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Christchruch in ruins

Christchruch in ruins

Broadcast: 23/02/2011

Reporter: Conor Duffy

75 people have been confirmed dead in the devastated city and hundreds still remain remaining


HEATHER EWART, PRESENTER: Tonight hundreds of search and rescue specialists, firefighters and
paramedics are continuing to search through the rubble of Christchurch for trapped survivors of
yesterday's devastating earthquake. The death toll stands at 75, but 300 people are still missing.
The city's Emergency Services chief says rescuers may only have two or three days to locate anyone
still alive. Dozens of aftershocks have rocked the city, much of which remains without power or

We begin our special coverage by crossing live to the ABC's Conor Duffy in Christchurch.

Conor, what have been your impressions of the huge rescue effort and how the people of Christchurch
are coping with this disaster?

CONOR DUFFY, REPORTER: Heather, the scale of this disaster is just so massive that it's hard to
comprehend how anything could change a city so quickly, just transform it in a matter of minutes.
You see the buildings, monuments that have stood here for hundreds of years just transformed,
twisted, pits of wreckage.

But you really get a sense for the scale of this tragedy when you see the personal tales of grief
written on people's faces. Right from this morning when we first met people - medical teams who'd
been working through the night in the dark and the cold, pulling people from rubble, having to
perform amputations, pulling out the dead and some of them then have to sleep in the park and they
were just ashen-faced with grief.

Even worse are the people who have brothers or wives or husbands or sisters trapped down in the
rubble. You hear stories of people who've been able to make contact with people by mobile phone.
They feel so close to their loved ones, but yet they're still so far.

Amidst those personal stories there's also occasional flashes of joy as rescuers make a
breakthrough. And amidst all of these personal stories, there's the ongoing aftershocks, which you
really feel right through your body, right through your chest and you can see the fear on people's
faces every time the ground shakes again.

HEATHER EWART: It sounds an absolutely terrible situation. Are people still very much clinging to
the hope that there will be more survivors?

CONOR DUFFY: That's right, they are, Heather. And now really is the crucial time for that. As you
mentioned before, there's really two to three days to get people out and to get to them safely, so
the crucial hours are really right now. The city's in lockdown, the police are being very
restrictive on who can gain access to the city. There's even some reports suggesting journalists
could be arrested for entering there, and really, people are still just too much in shock to really
comprehend how big a scale this is and how big the rebuilding task is. And to give you a taste of
that, here's some images of the scene here in Christchurch.

JOHN KEY, NZ PRIME MINISTER: There is no reason that can make sense of this event, no words that
can spare our pain. We are witnessing the havoc caused by a violent and ruthless act of nature.
Many people have lost their lives, families have lost their cherished loved ones, mates have lost
their mates. Buildings are just buildings, roads are just roads, but people are irreplaceable. We
will be with you every step of the way.

CONOR DUFFY: Christchurch awoke to its devastating reality, a city on its knees and the destruction
worsening as more buildings collapsed. Many of its people are already grieving and others are
feeling the anguish of the desperate hunt for wives, husbands, fathers and sons.

RELATIVE: Hello? She's in the classroom. Are you in the classroom? Hey, people are doing everything
to save you.

RELATIVE II: I've been trying to text my daughter's phone since I had reception, just 'cause I
thought the rescuers might hear the ring and dig down and find her.

RELATIVE III: Trapped on the first floor, trying to get in there last night, we've got two kids at
home asking where mum is.

CONOR DUFFY: Even in a place that's endured six months of aftershocks following last September's
quake, the savagery of this disaster took everyone by surprise.

SARAH AZER, DOCTOR: We followed the locals' lead really and just ran into the middle of the street
and people were pouring out of buildings in absolute hysterics and we were just looking around in
absolute disbelief at the amount of damage that had been done to buildings that were only a few
metres down from the Convention Centre. And we barely had time to even get our bearings before the
aftershock hit.

CONOR DUFFY: A team of Australian doctors in Christchurch for a conference joined the rush to come
to the aid of strangers.

SARAH AZER: We said, "We're doctors, we wanna help, where are we needed?" And the cathedral was the
first place where a number of teams had congregated to try to clear the rubble. And what I was
greeted with was basically a spire that had collapsed next to the church and through the windows of
the cathedral you could see that rubble completely covered the entire tower. And I knew immediately
that there must have been people in that tower and that they must have been crushed by the rubble.

CONOR DUFFY: Dr Sarah Azer from Melbourne was among many to spend a cold and confronting night in
makeshift triage centres.

SARAH AZER: A lot of them had fractures, lots of cuts and lacerations, they were in shock. One
woman definitely had compartment syndrome in her leg and may lose that limb. There was a pregnant
lady that was able to be saved and rushed to the hospital. There was evidence all around you of
death, of damage, of places where people had been resuscitated.

CONOR DUFFY: And authorities fear people are still trapped in the rubble at at least seven major
sites across the city. The worst hit for now is the headquarters of a local television station,
where authorities say there have been no signs of life.

MIKE HALL, NZ FIRE & RESCUE: Well the CTV building was a devastating collapse and fire yesterday
and we had urban search and rescue people there from yesterday afternoon until this morning.

CONOR DUFFY: How many people do you fear could still be inside there?

MIKE HALL: Well, we don't know for sure. We're getting conflicting reports about how many people
may have been in there, but we understand up to 50 may - and I stress "may" - still may be in that
building. So we'll continue rescue operations on that basis.

CONOR DUFFY: So is that your biggest area of concern at the moment then in terms of human life?

MIKE HALL: Yes, yes it is.

CONOR DUFFY: The other major fear is for workers in the Pine Gould building, where it's believed
many people are still to be found. There was one breakthrough today, with Australian rescuers
reaching a woman trapped for 24 hours.

MIKE HALL: I was around at Pyne Gould Guinness half an hour ago and they found somebody they were
talking to in the rubble and that's really good. You know, it's one of the high points of what we

CONOR DUFFY: For now, though, there are more armoured personnel carriers on some streets than there
are cars.

The ever-present fear of aftershocks here in central Christchurch means that authorities are still
concerned about even seemingly secure buildings and greater loss of life. The other big problem
facing this city is access to fresh water. As much as 80 per cent of the city's water supply was
knocked out in the earthquake and residents are being told not to shower or use their toilets and
to conserve water as much as possible.

MIKE HALL: We've just had another aftershock five minutes ago that shook the whole ground here. So
our people have got to be extremely careful to make sure that they go careful, to make sure they go
safely and that in doing so, that they don't become victims themselves.

CONOR DUFFY: As New Zealanders prepare for another heartbreaking night, searching rubble in the
cold and dark, the country's leader is trying to rally his people.

JOHN KEY: Christchurch, this is not your test; this is New Zealand's test. I promise we'll meet
that test.

HEATHER EWART: Conor Duffy with that report.

Cathedral in ruins

Cathedral in ruins

Broadcast: 23/02/2011

Reporter: Heather Ewart

The spire from Christchurch's famous Cathedral has collapsed, a powerful symbol of the tragic
earthquake. The Very Reverend Peter Beck joins the program live to discuss the disaster.


HEATHER EWART, PRESENTER: The Christchurch cathedral is an imposing landmark in the ruined city and
its collapsed spire is a powerful symbol of the tragedy that's taken place. The 103-year-old
structure is one of New Zealand's top tourist drawcards, but today it's a no-go zone.

The very Reverend Peter Beck is the Dean of the Cathedral and joins me live now from Christchurch.

Reverend Beck, the cathedral and the spire particularly was a very much loved landmark. How are
people there dealing with the fact that the spire is no longer there, and what's more, that there
are victims under the rubble?

PETER BECK, DEAN, CHRISTCHURCH CATHEDRAL: Sure. Well the whole tower collapsed in the immediate
seconds of the shock and it's a huge tragedy of course, because it is - it opened in 1881. It is
the icon of our city. And I've been dealing with media calls all day, all around the world because
the cathedral is very much a symbol and sign of this city. So it's hold very closely to the hearts
of all Christchurch people, so it is a huge tragedy.

But of course it's a building and we can replace buildings somehow, and so our first priority here,
of course, is the people, and you've been seeing some of that on your program. The most important
thing at the moment is to get the people out who are trapped, to deal with the injured and to do
whatever we can for one another in this city, 'cause there's a huge, huge trauma. This is a major

So I mean, for those - for me, I think the enormity of this thing just hasn't hit me yet. It's just
too huge to bear in some ways, and to know there are people who are under that rubble in the
cathedral is a huge tragedy to comprehend.

So, it's a major thing, and in September last year when we had that first quake, I was able to say
to the city, the cathedral stand strong and resilient, it's a symbol and sign of the spirit of this
city. Well, I think our spirit has been hugely battered, but I have to say when you look around the
city, and we meet and look at what's going on here, there's a huge, huge reaching out amongst our
people to one another, to embrace each other, to take care of one another and that's exactly part
of what we call our Canterbury spirit. It's the human spirit at its very best.

HEATHER EWART: Before we hear more of that, do you have any idea of how many people were actually
inside the cathedral when the spire collapsed?

PETER BECK: Yeah, it's difficult to tell. I mean, it is one of the most popular tourist attractions
in the country. We get somewhere in the region of 700,000 visitors through there every year. So
there were certainly people in there at that time. The police seem to think - and it would be my
guess, too - we really, really don't know - probably somewhere between 15 and 20 people. And most
of them - I don't know who they are of course, but all I can guess is most of those would be
overseas visitors to the cathedral.

HEATHER EWART: How are you and fellow clergymen dealing with the disaster now? What are you trying
to do to help?

PETER BECK: I think, you know - myself, I'm out and about around the middle of the city, at the
Civil Defence headquarters supporting people there whenever I can and at the hospital and various
things like that. We have clergy and the other denominations too. We're one of the few professional
groups that actually still live within the communities that we serve. So, I've been saying to my
colleagues, "Make sure you got your dog collars on, your clerical collars and be out and amongst
your own neighbourhoods; not just your parishioners, but the whole communities that you're a part
of." And that's what they're doing, and they're trained to be pastors and counsellors and that's
what they're doing the best they can. So it's a huge task and all people are reaching out to one
another and doing the best they can.

HEATHER EWART: You must be hearing some very heartbreaking stories, but I guess also some
inspirational ones. Can you share any of those with us that stand out?

PETER BECK: Well, yeah, I mean, I think that we had - you will have seen it, I'm sure, the woman
who was trapped in the cathedral above our north porch in a room up there. I mean, that was - she's
one of our parishioners, one of our regulars at the cathedral, and just people coming through,
loads of them, wanting to get up there, wanting to try and help and support. And we managed to get
a ladder and the police and other people were up there and got her down. There were just so many
people wanting to come and help. And I think you had a doctor on just before me and I met her in
the square and she was describing the situation there and we've seen a lot of that.

Out and around the city, you're seeing neighbours reaching out to help one another to try and make
do some of the terrible damage that's done to homes so that people can actually still live around.
The liquefication that is around just is just huge too. So everybody's getting out and about and
trying to sort of clean that up and tidy it up.

Sam Johnson, who's the chair of our Students' Association at the university, he's got hundreds of
students who are actually just waiting to be asked what to do and they're turning up at the - he's
managing all that from the Civil Defence centre and our volunteers are coming in from everywhere.

HEATHER EWART: And finally, and just briefly 'cause we are running out of time here, are you
bracing for the worst as this rescue operation moves into the next phase?

PETER BECK: Oh, you have to say this is a huge, huge trauma. This is not something that's gonna be
over in a few days. The last quake in September, we were only just beginning to get traction and
we're all well aware, those of us who are in the caring profession is that the psychological need,
the post-traumatic stress will take months to really hit its peak. Now that's all gone right back
again. We're right at the start of it all again and even worse. This is a very, very long-term
issue for our city and for our people and it's tough, it's very, very tough. But we will get
through. We will get there and there's a huge sense of desire for that around our people too. But
we've got to acknowledge that many, many people are severely traumatised and that's gonna take a
long, long time to work through.

HEATHER EWART: Well clearly there are some pretty rough times ahead. We wish you all the best and
thank you very much for joining us tonight.

PETER BECK: Thankyou. And please, whenever you are people over there, please remember us in your
prayers or your thoughts because we certainly need them at the moment.

HEATHER EWART: They certainly do.

The search for survivors

The search for survivors

Broadcast: 23/02/2011

Reporter: John Taylor

A volunteer rescue worker discusses the catastrophe with our reporter in Christchurch.


HEATHER EWART, PRESENTER: Rescue teams from around the world are racing against the clock tonight
to find survivors. It's a massive operation that's being helped by many civilians. The ABC's John
Taylor is also in Christchurch and he met one of these volunteers today.

JOHN TAYLOR, REPORTER: People here talk of the Kiwi spirit, a staunchness and a stoicism in the
face of adversity and that is on display here. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key has advised
Kiwis who want to act on their desire to help to do so, saying no act of kindness is too small.
Well, one local resident who lived through the earthquake is Glenn McConnell.

Well Glenn, you were in the heart of Christchurch when the earthquake struck. What did you see?

GLENN MCCONNELL, LOCAL RESIDENT: Just a lot of fear and panic, a lot of injured people, fronts of
buildings falling onto people. It was a real disaster zone.

JOHN TAYLOR: Tell us how you came to become involved in emergency rescues then?

GLENN MCCONNELL: Um, got a little bit of climbing and confined space certification, so when I
phoned a friend who was already inside a building and he asked me to come and help him, I went.

JOHN TAYLOR: And what have those rescues been like and how many people have you been able to help?

GLENN MCCONNELL: Well, my friends and I have got about 13 people out of one particular building,
the Pine Gould Guinness building. A person lifted out three ladies. It's good to get them out. We
had to crawl in amongst people who didn't make it; that's not so good.

JOHN TAYLOR: There are still aftershocks. How difficult is it to work in such circumstances?

GLENN MCCONNELL: When you're inside a building that's already pancaked down and you don't know how
much further it's gonna go, that's pretty difficult. Working in amongst the city, seeing things
like the Grand Chancellor Hotel leaning one metre further every hour, knowing that it's gonna fall,
it's pretty hard.

JOHN TAYLOR: Does it make it doubly hard that this is your home, these are your people, this is ...

GLENN MCCONNELL: Yeah, it really does. I mean, we know people who've died. My family had miraculous
escapes, a lot of my workers were in buildings that collapsed and none of them were hurt. Got to
say some big thankyous.

JOHN TAYLOR: Authorities say that there's a two to three day window mostly - miracles do happen -
but a two to three day window to rescue people in such circumstances. With what you've seen and
done, do you expect a lot more successful rescues?

GLENN MCCONNELL: You can hope, you can pray. Miracles happen, you hear the stories from overseas;
we hope for those. On the buildings I've been involved in, they've pulled out, even done the
sniffer dogs, they've said it's pretty much over there. And I've heard that that's happened at a
number of other sites. But every now and then you hear the dogs light up and you think, "Well
there's hope there."

The science behind earthquakes

The science behind earthquakes

Broadcast: 23/02/2011

Reporter: Mary Gearin

A series of experts shed light on the terrifying phenomena of earthquakes.


HEATHER EWART, PRESENTER: New Zealand is well known for its earthquake-prone geology, but
Christchurch has been considered lower risk than other cities such as Wellington. That's because it
doesn't sit on the boundary of any tectonic plate.

This latest quake, described as a one in 5,000-year event, is set to provide new scientific
insights and pose new challenges for those planning to rebuild a city. Mary Gearin reports.

DAVE LAURIE, OPERATIONAL COMMANDER: The Grand Chancellor building is significantly structurally
damaged and its (inaudible) collapsed.

?: Some of the mortar has degraded very badly over the last 100 years, and in many cases it's no
better than beach sand.

MARY GEARIN, REPORTER: As Christchurch's history, its iconic buildings, continue to fall, it's not
only the general public that's shocked, it's the entire scientific community.

GARY GIBSON, EARTH SCIENCES, UNI. OF MELBOURNE: The September earthquake on its own or yesterday's
earthquake on their own were not at all unusual, but the two happening together was unusual.

MARY GEARIN: Earthquake hazard consultant Dr Gary Gibson has been speaking to colleagues across the
globe, comparing notes about what might have happened.

New Zealand is a unique geological site because of the complex combination of tectonic plate edges
on the east side of the North Island and the west side of the South Island.

GARY GIBSON: In that crossing over, Christchurch is at the southern end of that, there's been a lot
of crushing and complicated faulting to accommodate the changing motion.

MARY GEARIN: One theory is that September's earthquake, caused by a faultline no-one previously
knew about, caused increased pressure along another faultline and it gave way yesterday.

In retrospect, some of which were considered aftershocks from September might have been in fact
precursors to this latest event.

But this chain of events doesn't mean Christchurch is necessarily a riskier place than had been
previously thought.

GARY GIBSON: The Christchurch earthquake was probably about a one in 5,000-year earthquake, whereas
the building codes are normally designed for something like a one in 500-year earthquake.

PHIL GOFF, NZ OPPOSITION LEADER: The heritage of the city, the churches, the old buildings, they're
down. Those that grew up in Christchurch, their grandchildren will never see the city that they

MARY GEARIN: So what will Christchurch of the future look like? Gary Gibson believes that while
authorities may choose to spend more on construction and design, the building codes won't need to
be tightened. He's worked on the codes in New Zealand and he says the engineering there is top

Building codes are generally only revised every decade and New Zealand's were updated a couple of
years ago.

GARY GIBSON: The earthquake yesterday was so close that it would stretch any building code to some
extent and especially the older buildings.

JAMES GOFF, NATURAL HAZARDS, UNSW: We're gonna be having a lot of aftershocks and I wouldn't be at
all surprised if we had another biggish one and that may cause, again, some horrible damage, but
that doesn't stop you from going through the recovery process.

MARY GEARIN: Professor James Goff watched yesterday as some of his friends were evacuated from the
collapsed cathedral in Christchurch, where he lived for eight years. As part of his work for the
Natural Hazards Research Laboratory in the University of NSW, he's predicted a low tsunami threat,
but he says the city's major problem will be rebuilding on problematic soil.

JAMES GOFF: Christchurch is essentially built on a drained wetland. A lot of not very nice sediment
to be living on when there's a lot of ground-shaking and movement going on when there's an
earthquake. Not a great place to build a city.

MARY GEARIN: Dr Gibson says a process called liquefaction was perhaps more significant a problem
than building standards or design.

GARY GIBSON: It's like if you're down at the beach and you wiggle your foot in the sand. At some
stage, it suddenly liquefies and you end up with a puddle and water and it's got no strength. The
soil fails, flows, collapses, its foundations collapse and buildings can follow.

MARY GEARIN: The museum in Wellington is one place that's used compacted sediments in its
foundation to stave off liquefaction, but that may not be feasible on a large scale.

GARY GIBSON: Very expensive. For housing or roads or so on, at this stage I can't think of an
economic way of reducing it.

MARY GEARIN: The scientific upside of this whole episode is that hundreds of strong motion
recorders had been sent to Christchurch after the September event, making this latest earthquake
arguably the best recorded in history, and with knowledge hopefully can come better guidance in the
rebuilding process.

HEATHER EWART: Mary Gearin with that report.

Victims in trauma

Victims in trauma

Broadcast: 23/02/2011

Reporter: Heather Ewart

New Zealand authorities are now rushing to provide support for the earthquake's survivors. A
leading disaster recovery expert discusses the trauma that Christchurch's residents now face.


HEATHER EWART, PRESENTER: One of the most pressing issues for authorities now is providing support
for trauma victims. Professor Edward Blakeley has spent the past four decades leading disaster
recovery teams in the United States and around the world. He's visiting Australia and I spoke to
him late today.

Professor Blakeley, do you empathise with the people of Christchurch and understand what they'd be
going through right now?

three earthquakes: San Francisco, Oakland and Los Angeles, and they're really traumatic and the
trauma's gonna go on for some time. It's not just a matter of losing your home and things like this
and losing your loved ones. You just can't imagine the city coming back together the way it was
before. They've lost a lot of structures, a lot of memories are gone. It's going to be very hard
for people to get their lives back together because when they look around, the things that were
familiar just aren't there.

HEATHER EWART: So as one who's experienced this, what are the various stages of emotion and trauma
they're going to go through in the days and weeks and months ahead?

ED BLAKELY: Well, the first one is anger, unfortunately. People are angry that nobody noticed them,
the warnings didn't come through, that they weren't prepared, buildings they thought were safe
turned out not to be safe. So there's going to be a lot of anger and I think people in political
life have to be prepared to receive a lot of anger. Then of course there's grief. A good long
period of grief. I can remember at 9/11 I stepped on the train platform and people that I used to
have football tipping with weren't there. And I just started crying. And then there's a period of,
"Well let's just get our act together, let's try to survive." And people want to volunteer then,
they want to do bake sales, they want to do things. And I would say to public officials: "Please
let them do them. Don't stand in the way, facilitate that." That is a very important aspect of

And then, of course, there's the recovery period, which lasts a long time. Some people simply go
into mourning and that mourning can go on. People in New Orleans are still in mourning, and it's a
good thing they have the bands and things like this that come out on the streets and people'll be
parading around in tears, because familiar things are gone. So that'll take a few years. And then
there's some people who have psychological problems, unfortunately. Let's be honest here: there are
gonna be children every time a car backfires are gonna jump under the table, and that will go on
for some time.

HEATHER EWART: Do you think that there will be people, perhaps quite a lot of people who simply
can't cope and want to get out?

ED BLAKELY: Well in New Orleans we've only gotten 30 per cent of the population back. I think
certainly it'll be a higher number in Christchurch. But you have to look at about half the people
trying to make a decision as to whether they wanna stay there or not, because if their personal
lives haven't been interrupted, their neighbourhood's disrupted.

HEATHER EWART: Now you've advised on a lot of the rebuilding processes after disasters in America.
What do you think New Zealand authorities need to focus on?

ED BLAKELY: Well the first thing they have to focus on is what you call getting back to normal,
providing water, providing electricity, providing the basics. And then giving people a lot of help
about what they should do next. I have cautioned people should not just simply, because their house
looks safe, walk into it and turn on the gas and the electricity because there still may be some
damage inside the walls and the like. So there needs to be a good volunteer corps that knows
something about building safety that goes into every single building before that building's
occupied for any period of time, because the last thing you need is a little mini-disaster of
someone turning on the gas and blowing up the entire neighbourhood.

HEATHER EWART: Is Christchurch a case of a city being built in the wrong place and that bad urban
planning over the years has made things much worse after this disaster?

ED BLAKELY: Earthquakes are very different. You're always in the wrong place if you're building
near an earthquake, so Christchurch and Los Angeles are in the same position in that regard. I
would not say that. When you have a flood, then urban planning can make a huge difference. Building
codes do make a difference, but a lot of Christchurch was very old and those old buildings, many of
them did not survive.

HEATHER EWART: What do you think that you've learnt? What lessons have you learnt from disasters
and earthquakes in the US that could be applied to Christchurch?

ED BLAKELY: Well the first lesson is for all of New Zealand. We should start looking at every
building now and doing the reinforcement that California requires by law. Every house, every
commercial structure has to be reinforced for a level six earthquake and so it can ride out that
earthquake. Every bridge, everything has to be organised for earthquake across New Zealand.

The second thing is decentralise. Having central power systems, central water systems means in any
interruption, the entire organisation goes down. Go the Japanese route: have decentralised power,
decentralised electricity, decentralised water so that you can survive an earthquake. And finally,
citizens should be prepared. Citizens are now looking for their loved ones. You have to have a
personal plan. Where are you going to be in a disaster? In New Orleans and in California, people
carry their personal plans with them every day.

HEATHER EWART: Professor Blakeley, thankyou very much for taking the time to join us.

ED BLAKELY: Thankyou.

Just before we go, we'll cross back to Conor Duffy cross back to Conor Duffy in Christchurch. Are
you expecting any breakthroughs tonight in the rescue effort or any further news on the death toll?

Rescuers will be desperate for some good news tonight. It's now been a day and a half since the
quake and as we've mentioned before there's that crucial 2 -3 day window. They're going to be
working through the It's still try to get that breakthrough. It's still very dangerous work,
though, since we've been on air we've felt a mild tremor and there's a number of large buildings in
the city centre on the verge of collapse. Unfortunately the death toll is expected to rise during
the night. There's areas, buildings where authorities don't believe people could be alive and as
they confirm from friends and loved ones that they were, in fact, in those buildings at the time of
the quake they'll begin to account for them. So there'll probably be much more grim news in the
morning. morning.

Thank you, and we'll hear more in our reports tomorrow night. The Australian Red Cross has launched
an appeal for the New Zealand earthquake. To make earthquake. To make a donation, visit the webs.
That's it for now, I hope you'll join us again at the same time tomorrow night. Goodnight.