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Surgery .. That you have carried out by a machine. Far-fetched? Not at all. We are in the midst now of a revolution, an artificial intelligence revolution, many of the jobs that we do, from driving a car to going to war will be done by robots. A frightening scenario, yes, for some, but you're going to meet a man who believes this will be good for humanity. You also coming up: -- also coming up: A mother's only way to remember.I missed a whole chunk of my life and I didn't realise I had missed it so when it was coming back, I wondered how much more I had missed, so I just kept running because I want to remember.Can you tie that in with that whole, "I'll always be close to you" thing?And how to write a country song in just ten minutes. # I'll always be close to you...Oh, that's a hit!

that's a hit!Toby, good to talk to you. I understand you play a game and it goes like this - someone names a job you Kelly -- tell me if survive the robot revolution. Am I going to survive?Maybe not! There is a robot that can write news and financial reports, and there is a robot that can do the weather in China. So certainly reporting is going to be taken over by a lot of computers.Teacher?Again, wouldn't it be great if we could all have personalised computer that could know everything we've learnt, follow us throughout our career and give you innumerable numbers of examples of, you know - follow you everywhere you go. So, no, there's already programs starting to help teach. Artificial intelligence professor?! That's probably one of the safe ones.You are safe, OK!I'm not safe but when my job gets automated I think all jobs will get automated. We're at a hospital. Let's take it from top to bottom, imagine the hospital of the future. If I turn up here in an ambulance, who drives the ambulance?Oh, it will be driven by a robot. A computer.Who's treating me in the back of the ambulance? That's probably still a person, I suspect. I mean, you know, it's quite a messy, difficult environment.But not necessarily doing the work? There for comfort but not doing the work of keeping me alive?Well, there will be a lot of diagnostic tools that will be connected to the internet, so they will have all your medical records, they'll know everything about you, your allergies, so they'll know what drugs to give you and what not to give you.Who's cleaning it? Possibly a robotic cleaner, although I mean that's a job where - the problem is we pay cleaners so little that actually there is a question mark whether it's worth building an expensive robot to do something like that.I see the doctor - is the doctor a robot?It depends. I think we get to choose whether the doctor is a robot or not, because the doctor will certainly have lots of computer programs that help him or her diagnose what's wrong with you, that actually lift their ability so they're as good as any doctor anywhere.I need surgery, is the surgery likely to be carried out by a robot?Yes, there's probably a robot involved, although there's probably still a surgeon watching and just checking if - you know, because robots will be very good when things are routine but then there's always the unexpected and that's where humans, again, are very good. Computers tend to be rather brittle. So if your kidney looks like everyone else's kidney, you will be fine, but suppose there is something a little strange about it, then perhaps the surgeons can step in. There's still some things that computers are not good at and may never be good at. Computers aren't that creative. Computers don't have emotional intelligence. Computers don't have our empathy. And then there are some things we just want humans to do. A big part of nursing in this hospital is about your psychological welfare, the empathy. It's not about your physical welfare.So, robots won't be able to replicate that human element, that humanity that we all respond to?No, I think we're going to increasingly value those human-focused things and that's where the jobs of the future will certainly remain. Jobs won't disappear in the sense that, we're getting older, we all need more health care, there's almost an infinite number of jobs that could be made in this hospital, if we're prepared to pay for them. I think this is a conversation we, as a society, start to have is, well, how do we prepare people for the change, how do people reskill themselves, what do we need to be teaching people at school, even, for jobs in 20 years' time. There will be jobs for technologies that are only invented in ten years' time.What job do you do here at the hospital? I supervise the logistic support for the hospital. I work on the dock.Do you reckon a robot could do your job?I would say a robot could probably do about 70% of my job.OK. In California today there's a robot actually delivering supplies around the hospital.And what is the 30%? There is a lot of interactions with different suppliers, with the actual truck drivers and things that come into the dock, and also the general unloading and things like that, and a lot of the time we do need to do some site check on the goods that come into the hospital.70% of your job means - does that mean we can get rid of 70% of people?I would say that there's probably going to - there will be different tasks that will need to be done as those sorts of automations come in, because it isn't exactly routine, what we do. So we would have to actually adjust the sort of tasks that we're doing.

What I thought I'd do today is actually bring my robot with me!Oh right!So Richard is - by the time he finishes his training to be a cardiologist, that will be 15 years of study and training, so I guess the proposition that you can replace us with robots is somewhat preposterous, but worthy of discussion.We'll find out from Toby.So there is a machine only programmed that can predict heart disease that does it better, currently, than the American Heart Association's guidelines would predict heart disease, and so it's still probably not as good as you yet.There are already robots that help with cardiac surgery, and I'm sure you've seen this, but you've got something controlling the robot. The interesting question, though, is how would you know to trust the robot?Look, I think this is an enormous leap of faith.Yeah, there's certainly an art of medicine as well and some of that lies in the communication between the patient and the clinician, and I think if it was just robots, that element wouldn't be there. So there would have to be a fine balance for it to work, I think.I mean, you would have to teach the robot a sense of humour!(LAUGHTER)So they would have to be able to tell a few jokes! That's what it depends on. You need to develop a rapport with your patients. It is one thing to diagnose a patient, it's another to tell a patient what medication they should be taking, it's another thing altogether that they actually do what you tell them.Today I'm just having some tests because, next week, I will be starting chemotherapy.So a few tough months ahead for you?Could well be, but the doctors and nurses here are just wonderful.Are they?They are.When you're in the bed after the surgery, I went - I saw a doctor who was wonderful. They came round daily. He rang my brother at home the night of my surgery. You can't ask...That's going well beyond what's expected. That's really interesting, because what we're talking about today is whether robots can do the job of human beings.At 71, I'm a tad nervous. I trust my little gadgets. Yeah? Because we are already using them, aren't we, in our lives?We are, but there is a therapeutic element that comes with an exchange of human beings - it's the eye contact, it's the touch. It's, "Let me put that blanket a put further up, do you need anything, we'll be at the hospital in a minute". That's part of healing, healing and wellbeing. So, the next generation can have the computers and the robots.You're sticking with the people!

Toby, is Wayne's job safe? He works in emergency. Can a robot do his job?I think much of his job is probably reasonably safe, although technology will help him lift his game. He will have less clients. There will be fewer road traffic accidents because autonomous cars will be so much safer.I think the biggest impact is going to come from safety generally. The idea of actually having automated cars actually driving - one of the leading causes of injury is trauma and one of the largest mechanisms for that is road traffic accidents. So robotic cars would have a huge impact?Hopefully in the next few generations we will see that. Pretty much so.You always hear about how overworked people are in hospitals. How much stress are you under?Look, it varies, but when you look at the entire nursing and medical workforce, we're seeing more and more evidence of, I suppose, the fatal ends of burnout and emotional stress. My main concern with artificial intelligence a the knock-on effect with budget stress, you know, can we keep equipment and AI technology up to date all the time, are all hospitals, rural and metropolitan, going to be able to benefit from this?In terms of budget, you will get more money because autonomous ambulances will be cheaper, you won't have to employ all those drivers.It's not good news if you are a driver.No, if you are an ambulance driver, but that will free up a bit of money and maybe we use that for some of the other technology.I suppose, again, my sort of comeback for that is that care is much more complex than an algorithm, but I'm not feeling at risk right now.I think maybe his job can be augmented because with the data we can mine that data and tell you things you don't know about your patients and help you augment what you can do and not replace what you can do.I think that's probably the safer way to describe it.Is there a question here, though, of the political will? If we are facing this revolution, where is the leadership going to come to ensure that we survive it?There does need to be more political will. This is a period of rapid change. Probably evener faster than the industrial revolution happened and this will require some quite significant reforms. We changed our society in quite a dramatic way in the industrial revolution, we introduced the welfare state to support everyone so even people put out of work won't thrown into the poor house. We introduced universal education so people were educated for the new jobs that existed. We introduced unions that protected workers' rights, so it turned out that Marx wasn't right and all of us did benefit from the prosperity that the technology brought at that time and we will need similar, possibly radical, changes this time.There is a frightening aspect to this, too, and we're already seeing this, and that is the robot wars - that war can be carried out by machines. Is this a frightening scenario? Because we are seeing it already with the use of drones.It is, I mean, drones are still semi-autonomous, there's still a human in the loop, there's still a soldier in a container back in Nevada who is actually pressing the button and making that final life or death decision but it's a small technical leap to take that soldier out of the loop and there is an arms race underway today amongst the US and Chinese militaries to develop fully autonomous weapons where a decision is made by a machine and that is a very worrying notion and many of my colleagues have signed a letter saying let's think about this and putting a ban on such technologies.Killer robots. And the UN is discussing this, in the UN in August this year there will be the first formal discussions in the United Nations about a possible pre-emptive ban.This is the super soldier, isn't it?It is, they will fight 24/7, never tire, you won't might risking them because there will be no body bag coming home. They will be weapons of terror, with deadly accuracy. They will be something you can't defend yourself against and they will completely upset the geopolitical current order, because currently, to be a superpower, you need to have a large economy, you need to be able to pay for an army. In the future, you will just need one person who can hack code, who can actually tell them what to do. Any despot, any terrorist organisation, will be able to wage war at a scale we've never seen before.These are the seeds of our own destruction, aren't they?We could make a sensible choice, it is not too late to make that choice and I'm pleased the United Nations is discussing that. There is a campaign to stop killer robots going on today. We have made those choices for some technologies for biological weapons, for chemical weapons, for blinding lasers. We could make a choice. Sometimes as a society we do actually make a good choice and decide that the world would be a better place if we don't put that technology into the battlefield, but use it in good places like this hospital, or use it to make our lives better and not worse.

Now, imagine you were going for a jog and all of a sudden, images into your mind, images that could be parts of your own life - but you don't remember them. That's the story of a woman Andy Park is about to meet. Many people run to escape their thoughts, but this is about running to regain them.Red car, speed bump, red car, speed bump... Red car, speed bump. Red car, speed bump. I don't run for the same reasons why other people run. Red car, speed bump.52-year-old Pip is running to remember.I just try and notice landmarks and just say them in my mind. If I don't keep saying them, I forget them. If I don't repeat it to myself, I won't notice them. And I'll just keep going and I'll get lost.A subtle sign of what's happened to Pip shows when I remind her of something she told me on the phone the day before. You said, "I learned to run to an metronome".Did I say that? I don't remember saying that.She she is an ultra-marathon runner but three years ago the mother of four had never run a kilometre in my life.In 2011, I was happily married, I still am, with four children. They were quite young at that point.Shortly afterwards, she was training on Sydney Harbour, when she began to remember.I just had a massive flood of memories coming back and it was Michael's birthday - I think it was a Superman or Batman party, I can't remember, but that all came back to me and then the rugby team I was managing at the time, a lot of that memory at the
came back. Also my husband standing at the end of the bed, begging me to fight, because I was giving up. That was probably the most intense one. Memories without having lived them are dreams - did it feel like a dream?Yeah, it did, but it happened, it definitely happened. So when all of in started coming back, the memory, it really upset me because... I'm going to get upset. Because you just missed - I missed a whole chunk of my life and I didn't realise I had missed it. So when it was coming back... Sorry. I wondered how much more I'd missed. So I just kept running because I want to remember.You see, the reason why she lost her memories was because, a year before, Pip was diagnosed with brain cancer. She had two major brain surgeries in a fortnight.In hospital, I don't remember myself, but I'm learning about that now. And that's - that has been quite confronting. I was not a nice person. I was, um, rude to people, I was very short with people, I had no filters. So I went in one person and I came out a second person.So which Pip does the family prefer - the old one or the new one?I never ask them, but! I know they'd prefer the old one because they reckon I'm a psycho-witch sometimes!No, I mean sometimes she gets pretty angry, but we kind of just blame it on the meds. No, I would say the new one, I prefer the new mum, but I didn't really realise it was happening until after we realised what it was, if that makes sense.Their life was so much easier when I was the other person, on multiple levels and that's very private, that's just what goes on in the home. A lot of my close friends don't see that. What others also don't see are moments like this. Pip has been called into Royal North Shore Hospital for a brain scan well before she is due for the next one. After what the doctor just explained, it's not as good as what I was expecting, so I'm a bit rattled.What do you mean, 'good'? Well, he just said they just normally would only run these scans for patients who have had radiation therapy or if they're suspecting that, um... There's a recurrence. So.Do you want a hand sitting up? No, I'm OK. Funny enough, I actually brought the course notes with me to read. So, yeah, I'm thinking about the race more than anything.

The upcoming race she's training for is the Ultra-Trail Australia 100, a double marathon through the bush, with no speed hufrps or red cars to act -- humps or red cars to act as a guide.An elite athlete to get lost in the big race is detrimental because if go off course 20 minutes that's big. My husband, he worries about me doing this 100, he doesn't want me to do it, because they're worried sick if I have a bad seizure, it could potentially kill me.Pip's sudden seizures have hospitalised her before. So she must run alongside someone at all times. It's a long day.Yeah, I know.All day.Pretty nervous!If she has a seizure during the race, Pip knows when they come on, she is well aware of them and knows exactly what to do. She is running with a GPS tracker on her so we will be able to get help to her as soon as possible if we need to.Aim for 10ks and you get a prize!Yep, that's good. I can do that.Are you worried what you might remember about yourself?Yeah, sometimes. I'm worried I'm going to find out that I've done something really bad or I was horrible, but I crave to find out the good stuff. Has it ever occurred to you that maybe you are not supposed to have those memories back?That's a good question. No, it hasn't occurred to me, but maybe it is meant to be like that. I'm remembering a lot of stuff that's - that was significant that I didn't realise I had forgotten. I'm getting to re-read the book, which is really nice. I'm lucky in that respect because I'm remembering all these special moments that I had missed.

And we are told that Pip's scan came back clear and she will be running the Ultra-Trail 100 in May. Well, Beccy Cole and Adam Harvey are two of Australia's most popular country music artists. They're together on a new album The Great Country Songbook Volume 2, so, with that title in mind, we set them a task - could they write us a great country song in only ten minutes?Alright, get ready, my friend. OK, one, two, one, two, three, four...

two, three, four...
# Well, we got married in a fever... # Hotter than that pepper sprout... # We been talking about Jackson... # Ever since the fire went out... # I'm going to Jackson... push # I'm gonna mess around... # Yeah, Becky, I'm going to Jackson... # Look out Jackson town... # Well go on down to Jackson... # Go ahead and wreck your health... # Go play your hand, you big talking man... # Make a big fool of yourself... # Yeah, you're going to Jackson... # So go comb that hair... # Oh, I'm going to snowball in # Go ahead and see if I care...Good to have you both with us. Jackson is a great example of a great song and a great country song. What makes a great country song?I think a true story makes a good country song. I think if you look back at all the greats in country music, you'll find that there's an element of truth in there. I know from the point of view of writing a song, if it happened to me, then it's going to come out better in a song.There is an old saying in the country music industry, "Three cords and the truth".You got three cords there! You don't want to clutter it up! You were saying before, the ability to write something that's truthful but the ability to speak to someone else as well, to touch someone else's life?Absolutely, that's why we love music, you know, as somebody who listens to music and buys music, if you hear something you can relate to, and think, "That's my life, she is singing about my life" and that's what I would realise when I was younger and wrote something that happened to me and someone came up and said, "Thank you so much for that song" and that's when you realise you are not the only one that went through it.The cliche country songs we think of - the wife left and the dog died - I want to ask you to show us if it's possible how you put together a country song. Give us a chorus and verse. I want to make things more difficult, it is not going to be about the broken down ute, but recently we met a woman who told us about a year she spent living in Hawaii and simulating life living on Mars and she said in the end, it wasn't a scientific experiment, it was an experiment about what it means to be human and I thought, "What a great idea for a song". If I give you that as an idea, could you write a half-decent country song in about - if I start the clock, though, I'm going to make it more difficult - ten minutes.Ten minutes, OK.Give us a chorus and verse.So obviously often the idea of the song will dictate how the song's going to go. So this isn't going to be a raunchy party anthem.I'm thinking it's more of a ballad.More of a ballad, yeah, so a long way away, I would think something along the lines of missing family at home, even though I'm 1,000 miles away, or I could be 1,000 miles away but I'll always be there with you. You know, that sort of thing in your mind. And...Does music come first or lyrics? You were just throwing out lyric ideas - are you thinking of a tune at the same time?Sometimes it depends where you get the idea for a song. So if I'm on a plane and I get an idea for a song, I don't have the ability... Hum it or something!All I've got is an eyeliner and a sick bag, I don't have a guitar, so I'm writing it on there, so you are sort of thinking about a tune. # I may be a thousand light years away... # But I'll always be close to you... Yeah. How's the cord going to start? That's probably the end of the cord. We have the beginning of the chorus needs to capture the essence of, um, how you feel about being alone. Mars is the red planet, isn't it? What about something about this red planet's turning blue, because ... There you go.And then you've got 'blue' and 'you'!So we're working backwards!

Um... Come on, Stan! There's three of us here!Don't look at me! I'm just asking the question!What was the last line?"I'll always be close to you". # When I think about your touch... # Red planets turn blue... # A million light years away # I'll always be close to you... Well, we've got what we call the scaffolding. So the scaffolding's up, so you have the outline, the skeleton, you just have to fill out the other bits.Nice, yeah. # It's the same old sky for you... # It's the same old sky I see... # Are you looking too?That's nice! Do you want to change key?No, no, you sing. # There's the same old sky I see... # Are you looking too? # I know you're scared and so am I... #No! Because I won't be coming home to you? # I won't be coming home to you... And then we had your bit about - I've got to write this down!Can't do it without a pen!How did that start?The chorus? SINGS: When I think about your touch... Red planets turning blue... But I might be a million miles away... But I'll always be close to you... Oh, that's a hit!You've got it! Wow, fantastic!I don't know how we did it in ten minutes!That's a great one. I'll wait to see that appear somewhere.Look out, on the tour!That's it, that's it! Not quite ten minutes but they did get there - not bad at all. That's all we have time for. I'll see you again next time on The Link. This program is not captioned.