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(generated from captions) on the deck of the moving lifeboat - The plan is to pick me up and land me a procedure the crew practise a number of people in the water. for rescues when there's Imagine this in a 10-foot swell. hovering directly above me, With the 10-tonne helicopter from the rotor blades. I'm being blasted by the down draught Brilliant. into the wind The lifeboat's purposely travelling at 15 knots, following it. and I'm flying through the air The reason?

It gives the pilot more control, the helicopter gains lift, because flying forward, so it's more stable - if more scary.

taking part in an exercise like this I would never even contemplate and the coast guard. if it wasn't with the RNLI irrespective of nationality or creed, Not only will they rescue anyone, but they'll go out 100 miles have to offer into the worst the Atlantic storms to get their job done. Now, that's class. Captions copyright SBS 2011 Red Bee Media Australia Supertext Captions by

Coming up in World News Australia -

Julia Gillard plays down the one-

year anniversary of Kevin Rudd's

dumping. Barack Obama defends his

accelerated draw-down of troops

from Afghanistan. The International

Atomic Energy Agency releases its

findings on the Fukishima nuclear

crisis. And the Department of

Conservation steps in to help New

Zealand's lost penguin. On January 13, 1953, on its front page, the 'Pravda' publishes of criminal doctors, an article revealing a conspiracy

mainly Jewish doctors. two Party leaders They are accused of murdering against Stalin himself. and of conspiring causes a wave of anti-Semitism The revelation of this plot and one of wonder in the West. in the Soviet Union as the "Doctors' Plot" The plot, referred to of an ageing and ailing tyrant. would be the last crime the historian Jonathan Brent Fifty years after Stalin's death, to the archives of the case - was given access and official letters - interrogations, hidden by Stalin and his successors. the essential parts of the trial of the Doctors' Plot. He re-opened the case in these documents When you see things like this

scripted, it's a script. you realise that this has been SOVIET MILITARY BAND PLAYS revered Joseph Stalin. Millions of Soviets and feared his anger. They truly worshipped him was rampant in the streets, This "Uber Czar", whose effigy and office buildings, community apartments, and cunning tyrant. was indeed a paranoid, brutal known as Stalin, Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, on the vast Soviet territory. reigned for more than 30 years based on terror "The man of steel" ruled

and mass mobilisation of society be they real or imaginary. against the "enemies of the people" perfectly mastering the power game, An outstanding tactician, he eliminated all of his opponents of conspiracies The regular denunciation in the country allowed him to maintain power and justify the terror. and modified for months The Doctors' Plot fabricated depending on the circumstances, of the political strategy is the ultimate example of the Father of the People. started with a prologue The doctors' affair of Andrei Zhdanov in 1948. in connection to the sudden death from a heart disease. Zhdanov was suffering at Valday to recover, He was sent to the Kremlin sanatorium

on 31 August 1948 and died there of a heart attack. of the Communist liturgy, Accustomed to the sumptuous stagings of a grand state funeral Stalin ordered the organisation on the Red Square. in charge of the regime's ideology The previous year, Zhdanov, who was had given a historical speech, the Soviet vision of the world officially confirming into two irreductible camps: as being divided socialism and capitalism. East and West, of Stalin himself. This was actually the vision to draw the lines. He was the one and only person of the great apparatchiks And the speeches from the Political Bureau by the book. had to follow his directions to this rule. Zhdanov was no exception oldest comrades-in-arms, Molotov, one of Stalin's delivered the funeral oration. known only to Stalin, There was however one item absent from the oration. a confidential letter, The previous day, he had received signed by Lydia Timashuk, at the sanatorium. one of Zhdanov's doctors that the other doctors The letter informed Comrade Stalin

the cardiac weakness of the patient. had deliberately underestimated as a likely cause of his death. Their negligence was cited was temporarily ignored. The accusation to be archived. Stalin sent the letter importance later on in our story. But this missive will be of great that Stalin will use This is one of the documents of the Doctors' Plot. to put together the conspiracy Not in 1948. But not yet. the letter from Lydia Timashuk At the right time, he will remember and know just how to use it. was far from being a first attempt. The Doctors' Plot in the hands of Stalin The Soviet state apparatus had already mastered the art of a totalitarian state Its methods were those and thoughts of all its citizens. that monitored the words, activities the ancestor of the KGB, Stalin put the MGB, and its 10 million informants the slightest signs of dissidence. in charge of tracking originated in Moscow The Doctors' Plot in charge of the nomenklatura since it was there that the doctors had their residences. the majority of whom were Jews, The doctors, formed a high-class community. and saw one another often. They all knew each was considered a state secret, Since the health of Soviet leaders under close watch. the police kept these doctors ran considerable risks Non-conformists of Dr Etinger. as would prove the tragic fate Jakov Etinger had the reputation therapists, of being one of the greatest a specialist in understanding therapy in Russia. at a general clinical level He was a stubborn man and he was a defiant man, and he had very strong opinions. MGB bugged Etinger's house and they overheard him say

that... "Whoever removed the Soviet Union "from the grasp of Joseph Stalin, "would be a hero." OMINOUS CHIMING MUSIC

UNEASY MUSIC It's clear, that his arrest was initially in November 1950 tied to that. At Lefortovo prison, the magistrate in charge of the Etinger file was Mikhail Ryumin. His role in the elaboration of the plot will be essential. The perfect Stalinist man. Completely insecure in his position, having no education, having no family roots in Moscow. Clever without being intelligent or educated. A primitive anti-Semite.

This is what Stalin needed. He was the perfect tool. Etinger is subjected to intensive interrogations, short sleep, lengthy interrogations - short amount of sleep. Er... he was made to stand for hours. He would not be allowed to sit down during the interrogation. He would have to stand. His legs swelled up. Here it says the interrogation concluded at 4 o'clock in the morning. And yet, the interrogation is only three pages long. You ask yourself "What was Ryumin doing in all of this time?" DARK MUSIC After one interrogation session er... in March of 1951 he goes back to his cell, according to the report, he reaches for a bit of bread that is on the table in his cell, he faints, hits his head on the table and dies. And that's it. In July of 1951, Ryumin writes a letter directly to Stalin, in which he accuses Etinger

of having confessed to the medical assassination of a high-ranking Soviet official back in 1945: Shcherbakov, Aleksandr Shcherbakov - which is nonsense, it's nonsense, complete nonsense, he made it up. We have the protocols of his interrogations. There is not one word in those protocols having to do with medical malpractice. UNEASY MUSIC The rising conspiracy is taking shape at the right time. For Stalin, it is time for a new purge within the bodies of the Communist Party:

the Berias, Molotovs, Malenkovs, the major beneficiaries of the purges of the '30s had gained too much power and autonomy. is manifested amongst the Party leaders. Their allegiance to his person shall be exclusive and total. As in the previous purges, if it is justified by the revelation of a vast conspiracy with great ramifications that could endanger the Fatherland. There is no conspiracy, there is nothing, but he needed the conspiracy, he needed the enemies. Ryumin stated in this letter to Stalin that Abakumov, the head of the MGB, refused to allow him, Ryumin, to interrogate Etinger about it and as he put it just... er... uh... smoothed it over. Why? Because Ryumin states Abakumov is in league with the Jewish plot against the Kremlin. UNEASY CHIMING MUSIC There is the denunciation of Abakumov, that is written on 1 July. Stalin gets it on 4 July. as head of the MGB. Abakumov is dismissed, Two days later there is a big Central Committee meeting and by July 13 there is a secret letter, it's stamped 'zakrytoe pismo' - "secret letter" - that is sent to the heads of all Party leaders throughout the Soviet Union and the republics, to all heads of major organs, informing them all, that there is a conspiracy among Jewish doctors to destroy the Kremlin leadership, and that Abakumov, former head of the MGB, is in league with these doctors. It's pretty clear to me that the speed with which he behaves in July 1951 had been well prepared for over that intervening four months, and probably the years between Zhdanov's death in 1948 and 1951. FUNERARY MUSIC At this point, Stalin remembered Lydia Timashuk's letter about the death of Comrade Zhdanov. And he knew exactly how to use it. Stalin goes to the Politburo and he pulls out this letter "This letter was withheld from me "in 1948 "by Abakumov and Vlasic, "who were in league together with these doctors to murder Zhdanov! "And they withheld this piece "of vital important information from me!" But what the documents show us is that Abakumov dutifully presented this letter the day after he received it on August 30 to Comrade Stalin with a note explaining the contents of the letter stating clearly that in the opinion of Lydia Timashuk, division of the Kremlin hospital head of the electro-cardiogram "Comrade Zhdanov is receiving incorrect treatment "that may ultimately lead to his death." It is presented to Stalin and you may say "Well, but Stalin gets a million documents a day, "a million letters a day! "How do we know that he read this? How do we know he saw it?" Well, the memo, covering this document by Abakumov has Stalin's signature on it. And he even wrote on it "Into the archive. S.T. Stalin." So the question is, how do you actually join these... these plots together? The Zhdanov and the Etinger? One way of proceeding is to show that Vinogradov and Etinger were friends. And Vinogradov was one of the doctors at Valday for Zhdanov. Eventually, the Etinger side of the story and the Zhdanov side of the story come together, and when they come together, that's when the Doctors' Plot is born. Summer of 1951, Stalin completes the outline of the plot: top leaders of the Party. And this Zionist-inspired conspiracy was a menace for the entire population. The Jewish dimension of the Doctors' Plot is not coincidental. With a background of secular anti-Semitism, the situation of 2.5 million Soviet Jews since the end of World War II,

was the subject of much attention from the dictator. Attention that turned to distrust and then persecution. The Zionist conspiracy of which Stalin and Ryumin were accusing Abakumov drew its roots in the exemplary history of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee was created during the War on request of Stalin. It was a propaganda committee aimed at American Jews.

The idea was to convince this influential community to support the Red Army in its fight against the barbarian Nazis. The Committee gathered a variety of eminent Jewish personalities - scientists, writers, filmmakers, actors and physicians. The President of the Committee was Solomon Mikhoels, an actor and director,

creator of the Yiddish Theatre in Moscow and a translator of Shakespeare. (Sings in Yiddish) (Continues to sing) In 1943, Stalin sent Solomon Mikhoels on a tour through the United States. DRAMATIC MUSIC, CAMERA CLICKS (Sings a lullaby in Yiddish) The tour was a great success. Mikhoels succeeded in seducing the American Jews and convinced many of them to support the Red Army. (EMOTIVE MUSIC)

Would you know what to say if you were asked? Did they want to be an organ donor? I'm not sure. She didn't tell me. I never asked. If someone close to you has decided to become an organ donor, you need to know their wishes. Why? Because one day, you could be asked to give the final OK. The victory of May 1945 in what Stalin called "The Great Patriotic War" changed everything. The Russian nationalist sentiment which had been vilified by the Bolsheviks, now became the cement foundation of post-war Stalinism. Almost immediately at the end of World War II, something called the anti-cosmopolitan, anti-Jewish campaign gets started in the Soviet Union. And it's a campaign basically anti-Semitic - Jews are being shut out of professions. There's a lot of talk that there are too many Jews in the arts, many Jews in the medical profession, too many Jews in journalism, too so on and so forth, biology... Mikhoels returned from the US with an idea of the Joint, suggested by the chairman a major American-Jewish organisation: founding a Jewish autonomous republic in the Crimea region, south of the USSR. The Joint had even pledged to fund the republic. Nothing could displease Stalin more than the double perspective of autonomy and American funding. For the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee activists, and for Mikhoels, this was the beginning of the end - and their disgrace. However, Stalin supported the creation of Israel in May 1948, not out of Zionism, but to push the British away from the Mediterranean, an old Russian obsession. And he did hope to receive signs of gratitude from the new state. Only gradually does Stalin recognize that it is not Britain who is the enemy any more, it is America who's going to be the enemy. And then in 1948, the State of Israel is founded and who becomes the great protector of Israel?

Israel becomes a nexus between the Jews and America. And not just the Jews in America or in Israel, but the Jews also in the Soviet Union. The birth of Israel caused great excitement amongst Soviet Jews. The arrangements to support the Jewish state

allowed them to believe they were free to express their enthusiasm. Stalin received these events as a provocation, a challenge to the exclusive allegiance to his person and to the USSR. January 1948, Solomon Mikhoels is assassinated. His murder, disguised as a traffic accident, was personally ordered by Stalin. Mikhoels was said to have made unkind comments about the dictator's in-laws Stalin, with his usual dose of cynicism, organises an official funeral for the Jewish actor. The death of Mikhoels was just a prelude. Repression was brutally cast upon the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. 14 members were arrested, placed in solitary confinement, tried behind closed doors on charges of spying, sentenced to death and executed. One detail, however, attracts Stalin's attention. Mikhoels, his Zionist entertainer, had a cousin who was a doctor. And not just any doctor - Miron Vovsi, chief physician in the Red Army. So it raises very interestingly, then, the question of what was the nature of Stalin's anti-Semitism? He was certainly anti-Semitic, but so what? He hated everybody - he hated Germans, he hated Brits, he hated the French, he hated the Japanese, he hated the Latvians, he hated the Georgians. to his mother's funeral. You know, he didn't even go He hated you if you were too bright, and he hated you if you were too stupid. He tended to favour stupid people, that he could shape, you know. So, his anti-Semitism is functional. It's functional. And now, at this point in time, it will serve a purpose because it will help him to galvanise his country around himself, and against the West. Now, all of Stalin's efforts will focus on connecting the case of the Anti-Fascist Jewish Committee and the big plot of the poisoner doctors. The process became ruthless.

Vladimir Vinogradov, Stalin's personal physician, was arrested in the autumn of 1952. His crime? After medical scrutiny, to consider retirement. he had advised his patient to get rid of this "saboteur". Enough of an excuse for Stalin

Vinogradov happened to be To make things worse, the best friend of Miron Vovsi, and Solomon Mikhoels' cousin. chief physician in the Red Army that he was missing the linchpin Stalin was aware that bound all of this together.

after November, And he was therefore wildly, he could get his hands on arresting all of the doctors in the Jewish community in Russia. and creating real terror Most of the doctors arrested in the sinister prison of Lefortovo. were locked up the entire affair had to be kept secret from the Soviet citizens. They really had nothing to confess, so they had to invent the stories that they were confessing. Stalin told them "Beat them, beat them, beat them, "beat them with death blows! "Beat them with death blows!" And they did.

SORROWFUL MUSIC At the same time, the Slansky trial in Prague was perhaps a rehearsal of what Stalin had planned for his own country after obtaining all the confessions. Obtaining confessions no matter how that had proved efficient was a technique of the '30s. during the great purges of imaginary crimes The public confession was essential in the Stalinist system and edification of the people. for the so-called respect of justice

to admit anything. Well, you can get people for having said Um... Beria is famous let me have a man for 24 hours, "Keep a man, he's the Queen of England." "and he'll admit of the Czech Communist Party, Slansky, Secretary General the Czechoslovakian President was charged with attempting to murder in the context of a Zionist plot. pleaded guilty Slansky and 12 of his comrades and were publicly hung at the start of December 1952. The lesson was well learned by the apparatchiks in Moscow. Dad was absolutely convinced that he would be around to hold his grandson. The oncologist made it very clear that smoking had caused Dad's cancer. There was a sad moment where Emily came into the room

and Dad just put his hand on Emily's belly and just said, "Look, I'm sorry, I'm just not gonna make it. I'm sorry." on Miron Vovsi, This is the complete file on 12 November 1952. who was arrested the cousin of Mikhoels. Meer-Miron Vovsi, in the Soviet Union, A revered doctor had a worldwide reputation. set of materials, It's a shocking and revolting in which poor Vovsi, who is elderly already to withstand this pressure, and in no way able simply gives in at the very outset. On November 14, 1952, who had been jailed, Miron Vovsi, the Red Army veteran, to his inquisitors: made the following declaration "I am an enemy of the Soviet power. towards the leaders of this Party "Inspired by my hatred "and the Soviet Government, in the medical profession "I did not choose to engage but to destroy it, "with hopes to improve their health "in order to shorten the lives of specific leaders of the Party." Stalin finally held the confession he needed. He can now call upon the Soviet people to serve as witnesses and join him in the fight against the inside enemy. Just like in the '30s, 'Pravda' was read from Moscow to Vladivostok.

Stalin could use It was the best propaganda tool imposed on his people to maintain the state of terror

of a great purge within the Party. and to convince them of the necessity SOLEMN MUSIC DARK MUSIC

of the articles We have the rough drafts

with his corrections that were sent to Stalin by Shepilov. We have those drafts that Stalin approved every detail. and we can see to this nightmare. Only one event could put an end It occurred on March 5, 1953. MOURNFUL MUSIC CLOCK STRIKES MOURNFUL MUSIC CONTINUES In the end, Stalin's greatest enemy was a blood vessel in his own brain, that busted. Stalin's succession kept the apparatchiks busy for many long years, with a variety of alliances, ruptures and betrayals. In the beginning, the Chief of Secret Services, Lavrenty Beria, stood up for the part. One of his very first decisions was to free the doctors and furthermore, to publicly rehabilitate them as well as Solomon Mikhoels. of the Soviet Union. This was unprecedented in the history the doctors and Mikhoels Beria's eagerness to rehabilitate that he was probably the main target seemed a confirmation of Stalin's purge-to-be. There is this story that the doctors met at the house of one of their members and took a vow of silence - never to write anything never to say anything, about the Doctors' Plot. were rehabilitated in April 1953. Thanks to Beria, most of the doctors of the Soviet Union, But throughout the existence remained hidden. the archives of the Doctors' Plot SAD PIANO MUSIC SLOW, SORROWFUL MUSIC The rehabilitation of the doctors of the de-Stalinisation turned out to be the first act leading away from Communism. and the first step on the long road very long. Beria did not remain in power of the doctors, Three months after the liberation by his peers. he was tried and executed In November 1954, for distorting the inquiry. Mikhail Ryumin was sentenced in the small courtyard of Lubyanka. He was executed Captions (c) SBS Australia 2011

This program is captioned live.

Getting on with business. Julia

Gillard on the anniversary of the

corner. Rudd dumping. We have turned a

Obama talks to the troops about the

Afghan withdrawal. Fukushima

disaster. The UN's nuclear watchdog

fails to reach an agreement on NEW

safeguards. And sick penguin.

Health fears for New Zealand's

latest visitor.

Good evening. Peta-Jane Madam with

SBS World News Australia. It is

exactly one year since a dramatic

day in the history of the

Australian Labor Party. The two

main players have played down the

anniversary. Surely garb -- Julia

Gillard insists it is another

working day. Kevin Rudd says he is

just here to help. For the foreign

minister, business-as-usual. This

time last year he was in Canberra,

having just been dumped as Prime