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(generated from captions) because he is speaking some truth when he talks about the corruption in the political system and how the economy is rigged against everyday people.Democracy Spring represents a coalition of groups marching on Washington this week calling for reform to the political system. So having Donald Trump and Bernie conversation
Sanders, has that sparked that conversation in a way?Certainly, yeah. It had already started but it has gotten a lot more people involved in the conversation, I think.So productive in some ways? Yes, yeah, definitely, and scary in others.Donald Trump will end up with the most delegates from the primary process - but he can still be thwarted if he doesn't get the 1,237 delegates he needs to be guaranteed the nomination. Back room deals mean many of the delegates will be supporters of rival candidate Ted Cruz and in a contested convention, that may knock Donald Trump out. How great is the danger of a perception that democracy has been thwarted by the establishment in the Republican party?Well, democracy is about getting a majority of the vote and if Trump does not get the 1,237 nomination,
delegates needed to secure the nomination, he failed to do that. There's concern that riots might break out if Republicans manipulate the system to prevent Trump from winning. But a victory may cause its own form of upheaval.As a citizen, I'm allowed to contest that, just on the basis of incompetence. You have no political experience and I have a right to say that you are not qualified.Get him out of here! Boy, oh boy. Donald Trump is still ejecting protesters from his rallies, as he campaigns in New York ahead of next week's crucial primary.We're supposed to be - you vote and the vote means something, alright? Today, winning votes doesn't mean anything.But even though he heads into it the favourite, it's clear he has got a fight on his hands, to
with those determined and mobilised to stop him. Zoe Daniel reporting there from Washington. That's all we have time for tonight. Thanks for your company. I hope you can join me again tomorrow. But for now, goodnight. Captions by Ericsson Access Services

Coming up on Catalyst, the blind man
leading the blind to see. How echolocation is redefining
our understanding of vision. And a high-tech bra that responds
to your physical needs.

Well, starting here,
we've got quite a tall hedge... This is Daniel Kish. It's the first time he's ever
walked down this street. He's never seen it before,
and never will - at least not with his eyes. There's a building behind it. (CLICKS) Not closely behind it.
I'd say maybe 10 metres away. That's because Daniel's blind. There's a... (CLICKS) (CHUCKLES) There's a person. (LAUGHS) He was born with retinoblastoma, a rare eye cancer
that affects young children. By the time Daniel was
just 13 months old, both his eyes had been removed. There's a parked vehicle
behind a tree. (CLICKS) A small tree. And yet his ability to navigate and describe an unfamiliar area
like this is remarkable. Here, the hedges dropped out.
(CLICKING) And actually... (CLICKING) Right at the dropping of the hedge, there's a big...sort of
a thick structure there. This is not just a hedge. It's like
a clump of trees or something. Just kind of smashed in together. There's a low fence here, clearly. And the building's still behind it. He does it using echolocation. The fence has disappeared
momentarily. There's an entrance there. (CLICKING) And a passageway
between the buildings. The fence returns here. And it actually... (CLICKING) ..looks like it curves away. Just as bats or dolphins emit sounds and use the reflected echoes
to navigate dark spaces, Daniel produces mouth clicks
to reveal what's around him. (CLICKING)
Parked vehicle there. It's a specific form of echolocation
he calls Flash Sonar. Our version of echolocation,
if you will, Flash Sonar, means that a flash of sound -
in our case, a flash of energy - is used to solicit echoes
from the environment that are then used for navigation. More hedge,
except it's really more like a tree, hanging over the fence. We all get passive clues
about our surroundings from the random ambient noises
that bounce around us. (TRAFFIC SOUNDS) But Daniel actively interrogates
that space to get the information he wants
when he wants it. Active echolocation is a very
specific form of self-directed and self-determined echolocation to optimise the quality of echoes
from the environment. And it is very much under
the control of the user.

It's given Daniel an independence
and freedom of movement that most blind people don't have, and enables him
to travel the world alone, teaching the skills to others. In these large distances, Christian, the louder your click, the better. Now, science is beginning to explore
how human echolocation works, and the extent to which other people
can follow Daniel's lead. It's something that people have
been aware of. Different philosophers,
psychologists have been aware for a very long time how the blind
seem able to perceive at a distance in ways that don't make sense to us.

But up until say about the 1940s, this kind of distance sense that
the blind had was misunderstood. People thought it was
coming from air pressure or they even talked about
face vision - the idea that somehow
the nerves on your face could detect objects at a distance. And this was
because you sense what you sense. You don't sense how you sense. So, the blind people who were able
to sense at a distance couldn't even describe how
they were doing it. So, in the 1940s, some
psychologists in the United States began to actually experiment
with the blind. And they did things like made them
wear socks on carpet. And they found out
that their ability to detect objects dropped off because there was
no echoes coming from their shoes. And so, starting in the 1940s
and '50s, psychologists became aware that this perception at a distance
of the blind was through sound.

But how the human brain
turns these sounds into images remained unstudied until researchers
peered into the brains of Daniel and fellow echolocator
Brian Bushway. MAN: One of the most important
questions that we were interested in was what parts of Daniel's brain
were activated when he was listening to the echoes
coming back from his mouth clicks, from the environment. I mean, we knew that blind people often use a visual part
of their brain - that's not being activated
anymore by their eyes - for other purposes. And we wondered whether this would
be the case for echolocation as well. The difficulty was
that imaging their brains required them to lie in the cramped
tunnel of an FMRI machine, with nothing to echolocate.

So, instead,
they asked Daniel and Brian to echolocate
a series of objects and recorded the clicks
and their reflected echoes with miniature microphones
placed in their ear canals. They produced the click,
listened to the echoes, we recorded them, then we played those sounds
back to them in a mixed-up order to see whether or not
they knew what they were. And they did - they were incredibly
good at identifying them. (CLICKING) Daniel was able to correctly
identify the scene 99% of the time. Brian, who'd been blind
since the age of 14, had an 82% strike rate. But it wasn't just their own clicks
and echoes that made sense to them. It was really quite amazing - they could indeed understand
each other's clicks and echoes, although I must say that when Daniel
put on Brian's headphones and listened to his sounds, what he said immediately was,
"Oh, my goodness, "I feel so tall." Because of course, Brian was almost
a foot taller than Daniel. And of course, the sound would
arrive a little later from the ground level. DANIEL: I've always know that
perspective makes a huge difference. When we work with little kids,
for example, and we work with them
in various environments, we get down at their level so that we can hear the environment
the way they hear it.

Having proven that Daniel and Brian could effectively see the images
in the recordings, the researchers then
analysed their brain activity as they listened. Daniel's visual cortex
lit up in response. Brian's was also active,
although much less so. It was interesting that the
visual cortex was activated. But what was even more interesting was that when
we compared sound files that contained clicks and echoes, with sound files that contained
only the clicks - that is, we chopped out the echoes and replaced it
with background noise - then we found that the visual cortex was incredibly sensitive
to the echoes.

Normal sounds didn't have
the same increased effect on the visual system. It seems there was something special
about the click and echo combination that was feeding
the spatial information directly into an area
of the visual system known as V1.

For sighted people,
V1 creates a spatial map that directly reflects
the eye's retina.

It would seem to be a wonderful
place for echolocation to play out, so that the echoes, in some sense,
could capture space in a framework that's already
been set up for analysing space. We're beginning with a hedge. So, I'm going to indicate that,
out here, is a building that starts right about here. And it's further back. Indeed, the soundwaves that
reflect into the ears possess many of the same properties as the light waves that
reflect into the eyes. The languages they speak
are similar enough for the visual system
to interpret both.

That would help explain how Daniel can extract
enough spatial information from the soundwaves to identify
large objects around him... There's a gap between this tree
and the car, and then this tree is kind of... In fact, I want to make it...
it's almost on top of the car.

..and create a 3-D mental map
of the scene, then sketch it
from an aerial point of view.

Echolocation is redefining our sense of what it means to be
visual cortex. A better description might be
spatial cortex - that is,
cortex that's exquisitely tuned to the spatial layout of the world. My visual cortex is responding
the way a visual cortex does when presented with information
from which it can extract an image. It's doing its job.

That's a good...
That's a good length, Dad. This is Christian Kouroumihalis, a congenitally blind student
at Insight Education Centre. Which AFL team do you go for? When he's not your regular
eight-year-old sports nut, he's an echolocator, with skills
well advanced for his age. Oh, there is something above you. (CLICKS) Yeah, I can echo that. I can't stop myself going...
(CLICKS) Today, Christian's on a mission to
explore areas outside his school where neither he nor Daniel
has been before. (CLICKS) We're passing a... ..another car.
Another car. He's trying to put
a puzzle together. He's trying to put
the environment together. The near and the big picture. And he had questions about
what was out there, how it relates to the school,
how it relates to the road. While we're going this way, do you think we're going
towards Enterprise Avenue? He wants to know. And, actually, I think they're
pretty good questions. Because, I mean,
wouldn't we all like to know what the heck is going on out there? (CLICKS) Well, I think that's the freeway, so we should be going
in the right direction. It isn't easy. And Christian eventually
gets disoriented...

Where am I? OK.
(CLICKS) No. Give us your power click, see
if you can hear the building still. (CLICKS) Nup. No building. the empty expanse of a
half-constructed new football oval. But this is the third time Daniel
has worked with Christian and he knows Christian's abilities can and should be
stretched to the limit.

His personality drives him to know,
to understand, to experience, and he has no fear. And he doesn't mind a bit of mishap. I mean, I've seen him crash and burn
on a number of occasions and it does not faze him -
he just doesn't care. Alright. Here's a hill. Follow me.
Alright. Those are a pretty powerful
combination of characteristics that will just
drive a person forward. (CLICKS) Yep, we're heading
towards the building. In fact, Daniel believes that
without pushing his boundaries, Christian would probably be like the
vast majority of blind people...

..who don't actively echolocate. Because the skill
doesn't come easily. Deprivation of sight alone
doesn't create echolocation. This is not an automatic result
of being blind. Because your brain doesn't have
vision to work with doesn't mean that you automatically
start picking up sound as a way of detecting space. Something clicks back at us. Like one of the plants? (CLAPS) Try clapping a bit.

Oh, like the playground. The human brain by default actually
tries to get rid of these echoes. So if a person listens to two sounds
in rapid succession, the person will be dominated
by the first sound, which means that they're
ignoring the second or they're... So if this is a click and an echo,
for example, this means that they would
ignore the echo. See if you can get that
to sing back at you. If not, we'll just get closer. The good thing is, though,
that people can be trained to basically be more sensitive
to the echoes. So we can untrain this
echo suppression. What can you still hear? Is it bouncing back?
Yeah. WOMAN: When a person echolocates, they are dependant on
timing information and sound. How long do these sounds take
to come back to you? That helps to form that image. Is it bouncing back from the same
distance or further away? Um... ..further away. Daniel and other echolocators
were tested on their ability to distinguish these minute
variations in the timing of sounds. (STATIC SOUNDS) They were all absolutely terrific. Much better than we would predict
for their age. And Daniel, in particular,
was outstanding. (STATIC SOUNDS) In fact, our computer could not make
the stimuli fast enough for Daniel. (NEWS REPORT PLAYS ON FAST FORWARD) In the same way, many blind people learn to listen to speech
at high speeds, just by catching up on the news. (NEWS REPORT CONTINUES
ON FAST FORWARD) Or their Facebook feed.

So, do expert echolocators have an extreme natural ability
for the task, or does practice make perfect? They have trained themselves to
become outstanding in this ability. I don't think it's freakish at all. I think it's a matter of relying on
hearing sensitivity and the kinds of listening
that they do every day to navigate their environments.

It takes experimentation, it takes a person trying to use it. Becoming more and more
skilful at it. And it can be short-circuited
by a number of things. Maybe your hearing
isn't quite as good. Maybe when you make a noise as a kid your parents or your siblings
tell you to stop making that noise, you're drawing attention
to yourself. Maybe you're overprotected, or you're just afraid to get around,
so you never try it out. (CHRISTIAN CLICKS AND CLAPS) Go right. This way. DANIEL: A lot of these kids
are heavily supported, so they'll never really
be stranded or high and dry. If you shut down your entire
navigational system, someone's gonna step in
and navigate you. So, essentially, in a way we've withdrawn the need
to develop that skill. (CLICKS) Yep, we're heading towards
the building. We kind of undo all of that
in our training, bit by bit, to reawaken and
reactivate the navigational system. Just give it a try.
GIRL: OK. Let's see what happens.
(CLICKS WEAKLY) No, that's actually pretty good!
(LAUGHS) Everyone's click is gonna be
slightly different. But the click's going to have
certain qualities which optimise it for
echo...extraction. Try it again.
(CLICK) And you can get it to bounce.
I heard that. Yeah, listen. So it has to be variable in volume
from very soft to very loud. You have to be able to scan with it. It wants to be sharp,
it wants to be bright. That sharp transient edge... (CLICKS) very important because mathematically
it's what creates a very broad spectrum
of frequencies. (CLICKS) How can I fit through there?
That's not the way in. It sharply defines the surroundings
as the echoes bounce back. (CLICKS) When those reflections
are maximised, what you end up with is a kind
of three-dimensional fuzzy geometry. And it's fuzzy in the sense
that it doesn't have the exact sharp-edged definition
that optical vision will give you. (BATS SQUEAK) The clarity of vision that enables bats to hunt
small insects using echolocation, is possible because they use
very high frequency - ultrasonic clicks and echoes. (BATS SQUEAK) And the reason for that is,
the shorter wavelength means the sound actually comes back
at a finer-grained detail. Research suggests
the visual acuity of echolocators is more equivalent to a sighted
person's peripheral vision. But it's a different medium
to vision, one that's devoid of colour
and light.

Brian Bushway has seen the world
from both points of view. He was sighted until the age of 14, but is now an expert blind
echolocator working with Daniel. The experience of using echolocation to me, it reminds me of
a visual experience.

I mean, for me,
I use these words like 'brightness' and it illuminates more,
and there is no light, but all of a sudden,
there's more clarity in my awareness and understanding
of the objects around me. For example, you could tell that
there's a person there. People are like beautiful blobs. And it's really cool. It's like, all of our
young childhood was all about learning to interpret
these patterns of light, and then you called it a tree. We're doing the same thing
sonically. We're teaching the brain how to
interpret these patterns of sound. And with practice and repetition,
the brain just automatically goes, "Oh, yeah. That's the familiar
sonic signature of a tree." Brian believes that his own
"acoustic vocabulary", as he calls it,
isn't as large as Daniel's. The refinement of his
acoustic images are much more clear than mine,
I assume. But on a practical, day-to-day
using echoes for mobility purposes, I don't think many people
see a difference. And that really is the hope
in all of this, is how adaptable our brain is. A person can lose their vision
at any age, and there still is so much room
for the brain to adapt. We're just figuring out
the potential of this.

MAN: This is probably related to
when they went blind, when they learned to echolocate,
and their own particular abilities. And by studying these people, we'll get some insight into just how
plastic the brain is and what the constraints are
on allowing those changes to occur. (WOMAN CLICKS) Ooh. (LAUGHS) That's a power click.
And that's a fantastic click. I can't even do that. In general, as blind people age, their ability to process
brief sounds doesn't decline to the same extent
as sighted people. An advantage
if you're late to start. Right there. (CLICKS)
Yeah. Hello, darlin'. Julee-Anne Bell only began to use
active echolocation four years ago, when she was 38. Don't like that noise... She'd been inspired by
media reports on Daniel and organised for him to give
a series of workshops in Australia. (CLICKS) Since then,
she's developed her own skills and is now featured in
media reports herself. While I always had fairly good what we call orientation
and mobility skills. I was extremely anxious
travelling independently. I was very nervous of losing my way and echolocation
has allowed me to have such a broader picture of
my environment that even if I am uncertain
for any moment where I might be, I'm able to use echolocation
to establish what's around me and to work out where I need to go. Letting go of somebody's arm after holding on to it
for such a long time, it will be the greatest gift
that you give them. Julee-Anne now runs the organisation World Access for the Blind
Australia. It's a sister company of Daniel's
not-for-profit in the US. Associate Professor Greg Downey
is a director.

the most exciting element is the way it completely turns
our understanding of disability on its head, you know? Instead of seeing this community
as a disabled community, we now see them as a community
which is cultivating a skill, which is very rare and very valuable and that they need
to teach each other. So in some ways I feel like I'm
watching a sensory community forum. I've brought something for you guys.
Here you go. So studying somebody like Daniel
is really exciting to me. Watching him lead a group to explore
the edge of what's possible. (LAUGHTER) Our brain is immensely adaptable.
It's immensely plastic. I believe one of the first and
foremost functions of our brain is to understand our environment and facilitate interaction
with our environment. And the brain will stop at almost
nothing to make that happen.

A team of Australian scientists
is aiming to succeed where fashion has failed...

..and build a comfortable,
high-tech bionic bra that can provide any woman
the right amount of breast support when she needs it.

Most of them are designed
for aesthetics, to look good. And often they don't really take
into consideration the anatomy, what we have to support.

In research conducted over 15 years,
Professor Julie Steele and her team have scanned
the shape and size of breasts and analysed their movement
during physical activity.

Now, we know that most sports bras, the ones
that are the most supportive tend to be the most uncomfortable. They tend to be tight
and compressive, the idea being that if
I want to stop my breasts moving, if I can squish them
in against my chest, it's going to stop them
moving as much. But that's really uncomfortable.

So what we want to do
is have a bra that can respond. When do you need
that extra compression? When do you need that tightness? And it can tighten up
and provide that support. But when you don't need it,
it can relax.

Until recently,
such a bra has been unachievable, both technically and commercially. But advances in material science have finally brought it
much closer to reality. MAN: The bra
is a really challenging application. There's two basic elements - we need to be able to sense breast
motion, monitor breast motion, and we need
to be able to control it. So we need materials that can be fully integrated
into a bra structure that perform those two functions. To monitor breast movement, the team has replaced
conventional motion sensors with novel, high-tech fibres that are woven seamlessly
into the fabric.

So, we take materials
that are inherently stretchy and we can spin fibres from that
material, for example polyurethane. Now, what we do
is add into that fibre structure a conducting material like graphene.

And we still make the fibre
that has that stretchy capability. We haven't interfered with that,
but it does conduct electricity now. And that conductivity varies
as we stretch the fibre, so we have a means
of a dynamic sensor, a human movement sensor at best within the inherent property
of that fibre.

STEELE: So, the sensors
can be embedded anywhere. Our research has shown that the best
place is to put them under the cup. That means that they can then detect
how much the breasts move because they get stretched, also how quickly or how frequently
the breasts are moving.

The biggest force that will cause
the breast to move vertically is when your foot hits the ground. So, if you jog for nine kilometres
an hour for, say, an hour, and your heel strikes the ground
10,000 times, then your breasts
will slap down 10,000 times. PROFESSOR STEELE: So,
often the larger the breast the more they can move. And this is a lot of pain
if you can imagine. You know, we're talking about 8, 10, even 15 centimetres
of vertical breast movement.

To increase breast support
during periods of physical activity, the bra incorporates newly developed
artificial muscle technology. This is the artificial muscles that Professor Wallace's team
has developed. So, what these do is that
when the sensor sends a signal, these then actually contract
to pull the bra in and to increase the compression
on the breasts. So these can really be put anywhere. It's 100 times stronger
than human muscle and it's made from fishing line. WALLACE: It basically
takes fishing line and by twisting it
and subsequently coiling it we can amplify the inherent
thermal contraction properties. And so fishing line, of course,
is incredibly strong, and so we can create
incredibly strong muscles. So, for example,
one gram of artificial muscle is capable of lifting
six kilograms of weight. I mean,
that's incredible performance from a very simple material just because of the way
it's fabricated. And we can amplify that even further
by taking those muscles and braiding them together
into your textile structure. So it's a very scalable technology.

The muscles are made to contract by heating conductive elements
wrapped around the fishing line.

But this requires battery power and conventional batteries
aren't a long-term solution.

So Professor Wallace's team
is developing thread-like batteries that can also be woven
into the structures.

threads are the battery components. So we would have a thread that's the equivalent
of the positive electrode, then a conventional battery, one that's the equivalent
of the negative electrode. And other fibres
that are the electrolyte that you would find
in a conventional battery, but here we've transformed them
into fibres that have that capability. And now we have the possibility
of braiding that into a structure and optimising the positioning
of each of those fibres so as we get the best performance.

The aim is to develop a bra that can
be customised for the individual, using 3-D printing technology.

You know, everybody's a different
size, everybody's a different fit. And so the fact
that you can be scanned and have your garment,
let's say the bionic bra, personalised for you in terms of
where the sensors might go, where the artificial muscle
technology might be incorporated within the bionic bra, it's all about personalisation. Not just so it looks good, that
personalisation's very important for getting the maximum performance
out of the structure.

They're confident the technology
will leave the lab and have applications
in many other wearable technologies such as a sleeve that massages limbs
affected by lymphedema.

I think all the materials,
all the componentry is there now. We have very stable and very rapid
sensing technologies. We have the artificial muscle
technology. Now we need really clever ways to
integrate these through fabrication to build new technologies
that of course in the short term we'll use to create the bionic bra, but will be applicable
in a wide range of applications once they're realised. Eight. One to go. STEELE: I think the technology
has come to a point where we can actually make
wearable technologies that we could only dream about

Next time on Catalyst, rethinking modern medicine
as we face antibiotic apocalypse. MAN: It's said this is
one of the most serious threats to human health. Without antibiotics
we could end up in meltdown. Captions by Ericsson Access Services



NARRATOR: 28 October, 2015. Across Australia, 100 cameras capture the inner
workings of our health system on a single day. It's the ambulance.
Can you hear me? We're gonna look after you,
alright? (COUGHS) It's not quite as bad
as it used to be. No other system is challenged
by such distance and diversity. You're a tough old fella, aren't ya?
(CHUCKLES) Today, more than 800 babies
will be born.

400 of us will die. (CONTINUOUS BEEP)
No, no, no! We rely on our health system... Your breast cancer is all clear.

..often take it for granted. We're going to stop
the heart from beating. The demand for care is increasing... So I'm going to use
some sort of scary words now. ..but can we afford it?

I'm not allowed to die. If we could see what really happens
in a single day...

..what would we think? It's one of the biggest gifts
that you can ever give anybody. How would it make us feel? Geez, you are tough.

This entire series tells
the story of our health system... We'll take really good care
of him. just one day. Aren't you just
the most beautiful thing? (HEART MONITOR BEEPS)