make a lot of noise. We don't see any conflict with the SKA. We see that they're both the Square Kilometre Array project and the adjacent mines will coexist and we've made a lot of progress working with people like the CSIRO to give us confidence that technical solutions will be found and then into the future we can put in place administrative arrangements which will have the flexibility that both they and we need to be able to operate viably into the future. Well, the Government has some legislation to protect the inner core, the inner 70 kilometres, which is fairly strong legislation. It doesn't preclude people who are already there with radio equipment. It doesn't stop them using any of that. What it does do is it provides us the ability to check, if any new equipment comes in, if it's going to affect the observatory and if that's the case then we will work with the people there to minimise that affect. The CSIRO says the 70-kilometre exclusion zone will provide enough radio-quiet for the project just as Boolardy Station's aircraft, vehicle traffic and communications

can also be easily managed. I think they will put a filtration system on the aircraft because they've found that with the vehicle on the ground, the shrubs and the trees, for the project it breaks the sound up so that's not interfering, and it's not only us, it's the whole district because we've got duplex stations or repeater stations around the place so they will have to put filter on them. Good summer rains have set up Boolardy Station's grazing enterprise for a possible feed bonanza. After years of drought the station is now re-stocking from its partner farm further south at Dandaragan. I reckon with the cattle we've got here from its partner farm further south at Dandaragan. we'd sustain it for nearly 18 months. But even without good follow up rains the future outlook at Boolardy is bullish.

The station is managing the contractors now flowing into the site, a workforce which could swell to thousands

if Australia wins the SKA bid. We're a bit lucky to be actually managing it for the people that we have and it's a very exciting project and the people are actually fantastic and I think it will be a good project for the district once everyone gets themselves organised and it comes into fruition. The Ghan train trip through the centre of Australia a good project for the district is often noted as one of the world's great rail journeys.

The company the runs the service is always looking to add value. This year, over the Anzac Day long weekend, the trip was extended and took in many of the places that played a part during wartime. Around half the travellers on board were current or former servicemen. For one man in particular, a 93-year-old with an impressive service record, it was a trip down memory lane. # He was a famous drummer man From Chicago way # He had a boogie style That no-one else could play... # He was a famous drummer man From Chicago way and the platform's pumping to wartime tunes. # ..He's the boogie woogie bugle boy of company B.# In the crowd, Bill Corey, a veteran of World War II who's never missed an Anzac Day March in Adelaide in 65 years. This year will be different. Beside him a soldier from another war, his son, Don, now in a commanding position on board the Ghan train. Good morning. Hello, how are you, Rachel? Well, thank you. When I first asked him he sort of said, 'I'm marching in Adelaide,' and I told him a little bit more about the trip and what was happening and he said, 'Maybe I can march in Adelaide again next year, I'll only be 95 next year, so I'll march next year.' There's your room. Gee, this is alright. Better than the troop trains, isn't it? (Both laugh) Bill Corey grew up in a big family

in the mid-north of South Australia, the son of a country town butcher. Well, I was 22 when I enlisted. It seemed the thing to do. And so, I joined up. I didn't know anything about the army, I didn't know what anything meant - I didn't know corporal from captain but I soon found out. Within months he was posted to far away northern Africa to Tobruk, a place that would eventually etch itself in the annals of Australian military history. His 2nd 43rd Infantry Battalion was on the front line in halting the advance of the Italian-German forces. There wasn't a lot of fighting done in the daytime, it was just too hot. Most of it was early morning.

And every night, of course, there were those patrols out in no-man's land. The young Mr Corey and his mates ate outside in the dust and lived mostly underground.

An English traitor known as Lord Haw Haw broadcasting out of Germany and wanting to discredit the Australians dubbed them 'the rats of Tobruk.' He told us, 'You're living like rats in the desert,' you know, and, of course, we took it just the opposite to what he did. We took it and called ourselves the Rats. That's our stupid way of sense of humour, I suppose. But an odd thing that I remember - in one of my little holes, I had a rat in there. And I thought, 'Oh, don't want him walking over me.' So I lay there where he used to poke his head out and I had the bayonet about an inch above that hole so that when he popped his head out I'd get him. And he popped his head out and - do you know, I couldn't do it. I thought, 'He hasn't done anything to me.' So, he went on living. You know, even when you're telling that story about not being able to put a rat down, was it a very difficult thing to be put into a situation where you were fighting people, you were having to kill them? (Stammers) Yep. Er, it's a terrible thing. You can put all the excuses in the world and say...reasons - but you can't... ..alter it. To take a human life is terrible.

On this train there are a few dozen, mostly men, who, like Bill Corey, have witnessed just how terrible war can be. Like Vietnam vet, Brian Bultitude. Some things you can't explain, you don't want to explain, some things you don't want to remember, or try not to remember. Lorrance Lancaster is completing this special Anzac Day tribute trip

with his daughter, Lorraine. Retracing the tracks of his father who was in Darwin when it was bombed and who then who worked on the railroad. To the best of my memory that house here was never mentioned in the letters. This 78-year-old fought in Korea. It's where free-issue cigarettes made it easy to take up smoking. 20 years ago he had his larynx removed due to throat cancer. Korea was a land of contrasts, as far as I was concerned, having come from the green, lush countryside of Victoria in the Ballarat area there, and we were dug in on one ridge line and the enemy was on the opposite ridge line and we just sort of harassed each other on a daily basis. Before the regular use of aircraft, trains would cart servicemen from their homes to training camps or ports so they could be ferried by sea to far-flung places. Many of these excited young men would never meet again their loved ones. Bill Corey was, as he says, one of the lucky ones that remembers a long and uncomfortable journey with the track gauge becoming narrower and the trains more cramped, the further he headed north. I know I used to sleep up on the luggage rack if I could get up there, because you could stretch out. We used to be packed in and to go from when you come home on leave to Adelaide,

it was a long way going back to North Queensland. And it's a long way from Adelaide to Darwin too. The current standard gauge track stretches almost 3,000 kilometres. The old train line tracked further east. It's been largely closed for decades.

But for this lot of train trekkers, a rare treat. Getting off the modern Ghan at Port Augusta for a jaunt on an original steam-driven troop train. (Train whistles)

During World War II, around a million servicemen took this path.

Sliding past the salt lakes, grinding slowly through the lower reaches of the Flinders Rangers. The soldiers used to get that bored in it they used to get out and march alongside the train The soldiers used to get that bored in it and then they jumped back on. Bill Corey didn't ever take this particular route. But he has a fabulous memory and sitting among tourists and other ex-servicemen he recalled the day 70 years ago, almost to the day, when the siege of Tobruk began. Good Friday was on the 11th of April and that was when we were surrounded.

So, and then, for about another seven or eight months we were surrounded. And I was in an infantry unit so I was one of those that you call 'born lucky', because I've always been lucky. Still lucky to be alive, aren't I? 93. The train pulls up in Quorn as it would have during World War II, for it was a central rail hub then. During the war years up to 40 trains a day passed through Quorn

on their way north, east and west.

There were troop and passenger trains, coal and stock trains. These days the town is just a shadow of its former self. Train destinations can make or break railside towns. (Last post plays) The unmistakable notes of the Last Post ring out across Alice Springs. From 1929 until 2004 Alice was at the end of the Ghan line and became a pivotal place during World War II for the movement of personnel and supplies. The Ghan still pulls in here on its regular trip to and from Darwin and so it was in the wee small hours of Anzac Day passengers arrived for a central Australian Dawn Service. Australian and New Zealand soldiers, through sacrifice and mateship, along with their bravery at Gallipoli created the Anzac legend

which is now part of the identity of Australia and New Zealand. And as the sun rose over the McDonald Ranges,

men and women who'd fought in different wars and those who'd provided valuable military assistance at home, marched through the town.

Anzac Day to me meant meeting up with all the old chaps, but of course today, it's remembering the old chaps because there's so few of us to talk to, you know. Bill Corey wasn't just a Rat of Tobruk. He has an enviable service record

having been posted to five war zones in five years, battling first the Germans, and later the Japanese. And that's Tobruk medal. After Tobruk he was in Syria, then El Alamein in Egypt, New Guinea and Borneo. It's almost unheard of. I certainly have never met anyone who had fought in that many theatres of war was still alive and who was just able to share that information so freely. It was just, I'm sure Bill is a one off, that's for sure. (Applause) As one of the first women to go to sea in a warship, Sam Jackman is also no stranger to the pioneering spirit. The organisation she now works for was instrumental in bringing veterans together on a train journey that would drop into the pivotal places in Australia's military history. We started a relationship with Great Southern Rail probably about six months ago and we market it amongst our members and throughout Australia

and the concept just took off. There's a lot of work behind the scenes

because we have a train path that we have in place for this train so when we want to change it we've got to negotiate with the track owner and other rail users of that track

to be able to fit our train path in. With an order of Australia for service to Vietnam veterans, Brian Bultitude saw the journey as an opportunity to attend someone else's march. It's just a special time. This is probably the first Anzac Day I've had for about 15 years to do something by myself. I've been doing Anzac services in Grafton for the last 15 years and I needed a break. And so this has all started, you know, just tidy up a few loose ends for us. As well as that it's been a... (Stammers) ..one hell of a trip. (Guitar plays) # When I was a young man I carried a pack...# On its twice weekly trek from Adelaide to Darwin, the Ghan usually stops in Katherine.

It gives travellers a chance to motor through Katherine Gorge. This time, in line with the wartime theme, John Williamson played on the lawns adjacent with the gorge, and struck the right note with the veterans in the crowd. # And they gave me a tin hat And they gave me a gun # And they sent me away to the war. # What most people don't know is that Katherine was bombed during World War II, about a month after the Darwin raids. Now, that's pretty remarkable

considering this town is 300 kilometres inland. What is perhaps even more remarkable, though, according to historian, Tom Lewis, is that there were at least 70 Japanese raids across the whole of this Top End of northern Australia during 1942 and '43. Around 64, maybe up to 69 air raids in the Northern Territory but you also had raids in Western Australia as well, for example, Broome got heavily bombed on 3rd March and again on 20th March with 86 people dying in the first raid. Wyndham, all sorts of places, Milingimbi - it was pretty widespread. An hour from Darwin, this is Australia's biggest war cemetery. 434 bodies are buried here - service personnel from many parts of the world. It's here, where some of the 250 or so people who died during the 1942 bombing of Darwin, now rest. Tom Lewis, himself a navy officer, wants it known they died needlessly. Well, Darwin was not prepared for attack. Northern Australia was neglected. We should have had squadrons of spitfires, wants it known they died needlessly. We didn't. This is in 1942 so it's two years after the Battle of Britain where they had used radar and spitfires. The guns that were defending Darwin

had never been allowed to fire in practice. The first time the Gunners ever fired them was in combat. And the ammunition they were using was wrong. It was World War I ammunition marked, 'Not for use in the tropics,' and exploded 2,000 feet below the Japanese bombers so they're hitting nothing.

Four days and three nights after leaving Adelaide the Ghan rolls into Darwin. For the oldest person on-board and the one who has seen more bloodshed than most others, it was a memorable journey. But he won't be doing it again next year. Bill Corey has other plans. Oh, I doubt it because I would like to march in Adelaide next year.

If I'm still on my feet. Last year a cold end to autumn preceded a very wet winter. It's certainly been cold lately but it would seem we should have less moisture in winter this year. Why? Because the southern oscillation index continues to fade. Here's the latest number - and down and down it goes, now at plus 7.3 and as it moves closer to neutral, this would indicate a greater chance of average conditions. Now the rainfall spread around Australia for the last week. The national map reveales handy rain on the coast in Victoria, a decent splash in the west of Tasmania, a good drink over the Burnett region of Queensland and elsewhere, well, not a great deal. A bit of a shower in that country between the Pilbara and the Kimberley.

To State numbers, and in Queensland, Nanango scored 35mm,

between the Pilbara and the Kimberley. 23mm was the reading at Victoria's Cobden, Nugent in Tasmania had 31mm, Bridgewater in the Adelaide Hills had 37mm, not much in the Territory but Yuendumu near the Alice had 7mm while Marble Bar in WA scored 11mm. And that's the Landline check on rainfall. Next week, Kirrin McKechnie returns to St George four months after the south-western Queensland town was flooded for the second time in as many years.

So, David, how far would the floodwaters have got here? The first peak was right over the top

and the second peak you can just see up there,

so yeah, we would have been two metres of water through here. And what sort of damage has done it done to these vines? so yeah, we would have been two metres of water through here. Well, it's killed most of the cuttings and these old ones, they've had it as well. St George slays its own dragons,

one of our stories when Landline returns next week. I hope you'll join us again then. Bye for now.

(Closed Captions by CSI)