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Catastrophe -

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(generated from captions) will be welcomed. Soon the 1 millionth postwar migrant the demise of White Australia. a new migration scheme, a humanitarian crisis Australia policy to history. to finally consign the White Next on Immigration Nation, an Aboriginal activist and leader then none of us would be here at all. that wiped out 70% of all species, It unleashed a series of events completely on its head. that turn that whole notion In this series, we're looking at the in perspective, To put earth's violent history think of it like a clock. 3 million years. Each minute represents it blasted billions of tons of debris Now, 65 million years later, Basically, along the Red Deer River, we have 10 million years there are different dinosaurs. And at each level, The deeper the layer, Each one of these pages, of course, the Cretaceous-Tertiary, what I was looking for. This is exactly no evidence of dinosaurs at all. from countless species... Below it, fossils Nobody knew what caused Jan Smit came to these very cliffs. what killed off the dinosaurs. And he thought the K-T boundary layer 'Cause I thought there must be But it IS found in meteorites and asteroids.

rather than from a massive asteroid hit the planet... that 65 million years ago, of iridium, has totally vaporised but the meteorite They still didn't know. of the earth's history - 65 million years ago. And where better to come than here - Meteor Crater, Arizona. than the one that must have been made Meteor Crater is many times smaller the enormous power the rock itself... was enough to transform Next stop - Trinidad, Colorado. But that's not why it's interesting. extraterrestrial was going on here, that something funny, something we also find the shocked quartz. this is that layer where of miles an hour. travelling at many thousands As we move to the south-east, however,

toward the Caribbean, as we move toward the south-east,

in that region of the world. that the impact occurred buried three-quarters of a mile It was huge - around each other, like a bullseye, You're seeing circles the size of a crater. and the rings define And it turns out we found shocked quartz. and later, on the microscope, 1,000 years ago. The Mayans worshipped here But the land they built on was shaped or sinkholes. She realised that the pattern a detective story, The discovery really was like the last piece of the puzzle and the cenote ring was on natural fault lines - Her team studied satellite images to build up a detailed picture the surface of the earth, that jetliners are flying. object slamming into the earth. in the impact zone. incinerated virtually all life the biggest the world had ever known. red-hot debris from the impact rained I learnt maths from my dad...

Are you coming? No. Willpower is like a muscle. ANNOUNCER: The more you use your willpower, the stronger it gets to resist cigarettes. and the easier it gets you get used to not smoking. So, over time, Every cigarette you DON'T smoke makes your willpower stronger. at 20 times the speed of sound. A blast wave shot out Amazingly, with modern technology, 65 million years ago. just as scientists think it did represents the sea floor, A substrate of sand Come on, get her saved. Get her saved. OK, let's see what really happened. been lasting seconds This is the part that would have The effect of the impact If we imagine this being the earth, less than my fingernail height. We're talking about 500 billion tons Some of the debris would have hold it in its orbit. sent from the earth to the moon. At the point of impact, This was hell on earth. from the impact itself to splash out. would have been 10 times higher and could have survived the onslaught. Nothing within the impact zone far from the impact, unless the aftermath of the impact we find small particles of soot. and in all parts of the world. And in fact, if you add up to, you know, And that's roughly equivalent

Los Alamos, New Mexico. at the Applied Physics Division They've spent it hurled over 500 billion tons up into the upper atmosphere A lot of it makes it the entire atmosphere It buried the planet in burning rock the earth was ablaze. that had survived the initial blast For the dinosaurs, anywhere on Incredibly, against all the odds, what they seem. WOMAN: Things aren't always Take these two Cruze CDs. They look the same. This one has iPod connectivity all your favourite tracks. so you can stream So does this one. bonus alloy wheels. This one comes with So does this one. are identical In fact, both these Cruze CDs

at $22,990 driveaway except this one's 2010 plated, a $1,000 factory cashback. which means it also comes with while stocks last Hurry into your Holden dealer and spot the difference. Holden. Go better. off the Mexican coast. a massive asteroid struck and the global wildfires all of this ash and debris and dust Dust and ash blocked out the sun. a lot of sulfur-bearing minerals, The fact is that that area had and that has longer-term effects as well as immediate poisoning Forests destroyed by fire and temperatures returned to normal. But there was a sting in the tail. this six-month-long winter where there's no sunlight at all, a little bit of sunlight and the plummeting temperatures and it hung on for centuries, and not returning to normal values Carbon dioxide choked the planet. on a fast track. at any scale today. It wasn't a bad summer. They died too. still would have affected them. to adjust. would have been very difficult a long time of survival. It would have been Of course, it will happen again. 100 million years or so. the size of Greater London. the death and destruction, us. So the extinction of the dinosaurs We're here because they're not. the K-T meteorite impact If we compare Through burrowing, than anything that would be on the surface, such as these large dinosaurs. would be very helpful Mammals, on the other hand, they lay their eggs on the inside, predators, scavengers. who inherited the earth, to one freak event - (DRUMS BEAT) (CELTIC MUSIC PLAYS)