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ANNOUNCER: Coming up on Catalyst, how can science make your dog
the very happiest of dogs? This is very significant
because it suggests that dogs have internal cognitive representations
of our emotional expressions.

DR JONICA NEWBY: The dog is man
and woman's best friend. But how good a friend
to your dog are you? (BARKS) Are our dogs really happy? And can we use science
to make them happier? To find out, we recruited
three regular dog owners.

Hi. I'm Claudia
and this is my dog Poppy. Hi. I'm Leanne
and this is little Roxy. This is Angus and I'm Matt. We formed a team of experts
and set up a daunting task. How would you like it
if your dog could search and locate your keys or phone
anywhere in the house? Well, this is your task. You're going to train your dog
to do this at home. Our aim - to use this challenge
and the latest science to supercharge
their canine communication skills and develop a happier relationship
with their dogs.

In part one,
the emphasis was on the dog. On communicating more clearly... So the first thing
we're gonna teach your dogs is what's known as
a bridging reinforcer, or a bridge. Yes!
(LAUGHS) Ah, this is great. Yes! (LAUGHS) Good girl!
Good stuff! ..and learning to read
what they're saying to us. The whole body shake is a very good
sign that the animal is stressed. This time the focus is back on us - how our personalities
impact dog happiness... People scoring higher in neuroticism
tend to use excessive commands. It's an overload
of information for the dog. And new technology helping you become the best possible
life coach for your pet. It is the first app
of its kind in the world designed to monitor and maximise
your dog's quality of life or its happiness. It's all part of a new science
dubbed 'dogmanship'. I'm passionate about dogmanship simply because it turns the lens
on the humans. But will it be enough
to turn untrained pets... Poppy! ..into household sniffer dogs... Roxy, get the phone! ..in just two weeks?

(YAPS) It's day six of
our crash course in dogmanship, and animal behavioural consultant
Ryan Tate is keen to check on
his smallest pupil. Hi! How are you?
Hi! Welcome, guys. Roxy has already wowed Ryan
with her progress so far. She successfully formed
what's called a bridge in her brain. This means when Leanne says
the bridge word, 'yes'... Yes! Roxy gets a rush of pleasure
because food is coming. Beautiful!
Good girl. Leanne has then used this new way
of communicating with Roxy to encourage her
to target her phone. Any look towards it,
movement towards it, I want you to bridge
and reward her. Oh, that's it!
Yes! So it's like a game
of warmer, colder. Yes!
Oh, perfect. OK, there you go.
Alrighty. Thank you. Today, Ryan wants to see how
they got on with their homework, which was to add a cue, the phrase,
"Get the phone." Get the phone!

Yes! Good girl! Good girl!
That's fantastic. She's still really using her eyes. Ryan wants her
to start using her nose, so he puts the phone out of sight. And it's ready to go. You pop her down
and give her your cue. Get the phone! (ROXY SNUFFLES)

Yes! Good girl.
Ah, that's what we're after. Good girl. You know what was
so good about that, Leanne? Is that she didn't remember where
it was. Did you hear her smelling? Yeah. Yeah, yeah, yeah. She was searching the ground
back and forth. This is a turning point in her
journey to becoming a sniffer dog, and it's incredible to watch. Leanne can't tell Roxy
to use her nose. Roxy had to think for herself - "How do I get that reward?
Oh, like this!" It's empowering for her,
giving her confidence. That was so cute. You can hear her little nose
when she hits the ground, almost... (SNORTS) ..snorting around
and working hard for it. Ryan is so impressed he decides to
push Roxy further - much further - and introduce the sofa. You ready?
Yes. Right. Roxy, what's this? Hey?

Alright, go for it. Nice and quick.
Roxy, get the phone.

Not yet. She knows it's around there
somewhere, but she's got to get
a little closer. The steps and skills
Ryan is sharing here are all based on the science
called learning theory. So this is the process known
as chaining, or backwards chaining, where we train the finished product
first, so the dog gets to the phone. That's what we've established. And now we start adding in
all those complex layers of you're moving further away,
you have to look for it. So the dog always knows
where the finished goal is because that's where we started.

But this time, Roxy has been pushed
too far and needs help.

Yes! Good girl. Good girl! Before, I thought
she was ready for that step. Yep.
She's not. But we can't stop there. Roxy still has to finish
every session on a success or she'll lose interest in this game. So Ryan tries to make it easier. So we'll grab these two cushions,
put them on the ground. Roxy! Ooh, what's that?
And we'll put it just under there. Roxy, get the phone. But even the cushion concept
proves a bit much for little Roxy. She just hasn't quite
got the concept that it might be under something.

Yes! Good girl!
Yes! Good girl! If you've got a couple of treats
there, give her a jackpot. You're so good! Come here. Your timing was impeccable.
She can rest for the day. You've done a great job. They are doing a great job. But there's still only one week left to turn a dog that's confused by
"under a cushion" into a full-blown
mobile phone sniffer dog. We'll check on the progress
of our other dogs - labrador Angus and surfing spoodle
Poppy - later in the program. But for now, our three owners
have some homework to do. So I'd just like you to fill out this short personality profile
questionnaire. What we want to know is, how will our owners' personalities
affect their coaching success?

To find out more about
how personalities impact dogs, we've headed out of town
to Tobruk Sheep Station, a demonstration farm where
they know a lot about dogmanship. Ride up! Ride up, Betty! Betty,
Betty, Betty! Betty, herd her! Ride up, Betty.
It's just wonderful to watch. Great communication, great coaching, and dogs who are obviously happy
in their work. Betty, Betty! (WHISTLES) With me is Dr Elyssa Payne. She's part of the Dogmanship Science
Research Team at Sydney University who've been conducting
a national working dog study of dogs and their handlers.

I've been investigating
how dog handler personality influences how they train dogs, and whether this influences
their overall success as a team. Girl, speak.
(BARKS) So what's it like
working with these dogs? Unbelievable. Nothing better than taking your best
friend to work with you every day. Pull you back to the water
and drown you... Over 800 working dog handlers
took part in an anonymous survey, which included a short
standard personality profile - the same one our dog owners
are filling out now.

It assesses someone's agreeableness, their conscientiousness,
their extraversion, neuroticism
and openness to experience. The big five.

The survey also asked questions
about how they train. Over. Stop. Stop. So this is one of our young dogs. When he was about three months old,
he started with the ducks. Then we move them on to sheep. Stop. Stop. We found two main things - one of those was that people
scoring higher in agreeableness were less likely to use punishments
such as verbal correction such as, you know, "No!"
and things like that. Over. Around. Well, it's important
because excessive use of punishments has been shown to elicit
more stress in dogs, which can manifest
in decreased learning, higher cortisol concentrations and
just overall compromised welfare. If you just say, "No, no, no, no,"
they're going to freak out and they are going to run away,
pretty much, and not want to work. Our second finding had to do
with conscientiousness. More conscientious handlers were
more consistent with their ideas and their behaviour
towards training, which is great, but they were also more likely
to train their dogs for extended durations of time, which, you know, can be
a bit counterproductive because it's been
shown that shorter, sharper sessions result in enhanced learning. Good boy. Stop. Good boy. While Elyssa found
these two traits important, another study looked at neuroticism, which is a tendency
to low mood or anxiety. Come on, Pippy. Come on. Come on. People scoring higher in neuroticism tend to use excessive hand movements
when they train and excessive verbal commands. Things like, "Sit. Yep.
Stop. No, no!" Sit. Sit. Sit. And that can be pretty
counterproductive with training because it's an overload
of information for the dog, which, in fact, resulted in dogs taking longer
to respond to commands.

Go back. For now, let's leave our happy
working dogs to their ducks and head back to our dog owners to reveal their
personality profile results and the implications.

So, good news - you all scored
highly on agreeableness. And that means you're less likely to
use verbal correction with your dog, you know, things like,
"Bad dog. No."

They also all score highly
on the desirable quality of conscientiousness, with the drawback
it can make you train too long. Dogs have been shown to learn better
with short, sharp training sessions, otherwise their learning
tends to go downhill. And all were fortunately
low on neuroticism. So it's actually a good result
for all of you guys. You have all the right personalities
to be great dog coaches. Do you hear that, Angus? I'm good for you. So does this mean we're doomed
by our personalities to be better or worse dog trainers? Of course not, because I score
highly on neuroticism. (GASPS) And all that you have to do
is to just be aware of how certain personality aspects
of yourself might, you know, influence your behaviour,
and just adapt, be aware. The point where you say the personality may drive
the training for a longer period, that's probably something
that I could see myself doing. All I can think of is
I'm going to practice on Roxy and then apply it to my kids. (LAUGHS)

And new science
is revealing even more ways we can adversely impact our dogs
via our emotions.

Dogs have, perhaps, a unique ability
to read human emotional cues.

In this recent study by dog cognition
researcher Natalia Albuquerque, dogs looked at pairs of faces - one happy, one angry. When scientists then played
a happy or angry voice in an unfamiliar language, the dogs turned to look more at the face that matched
the tone of the voice. (WOMAN SPEAKS JOYFULLY
IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE) (WOMAN SPEAKS ANGRILY
IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE) This is very significant because
it suggests that dogs have internal cognitive representations
of our emotional expression. I find this very exciting, especially because this
interspecies emotional recognition has ever only been shown in humans.

As Natalia's groundbreaking
follow-up study is revealing, that means our emotional state can have a profound impact
on a dog's ability to learn. Dogs were exposed to an angry person
or a happy person and then taught a new task.

(HOWLS) Our preliminary results
are fascinating. When dogs were exposed
to an angry person, it took them longer
to solve the task, which may suggest that the exposure
to an angry emotional display potentially slows down learning. It points out how important it is to be careful about our own feelings
and emotional expressions if we want to be
a good life coach for our dogs.

On the flipside, the benefits of positive emotions
have also been revealed in this extraordinary study conducted by scientists from the famous Family Dog
Research Project in Budapest.

Amazingly, the scientists have taught
dogs to lie perfectly still in a brain scanner.

They achieved
this almost miraculous feat through the same learning theory
methods we're teaching our owners. The scientists then play the sounds
of humans praising the dogs... Good dog! Good dog!

..and watched as the dogs' pleasure
centres lit up like Christmas trees. Even more amazing, the dog brains
only responded positively when the tone of the voice matched
the meaning of the words used. It seems our genuine praise
makes dogs happy.

Next on our home visit list
is 15-year-old Claudia and her surfing spoodle Poppy. (WHINES) How are their
communication skills developing in their quest for Poppy to become
a wallet-seeking sniffer dog? So, what I want to do now, Claudia, is I want to start
to put this on cue. So instead of just Poppy
going mental every time she sees the wallet
or a tennis ball, we want to create a cue that
she knows, "OK, now I search." So what do you want to say
when you ask her to find the wallet? Something like, "Get the wallet."
Perfect. Alright, so... Get the wallet!

Yes! Good girl. Claudia is learning
her learning theory well. Her timing with the bridge signal,
"Yes," is spot on. Get the wallet! Yes! Good girl! Good girl!
Come here. And Poppy has learned "Yes" means she
gets her favourite reward - the ball. You've been doing your homework.
Yeah. It's rare for a 15-year-old girl.
I know. Rare for me. (CHUCKLES)

And like Leanne found
last week with Roxy, Claudia is noticing
another profound change in Poppy.

It's just like we're like more,
like, yeah, bonded or connected. It's always so positive,
everything that we're doing, so it makes our relationship
together just all positive and, yeah, I like it. It's very cute.

Now for Ryan's problem couple,
Matt and Angus.

Last visit, Angus really worried Ryan
because he hadn't progressed, so obsessed by the chicken, he won't
switch his attention to the keys. It's like his food drive is so high he actually can't think
in the presence of food.

Let's see if Matt has managed to
solve Angus's chicken fixation. Where are the keys?

Yes! Good boy. Good boy.
Beautiful. Now, Matt, just to tell you
something very impressive, as he got closer, we could very
clearly hear him using his nose to pinpoint it at the last minute. So that lets you and I know we can
start hiding these keys for real. Want to try one around corner?
Yes.

Where are the keys? This time, even Matt doesn't know
where the keys are. Naturally he went back to where
they were before, which is fine.

Yes! Yes! Yes! Oh, wow! Hey? Good boy! (LAUGHS) Oh, God! Matt, the look on your face
when I gave you the thumbs up, you were genuinely surprised. That was so good.

Angus is the first of the dogs
to pass a double-blind test where neither owner nor dog
know the keys' whereabouts. RYAN: I'm blown away,
particularly by Angus, because he still seemed to be going,
"Oh, my God. Matt's got chicken. "But I'd better go find the keys
to get the chicken." Which is just...that's priceless.

One week down and one to go. They've all had breakthroughs, but they're still a long way from
becoming true household sniffer dogs. And Roxy is still flummoxed
by the concept that a missing phone could be under a cushion
or anywhere but the floor.

So far in
our science of dogmanship specials, we've worked on better canine
communication and listening skills and being mindful of how our own
behaviour impacts dog happiness. Now we're asking
the bigger question - how happy is your dog overall,
and can you help it be happier?

This is one of those
existential questions that's difficult enough to answer
in people, let alone dogs. But Australian scientists have been
working on a brand-new technology to address exactly that. And a lot more besides. Coming with me? Come on.

This is Mia Cobb, a member of Sydney University's
Dogmanship Science Research Group. She is in charge of Doglogbook.

So, this is the app, Jonica. It's Doglogbook and it is the
first app of its kind in the world designed to monitor and maximise your dog's quality of life
or its happiness, if you will. Fantastic. We can just put basic things
in like health reminders. So, for example, yesterday
his monthly parasite control was due and my smart phone
gave me an alert through the app. In addition to the health records,
which can be shared with your vet, there's a large section
on activities, tracking your dog's enjoyment
of its favourite pastimes. The app will actually give you
a reminder that just says your dog's enjoyment
hasn't been as high as usual and that can make you think, "Oh, is there maybe
something wrong with my dog? "Does it need to go see a vet
or have a health check?"

These enjoyment measures
are actually the key to keeping track of your dog's
quality of life. And where they become invaluable is in the final stages
of your pet's life and those heartrending
end-of-life decisions. Sometimes people find it hard,
perhaps, to recognise what's in
the best interest of the animal, rather than what's in
the best interests of us. And saying goodbye and letting go
is really difficult.

But there's a lot more to Doglogbook
than the end of life. This is Sugar.
Hello, Sugar. Little Sug. There's a section on puppies, helping you set the foundation
for a long and happy life. You can see that she's been
listening to vacuum cleaners, she's been for a car ride this week, so she's met a rabbit this week. And what the app does is say, "Well, that's great.
You've done all that this week. "Maybe next week, you want to
introduce her to an older person." So it will help guide that really
appropriate socialisation that's going to make her a really robust and resilient dog
in the future.

That brings us to the final part
of this making dogs happy special. When you get a puppy, how do you
set it up for a happy life? The fact is,
there are major life stresses every dog will face as
a consequence of living in our world. And one of the biggest causes
of unhappiness in many dogs is being left alone.

Hi!
Hello! Hello!
Hello! So, um...so who's this?
This is Banjo. Yes. So what does he do
when you're out?

He's become destructive. Anything left on benches,
he pulls it off and destroys it. He rips it to pieces.

I'm here with Dr Joanne Righetti,
a clinical animal behaviourist. Well, we've got cameras all set up, so let's go out
and see what happens.

(BARKS) (WHINES) (HOWLS) He's definitely howling. He's barking, which are symptoms
of separation anxiety. Were you aware that he does this?
No. I just thought that
he might bark a little bit, but then he'd just get into
the destructive mode. (HOWLS) But this, to me,
he seems...more upset. (BARKS JOYFULLY)
Hello. Treating dogs who struggle
with being home alone is a major part
of Dr Righetti's practice. OK, we're going to look at some
short-term management strategies and long-term solutions. In some cases, there is a genetic
predisposition towards anxiety. And those cases, we may turn towards veterinary
medication for a solution. Other cases, though,
if the owners only knew what to do, we can actually prevent
separation-related distress. We tend to think
puppies will simply work out how to fit in with our lives
as they grow up, but as their life coaches,
we can do better. We can teach them the life skills
they will need to deal with our world.

And if you teach your puppy
one life lesson, it's how to be happy on its own
by creating its own happy place.

So this is crate training. And I reckon it's one of the best
life gifts you can give your puppy. So right now, he's at the crate. I'm just gonna leave
a little treat there, so he thinks
it's a really positive place to be.

Creating a den out of a crate
is really useful, but you can apply the same procedures
to a mat or a bed.

This is becoming
a safe, happy place to be and that's really good
for making them feel comfortable and making them feel happy. And then you can go out
and you can enjoy yourself and not feel guilty
about leaving your dog at home.

Notice the procedure? Crate. Yes! Joanne is using the principles
of learning theory to teach the dog this is its place. And of course, the door
is only shut when travelling. So, as time goes on, I might even
introduce a command like "bed". "Crate." So that again
becomes a positive. Crate. Joanne is communicating clearly
using reward in a timely fashion, reading when the dog says no, and maintaining a positive emotional
tone for maximal learning.

In fact,
all the canine coaching skills we've been learning
throughout the program are exactly the same techniques
required to teach dogs
the life skills they will need to live happily in our world, like walking on a lead, coming
when called, and being relaxed alone.

We've reached the end
of our introductory course in the science of dogmanship, and the day of reckoning has arrived.

Well, it's two weeks today...
Yep. ..to try and turn
regular household dog owners into household sniffer dog trainers. Yeah. What do you reckon?
Oh, I'm nervous for them. (LAUGHS) So am I. I'm really excited because
I know they've put in the work and they understand the science,
but, yeah, I'm nervous. It's the big reveal.

Claudia and the others are sent out
of sight while we hide the wallet.

Get the wallet!

Yes! Good girl! (CHEERING AND APPLAUSE) Good girl. Ooh, that was stressful.
(LAUGHTER) After that sensational demonstration, it's Matt and Angus's turn
to face the stress. Angus, where are the keys?

(BARKS)
Let's have a look. Let's have a look.
Let's have a look. Yes! Good boy! (CHEERING AND APPLAUSE)
Good boy! Good boy! Come here. Come here.
Oh, you're a good boy. Good boy.
That was a hard one. That was hard, yeah.
(GROANS) Oh, I'm nervous now. Two successes, one to go.

She can get in there.
Yeah, yeah, yeah. Yep, that's fine. Roxy, where's the phone?

Come look up here.

"I don't know where the hell
you people have put this thing."

Good girl! Good girl. (APPLAUSE) Man, she worked hard.

She did work hard. And even when the challenge
got tough, amazingly, Roxy - the dog who couldn't stop shaking
with nerves on day one - has the new-found confidence
to stick with it.

We hoped the skills
learned in this process would make their dogs happier. So has it?
I've had the best time. She's so much calmer now and
peaceful and happy. It's amazing. I think I'll be able to tell
if he's happy now. Yeah.

(BARKS) It does seem that even in two weeks,
the science of dogmanship can unlock a new level
of communication and happiness for you and your dog.

RYAN: Really, the sky's the limit. They know how to read their dog,
they know how to make them happy. So it's up to them. Dogmanship is all about
getting more happy dogs. And if we get that outcome,
then I'll be a very happy vet. If you'd like to know how to teach
your dog to be a sniffer dog, check out the Catalyst Facebook page. Got up in the morning.
Where were my keys in the morning? I'd actually forgotten
where I'd put them. And so I asked Angus,
and he actually found them for me. Oh, my God. That's so good.

ANNOUNCER: Next time on Catalyst, smell - our most
underestimated sense. MAN: The dream, if you like, is to be able to diagnose
a range of diseases using the smell on people's breath
or their skin. Captions by Ericsson Access Services

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