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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) the Isle of Arran to the Solway Firth A spectacular journey from of ancient volcanoes... along an explosive coastline ..and modern munitions. of a haunting sound And with musical memories now almost lost to the British coast. on my own patch So join me and the team again in Scotland, with my own folk some real coastal fireworks! and I promise you

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Coming up in World News Australia

at 9:30 - Afghanistan's President

vows to continue working towards a

peace deal with the Taliban.

European markets rally in

continuing turbulence amid global

recession fears. DNA evidence

proves Australian aborigines were

the earliest explorers. The battle

of the birds at the MCG as seagulls

threaten to take over. Those

stories and more at 9:30. (CHILDREN PLAY) started like most summers NARRATOR: The summer of 1950 of Wytheville, Virginia. in the small town the town pools opened, School let out, on Main Street. and kids flocked to the soda fountain residents were under the age of 18. Almost 40% of the town's 5,500 a lazy-type, laid-back town. Wytheville was more or less Everyone knew everyone. and we would go swimming. It got really hot in the summertime, We were happy-go-lucky kids. grandfather's rubber boots on WOMAN: I had a pair of my and I was wading in the creek. And when I went to get out, in my leg. I felt like something pulled I went home, till I started running a temperature and hadn't been home too long and was real nauseous, higher and higher. and just kept going WOMAN: I was outside playing. I just didn't feel right. the house to my mother, By the time I got inside I told her I was sick. I had a headache. I was so dizzy. And after that, I just passed out. a spinal tap on my brother, WOMAN: The doctor came to do and he screamed. with a bed pillow, And my mother ran downstairs covered her head with the pillow, went out in the backyard and and laid there and screamed. services in Wytheville. MAN: We only had two ambulance with a suspected case One would come into the clinic coming out of the clinic while the other one would be Roanoke or Richmond. and leaving for either

In, out. In, out. In, out. In, out. Mr Williams' tote board from where I worked, was right across the street and it was always visible.

to the front door and look out. and every once in a while, we'd go with the diagnosis, Every time another one came in

well, they changed the count. took everything Sonny owned. CROCKETT-STARK: Daddy and Mama his chest of drawers, All of his clothes, his bed, comic book collection. and he had a fabulous to the middle of the garden, And they took everything out and burned everything he owned. and they just made a pile so that we would not get it. They were told to do that Polio was hitting Wytheville hard - than any place in the country. harder that year more and more evident WARREN: It became that we were really in trouble, or how to stop it and without knowing what to do or how to get away from it, we were just stuck with it. everybody and leave, You just couldn't pick up the whole town on fire. and you couldn't set

So it was a... It was almost... pretty close that way. ..not hopeless, but it was getting Since the turn of the 20th century, infantile paralysis, polio, also known as fact of American life. had become an increasingly menacing Highly contagious, during the summer. the polio virus tended to strike MAN: It was very reliable. you began to see cases of polio, Come June, July,

through September. and they continued on a mild headache and nausea The symptoms ranged from paralysis or death. to muscle weakness, how it would go. WOMAN: One never knew Would it pass through the body of bed a few days later, just fine? and the person would get up out Would both arms? Would there be one leg damaged? would last for life. MAN: The paralytic effects And you didn't have to look very far crippled with polio, to see people who had been

and crippled in terrible ways. an especially prominent citizen In 1921, the disease struck was on the rise. just as his political star Polio usually targeted children, but Franklin Delano Roosevelt was 39. a sudden fever and chills, After contracting he lost the use of both his legs. in the whole history of polio. FDR was an enormous landmark he came down with polio The fact that in this country. changed the course of the disease both his body and his career. Roosevelt worked to restore He bought a remote Georgia resort were reputed to have healing powers, whose spring-fed baths Warm Springs Foundation, and turned it into the Georgia patients from around the country. committed to rehabilitating polio but vital FDR In 1928, a still-paralysed onto the national political stage. fought his way back against polio alive, To keep the fight Basil O'Connor, Roosevelt turned to his law partner, a man who knew little about polio, power and persuasion. but a great deal about O'Connor declared, "I was never a public do-gooder," of that kind." "and had no aspirations he was a working-class Irishman Short-tempered and relentless, for everything he had achieved. who had to dig and fight MAN: Basil O'Connor has no interest of the Warm Springs Foundation. in being the head to Franklin Roosevelt, But he is so loyal and he really believes

FDR's political career the only way to ensure that is so close to FDR's heart. is to take over this institution in the White House, With Roosevelt now to keep the organisation afloat. O'Connor worked tirelessly economic depression in its history. America was experiencing the worst source of funding, Charities' traditional donations from the rich, had completely dried up. of polio continued to rise. Worse still, the number of cases What made polio so questionable, for people to get a grip on, what made it so hard was that at the very time America was becoming a cleaner, more antiseptic society, the polio rates were going up dramatically. In time, scientists would unlock some of polio's mysteries. They would learn the virus entered the body through the mouth, that it passed from person to person through contaminated water, food or physical contact. They would come to understand that modern sanitation actually helped explain the prevalence of the disease.

Infants in clean environments were less likely to be exposed to the virus and develop lifelong immunity. MAN: Before improvements in sanitation, all children were born with antibodies against polio. When we had improved sanitation, children started to become exposed to polio later and later in life,

at a time when those antibodies they had received from their mother had already disappeared. And that's why you saw an emergence of the disease. In 1938, O'Connor didn't know much about the science of polio.

What he did know was that polio patients depended on private charities like his, not the government, for help. Without a new way to raise money, his foundation could offer little more than hope. It was time, he decided, to try something bold. (RADIO CRACKLES) MAN: The only way to fight infantile paralysis is with money.

And so I'm asking you tonight to send a dime to President Roosevelt at the White House. Enlisting celebrities to the cause, O'Connor made an unprecedented appeal to the American public. Judy, when I spend a dime on myself for some little luxury like this, I always think about those unfortunate kids, and how far just a dime will go toward helping. Gee, Mickey, we don't know how lucky we are and how much we have to be thankful for

with our health and our happiness. The campaign was dubbed the March of Dimes. Can I put a dime in your envelope? Oh, you know that you can. And that's what every good American should do. Join the March of Dimes. Send yours to President Franklin Roosevelt in the White House. O'Connor waited anxiously to see if his gamble would pay off. The March of Dimes campaign exceeded all expectations, raising $1.8 million, a staggering sum. OSHINSKY: What O'Connor realised was that this was a fundraising goldmine. This turns fundraising on its head. You no longer want big donations from the few. You want small donations from the millions. No-one is too poor to give a dime to help a kid walk again. O'Connor pledged to provide care for every polio patient in America. To pay for doctors, nurses and the most up-to-date rehabilitation. He would even invest in scientific research aimed at stopping polio forever. Basil O'Connor was no scientist, but he was a great administrator. He knew how to organise, he knew how to centralise,

he knew how to focus. Every summer, more and more children were infected with polio. O'Connor understood that he was in a race against time. MAN: I was very active and outgoing and grew up in a time and a place when kids had lots of independence and minimal supervision. Just a few inflexible rules, like "Be home for dinner." I was 13, and I was just starting to lean out and get kind of fast on the tennis court, and I was pretty happy with the way things were going. Larry Becker grew up in Hastings, Nebraska. He was a Boy Scout, delivered newspapers and played trumpet in the school band. My legs gave out as I was pedalling my ice-cream cart home for lunch. Larry became delirious with fever as the polio virus penetrated his central nervous system, infecting and destroying the nerve fibres that controlled his muscles. It's like every muscle in your body is extremely sore. It's very sensitive to the touch, and just aches. I lost not only my leg muscles, but I lost also neck muscles, and most importantly, the diaphragm. I began to have trouble breathing. And I remember the last straw for me was when I lost the use of my biceps. I was afraid of... not so much of pain, but of loss of control. My parents were in and out of the room. They were being given very bad news. There wasn't much hope that I was going to survive. (CHEERY PERCUSSION MUSIC) SONG: # You, whose day it is

# Make it beautiful # You, whose day it is # Make it beautiful

# Get out your rainbow colours

# So it will be beautiful deal with Holden Red Plate Deals. Right now it's easy to spot a great Like the Series II Captiva 5 from just $28,990 driveaway. the Captiva 5 petrol range. Now with bonus sunroof across Hurry into your Holden dealer today while stocks last. for Holden Red Plate deals Go better. but I'm sure you've seen my shadow. SINISTER MAN: You've never seen me, I'm never invited, in practically every kind of home. but I've been an invisible guest This is what I've been looking for.

O'Connor shifted tactics. To keep up the fundraising momentum, As you probably know, especially little children. I'm very fond of children, I have no prejudices. I'm quite impartial. was a frightening one. The March of Dimes' new message Polio could strike anyone, anytime. YOUNGNER: You went to a movie short subject about polio. and there was a little Memorial Hospital, please. (GASPS) Infantile paralysis. They would pass a cup row by row, whatever change you had in it. something to put Polio was brought home every day the United States. to families all over the March of Dimes campaign NEWSREEL NARRATOR: In New York, is inspired by Basil O'Connor, Larry and Barry Pelliteri. Jimmy Durante, During the past few years, on the increase, and continues... the polio epidemic has been with your porch lights at 7:00. MAN: (ON P.A.) Fight polio tonight The campaign worked. to 3,000 local chapters, The March of Dimes grew millions, and raised millions... creating a network that reached as much as $22 million per year. ..by the late 1940s, told only part of the story. But O'Connor's campaign While polio could be devastating, an acute case were quite small, the chances of contracting of being paralysed, smaller still, extremely remote. of dying from polio, from car accidents or tuberculosis. Many more Americans died What the March of Dimes did OSHINSKY: was to turn an awful but relatively uncommon disease into our national disease and our national crusade. "We've got to raise money for this." Basil O'Connor's feeling was The best way you raise money

out of the American public. was basically to scare the hell how pervasive the fear was It's hard to imagine today, I think, in the American psyche. and how embedded The fear overwhelmed common sense. hundreds of towns across the country, Every summer, in Wytheville and measures to avoid polio. people took extraordinary They even sprayed the pesticide DDT,

scientists had proved despite the fact flies did not spread the virus. to turn, what's causing it, WARREN: Not knowing which way of places to put the blame. people looked for all sorts and some of them weren't. Some of them were ludicrous just rolled up their car windows CROCKETT-STARK: Daddy said people and zoomed through our town. and put bandanas around their faces

We didn't go on Main Street. during the polio epidemic. We didn't go anywheres near town no-one would bother to call, come, For the longest time,

or get anywhere near our house. They were afraid. They didn't want to catch polio. They didn't want my mother and daddy to come in some of the stores. They just didn't want them around. as possible, isolated themselves, CROCKETT-STARK: People did as little they wouldn't get it. and just prayed

against polio to a new level. In 1949, O'Connor took the campaign funded by the March of Dimes For more than a decade, scientists viable solution to stop polio - had focused on developing the only a vaccine. long-awaited miracle was in sight. Now, O'Connor declared, the and dimes, from an anxious public. His message raised hopes,

there was a very different reaction. But within the scientific community, was still years away, A vaccine, most researchers believed, if it worked at all. (BICYCLE BELL RINGS) housing development in Phoenix. BLACK: We lived in this little and the population was just booming. It was young families everywhere, Couples just like my family - father back from the war, mother had had a career and let it go to have children. I was four years old, my brother Life was pretty simple, pretty happy. And then one day my mother came down with a backache. And the doctor examined her,

and my father remembers the doctor saying, "I think she has polio. But don't worry. like a serious case. "It doesn't look in the contagious ward, "But we have to put her "where she'll be isolated." much worse from there. And things only got much, She survived that night, from the neck down. but she was paralysed I have no memory of her going away. She disappeared overnight. and our mother was in the next room. We went to bed one night and she was gone. We woke up the next morning (SHIP'S HORN BLOWS) of an imminent polio vaccine, In 1951, two years after his promise O'Connor had little to show. from a conference in Europe, Then, in September, travelling home and impatient as O'Connor himself. he met a scientist as driven a 36-year-old researcher Jonas Salk was at the University of Pittsburgh. who had great confidence in himself. YOUNGNER: He was somebody 'Ambitious' is too mild a word. He was super-ambitious.

on what he was doing. MAN: He was very aggressive intense and he remained that way. When I first met him, he looked very I mean, never changed. Real intensive personality. O'Connor and Salk hit it off right away. just meshed. MAN: Their personalities Both shared big dreams, they shared big goals, someone who was complementary. and they saw in each other

for an unorthodox polio vaccine. Salk's big goals included plans leading-edge polio researchers Up until now, from a live virus - had focused on making a vaccine for yellow fever and smallpox - like the vaccines a complex and time-consuming process. the gold standard of virus vaccine. YOUNGNER: Live-virus vaccines were community of experts The whole scientific that would work for polio said that the only vaccine would be a live vaccine. Jonas Salk disagreed.

developing a flu vaccine His experience

told him that a killed-virus vaccine was both possible and faster to produce. trained to believe, OSHINSKY: Salk had been with influenza and other viruses, and you killed it that if you took the virus and injected it into someone's arm, you could trick the body's immune system into believing that an invader had come, and lasting antibody protection. and the body would produce strong dismissed Salk's ideas Proponents of the live-virus vaccine as ill-conceived scientific heresy. Most notably, Albert Sabin. established a reputation KATZ: Dr Sabin had already as a sound and imaginative innovative investigator. He was a little bit bombastic. He was a little bit intolerant of other people's ideas. He was always convinced that his own were correct, and most of the time he was right. Albert Sabin had been working for a number of years on his live-virus vaccine. Sabin believed that his vaccine was the perfect polio vaccine. He also knew that it would take longer to develop, and the constant conflict he had with Basil O'Connor was over time. "I need the time to perfect my vaccine." Basil O'Connor wanted everything done now. Albert Sabin simply believed that science went by its own clock and that the March of Dimes should wait until his vaccine was ready. Salk was a mere "kitchen chemist," Sabin would say, whose hasty work posed a lurking danger to human health. But Basil O'Connor didn't listen. Salk's lab would become a leading recipient of March of Dimes support. What made Basil O'Connor so strong about Jonas Salk was that O'Connor finally believed he had met a scientist

who understood that kids were dying every day and that speed was important. YOUNGNER: Jonas was swimming against the current. He was a young whippersnapper who came out of nowhere and suddenly is taking on this responsibility, and not only that, but getting the support of Basil O'Connor, because Jonas convinced Basil O'Connor that we were gonna do it. At his lab at the University of Pittsburgh, Salk's race to find a polio vaccine took off.

KATZ: Dr Salk's laboratory was like a factory in that he had a large number of people.

They were all doing what he dictated they do. In contrast, many laboratories were more interested in expanding scientific perspective and not necessarily as goal-driven. The pressure he put on his staff was unrelenting. "Salk thought big," one colleague observed. "He wanted to leap, not crawl." YOUNGNER: This was a heavily, heavily financed, expensive project. We used thousands of monkeys. We had resources beyond those that any of the other researchers had. OSHINSKY: He almost immediately could see that his killed-virus vaccine, at least in animals, was very, very successful. His tests with monkeys were extraordinary. They had high antibody levels. None of them seemed to get polio. He knew he was on the track of something very important. With the success of his trials on monkeys, Salk pressed for the next necessary but risky step - to test his vaccine in humans. O'Connor eagerly agreed. But Sabin issued a warning. Salk was moving too quickly. His plan posed a serious threat to innocent lives. O'Connor ignored Sabin's objections. Salk's human trials would proceed as planned. On July 2, 1952, assisted by the staff at the DT Watson Home for Crippled Children, Jonas Salk injected 43 children with his killed-virus vaccine. KATZ: The idea of going into institutions where there were children who were damaged by various diseases, and using or exploiting them as subjects for these studies was not regarded in the same way it is today. There was no real sense of what we would call informed consent. If you wanted to test, as Jonas Salk did, you went to the director of an orphanage, or what was called a home for the feeble-minded, and you tested. A few weeks after the Watson tests, Salk injected children at the Polk State School for the retarded and feeble-minded. Then he administered the vaccine to his family and received a shot himself. No-one got polio. Blood tests showed that, like his lab monkeys, his human subjects had elevated levels of polio-fighting antibodies. A vaccine, Salk believed, was within reach. 1952 saw the outbreak of America's worst polio epidemic. More and more older children and adults were contracting the disease. The older you were, the greater the risk of paralysis or death. Hospital wards were crowded with machines that helped paralysed patients breathe. They were called iron lungs. My father came in to explain to me that they wanted to put me in the iron lung. And simultaneously one was moved into my room. It's a huge piece of equipment and looked scary, and I didn't know what it meant. Your head is disconnected from your body. You can't see your body. And in my case, I couldn't move anything at first. And I was very uncomfortable because of the pain in my muscles. You have to get used to the fact that you don't control your respiration rate. And when you're first put in - at least it was the case for me - since I was struggling so much to breathe, I just relaxed right into it. BLACK: The development of the iron lung was a great scientific advancement in medical care. It saved plenty of lives. It certainly saved my mother's life. but it also was its own terrible existence. My mother was flat on her back, being breathed by a machine, tended by people through little portholes on the side of the machine... (MECHANICAL BREATHING) ..seeing nothing of the world except what she could see through a mirror above her face. (MECHANICAL BREATHING ECHOES)

What happens to your mind, day after day, night after night? For most, the iron lung was a temporary measure

to help them survive during the most acute phase of the disease. For others, it was permanent. Hello there. This is a wonderful day for me. Five minutes out of my iron lung. Five minutes out of my little prison... ..my kind and friendly prison. BECKER: The first time I got out of the iron lung, I saw the doctor cry because of the difficulties I was having on the bed. That was a shock. And that soon turned into a kind of... ..self-disgust, I think, or shame, which I didn't articulate, but... I just wanted to hide. I was 13 years old. I thought I was immortal. I don't ever remember being afraid that I would die. I was afraid I wouldn't get better. Surveys showed that apart from the atomic bomb, Americans' greatest fear was polio. BLACK: People had put up with polio for a really long time, and they wanted it over. They wanted it done with. The American public wanted that vaccine. Right now it's easy to spot a great deal with Holden Red Plate Deals. Like the Series II Captiva 5 Now with bonus sunroof across the Captiva 5 petrol range. Hurry into your Holden dealer today for Holden Red Plate deals while stocks last. Go better. On November 16, 1953, Basil O'Connor made a stunning announcement. The March of Dimes would finance, plan and coordinate an unprecedented human experiment, testing Salk's vaccine on hundreds of thousands of schoolchildren.

Reaction from within the scientific community was scathing. Injecting Salk's vaccine, Albert Sabin warned, might cause polio, not prevent it. Sabin was very aggressive. And he could be very abrasive. He was trying everything to postpone the field trial, to downgrade the Salk vaccine. He said, "This vaccine isn't ready to be tested. "We should wait five more years. We should wait ten more years." O'Connor refused to wait. With another polio season looming, he would let nothing stop the trials. "This is one of the most important projects in medical history," he wrote to parents across the country. "We feel sure you'll want your child to take part." As a parent today, it's unimaginable that I would be one of those people pushing my child to the front of the line, saying, you know, "Put the polio vaccine in my child first and let's see if it works." OSHINSKY: You are asking the parents of America to line up their kids for a vaccine that no-one is sure how well it works and no-one is certain that it is perfectly safe. It has really not been tested that much on humans. This is an enormous leap of faith. On April 26, 1954, the March of Dimes began field trials. Randy Kerr, a 6-year-old in McLean, Virginia, was the first to receive Salk's vaccine. By June, nearly two million children had taken part. It was the largest human experiment in American history. Parents would have to wait for nearly a year to learn the results. On the morning of April 12, 1955, the March of Dimes made their announcement. TROAN: There was a build-up to the report on the field trial. Everybody was interested. Everybody was waiting, waiting, waiting. Does it work? Does it work? BLACK: There was no bigger story at that time. It was held in secrecy like no state secret ever could be. This news was awaited around the world. A press release would reveal the findings everyone was waiting for. They were going to bring it up on an elevator. The press room was overcrowded. We were elbow to elbow. The public relations man steps off the elevator with the dolly, and he can't move into the press room. Everybody ganging around him! Guys were jumping over desks. The fellow climbed up on the dolly and he began flinging these things out left and right. It was bedlam. TV ANNOUNCER: CBS News presents a special report. REPORTER: The Salk polio vaccine is a success. The vaccine works. Factory whistles blew, schoolchildren cheered, parents wept. TROAN: Everybody was so happy. It was the most satisfying story I would cover in 44 years in journalism. SALK: The relief that was brought about by all of a sudden having something that could be done to stop this, I think that was just overwhelming. OFFIT: Jonas Salk was viewed as an American hero. This awful disease had now been conquered by this man who we had funded, this scientist who was us. OSHINSKY: This vaccine vindicated 20 years of giving dimes, 20 years of volunteering. It was a victory for millions of faceless people who had done what they could to end the scourge of polio. Five years before, the disease had raged through Wytheville. Now, the community, like thousands of others across the country, would finally receive the vaccine. I remember hearing about "Dr Salk, Dr Salk," and how exciting it was. The man saved the world from polio. Less than a month after vaccinations began, the nation's triumphant polio crusade was brought to a screeching halt. As Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, I recommended the day before yesterday that vaccination programs against poliomyelitis be temporarily postponed. (SIREN WAILS) Thousands of children vaccinated with the new Salk vaccine had become sick. Hundreds would be permanently paralysed. A handful would even die. We have gone from this amazing situation of euphoria, a disease on the run, to the vaccine itself producing additional cases of polio. All polio vaccine is taken off the market until the government can pinpoint exactly what has gone wrong. Investigators soon learned that all the sick children had been injected with a bad batch of vaccine made in Berkeley, California. After a hasty and poorly staffed government screening process, the vaccine had been deemed safe. In fact, it had contained virulent live polio virus. Cutter Laboratories wasn't alone. All the pharmaceutical companies were having difficulties mass-producing Salk's formula.

One scientist, especially, felt vindicated - Albert Sabin. Sabin had always been of the mind but potentially was unsafe. After Cutter, Albert Sabin simply went around to anyone who would ask - and many people did -

saying, "I told you so." Despite the crisis, O'Connor's confidence in Salk's vaccine never faltered. MAN: What do you see for its future? Well, I can only say to you that I see its future is still a good, sound, safe vaccine that will protect the people. OFFIT: The Salk vaccine was licensed at a time when we basically didn't have vaccine regulation in this country. The government learned that having 10 people oversee vaccines, and, frankly, doing it on a part-time basis, was not good enough.

The Cutter incident was a painful lesson about the fact that we needed much better oversight. In the wake of the tragedy, manufacturing standards would be tightened and government regulation increased. But, only eight days after the Surgeon General announced a halt, the nation's polio vaccination program resumed. Americans continued to vaccinate their children. They had waited years for the polio vaccine.

They were not about to wait any longer. The nation's polio vaccination program, led by the March of Dimes, now supported by the United States government, proved safe and overwhelmingly effective. Within just a few seasons, the number of polio cases in the United States decreased by 50%. Memories of summers filled with fear began to fade. By 1962, Albert Sabin's live-virus vaccine was finally ready. An oral vaccine, it was easier to administer and cheaper to produce than Salk's. The years to come would see the scientific efforts of both Salk and Sabin pay off dramatically. Polio, once one of America's most feared diseases, became largely a thing of the past. BLACK: Nobody cared about polio anymore. It was over.

My mother, coming home from the rehab centre, it is not the story of triumph and conquering. It is the story of defeat. After a year of treatment, it didn't fix her. It didn't fix our family. Our family had disintegrated around her. When Kathryn Black was six years old, her mother died. Larry Becker spent 2.5 years in the hospital. He learned to breathe on his own by using the muscles in his neck. His arms remained paralysed, but after slowly regaining the use of his legs, he was finally ready to move home. BECKER: There were three steps up to the house, and then my bedroom would be upstairs. This is the '50s. If your bedroom was going to be upstairs, then you had to learn to climb the steps. When I graduated from college and when I got my PhD, local newspapers published a picture of me writing with my feet.

I don't know what the headline is exactly. I always think of it as "Polio Boy Makes Good,"

you know, that kind of... And I thought, "Whoa. "This is going to follow me for the rest of my life." So... But, you know... Here I am, whining. It's not... It's no big deal. (BIRDS CHIRP) In 1994, 44 years after the epidemic hit Wytheville, Virginia,

and nearly 60 years after Basil O'Connor first called upon Americans to send their dimes to the White House, polio was declared eradicated in the United States.

Supertext Captions by Red Bee Media Australia Captions copyright SBS 2011

This program is captioned live.

The Afghan President vows to

continue talking to the Taliban

amid uncertainty about who murdered

his top peacemaker Stock market

turbulence continues amid fears of

a worldwide recession. DNA evidence

shows that Australian Aborigines

were the earliest evenings moreers

and the battle of the birds, Hawks

and Magpies do battle on the field

as Eagles tackle seagulls in the

sky.

Good evening, Ricardo Goncalves

with SBS World News Australia. The

Afghan President says he will

continue to work towards a peace

deal with the Taliban. Hamid Karzai

was speaking at the funeral of assassinated former President and

key piece maker Burhanuddin Rabbani

who was killed by an insurgents

posing as a Taliban peace envoy. It

responsible for the murder. is still not clear who was

Military officers carried the

coffin into Presidential palace

grounds. Amid tight security Hamid

Karzai and dignitaries paid tribute.

Burhanuddin Rabbani's killer had

been escorted through layers of

security checkpoint posing as a

Taliban negotiator bringing a

message of peace. Instead the

imposter detonated his turban as he

leaned into greet the former President. Former Foreign Minister

Abdullah Abdullah has called for a

full inquiry into the suicide

attack. He says We have the sense