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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) is St David's Head, A stone's throw from the colliery patron saint worked his wonders. where it's believed the Welsh Mine's a well-trodden path. it's been a site of pilgrimage For 1500 years, ETHEREAL CHORAL MUSIC largest cathedral St David's is Wales' set in Britain's smallest city. of just four streets and 2000 souls. It's a throbbing metropolis point of mainland Wales This peninsula is the most westerly and as far as I go. community feel to this coastline. On my journey, I've discovered a real From Cardiff Bay's new boat people... to colossal caravan parks. are drawn to their coast - The people of South Wales of the nation. it embodies the communal spirit and it means "foreigner", "Welsh" is an English word call themselves 'Cymry'. but the people living here "compatriots", That can be translated as people you can rely on, is all about. and that's what community Captions (c) SBS Australia 2011 MACHINE-GUN FIRE, EXPLOSIONS By the end of October 1942, against the German onslaught. Stalingrad was still holding out German troops in Stalingrad that they had won. heard the Fuhrer announce BROADCAST IN GERMAN "We have captured Stalingrad. of resistance, "We will take the few small pockets had become the symbol To Hitler, Stalingrad of victory over Russia. TENSE MUSIC

Sieg heil! ALL: Sieg heil! Sieg heil! CHEERS

had come to a standstill. The Germany army in Russia the Germans besieged Leningrad. In the north, But after 700 days of siege, was as strong as ever. Soviet resistance the original German objective, In the centre, Moscow, remained out of reach. In the south, on the Baku oilfields the German advance in the Caucasus mountains. had come to a halt In Stalingrad, were holding their ground. the Soviets reinforcements over the Volga. their boats were still ferrying Every day, thousands of young men, or training, sometimes without weapons were landed on the western bank. Political commissars executed any in the face of German fire. who retreated declared A Soviet officer, Colonel Ludnikov, metre of earth. "We fight for each and every it's the Stalingrad metre. "Every centimetre counts. We do not retreat." "We bite the earth. to dislodge them. The Germans tried flame-throwers This was the hell of Stalingrad. and all along the front, On 7 November, in Stalingrad announce the celebration Soviet troops heard Stalin of the Revolution. of the 24th anniversary another reason to celebrate. And soon, there would be who had saved Moscow, had a plan. General Zhukov, the man of resistance alive He was keeping the niches committed inside Stalingrad. in order to keep the German army of the Volga, Meanwhile, on the other side a huge army. he was secretly assembling to Stalin. Every man had to take an oath In spite of all the destruction of its territory, and the loss of a quarter to equip this new army. the whole Soviet Union was labouring and shipped to the gates of Asia Factories that had been dismantled were operating 24 hours a day.

were sacrificed. In them too, countless lives The women working in these unheated, were cold and hungry. sometimes roofless workshops, Many died of exhaustion. increased tenfold. But industrial production massive aid to Russia. America was providing defied German submarines and aircraft Convoys crammed with supplies such as Murmansk. to reach Soviet ports was a thing of the past. Anti-Communism "Uncle Joe". President Roosevelt called Stalin he was "Good old Joe". To the British, huge shipments of jeeps, The Russians received tanks, planes, trucks... and corned beef. Soviet soldiers joked When they opened the cans, "We're opening the Second Front!" Along with Stalin, to take direct action. they were desperate for the Allies a second front? Why hadn't they opened Why hadn't they landed in the west? had their hands full in Egypt. But the British Following his desert victories, to Field-Marshal. Rommel had been promoted His tank army, the Afrika Korps, to the Suez Canal. was getting dangerously close It had reached El Alamein. was in peril. The lifeline of the British Empire

CHEERS to rally his desert army. Churchill flew to Egypt but he still had his sense of humour. The outlook was grim, He told Montgomery "I drink and smoke "and I am 200 per cent fit." his first heart attack And yet he had suffered less than a year before.

first choice of commander. Montgomery wasn't Churchill's were a little worried - The men of the desert army the New Zealanders, the British, the Australians, and the Free French. the South Africans the son of an Ulster clergyman, As soon as he arrived, Montgomery, of strict discipline. ordered a new regime Captain David Belchem, recalled One of his officers, was that he was small and thin. "What struck us like the rest of us. "He wasn't tanned for the occasion "He said a few words "'We will stand and fight here. then let us stay here dead.' "'If we can't stay here alive, in his tent." "And he hung a picture of Rommel

was the opposite of Rommel. Montgomery He was cautious. superiority in men and equipment, He waited, building up his Sherman tanks from America. such as the fast, powerful anti-tank mines had to be cleared. But before the Shermans could attack, the anti-personnel mines. Then there were Captain Belchem recalled "There is nothing more horrible. millions of them. "Everyone had planted mines,

spring were the most diabolical. "The German mines with the double EXPLOSION "The poor fellow who stepped on one would hear the click, "but nothing would happen. "When he raised his foot, it would explode." EXPLOSIONS Montgomery launched his offensive with an intensive barrage followed by a massive tank assault.

The German 88-millimetre guns took a heavy toll. Rommel's men fought back hard. The battle came down to bayonet charges, with heavy casualties on both sides. In this deadly game, numbers told. Hitler ordered Rommel "There can be no other thought than to stand fast, "yield not a yard of ground!" But Rommel wrote to his wife, "We're simply being crushed by the enemy's weight. "I rack my brains for a way out of this plight for my poor troops. "We are facing perhaps the most difficult days "that a man can undergo." And he added "The dead are lucky, it's all over for them." Rommel retreated.

He saved his men by taking the fuel of his Italian allies - who were captured en masse. WIND HOWLS MAN OVER PA: A remarkable and definite victory. Britain had defeated the German army for the first time. No, this is not the end. It is not even the beginning... of the end. But it is perhaps the end of the beginning. ALL CHEER Coming up in World at 9:30. Chaos Cairo as pro and anti-Mubarak transition talks now. Dealing Yasi. And lives (ACOUSTIC GUITAR MUSIC) MAN: (SINGS) # From little things WOMAN: # From little things Big things grow... # VOICEOVER: Nearly half of all Australian workers have joined something run only to benefit her interests, his interests, and their interests. Something that could mean tens of thousands of dollars more for their retirement. # From little things big things grow... # Industry SuperFunds - run only to benefit members. VOICEOVER: On March 31, 2007, Australia united to take a stand against global warming. Our actions created a momentous occasion that has inspired the world. And on Saturday, March 26, the world will look to us to take the lead again. Started here, embraced by the world. "The end of the beginning." Churchill's quip went around the world. But in his East Prussian headquarters, the Wolf's Lair, Hitler was scornful. He said "It's just a setback. "The war will go on." And so it did. In Operation Torch, Anglo-American forces landed in French North Africa. SHIP'S HORN As their fathers had in 1917, American troops crossed the Atlantic. The French writer Antoine de Saint-Exupery returned from exile in New York on one of these transports. The author of 'The Little Prince' wrote "My American friends, I would like to do you full justice.

"50,000 soldiers are going to war "to save, not the United States, "but humanity, respect for humanity,

"the freedom and the greatness of man." Off Casablanca and Oran, the Anglo-American force was greeted by French artillery fire. Allied warships replied. French North Africa was controlled Vichy government. by the collaborationist the landing Its forces strongly opposed and suffered heavy losses. leader of the Free French, General de Gaulle, broadcast an appeal from London. against their liberators, After two days of fighting the Vichy forces surrendered. The landing was secure. In Algiers, the pragmatic Allied commander General Eisenhower

opened negotiations with the head of the French navy, Admiral Darlan. Darlan was only in North Africa by chance. An ardent collaborator and former head of the Vichy government, he had even met Hitler. Now he decided to switch sides. The French forces in Algeria and Morocco joined the Allies. A few weeks later, Darlan was assassinated by a French resistance fighter. CHEERS The French population in North Africa greeted the Americans with relief.

The troops of the French garrison were relieved as well - they had never wanted to shoot at Americans. In fact, they would soon be joining them, like almost all other French colonials. as they were called then, So would the native troops, light infantry units. who would form Moroccan and Algerian for a new front. All of them would soon set off by moving into Tunisia, For Hitler had anticipated the Allies which was still controlled by Vichy. the colony next door, Rommel was retreating to Tunisia. Meanwhile, Two days after occupying Tunisia, against the Allies. to secure the Mediterranean coast to take the port of Toulon, Hitler's orders were home of most of the French navy. to scuttle the French fleet Petain's admirals decided into the hands of the Germans... to keep it from falling or of the Allies. That was the sad outcome of Petain's policy of collaboration. The arrival of the Germans spread terror in the former "Free Zone", where many Jews had found a precarious refuge.

As the pace of round-ups and deportations of Jews increased all over Europe, some children were saved by courageous families. Like Carl de Brouwer's. De Brouwer was a Belgian banker. He had four children of his own, and he and his wife Denise hid two Jewish children. Monique Mogoulsky, the 12-year-old daughter of an engineer,

who was in hiding somewhere himself. And six-year-old Adrien Sapcaru. deported for "labour" in the East. Adrien's mother was arrested and from Auschwitz. She would never return By now, many people suspected used words like "labour", that when the German authorities

the true meaning was "death". were ordinary people - and heroes. Carl and Denise de Brouwer they were awarded the title After the war, of "Righteous among the Nations", other men and women along with nearly 20,000 from all over occupied Europe. 2000 kilometres away, before returning to Stalingrad German soldiers enjoyed a respite "last pockets of resistance". to deal with the DRAMATIC MUSIC The German flanks were guarded by men from the Third Reich's satellite countries - Romanians, Hungarians, Italians, all of them oblivious to the looming danger... DRAMATIC MUSIC A few kilometres away, Soviet troops were about to attack. Their hatred of the invaders was boundless. And there were over a million of them. Their mission was to overwhelm the enemy's weakest units and cut off the German army in Stalingrad. At 5 a.m. on 19 November, a barrage from 3000 guns known as 'Stalin organs' and the rocket-launchers shattered the Axis lines. Eugenio Corti, recalled An Italian soldier, "The rockets fell as fast as hail. as if in an earthquake." "The ground shook launched its offensive. Zhukov's massive army were short of ammunition. The Hungarians

had no anti-tank weapons. The Romanians The Italians were slaughtered. On the 23rd, of the Soviet offensive the northern and southern prongs linked up at Kalach on the River Don. CHEERS DRAMATIC MUSIC close the circle around them. The Germans saw the Soviet tanks was trapped in Stalingrad. Hitler was at the Berghof, his retreat in the Bavarian Alps, when he heard of the Soviet offensive. His first reaction was to tell his inner circle "We have to hide this news from the German people." He quickly left for his headquarters in East Prussia, declaring "If the 6th Army withdraws from Stalingrad, "the Wehrmacht will never return there." Paulus could still break out of the encirclement - but it would mean disobeying orders. For when Hitler arrived at the Wolf's Lair, he sent him this message. An army will come to your relief." "Stand firm.

But no army could reach them - and despite Goering's promises, sufficient supplies by air. the Luftwaffe could not deliver rations were reduced At Christmas, and 12 grams of fat. to 50 grams of bread a medical orderly, Paul Gerhardt Moller, 39, wrote to his wife "My dear Magdalena, attempt to contact the outside world. "this letter is probably my last "We are surrounded. were ghastly, "The days that lie behind us "impossible for me to describe. "The mass of wounded men we have! "Their misery is indescribable, situation makes it far, far worse. "and the hopelessness of the

"My dearest, I don't want to burden your heart needlessly, "but you should know how things stand. "That I often grieved you -especially in the early years - "I deeply regret. "Forgive me!"

Lieutenant von Loebbecke wrote "On our radios we heard a Russian repeating over and over, in German, "'A German soldier dies in Russia every seven seconds.' "'Stalingrad Messenger.' "Stalingrad is a mass grave."

Mussolini, who has just lost an army at Stalingrad, was looking for a way to end the war. He said to Hitler can never be destroyed. "I am convinced that Russia can never be conquered." "A territory that big He took Hitler aside and added We should make peace with Stalin." "The Russian chapter is over. What would Hitler do? that the Russian campaign To negotiate would be to admit had been a disastrous error. Nonetheless, secret talks were begun, as intermediaries. using neutral Sweden and the Vatican out of Hitler's hands. But events were to take matters (ACOUSTIC GUITAR MUSIC) MAN: (SINGS) # From little things Big things grow... # WOMAN: # From little things of all Australian workers VOICEOVER: Nearly half

have joined something run only to benefit her interests, his interests, and their interests. Something that could mean tens of thousands of dollars more for their retirement. # From little things big things grow... # Industry SuperFunds - run only to benefit members. In January 1943, President Roosevelt arrived in Casablanca, Morocco, for his first big trans-Atlantic conference. He and Churchill wanted to settle the prickly question in French North Africa, of political power which had now been liberated. to exclude de Gaulle, Roosevelt wanted the legitimate French leader who had claimed to be ever since 1940. Roosevelt told his wife certainly a patriot, "General de Gaulle is a soldier, "and devoted to his country

a politician and a sectarian, "but, on the other hand, he is also all the attributes of a dictator." "and I believe he has in him another French leader to Casablanca, Roosevelt preferred to invite General Giraud. Taken prisoner in 1940, he had just escaped from Germany. and he didn't meddle in politics. He cut a dashing figure, to support de Gaulle. Churchill continued He invited de Gaulle to Casablanca to try and reconcile the two rival generals - no easy task. Roosevelt and Churchill agreed that the two Frenchmen had to be induced to cooperate in order to save France. But it was obvious that Roosevelt had warmer feelings for Giraud than for de Gaulle. Then, at the closing press conference, Roosevelt and Churchill made a declaration that overshadowed all else. They announced that they would settle for nothing less by Germany, Italy and Japan. than unconditional surrender with the Axis powers. There would be no negotiations fighting until the very end. The Western Allies would keep The price in lives would be high. no other choice than to back Hitler. would leave the Germans with BUGLE But Stalin was satisfied. He had feared a separate peace with the Allies that Hitler would conclude

against the Soviet Union. in order to pit all of his forces Now he launched an offensive to annihilate the beast still lurking in the ruins of Stalingrad. wrote to his wife A Soviet captain, Josef Praoutov, "I feel better now. of those snakes. "We've got the better "We're capturing a lot of them. "They're starting to pay for the blood they have shed, "for the tears of our people. "I'll be home soon. I'm sending you 500 roubles. "Josef." Soviet troops reached the centre of the city. Beyond the red flag is the Univermag department store where the commander of the 6th Army, Friedrich Paulus, had gone to ground. His men surrendered. So did Paulus. The day before, Hitler had promoted him to Field-Marshal,

thinking it would compel him to commit suicide in order to save his honour. But Paulus, weakened by dysentery of Hitler's orders, and revolted by the absurdity allowed himself to be captured. extraordinary prize for the Russians. Field Marshal Paulus was an of Operation Barbarossa, he had been a key planner the invasion of the Soviet Union. could hardly believe it The Soviet officials to verify his identity. and asked him for his papers with the Russians, Paulus collaborated and at the Nuremberg Trials former commanders, such as Keitel. he testified against his in Communist East Germany. After the war, he chose to live His actions were above all a rejection of Hitler's madness.

Many of his men felt the same way. "Hitler kaputt!" some prisoners dared to mutter. "We want to go home." The German defeat at Stalingrad revived hope in every country of occupied Europe. Not that the German newsreels ever screened these images. Hitler ordered "We must not use the word 'surrender'. "We must explain that our men were unable to receive supplies. "We have to use the word 'sacrifice'." WIND HOWLS The Nazis used this national disaster to galvanise the German people. DEAFENING CHEERS The Propaganda Minister, Goebbels, asked them whether they were ready for "total war".

CROWD ROARS (Crowd roars) Sieg heil! Sieg heil! 'DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLES' In the audience, ecstatic, was Albert Speer. He would furnish Hitler with the means to implement total war. Hitler called him his only friend. This 37-year-old architect, designer of the Nuremberg Rally parade grounds and Hitler's Reich Chancellery, was appointed Minister of Armaments. and adamant Nazi, A masterful organiser Speer gave German war production a new impetus. Under his orders, four million Soviet citizens were rounded up and worked to exhaustion, or to death. After the Soviet Union and Poland, occupied France provided the Nazis with the largest number of workers. The Vichy government set up a compulsory labour service and drafted 600,000 French workers for Germany. Many workers took to the forests and joined the resistance. Their hymn was 'Song of the Partisans', written by Maurice Druon, Joseph Kessel and Anna Marly, and sung by Germaine Sablon. 'SONG OF THE PARTISANS' CONTINUES WIND HOWLS

Behind the walls of the Warsaw Ghetto, the Germans were confronted by a Jewish uprising. It began on April 19, 1943. Before the war, this had been a lively, open district. It was filmed in colour by an American tourist. NOSTALGIC PIANO MUSIC These Jews could have stepped from the pages of the Yiddish novelist Sholem Aleichem, who wrote "May everyone remember us with a smile." NOSTALGIC PIANO MUSIC The same place... in 1940. After turning the district into a ghetto, the Nazis had crammed every Jew in Warsaw into it. This woman shrieks in despair as she cradles her dead child in the street. The Ghetto in 1941. The Ghetto in 1942. The Ghetto in 1943. The Nazis deliberately starved the Jews to wear them down and prevent any kind of revolt. But some of the Jews managed to acquire weapons, and they rose up. 7000 died fighting. 7000 who were captured were murdered in the Treblinka death camp, northeast of Warsaw. The Ghetto was razed to the ground. WIND HOWLS VOICEOVER: On March 31, 2007, Australia united to take a stand against global warming. Our actions created a momentous occasion that has inspired the world. And on Saturday, March 26, the world will look to us to take the lead again. Started here, embraced by the world. On 7 May 1943, the end came for the Axis in Africa when the Allies entered Tunis.

CROWD CHEERS Behind these gates, the entrance to German headquarters, the German authorities had already begun to organise the persecution of the Jews of Tunisia. The Allies immediately had the Jews remove their yellow stars. Italian prisoners-of-war were farewelled with insults from the crowd. CROWD ROARS Rommel was filmed by one of his officers before boarding one of the last planes leaving for Germany. He wrote "I have received instructions to take sick leave "and get myself back into shape. "All my efforts to save my men and get them back to the Continent "The Fuhrer's headquarters has ordered me "to return to Germany secretly and on my own. "They want to keep my military reputation in reserve." WHISTLES Rommel's entire army, the Afrika Korps, fell into Allied hands. In long lines they marched away to American ships to be ferried across the Atlantic. DRAMATIC MUSIC In the course of the war, 380,000 German prisoners were sent to Canada and the United States. It was a strange odyssey. Many of these men felt as if they were dreaming.

For them, the war was over, and they had survived it safe and sound. However, for some of them, the dream would turn into a nightmare - for even on the ships, the Nazis remained in control. Coming off the ship in Canada, these men insisted on giving the Hitler salute - even if they only had one arm. Some of the prisoners were sent to camps in Texas and Virginia. There they worked on cotton or tobacco plantations, taking the place of drafted black labourers. In their barracks, Nazi terror still held sway. The inscription reads "Long live our Fuhrer." Every prisoner had to show that he had not sought to be captured. Otherwise, a secret court would sentence him to death for cowardice. The executions took place at night, inside the camp.

And this message had to reach the German soldiers fighting and suffering on every front. They had to understand that they had nothing to gain from giving themselves up. DISTANT GUNFIRE On the Eastern Front, following the fall of Stalingrad, the Wehrmacht was no longer the same. The soldiers exchanged rumours about the Fuhrer. "Apparently, he's lost his head. "He's being secretly held in Berchtesgaden. "It's his double that we're seeing." But no, it was Hitler. Here, he's in Berchtesgaden, being filmed by his mistress Eva Braun. He too had changed. Since the defeats at Stalingrad and El Alamein, his famous moustache had greyed. One of his generals, von Senger, was struck by his appearance. He wrote "His skin was flaccid. "His blue eyes, which had so mesmerised the crowds, "were reddened by insomnia." In fact, his physician, the strange Dr Morell, had concocted cocaine eye-drops for him. Morell is seen here on 20 April 1943, with the secretaries and close friends of the Fuhrer who had come to wish him a happy birthday. Hitler was only 54, and Morell was able to make him presentable for ceremonies. But Hitler was careful to keep his left arm under control. It tended to tremble because he was already showing signs of Parkinson's disease. As a result, the position of Himmler, the head of the SS,

became even more important. The SS had begun as the Schutzstaffel, the "protection squad" for Nazi officials. After the Nazis came to power, it provided the guards for concentration camps. By 1943 it had its own army, the Waffen SS.

In the future, these elite troops commanded by Himmler were expected to replace the Wehrmacht, which was no longer considered completely loyal. Himmler was recruiting more and more among fanatics in the occupied countries - such as these Bosnian SS men. The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem had come to inspect them. He declared "The Jews are the common enemy "of Islam and Nazi Germany." Hitler assured him "The hour has struck for the liberation of the Arab people." In occupied Russia, the SS also had no difficulty in recruiting two divisions of Cossacks, who had been notorious under the Tsars for their anti-Semitic pogroms. The Cossacks formed the much-feared 15th SS Cavalry Corps. As for the Wehrmacht, it enlisted a million Soviet prisoners who had no choice but to die of hunger or fight alongside the Germans.

Some, like former Soviet general Andrei Vlasov, were opponents of Stalin.

Vlasov, a hero of the Battle of Leningrad, defected to Germany after being taken prisoner. He commanded the so-called "Russian Liberation Army" within the Wehrmacht. The Germans supplied these foreign legions with the best equipment, such as the Tiger tank, designed by the brilliant engineer Ferdinand Porsche. With its 88 mm gun, the war's most effective, one Tiger was worth ten Allied tanks. As a result, back in the Wolf's Lair, Hitler began to feel hopeful again. He could now renew his obsession with destroying the Red Army. at Kursk. He wanted to attack... The Soviets had pushed a salient deep into the German front. This was Hitler's chance to encircle and crush them. He called it 'Fall Zitadelle' - Operation Citadel. It would be the biggest armoured clash in history, and an industrialised battle - 2700 German tanks against 3600 Soviet. But the technical superiority of the Tiger was overwhelming. Hitler was confident. He had 600,000 men for the operation. To lead them, he chose the man who had won him the Battle of France, Field-Marshal von Manstein. Led by the Tigers, the offensive broke through the Soviet lines. But it ran into strong anti-tank defences and enormous concentrations of Soviet armour. The Germans were repulsed. And they had the impression that the enemy knew where they'd been going to strike. Every time, Soviet T-34s had been waiting for them.

RAPID MACHINE-GUN FIRE

And in fact, the British had captured the German encryption machine, Enigma. They were intercepting and decoding much of Germany's signal traffic, including battle plans for the Eastern Front. Churchill was unwilling to hand the information to the Soviets because he did not want to tip the Germans off. But Soviet espionage in Britain managed to pass on the decoded plans to Moscow. The war was also a battle of intelligence. For the Germans, the outcome so far in the Battle of Kursk was devastating. They had already lost 50,000 men.

Von Manstein wanted reinforcements in order continue the offensive. He waited for Hitler. He told Hitler at once "We've suffered losses, "but the Russians have too, even worse." Hitler, muttering inanities, seemed hesitant. Von Manstein wrote "He seems to me to be quite feeble." Von Manstein had the same impression when he showed Hitler the figures for the losses at Kursk. Since the beginning of the war, two million German soldiers had been killed, wounded or gone missing - leaving a void that the Waffen-SS could never fill. The victories of the Blitzkrieg were now long gone.

The Battle of Kursk was the war's real turning-point...

because Hitler now switched to defence. Overcome by paranoia, he insisted on having stenographers present to write down for posterity all that was said at this crucial moment. Von Manstein did not believe that the battle was lost. But Hitler disagreed. Von Manstein implored him to continue the offensive. Hitler refused. The Battle of Kursk was over. For Hitler, the priority now was to turn back the Anglo-American invasion of Sicily. The noose was tightening. One German defeat followed another. All Hitler could do was try to slow the Allied advance. He could not prevent the fall of Mussolini, which led to Italy changing sides. CHEERS The new Italian government imprisoned Mussolini in a mountain fortress. Hitler sent airborne commandos to rescue him.

Hitler wanted Mussolini back in power. He sent him back to Italy to re-establish his Fascist regime with the help of the German army. Hitler ordered the occupation of Italy, with no qualms about slaughtering his former allies when they attempted to resist. The Germans occupied Rome and immediately began arresting the Jews. MACHINE-GUN FIRE Hitler's greatest concern was to prevent any further Allied landings - in Italy, and above all, in France. This was the idea behind "Fortress Europe". Its emblem was the Atlantic Wall, a staggering system of fortifications stretching from Norway to the French border with Spain. Rommel was put in charge of defending Fortress Europe. He said "It is absolutely necessary "that we push the British and Americans back from the beaches. "The first 24 hours of the invasion will be decisive. "For the Allies, as well as Germany, it will be the longest day." DRAMATIC MUSIC For Rommel and the Nazis, this was the beginning of the Twilight of the Gods. And yet, these newsreel images of Rommel at a tea party with Magda Goebbels, wife of the Propaganda Minister, reveal the mentality of the Nazis at this late hour. Nazi ideology put faith in victory and banished all doubt.

Magda Goebbels worshipped Hitler like a god, even though he was plunging Germany into a frenzy of bloodshed and death. She had given her six children first names that all began with H, just like "Hitler" - Helga, Hildegarde, Helmut, Holdine, Hedwig and Heidrun. She would kill them all, one by one,

on the last day of the Reich. DRAMATIC MUSIC Captions (c) SBS Australia 2011

Testing captions. This program is

captioned live. Protesters mass in

Cairo after another night of

violence. And we pray that the

violence in Egypt will end. The US

urges Egypt's Government to begin

transition talks immediately. We

can be very, very thankful that it

took the path that it did. Dealing

with the devastation left by

Queensland's cyclone. And lives

lost as freezing weather conditions