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This program is not captioned. This program is live captioned by Ericsson Access Services Leave now - European leaders show Britain the door, urging them to exit the union quickly. Brexit burn - markets around the world tumble as the fallout begins to be felt. A leader for uncertain times - the Prime Minister and Opposition Leader make their post-Brexit pitches one week out from the election. And the Panthers managed to hold out the Rabbitohs in a 2-point thriller in Sydney. Hello. Adrian Raschella with ABC News. A quick look at Hello. Adrian Raschella with ABC
News. A quick look at the weather: News. A quick look at weather: sunny in Brisbane and Sydney. Morning frost and then mostly sunny in Canberra. A possible morning shower in Melbourne. Partly cloudy in Hobart, Adelaide, Perth and Darwin.

European Union leaders say that the UK must leave the European Union quickly, fearing the breakdown in unity could spark a chain reaction of more referendums. The president of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, says he wants to start negotiations on Britain's exit swiftly. We now expect the United Kingdom government to give effect to this decision of the British people as soon as possible. However painful that process may be. Any delay would unnecessarily prolong uncertainty.The Brexit result has reignited speculation that both Scotland and Northern Ireland will attempt to leave the United Kingdom to try to create closer ties with the EU. The citizens of both countries voted to remain in the union, while Wales and England chose to leave. US stocks dived Friday after Britain's surprise vote to leave the union, with the Dow Jones dropping 3.4%. The drop of about 610 points was the index's biggest single-day loss in five years. The S&P 500 dropped 6.3% and the NASDAQ sank 4.1%. Australians around the world reported an inability to access their money after the Commonwealth Bank temporarily suspended currency exchanges. The head of the International Monetary Fund, Christine Lagarde, said that, despite the uncertainty surrounding Britain's future, it will work to ensure economic stability. In reaction to chaotic trade, the Bank of England announced it was ready to pump $460 billion to aid the smooth running of the markets. It declared it will take all necessary steps to ensure financial and monetary stability. Andrew Jaspan is the former editor Observer.
of Scotland on Sunday and the Observer. He's now editor-in-chief of The Conversation and joins me from Melbourne. Andrew, what do you think of the future of the kingdom and that union?I think this is probably one of the most significant moments in my lifetime and obviously in the UK's. Um, I think what we're going to see is a break-up of the UK. Um, if you look at the map of how people voted on Thursday, you'll see that Scotland unanimously - I mean not a single council or area voted to leave. It was all for Remain. In contrasts, you had large... Most of England voted to leave, with the exception really of the big cities, virtually all the big cities and London. And then, of course, you had the same situation in Northern Ireland. So I think what you're going to see - and it's already begun - is the government in Scotland, led by the Scottish National Party, have already started and triggered the basis for a referendum to leave the UK and join Europe... Well, not join, to remain in Europe. And the same thing goes for Northern Ireland. In fact, in Northern Ireland it's very interesting because you've got two countries there, Northern Ireland and the Republic, and they're talking of actually joining the two together and having one united Ireland as part of Europe. Um, so you're then going to be left with a rump of England in which even London, the Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan, has said he would like to see if there is a way for, as it were, London to opt out of the English settlement. So I think this is a really momentous occasion and I'm not quite sure that, um, the likes of even Boris Johnson, Michael Gove and the other senior Tories actually really have thought this all through. But it will lead to something very different and, in many ways, I think quite alarming. So presumably, if Scotland and Northern Ireland have referendums, they get to stay in the EU, there are obvious economic benefits there. What are the ramifications for England, England and Wales, but England mainly, if they're left in a broken-up kingdom.Well, exactly. Look, there's a couple of things. First of all, um, the balance of power at Westminster has always been made up by a rump of Labor MPs, largely from Scotland, and now the... Replaced by the SNP, balancing the rather more Tory-leaning England. So what you'll do is you'll remove Scotland and you'll have a new... What I call little England approach, which will be largely speaking nationalistic, anti-immigration, quite, um, right of centre. I think that will really struggle in a new modern Europe, particularly, um, I suspect, you'll find the City of London which is - if you look at the turnover of the City of London, it would be the 22nd largest country in the world. It's actually a massively profitable part of the UK. That handles most of the euro you'll
bond business in Europe and I think you'll see a flight of capital. I think you'll see quite a few companies withdrawing from London. And I expect many of them will probably look at resettling in Edinburgh, which used to be - or still is to a certain extent - the second financial district of the UK. But I think really what one has to look at in terms of prosperity and the future of, um, that part of the world, is that, when it comes to China and the US, they - these are large trading blocs. They don't really want to deal with England, as it were. They want to deal with Europe. And Europe was the third-largest trading bloc. And I, I really think that those Brexiteers haven't really thought this through. What they've done instead is they've appealed to a Little-Englander nationalism and, in many ways, this is a triumph, I see, of UKIP and Nigel Farage, who, for 25 years has been, um...It's a victory...Sorry? Did you interrupt me there?No, sorry. Go ahead. We had a taped item come up. Go ahead. Oh, right. What I'm saying is for 25 years, he's been anti-European or a sceptic of that. It was very interesting, by the way - the last video he released just before the vote was a picture of spitfires, which is World War II aircraft, flying over London with sort of pictures of the Towers of Westminster on their way, I guess, Germans.
to engage in battle with the Germans. And that's the kind of mentality that sits behind that Little Englander approach. But aided and abetted, I have to say, Adrian, has been Euro-sceptic press. Particularly the tabloid press has been largely anti-European. And coming up with just completely fatuous myths about England,
what Europe is trying to do England, as it were. And I think this has led to a rather poorly informed debate. It's very interesting, as I said right at the beginning, that the, that the better-off parts of the UK - and by that I mean the major cities - virtually every major city which the exception, I think, of Birmingham, voted to remain, including of course all of pretty well all of London and all of Scotland. So then you ask the question, well, is Scotland just a rich part of the UK? And the answer is no. There are pockets of poverty in Scotland as well. Then it comes down to what I think is a matter of leadership. And in the case of Scotland, you have a very determined leadership there to engage with Europe and to put forward the advantages of remaining in Europe. Whereas under David Cameron, and virtually all the Tory frontbench, there's been a really anti-European, sceptical approach all along. We had earlier this year, David Cameron rushing to Brussels to say that he was going to renegotiate things and hectoring Europe and all that sort of thing and this is a common thread from the Tory frontbenchers, with the exception, of course, of a period when jm and even Margaret Thatcher led -- John Major and even Margaret Alright.
Thatcher led Britain into Europe. Alright. Andrew Jaspan from The Conversation, we could continue this conversation all day but we have to leave it there. Thank you for your views today.Yes, I've got a lot more to say on the subject if We'll
you'd like to do it over a coffee. We'll do that some time. Thank you. Cheers. Bye bye.The very strong Brexit vote in some working-class areas took many pundits by surprise. A key concern in those communities was EU immigration. Our Europe correspondent James Glenday has been in Romford in Essex, one of the most Euro-sceptic places in the UK. Among residents of Romford, there's a real sense of achievement.Wins tonne Churchill, he's up there, and he's going down to us "victory". He'd be proud of us.This is one of the most anti-EU places in Britain. 70% voted out. Some here think a Brexit was quite literally heaven-sent.Yes, it is. I'm thanking God that we're out of it and you will see that Britain is going to be prosperous. It could trade with the rest of the world. When you scratch the surface, it's clear EU immigration is the main issue on locals' minds.Get rid of all the foreigners and bring all the English back so we can get our properties.There's too many people here, yeah, definitely. Too many people.Too many immigrants?Yeah. Can't get enough jobs. Can't get enough... Anything.This taxi driver doesn't know what a Brexit will bring but said things had to change to protect his livelihood. So hopefully it will bring a lot more work back into my industry and I'm hoping it will help shut our borders in years to come.We're just 25km from the centre of London but overwhelmingly, the people here don't feel the European Union benefitted them. And crucially, they don't feel it listened to them. Most agree there could be big financial shocks or even a recession in Britain, but few care. It's going to be tough for the next couple of years anyway, but at least we can get ourselves sorted out now.They're just thrilled their voices have now been heard. The Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, says the referendum reflects Britain's democratic system and the relationship with the kingdom will remain strong. He told 7.30's Leigh Sales that France backing
and Germany have shown support in backing a free trade agreement with the EU. Well, we respect the decision of the British people and we know that we will continue to have, in the future, the very closest relations with the United Kingdom. At a personal level, I'm sorry to see David resign, but, um, I can understand his reasons for doing so. The... But our relations with Britain are as close as two countries' relations could be and nothing will change there. Equally, in terms of the European Union, we have strong relations with all of the countries of the European Union, but particularly the two biggest economies, France and Germany, and we have strong support in both those countries to the negotiation of a free trade agreement with the EU, which is one of our next export trade deals that we're seeking to achieve, building on the success of the others that we achieved over the last few years.The Opposition Leader, Bill Shorten, is delivering the message that the Labor Party remains united in the wake of the UK referendum. Mr Shorten says the major lesson from Brexit is the need to elect a government that can deliver stability and unity.Well, I think that, um, the principal responsibility goes to a divided government. David Cameron never wanted to have this referendum, but he couldn't even lead his own party to that conclusion. What we saw there is David Cameron hostage to the right-wing of his political party, compromising his own beliefs, providing weak leadership - it does sound familiar, doesn't it? And what we then see is we see the outcomes that have happened. What I can promise Australians is we are united in Labor and we will deliver stable government. Mr Turnbull just says because there's been an upset, you should vote for him. The problem is the nature of the upset that we've seen arises out of weak leadership and a divided government. Labor is not divided. Mr Turnbull's party is divided. Full stop. Barack Obama has described the EU as one of America's indispensable partners. The US President has also reiterated support for NATO as a cornerstone of global security ahead of the NATO summit in Poland in two weeks' time. Just a few, um, a few hours ago, I Cameron.
spoke with Prime Minister David Cameron. David has been an outstanding friend and partner on the global stage and, based on our conversation, I'm confident that the UK is committed to an orderly transition out of the EU. We agreed that our economic and financial teams will remain in close contact, as we stay focused on ensuring economic growth and financial stability. I then spoke to Chancellor Merkel of Germany. And we agreed that the United States and our European allies will work months
closely together in the weeks and months ahead. I do think that yesterday's vote speaks to the ongoing changes and challenges that are raised by globalisation. But while the UK's relationship with the EU will change, one thing that will not change is the special relationship that exists between our two nations. That will endure. The EU will remain one of our indispensable partners. Our NATO alliance will remain a cornerstone of global security and in a few weeks, we'll be meeting in Warsaw for the NATO summit. And our shared values, including our commitment to democracy and pluralism and opportunity for all people in a globalised world - that will continue to unite all of us.Let's check some other news now and a cold snap has blanketed parts of the country's south-east in snow. In Victoria, snow fell across the state as Melbourne braced for a wintry blast of rain. The weather bureau says snow flurries were recorded at Kyneton, Daylesford and Ballarat. In NSW, there have been widespread snowfalls in the alpine region, with light falls in the central
Blue Mountains and parts of the central west. The bureau says the immediate threat of severe weather in the state has now passed. In Tasmania, snowfalls are expected in southern and central parts of the state. Two men are in hospital after being stabbed during a street brawl in Sydney's west. Police were called to a laneway off John Street in Lidcombe after reports a fight involving up to 30 people. Paramedics treated the men at the scene for stab wounds before transferring them to hospital, where one remains in a critical condition. Well, the way many of us catch taxis, book hotel rooms and rent videos has changed markedly over the years, with the rise of disruptive technologies. Australia Wide reporter Nic Perpitch has been talking to the start-up community in WA, which is leading the way in transforming the state's industries. In tech hundreds like these dotted across Perth, the whole focus is on coming up with bright new ideas to either sell to the market or to challenge its very structure.This is our device. This is what we're doing.Some of the most recognisable brands in the world have done just that, using what's termed disruptive technology. Through technological advances and new business models, they've transformed existing markets or created new ones, often replacing established industry leaders.If we're going to solve big problems using technology, why don't we position ourselves in Western Australia as experts in that domain?Not surprisingly, it's the resources industry that's the focus for many of these disruptive technology start-ups in Western Australia. It was as a hackathon in 2014, that industry leaders came to the tech community asking for a solution to the problem of large rocks blocking crushers on mine sites. A company came up with a winning idea much using sensors to detect large rocks as they were placed into trucks.During a just
downturn, we like to think it's just filled with opportunity because the focus is no longer throwing money at what has been established or principle. It's now figuring out ways to do things smarter.Resource companies are trying to get on the front foot of the technological revolution, internally disrupting their own companies. Woodside is using cognitive computing to allow staff to access its huge data banks and ask the system questions.Let's say a Siri for grown-ups if you will. What does Australia look like, you know, when we have much higher unemployment because of disruptive technologies? I think that at this stage, we're not really sure.If you can upskill people and get them to do the more interesting work, then very often these technologies can be for the better?A bronze statue of the Aboriginal man who captured Australia's first prisoner of World War II has been unveiled on Bathurst Island in the Northern Territory. It's hoped the statue will draw attention to the contribution of Indigenous Australians during the conflict. A traditionalty which welcome for the statue of war-time hero Matthias Ulungura. Mr Ulungura captured the first Japanese prisoner of war on Australian soil, pilot Hijame Toyoshima, who crashed on Melville Island in the Northern Territory in 1942.To capture the first Japanese shot down on Australian soil pretty well unarmed as a civilian was a mighty act of achievement.When Matthias approached Toyoshima, he stuck his Tomahawk in his back and said, "Stick 'em up." It's a story that's been passed down to his great-grandchildren.
children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren. They said when they first saw the statue, they couldn't believe it.I couldn't believe the statue, that I was standing in front of it.I called out to my sister and saiding "Wendy, that's Matthias standing there watching us walking in" and she came and said, "Hello, Matthias."The statue was planned for Dan win Esplanade but the member for Arafura fought to have it onty which country.The wholety which people wanted to have it here because they knew about Matthias and the history of him.It's hoped the statue will bring more awareness to the contribution of effort.
Indigenous Australians to the war effort.We found as many as 2,000 Aboriginal people were serving in the military.Matthias Ulungura's story, largely untold for 75 years, finally being celebrated.

There are reports as many as 20 people have died in flooding in the American state of West Virginia. The rain destroyed or damaged more than 100 homes and knocked out power to tens of thousands of homes and businesses. About 500 people were stranded overnight in a shopping centre when a bridge washed out and dozens of other people had to be plucked off roofs or rescued as waters quickly rose during the storm. The deaths included an 8-year-old boy and a 4-year-old boy. US Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders says he will vote for the party's Clinton.
presumptive nominee, Hillary Clinton. Mr Sanders has resisted dropping out of the race, even though all the primaries are over and Mrs Clinton is the favourite to formally secure the party's nomination in next month's he
convention in Philadelphia. He said he remains in the race pause he wants to exert influence on Mrs Clinton and push her policy positions more to the left. A major clean-up operation is under way in southern China after wild weather claimed 98 lives. The coastal city of Yancheng was hit on Thursday by a tornado, downpours and a huge hail storm. State media reports say another 800 people were injured. Heavy rain is common through China's south in summer, with floods claiming dozens, if not hundreds, of lives each year. The World Anti-Doping Agency has banned a drug analysis lab in Rio de Janeiro from conducting tests just over a month before the city hosts the Olympic Games. WADA says the lab has failed to conform to international standards and says samples collected during the ban will be tested in another country. The city also lost its testing accreditation two years ago ahead of the soccer World Cup. WADA says the lab has 21 days to appeal the decision. A helmet that's more aerodynamic than others - that's what engineers at the University of Adelaide say cyclists
they've created. Professional cyclists appear to agree, with the head wear about to be used in the Tour de France. Riding into a head wind is never fun, but this cyclist is willing to push through a wind tunnel test all in the name of proving the efficiency of the University of Adelaide's new road cycling helmet design.Over 200 metres it could mean anything from 2m down to 0.2m depending on your opposition. Compared with one of the old helmets that GreenEDGE were riding with, it's about a 4m advantage. The helmet called Cadence Plus was created in cooperation with a Swiss company. They say it will give GreenEDGE the winning edge. They'll wear it in next month's Tour de France. They've already put it to the test.They're pleased with the faster
reduction in drag. They are much faster in the sprints. They're very pleased with cooling.Engineering students had a hand in the helmet's development, helping to test it against other models.It was great to be involved in a project like this and particularly an undergraduate level, it's excellent to have experience in something that will go on to be on the world stage. The same concept has been used to design a second helmet. This one provides more ventilation to cool the rider's head. It's expected some cyclists at the Rio Olympics will also be wearing the design. It will eventually be available to the weekend Lycra brigade, although it's not likely to come cheap. Time for more sport now. Here's Scott Rollinson.

England has issued Australia a stern warning ahead of tonight's final rugby test. The English claimed their first ever series win on Australian soil after beating the Wallabies in the opening two games. But they say they are yet to play their best rugby. You know, we haven't played as well as we have all series. You know, in each of the first two games, we've done bits and pieces well, but we want to put it all together for this game.Tasmanian Adam Coleman will make his Wallabies debut with the Australians confident that they can avoid a series whitewash. We've dropped two games. Um, you can turn it round really quick, um, because things aren't working well and you can have a light bubble moment, that eureka sort of thing, that makes everyone click, makes everyone switch on to what it is. What it is that works for you. What it is really battling.Penrith held off a fast-finishing South Sydney to win a thriller last night in the NRL by two points. The Rabbitohs led 14-10 early in the second half before a 3-try burst helped the Panthers set up their 28-26 win. It came with a scare, though. Sam Burgess scoring two tries late in the game to set up a thrilling finish. The Panthers hanging on to get the win and move back into the NRL's top eight. We've limited it to 14 points tonight. It would have been a nice solid win. It's a good win for us, obviously, but our problem is still think.
on the other side of the board, I think.Collingwood has ended Fremantle's short run of success. Victorious 85-37 in a one-sided AFL contest at the MCG. Back in the Collingwood team, forward Travis Cloke made an early impact before Fremantle gradually worked their way back into the game. Sheridan back to full forward. Pavlich read it best. Got a pretty awkward bounce. Now a chance, gets it. You wanted him to get one at least, didn't you?The Magpies kicked away in the final quarter to claim the win in front of just 20,000 fans, the smallest MCG crowd since 1940. Really disappointed, Friday-night footy, MCG. We'd spoken about that. We knew... Um, we've got plenty of members and fans. On the national stage, we'd like our young players and our leaders to really stand up but that didn't occur so, um, flabbergasted in some respects, what we missed up in the first half. I never separate myself. Clearly there's somewhere in our preparation that allowed that to help and I'm responsible for it and my coaching team, but, like last week, we don't take all the credit and we don't take all the blame this week.Australia could turn to spin for Monday's 1-day international final against the West Indies. Legspinner Saddam Saddam Saddam is in line for a recall with coach Justin Langer admitting his side has lacked variety in the last few games.I'm not sure you ever get the perfect line-up, but we were certainly, after having played the games we've played and getting a feel for the idea.
conditions here, we've got a better idea. We've got the option now to pick 11 out of 15 players who've all had a test of it. So that's a shall - taste of it. So that's a good thing.The West Indies qualified for the final with a 100-run win over South Africa this morning. As Wales and the rest of Great Britain come to terms with the country voting to leaf the European Union, the national soccer team is trying to focus on their first ever European Championship knockout match. Wales faces Northern Ireland in an all-UK contest tomorrow but, according to the Welsh coach, Brexit is far from the players' minds.That's not our focus. We'll talk about that when we get back, whenever that is, from the tournament, but I don't think the lads have within really... You know, we've been watching the football that's been on, that's been great and we've been part of it and that's the focus.It's the first time two British teams have met in the knockout stages of a major tournament.

Let's look at the satellite. A strong cold front is passing over the south-east, bringing cold, windy showers. Snow is expected over higher elevations in NSW, Victoria and Tasmania. An advancing cold front is producing showers with the odd thunderstorm in WA. Looking around the country: For Queensland, gusty winds along the coast, becoming cool in the south, light showers in the tropical north and dry elsewhere. NSW will be getting colder today, very windy along the coast and ranges. It will be sunny with light winds inland. For Victoria, light showers in the east and cool temperatures, winds easing throughout the day. For Tasmania, gusty south-westerly winds throughout the day, although they will ease later. Showers in the west and the south. South Australia will experience areas of rain in the north-west, dry in the east. For WA, dry in the north, areas of heavy rain over central parts. The NT will have patchy showers along the coast, cloud and rain developing on the south-west. Looking ahead to tomorrow's forecast for the capital cities: Partly cloudy with morning frost for Sydney and Canberra, partly cloudy in Melbourne, Brisbane, Hobart and Adelaide, and mostly sunny in Perth, and Darwin.

Top stories from ABC News: European leaders have held crisis talks in Brussels following Britain's shock decision to leave the EU. They urged Britain to negotiate their exit quickly, insisting that the remaining 27 members are committed to unity. The result has reignited speculation that both Scotland and Northern Ireland will attempt to leave the United Kingdom, to maintain close ties with the EU. Rmt global share markets have been rocked by the result. The Commonwealth Bank and NAB have British
suspended foreign exchange of the British pound. In London, the Bank of Scotland was down 34%. Barclays was down 30% and Lloyds 28%. On Wall Street, the Dow Jones closed down 3%. The Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, has urged Australians to remain calm about the domestic impact of the Brexit vote. In the midst of the election campaign, the Prime Minister and Opposition Leader both used the UK's decision to promote their own economic credentials. They say Australia can weather the instability. And in the NRL, Penrith has held off South Sydney in a 2-point thriller. The Rabbitohs led by 14 points to 10 in the second half before a 3-try burst by the Panthers ensured a 28-26 win. Adrian
And that is the news for now. I'm Adrian Raschella. Thanks for Captions by Ericsson Access Services

This program is not captioned.

Hello. I'm Pip Courtney.
Welcome to Landline.

The Man from Snowy River and his bold band
of masculine mountain men rode into Australian legend long ago, but for one amazing family
in Victoria's high country, it's been the women who've been
holding their own in the saddle for just as long. The Treasure family has grazed cattle
in the alps for six generations, and it all began
with a brave ancestor who was willing to take on the men. Here's Tim Lee. (WIND WHISTLES)

TIM LEE: In Victoria's high country, brooding skies and brisk winds
herald the coming of winter. (COW BELLOWS) Cattle have grazed
these alpine meadows and snow gum-covered peaks since early summer. Now the chilly nights have made them restless
to return to the lower country.

WOMAN: There's every chance
it will snow at any given moment.

WOMAN 2: The weather
sort of comes in quite nasty. We haven't been caught, really, but you don't want to be
in the snow. (KOOKABURRAS LAUGH)

So in the grey of dawn,
the riders saddle up...

..and flanked by eager cattle dogs,
ride off to muster. This is a branch
of the Treasure family, a name synonymous with
the Dargo High Plains. We have actually driven the cattle
down the last two years in the snow and it is damn cold. WOMAN: Apart from the fact
that it's unpleasant, it's not viable for cattle because they lose
too much condition. The grass is lacking in nutrition
at this stage of the year so it's time to be out. MAN: Salt! Aside from cold and hunger, there's another inducement
that brings the cattle out. Salt! The word 'salt' has echoed across
the mountains since the first cattle began grazing
the Victorian high country in the 1830s. Well, cattle do like salt anyway
in any diet but particularly here because
there's lack of salt in the soil and we train them in the low country
as well as up here to the salt call, and it's just fabulous. As you can see,
salt is a really powerful attractant. As these cattle come forward
and taste it, they bellow and they draw cattle from right
across the mountains into the muster. (CATTLE BELLOW) When we used to have bullocks, you could hear them bellow
from a couple of kilometres away. We'd stand on the cliff with the
wind going the correct direction, the wind
will take the salt call down and you just hear them say, "Yes, lollies! We're coming,
we're coming!" Sometimes it would take them
perhaps two days, maybe three days to actually come up
from, you know, 1,500 feet.

Salting's one of my favourite things
to do. It's a beautiful thing to watch them
come out of the bush, calling back to you sometimes. It's lovely
and it's a nice mustering tool.

We put the salt in specific areas and they do know
where the salt will be placed and, yeah,
they thoroughly enjoy it. Everyone else likes a beer
or a coffee or something, so... (LAUGHS)

It takes several days of riding
through the bush to round up all the stock
from far-off valleys and ridgetops.

After a careful count, the trek down the mountains
to the home pastures begins.

The older cows know the routine. They do have memory
and they are trainable and, yes, they do understand this is not a good place
at that time of the year. The younger ones,
the yearlings and the dry cattle, they learn from the older. It's partly from people, but
it's intergenerational with cattle. And the same ones lead off.
It's quite cute to see. You know, there's a gorgeous
old red-eyed cow here, actually of Lyric's, and she leads the way along and they stride out behind her
which is really good.

The boss drover here is
Christa's daughter, Lyric Anderson. She has been on this path
since she was old enough to ride. The horses are absolutely essential
to what we're doing. We don't do it on motorbikes
or anything like that. We just follow the same tradition
that we've always done. I remember sitting on the front
of my grandfather's saddle. I learned
how to count cattle with him. It's a tradition that
I'm teaching my kids as well. Moving cattle
in and out of the high country is a practice as old as pastoralism. Up to the high country
for the summer months, back to the lower lands
before the winter snows arrive. Usually just before Christmas, Lyric Anderson oversees
the journey up the mountain.

Starting from
the mountain hamlet of Dargo, the mob, made up of cattle owned by various family members
and bunched together, is mustered from holding paddocks. Among the riders
is Lyric's husband, Lance, and their daughter,
eight-year-old Rhyme. Tell us about your horse. His name is Elite. He can be a bit of a bugger
but he's a great horse.

Her four-year-old brother, Hughie,
is also on horseback. I'm going to do the same as Daddy. You'll be a stockman.
Working...doing cattle. So too is their grandma, Christa,
and great-aunt Rhonda. It's wonderful, yes, and to see young people
who are learning the ropes and there has to be a lot
of intergenerational knowledge passed through, yes.

The Treasure family
settled amongst the snow gums on the Dargo High Plains in 1878. For two decades
it was their permanent home, even in the winter months when heavy
snow often blanketed the ground. But what sets this story apart
from any others is the pivotal role that women have
played from the very beginning.

The lure of gold
brought George and Emily Treasure and their young family to these alps.

They sold goods to miners. George often worked
for a man called Jones while Emily made and sold butter
from a handful of house cows. It was a spartan, isolated existence.

They didn't have a lot of money.
They were hungry for money.

But then she heard that the runs
were coming up for renewal so she got the eldest boy with her and again, even though
she wasn't much of a rider, she went down to Omeo and secured the leases
to the Dargo High Plains. Linette Treasure,
Christa and Rhonda's cousin, is another great-granddaughter. Anyway, on the way back,
the story goes, she met Jones and his men and
they said, "Oh, hello, Mrs Treasure. "Where have you been?" "Oh," she said,
"I've been down to Omeo "and I've secured the runs
of the Dargo High Plains." Well, they tried to do a deal
but it wasn't on. And then when Great-Grandfather
came home at the weekend and she told him what she'd done,
he said something like, "Well, good God, woman," he said, "what the so-and-so do you think
we're going to do with some..." I think it was
some thousands of acres - "How are we going to stock this?" And she just said,
"Well, we will." And that's how it started. The woman's touch was
really what turned it all around. Eventually the Treasures
got enough money to buy land to live on
below the snow line. But the family
kept its alpine freehold along with
the crown grazing leases. Until probably the late '30s,
the road was almost impassable, great basalt boulders, and very, very few vehicles
could get through, so it was probably, in horse terms, days away from any help
or anything you needed.

The various branches of descendants have determinedly kept up
the practice of communal alpine grazing. Here we are,
four, five, six generations later.

The women have also remained
central to this story.

Linette's aunt, Freda Treasure,
later Freda Ryder, rode the high plains
with her four brothers and could hold her own
with the best of them. Freda was really special. She was always a lady, she was never toughened
by rough speech or behaviour and yet she could drive
a four-wheel drive vehicle, she could shoe a horse,
she could use a gun, shoot a dingo, camp for weeks alone down in
some of the holdings that she had, and play steel guitar and sing,
do painting.

(DOGS BARK) Oh, it's a wonderful life. It's simply marvellous, I think. I've been doing this since I was
as big as, well, nothing. I did my school work partly up here. MAN: How many of these musters
have you seen? About 38, at least. A few when I was little before that.

Freda Treasure left
an indelible mark on history. I look back on my life and I think she was
a really special role model for me because I saw that a woman
could be more than just a housewife. I'd like to think that it's a strong
lineage, humble in its own way, and yet
with a lot of innate pride.

WOMAN: You'll even see on this ride
that strength in the women still carrying on those,
you know, traditions and teaching their children but also they're the leaders
in a way, so I love seeing that because so often
we think of mountain cattlemen as bearded old men. (LAUGHS) That's been stereotyped, you know, sort of hermits
in the bush, and it's not the case, you know. They're fabulous women
with great ideas that are, you know,
leading the way as well. It's a very gender-neutral term
these days so, you know, I think
that's really great as well. CHRISTA: A big part of this is
knowing...a sense of belonging, belonging to family,
country, your business. (CATTLE BELLOW) At the start of every drive
to the high plains, the cattle are always eager, but initially it needs to be
a slow, measured place. LYRIC: The dry cattle
move really quickly and the cows and calves don't. It's always a juggling act
to keep the front slow enough for the back to catch up and if you rest the front,
the back needs a rest as well. They probably need more of a rest, but once they get there,
then you want to send the front on. It's complicated and you need people
who know what they're doing at the front and the back
all the time. Especially dodging tourists in cars. The road soon gets steeper.

And in recent decades, so too has the path for Victoria's
high country cattlemen.

Environmentalists have waged
a largely successful campaign to ban cattle from crown land. MELANIE: They've been banned
from the National Park. However there's a lot of cattlemen
all around the periphery. The state forests are still home
to the mountain cattlemen and the sixth and seventh
generations of families that used to inhabit
the true high country.

CHRISTA: I don't think
we'll ever give it up. I mean, we had a terrible blow when
they took two-thirds of the country, the grazing licences on the Dargo
High Plains, into National Park and we'll never see
cattle grazing in there.

For the past two years, Melbourne-based photographer
Melanie Faith Dove has been documenting cattle-grazing
families, including the Treasures.

Tradition is celebrated
by Australians broadly and yet by many
it's totally demonised. It really polarises
Australian people. That's one of the reasons I wanted
to explore mountain cattlemen to see really what was still
going on in this current day because as far as the media
would have you believe, it sounds like they've been ousted
from the high country and that's not the case.

The result is High Country Cattlemen, a beautiful book that documents
the stories of alpine grazing families
in Victoria and Tasmania.

You can see
all of the generations here. We've got great aunts, we've got...I think
it's the sixth generation of Treasure grandchildren here. They're amazing. You've got six- and four-year-old
kids riding, learning the skills and even the modern skills
that they need to learn - how to get ahead of a mob and deal with vehicles
that are on the roads now that in this area
there's increased tourism, four-wheel driving
and that sort of thing, so it's just spectacular
on so many fronts. (CATTLE BELLOW)

You can't really go wrong. You've got dogs, you've got horses,
you've got cattle and look at the scenery. It's... All the ingredients
are there. I really just have to
go along for the ride.

The journey up the mountain
is slowed by cows with calves, so while the first day's
a steep climb, it's a short stage of about 7km. The overnight halt is a holding yard
well off the road.

The camp stirs well before dawn. Breakfast is brief. The bush is alive to the sounds
of activity, human and animal. WOMAN: Oh, don't do that.

The cattle, bellowing their
impatience, are soon on the move.

To stop them straying into the bush,
good dogs are essential. CHRISTA: We all love our dogs so
we've got multiple numbers of dogs and generally each of us
have got a young dog and it's fairly chaotic
sometimes with them, but they follow the old dogs
and, yeah, it's good. We've got a good team of dogs. Lance is into cattle trials now
with his dogs, so his are really well disciplined
and show the rest of us up.

How crucial are dogs
in flushing cows out? Are they absolutely essential
in this game? MAN: Yeah, they certainly
make life easy. I mean, you could go in there
on your horse and get them out but it's a lot easier just
to whistle a team of dogs in there and watch them come back out. MELANIE: The cattlemen have a real,
great respect for their livestock, whether it be their...they speak
about their dogs with such pride. Everyone thinks
they've got the best dog and a lot of people think
they've got the best horse as well, so it's really beautiful to see but also you can see what beautiful
condition the cattle are in today.

By the third day,
and some 30km later, the cattle reach the high plains and are turned out
on the alpine meadows. LYRIC: They look pretty happy,
don't they? We'll be up to check on them
throughout the summer and then we'll be back
to drove down in autumn. They should come out
looking nice and fat and sleek and walk down beautifully
out of the cold and return to home in good nick.

Four months later,
the autumn chill announces that another cycle
of alpine grazing is ending. We're proud of our cattle, they're
a good shape, good doers, quiet. Christa Treasure is also
proud of her offspring and content that they will carry on
this tradition not out of obligation
and certainly not for money. More so than that, they just...
they love it because...well, we're all
living the dream, aren't we? People in the city are wishing
that they were here with us in the searing heat
and the pouring rain and the thunder
about 20m away from you. It's a good lifestyle, but there's
not always a fortune in it. But, you know, we live in hope. We're gamblers.

MELANIE: The high country
environment as well as the people are unique and, you know, it's been
a real joy to be amongst it. It moves to its own rhythm and it's's been
a beautiful experience to get to know it
a little bit better. Next summer, as always, the Treasure
family will again take to the road. RHONDA: We don't know what
the weather is going to be. It's just being part of everything,
it's in harmony. You are with the natural elements. I sometimes bring
international visitors and through their eyes I see it
again with a new wonderment.

Australians have long had an interest
in the wild frontiers of the outback. Now a film depicting just that
has emerged, showing crocodile hunters
working in the Northern Territory just after World War Two. It had been archived for decades, but it's been rediscovered
and digitised. As Jonathan Hair reports, it shows an industry which has
undergone dramatic change, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander viewers are warned the following program contains images
and voices of deceased persons. (DRAMATIC ORCHESTRAL MUSIC)

FILM NARRATOR: These rivers
and billabongs are the home of the crocodile, a cunning, ferocious killer, frightened of nothing
on land or in the water.

crocodile hunting in the 1940s, shown by a film lost for decades. Wek, the harpooner,
is the head man in the team. It was shot in the Northern Territory and is a strange mix of documentary
and staged scenes, and references to Indigenous people that are cringe-worthy today. But it's an intriguing snapshot into what was then an important,
exotic and dangerous industry - harvesting crocodile skins
for a handsome price. The harpoon
goes into the hollow bamboo and the paddler
holds the canoe steady as Wek prepares for the kill.

The steel barb of the harpoon feels
for the crocodile on the bottom.

The Aborigines have perfected
many hunting techniques, and the cunning crocodile
is outsmarted every time by the skill of master hunters. Bob Cutler and his team
take on the next saltie.

Cutler wants
the crocodile on the surface, so he hunts in dead silence.

Donkey, as usual,
has seen the crocodile first. He signals to Cutler,
in Aboriginal fashion.


For years,
the film was left untouched at the National Film
and Sound Archive. Recently restored,
it's been released to the public.

I think they give a fair impression
of what it would have been like. Um, obviously, it may be
a little bit sanitised and some of the more gory parts
of the operation may not have been shown.

Richard Carter
is a production coordinator at the National Film
and Sound Archive. He concedes some of the acting
in the film is a little put-on. Even though we call
these films documentaries, um, uh, the style of documentary, especially in those days, was a bit of a docu-drama, I guess, in that a lot of the scenes
were set up. But these are...these men are real crocodile hunters, um, and how they...
what they thought of the cameras sort of invading their turf, yeah, they probably weren't
that impressed with it and probably didn't go to
any great lengths to, put on a show. ..for a killing shot. Filmed in small boats
in crocodile-infested waters, creating the documentary
would have been quite difficult. It was played in cinemas
around the country and all over the world, introducing the public
to Australia's wild north. The purpose of
the National Film Board, and the government film units, was to film Australia. Um, one of their initial briefs was just to film
anything of interest, um, and, um...but in the '40s, it was definitely
about nation-building. So, it was showing
how strong Australian industry was, um, and how diverse
the industry was and, really, after that
post-war kind of trauma, about just getting the country
up and going again.

MAN: Come on! Fast-forward to 2016 and the crocodile industry
has gone through vast changes. Wild harvesting
has turned into farming.

It's not the simple process of going out in the bush anymore
and shooting a croc, and getting a skin. This is a matter of a properly managed industry based on sustainable-yield
harvesting, proper husbandry and getting a high-grade skin. Any more hatching? John Lever runs a crocodile farm located on the outskirts
of Rockhampton, in Central Queensland. He collects thousands of eggs legally
from the Northern Territory, and brings them back to Queensland
to hatch and grow. This is what the mother
would do in her mouth.

Come on, little guy. Welcome.

And I'll just...

The crocs are kept on the farm
for three to four years, until they're ready to be harvested. Their skins will be sold
to the fashion industry overseas. Their meat is destined
for the domestic market.

But, basically,
that's a pretty good skin. Now, the measurement
goes from there to there.

OK? And then you multiply that
by the price per centimetre and you get your
finished skin price. This one's probably worth
about $700. John Lever says the style of hunting
shown in the Crocodile Hunters film was incredibly popular
in the 1940s and '50s. But it turned out
to be unsustainable. If you're gonna spend money
on fuel and a bullet,

Ericsson Access Services. This program is live captioned by Ericsson Access We are going to take you live to Sydney now where the Prime Minister Scott
Malcolm Turnbull and the Treasurer Scott Morrison are speaking. On the at vice and consult -- advice and consultations that we've had since then. This is, as I said, a momentous and historic decision. Britain is the fifth-largest economy in the world. The European Union itself is by some measures the largest economy. By other measures, the second-largest economy. So this decision is a very significant one. It has created uncertainty in global markets as we've seen, in the sell-off in stock markets and in a number of currencies, including our own. An event like this does raise the level of uncertainty and does undermine, to some extent, investor confidence. The critical thing for Australians to understand, however, is that our economy is strong. The fundamentals of our economy are very, very strong indeed. There should be no need or cause for alarm. I know Australians will be seeing on the nightly news for some weeks, probably some months, stories about economic uncertainty, political ructions in Europe arising out of the British Brexit vote. But it is important to remember that we have a very strong fundamentals.
open economy with very strong Having said that, in an environment where there is downward pressure on