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An African Journey With Jonathan Dimbleby -

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Good evening Virginia Haussegger

an ABC news update. There's been Good evening Virginia Haussegger with

further unrest at Sydney's Villawood detention centre. After

detention centre. After an Iraqi man detention centre. After an Iraqi

committed suicide. Refugee advcates

say around 100 detai nees have gone

on a hunger strike in sympathy A

claim denied by the immigration

department. In a direct challenge to

the Burmese generals. Aung San Suu

Kyi has called for peaceful

revolution in her country. The

pro-democracy leader wants

fundamental change and urged the pro-democracy leader wants

Suu Kyi knows full military junta to

Suu Kyi knows full well that her military junta to change its ways. Ms

comments could see her re-arrested

any time. Divisions

any time. Divisions within the comments could see her re-arrested at

are spilling federal government over gay marriage

are spilling into the open.

Frontbencher Mark Arbib who wants a

policy change has publicly defended Frontbencher Mark Arbib who wants a

factional colleagues. And himself against criticism from

factional colleagues. And to contain

the debate Labor is backing a

motion in parliament calling on MPs the debate Labor is backing a Green's

to start consulting voters on the

issue. The Aboriginal author and

activist Roberta "Bobbi" Sykes has died.

died. She was 67. Bobbi Sykes spent her lifetime campaigning for

Aboriginal rights. She became the

first executive secretary of the Abori

Aboriginal tent embassy in Canberra

-- and was arrested there in 1972.

Canberra's weather partly cloudy -- and was arrested there in 1972. To

leg of my journey through Africa. I'm at the start of the second

down through Kenya 2,000 miles from Ethiopia, In this programme, I'm travelling in Tanzania. until I reach the Indian Ocean of this great continent My purpose? To explore another face much more to the story of Africa in the hope that I can show there's or safari parks. than hunger, violence all but engraved on my heart. Ethiopia, a country that is I'm starting in the north of a great empire, the city of Aksum. than in what was once the capital of There's no better place to begin get about than by bike, And there's no better way to except that on the day I arrived, for a big race. the main drag was closed are international stars. Ethiopia's athletes are not there yet The nation's cyclists like you to watch this space.' 'but they would hoping to do with this sport craze with the best of them Cycling is a 21st century Ethiopian

already achieved. what the athletes have The competitors are in earnest. but winning really matters. their bikes are pretty beaten up, They may not have much money and

lap and there's a woman in the lead. They're just coming up to the last month's income for Ethiopia's poor. 'First prize is ?17, more than a

is less about money than ambition.' 'But this victory champion, women's champion? Are you national Ethiopian 50 kilometres at that speed. She's unbelievably fresh after straightaway she's going to do it. the sort of character you can see Very calm too, she's got So enviable. That grit is very Ethiopian. You find it everywhere.

but I never tire of it. for almost 40 years I've been coming to Ethiopia Ethiopian market, but it This is a very typical that I first experienced in 1973. is so different from the Ethiopia are still seared on my memory. The images from those days

was stricken by a famine In 1973, Ethiopia maybe 200,000 people. that led to the deaths of 100, with the word "famine". and Ethiopia became synonymous An imperial dynasty was overthrown, on an even more terrible scale. A decade later, famine returned another 1984 just round the corner? question has hung over Ethiopia - is Ever since that live aid famine, a and that's for a very good reason. But there hasn't been another 1984, helped by the outside world, or so, the Ethiopian government Over the last quarter of a century and a distribution network that early warning system has built up a very effective who really need it. can reach the people ensures that the food that comes in there'll be another 1984. inconceivable that Actually, it is virtually been solved, but the need is patchy. Which does not mean the problem has without the aid from abroad. elsewhere people would starve Here, there is no shortage,

However, that's not the whole story. Excuse me, are you Tesfi? Yes. denim and a notebook, they said. I was told to look for a man in blue round a bit, then? OK. Thanks. My name is Tesfi. Can you show me as part of a government initiative Tesfi is employed by the state all over Ethiopia. to raise food production What do you do here? an expert in agriculture. I know that you're getting? Is it a positive picture? And what's the picture you're

When the rains fail, the crops fail. the poorest would starve. and without emergency relief, Prices rise. The poor go hungry is to minimise that risk. Tesfi's task

a little tiny boy, yes? In 1984 you were Yes. Two years old. Two years old. strong memory for everyone? Yeah. Is that still a very have long been densely populated 'The highlands of Ethiopia that's changing and changing fast. 'and very inaccessible, but aid is having a profound impact on 'This new road built with foreign of people in this region.' 'the lives of hundreds of thousands Here? Just here. are now much easier to reach.' once virtually off the map 'Communities which were Which way is it? Across here? Oh, yeah.

more than a couple of acres a head. Under Ethiopian law, no-one can farm output from poor soil in a region The challenge here, to increase frequently stricken by drought. we're visiting? Where does he live, the farmer who's meeting that challenge on land 'Tesfi took me to see a farmer years ago.' Is this the family here? 'that was almost barren a mere five Yeah, the farmers. when the rains fail, no longer fear that 'Gabri Rafael and his son Mulu 'the family will starve.' Hello. OK, this is Mulu. Mulu. Jonathan. Gabri Rafael. Jonathan. This is Gabri Rafael. water they can using methods that' 'They're harvesting every drop of have long been terraced technologies. The hillsides combine traditional and modern the precious rain that does fall to save at least some of from being wasted as it cascades down the slopes. But now in the valley below, they've dug a deep pit to capture the run-off which can then be pumped onto the land to irrigate the crops, an investment that's subsidised by the government. All of this water, ten years ago, five years ago would have been wasted. It would have just disappeared. Yeah. Of no use to the farm. How much there is there. Yeah. Onions are going down there. Onions, peppers. Peppers. More onion. More onions.

And this before that, this would have been completely useless land? Yes. Useless land. Useless. In this valley alone, there are now no less than 147 similar wells.

The government strategy is not a panacea and its execution is far from flawless, but it does have the potential to provide much greater security to millions of people. International support has helped, but this is an Ethiopian project. Self-reliance, not begging bowls. That evening, Gabri and his family joined a national pilgrimage to one of Ethiopia's most solemn religious festivals.

St Mary of Zion in Aksum is the crucible of the Ethiopian orthodox church. Ethiopia's Christians believe that their church and their nation both have their origins in the legendary union between Solomon and Sheba. Their church was founded in the 4th century and the liturgy and rituals have remained unchanged ever since. At this festival, the faithful prostrate themselves before St Mary, the mother of Jesus, and bring her gifts to express their devotion. 'Some of these are rather bulky.' This is one of the many gifts that are pouring in for St Mary. Ethiopians have a deep pride in their past and they greatly resent

their modern image as a nation of paupers living off charity. To drive south from Tigre to the capital takes two days. You travel through a landscape as dramatic and varied as any on the planet and the people who are equally diverse.

Addis Abeba is the melting pot heart of the nation.

I manage to arrive just in time for another festival, Eid, the Islamic celebration that marks the end of the Hajj.

Islam reached Ethiopia from the Arab world in the 7th century. Today, at least 40% of Ethiopia's 80 million citizens are Muslim. Such huge numbers I don't know it must be 40, 50, 60, 1,000 people. And the atmosphere is completely relaxed and celebratory.

In a country where Christians and Muslims more or less balance each other in numbers, it's one of the most extraordinary things to me that down the years, the two religions live in really remarkable harmony. There have been tensions and sometimes there's been violence, and there's the real threat in the far distant regions bordering Somalia of Al Qaeda affiliates, but here in the cities, people live side by side. Muslim, Christian, families intermarrying, it's quite an object lesson, really.

The city has grown so fast over the last decade that it's almost unrecognisable

from the Addis I first explored almost 40 years ago. When I first came here, there were a lot of little shops along here and it was like a sort of red light zone as well. Now you can see what's happening, with an economic growth rate, one of the fastest in the world round about 7, 8, 9, 10%, Ethiopia's capital is booming with buildings.

Office blocks, hotels, apartments just shooting up everywhere, it's almost impossible to find your way around. That economic development is really quite astonishing. However, there is another side to this story as well, Ethiopia is supposed - according to the government - to be promoting and delivering democracy. Well, it's very far short of achieving that. The government is very strong, the opposition parties very weak

and divided, but that doesn't stop the ruling party from harassing, intimidating and sometimes imprisoning individuals for really charges that in the West would be regarded as the perfectly proper part of democracy. Human rights in Ethiopia remains a very real challenge indeed. But, from my perspective, it is going forward, it is progressing. If they're two steps forward and one step back, it's still getting there. Ethiopia and coffee are almost synonymous. Said to have been grown in this country for over 1,000 years, coffee is also the nation's principal export, some 1.8 million bags or 180,000 tonnes a year.

Coffee's a lifeline for 12 million farmers who've long been at the mercy of a volatile global market and unscrupulous middlemen. But look at this. A state of the art, international commodities exchange. It's purpose, to give the farmers a break.

The exchange is owned by the government but financed by The World Bank. It opened two years ago and today, 70% of the nation's coffee production is sold here. The buyers are in beige, the sellers wear green. It's a furious business against the clock. Ten minutes only in which to seal a deal.

A clap of the hands, the price is agreed and within moments the sale is electronically logged for any dealer anywhere in the world to see. The commodities exchange is the brainchild of a former World bank senior economist,

Dr Eleni Gabre-Madhin. Her dream was to build a market that protects the African farmer. Here you are, as it were, a young international economist, what made you think it would be great to come back here into this political, economic bear-pit? The country was on the rise, it seemed pretty clear that the policies were well targeted and having an impact, so that was one exciting aspect. The other really is the need, I'd spent years doing analysis on how to improve markets and writing about it and then the food crisis hit in 2003. That really made me think, OK, you know we're talking about things but we're not doing anything. This is the second session beginning? Second session yes. They do the deal on the floor here. Yes. How long before the farmer gets his money? The farmer will get paid tomorrow morning. Next day? Yes. It's a trade day plus one commitment that we have and we've so far traded about $400 million without a single payment default or delay. So every farmer who's sold through this system has got his money at the price that was agreed? At the price, this price goes out in four seconds, the price that they shake hands on here, in four seconds will be transmitted in 26 sites around the country, will go out on the radio three times a day. It will go out on the website also in four seconds so somebody in Japan can be checking right now what the prices are in this floor. This is about as ultra 21st century as you can get actually, isn't it? Yes. Well, it's really the technology is simply a support to solve what people's real problems are, real people's real problems.

At the other end of the scale, I went in search of another initiative with a similar objective. On the whole people in Addis and Ethiopia as elsewhere don't like sitting with no work, nothing to do and being hungry as a result. But the difficulty is there aren't the jobs because there isn't the market. I've come here to a place which is bucking that trend. This workshop is run by a local charity to help sustain the poor. All these women have had leprosy. Their biggest customer is a hard-headed entrepreneur called Bethlehem Tilahun Alemu who buys the woven cotton for her own little business down the road. Look at the delicate needlework here.

Yeah damaged hands. Damaged hands. They wanted me to have a go. I feel very nervous now. Everyone's looking. Yes. Yes. Why don't you put that through cos I might break it. Now what? Then it's straight up, this one down. Yes. Oh! Like all these things it looks so simple but actually when you start to do it, you just realise why it takes a year to learn. He's being very patient with me. Bethlehem's business is based on homespun cotton, re-cycled rubber tyres and some very smart online marketing. I love the name Sole Rebels, was that your idea? Yes. KNOCKING Bethlehem is a doctor's daughter who was brought up in this community. She trained as an accountant and then had a brainwave, cash in on the growing western market for eco-products and provide jobs for 40 workers. It's a very good sales pitch you've got that, ancient the Eucalyptus looms it's our famed recycled car tyres soles, our beloved recycling tradition. That's quite a powerful sell for a certain kind of public, isn't it, in the West? How did it all happen?

And that's going to be a growing demand isn't it for eco-sensitive? Yes. Minimal carbon production. That's what you're trading on in a way? Yeah. This fair-trade initiative has caught the admiring attention of Hilary Clinton and the president of the World Bank and more usefully Amazon, which now sells Sole Rebels on line. If you look at the financial year 2010/11 what do you hope to earn in foreign currency? US $500,000? Yes. I don't know which to get. I like those. I think I'm going to go for those. They're great. Do you think they look good on me? You have to say yes. Yes. It is impossible for me to leave Addis without going clubbing in a uniquely Ethiopian way. CHANTING AND DRUM BEAT It's not exactly the highlife but actually the best kind of nightlife. Over the years I've seen so much suffering in this country, that it took me longer than it should have to realise that in general, Ethiopians don't regard themselves as victims. On the contrary. The only trouble here is that I can't escape yet more ritual humiliation. I can't pretend to be dispassionate about this country, but I think the evidence supports my instincts and my views about it. Terrible problems over the years, awful suffering but amazing people. The energy, hope, strength of character, identity, culture. It is a tremendous place, and even though there is a lot of challenges still to overcome, I kind of feel, the future really is positive for Ethiopia. Really believe it. Oh! From Ethiopia we flew south for two hours across the border into Kenya and Maasai country. I'm now in the Rift Valley in Kenya. I suppose that if Ethiopia equals famine as it were, then Kenya equals safari parks. But I'm on the trail of something quite different. A revolution is sweeping across Africa, the mobile phone. But it stills seems astonishing to me that this is possible in the middle of nowhere. Hi, Michael. We've just gone past the satellite dishes, how far away are we from you now? 35 minutes. OK, I've got it, it's called the Empress Hotel, yeah? OK. Good afternoon. 'My appointment was with Michael Tiampati who had offered to take me to his family's ancestral land. 'Michael returned to his homelands three years ago after getting his degree in New York. 'He now runs a government quango representing the Maasai.'

Even though you said you could call me, I was astonished that we were able to talk more clearly than you can in many parts of Britain. Yeah, we are still in communication up to the hill up there and then as we go down. Thank you. As we go down, then the communication becomes a problem. Welcome to my village. It's good to be here. These are kind of setting that we have out here.

Well, the fence doesn't look that good now because times have been hard. So meet my uncle. Ah ha. Hello. Hello to you. And nice to meet you. This is my home, feel at home when you are here. Thank you. The Maasai are living through harsh times, which intriguingly makes the mobile phone all the more valuable.

How many wives do you have? Three. Three wives. Yeah. Lucky man! We're going to sit here? Yes. When you are finding out prices in this market or that market does it help for that? And the mobile has an even more vital role. That actually saves lives. Yeah and then that's right. So it is good. One thing hasn't changed, the hospitality of the Maasai people. It's goat. Despite all your troubles and problems you smile all the time. Life goes on despite the hardship. Life goes on and probably tomorrow will bring better tidings. I'm learning! Nearly ready? It's ready? It's a bit of a chew as well but it's a very delicious taste. MAN TALKS ON PHONE It's a five-hour drive to the capital, but as soon as you reach Nairobi, more evidence that the mobile revolution really has arrived. One in three Kenyans now has a mobile phone, statistics that are replicated all over the continent. Kibera is the name given to the largest so-called slum in Africa. A shanty town, home to one million people. There I meet Michael again, this time dressed for the city where he spends the week lobbying for the Maasai cause. Welcome to the village. Jonathan Dimbleby. And your name is? My name is Peter. Peter. This is your patch yes? This is my territory. When you look in from outside you tend to say, "Oh, poor people how dreadful, I must do something about it." That's what people say but actually people are doing things for themselves. Almost everyone in the township uses a mobile phone talking to friends and family and doing business, even on the smallest scale. The M-PESA sign is everywhere. It's a banking network that lets anyone transfer money anywhere by mobile phone. Michael wants to send 1,000 shillings to his brother. He can go to an M-PESA store, hand over the cash and the credit shows up at once on his phone. This confirms I have 1,000 shillings. One text message to his brother's phone and the money is his. Transfer OK, now sending. Yeah. It's a life-changing breakthrough that brings tens of millions of people into the economic mainstream people that the big banks wouldn't bother with. Now my brother would have to walk to M-PESA place like this and then withdraw the money. TEXT MESSAGE BEEPS He's coming back to me. What's he got? Thanks a lot. Thanks a lot, well I should think he is jolly grateful! If my brother suddenly bunged me 1,000 shillings I'd be jolly grateful! The mobile market is growing faster in Africa than anywhere, making a fortune for the networks and making business of every kind and scale more competitive, more efficient and boosting every economy in the process. Hi, may I speak to Mrs Jackie Reece please? How long ago did you report the issue? KenCall is a call centre and a big one. It has contracts inside Kenya and internationally with America and the United Kingdom. Open 24 hours a day, it's a useful little earner, especially for students and graduates. I've never been in a call centre before and it's more interesting than I thought. But next time that you get one of those calls you hadn't quite expected and are not sure you entirely want, it won't necessarily come from Swansea, Glasgow, Reading or wherever in the United Kingdom or indeed from Delhi or Calcutta in India. It could be coming from Kenya and from KenCall. You currently have cavity wall or loft insulation? Can I interrupt you a second? Who are you calling? OK, thank you. Oh, sorry. I don't want to interrupt your conversation or your selling. If you're in Scotland or England or wherever, do they know or do they sense that you're calling from Kenya? No. Actually I had client who thought I was from Yorkshire. From Yorkshire? Yes. So we just say that we are local to yourself, near your place and yes. You're quite posh, your accents, compared with some of the regional accents. Well, actually important questions like what finishing school did you go to? What finishing school did you go to? Can I tell you your issue's being worked on by our technical department. What you're telling me is you don't give away that you're Kenyan? If they think you are calling from their country they'll be more receptive. My name is John, how can I assist you? So you, you are masquerading as two very sincere English women? Something like that, yes. I arranged to meet KenCall's boss in one of the capital's poshest hotels. But I don't quite know where he is. I'll try the usual methods. Done it. Hi, you must be Nick? Yes, I am. How very nice to meet you. Nicholas Nesbitt was a big player in corporate America who saw a chance to serious money here in his homeland and came back in 2003. Nothing to eat, just an orange juice, thanks. A lot of people would say, Kenya, safari parks, corruption, a lot of misery. It's a kind of smart begging bowl image I suspect that people have. Yeah. You're right, and I can't stand that. I think it always starts at the top. If the leadership can even change their mentality, they say, stop playing victim, move on. You remind me of something, first leader of independent Kenya, Kenyatta. If I'm right, he said, "When the missionaries came to our land, they brought bibles with them. "They told us to pray with our eyes shut. When we opened our eyes, "we had the bibles and they had the land." In a sense you're reversing that trend, aren't you? Well, in a sense, yes. Those bibles have now evolved to technology books and degrees and exposure and the internet and all of that. We need to take what we've learned from those and actually put it to work. You know, Africans by their nature are entrepreneurs, everyone starts a little kiosk and sells something here and there. Real entrepreneurs that can build sustainable, viable businesses that become regional leaders or even world-class leaders. That is absolutely possible. Enterprise has become a buzz word all over Africa. But enterprise without the rule of law, without transparency or accountability is crippled by cronyism and graft. Kenya has long been notorious for the greed and corruption of its politicians. At the last election there were allegations that votes had been bought, ballot boxes rigged and this culminated in terrible communal violence which led to the death of more than 1,000 people. There's an exhibition in town depicting the horror of that killing spree. Hard to find hope here, yet this damning evidence of what followed the 2007 election, is allowed to be on public display despite the fact that some of the alleged perpetrators are still in power and the international criminal court wants to put them on trial. This suggests that the media at least is still very much alive. As elsewhere, politicians are a popular target under fierce public scrutiny. The young are especially critical. For them the media really matter. An important outlet for their frustrations and sometimes contempt as well. What's your name? Jonathan Dimbleby. Yeah, Jonathan Dimbleby. That's right. Yeah, from...? I'm from the BBC. That was perfect. Ghetto Radio has been on air for over a year. The DJs communicate with their target audience in a private language. Shane is a mixture of English and Swahili which only the young appear to understand. Mwafrika is a science graduate, Rapcha is a street artist and they are both men with a mission. Their output is music laced with talk and they don't mince their words, especially when it comes to politics. We were talking about the Prime Minister, his son is joining politics. It's like a hierarchy. As in, politicians, their sons are just joining politics. For him it's like if you all follow the same trend of sons doing what fathers are doing, what about the poor people? If your father was a thief then you'll be a thief, you know? So you're just letting that be. That's why it was funny. Is your purpose to make people cynical about politics or have you got a different purpose? No, we're challenging, in that we're just trying to show Kenyans that what happened in 2008, a mandate where a lot of Kenyans died, should not have happened. And the most people who were involved in this violence were the youth. So since we speak to the youth, we're just trying to show them a whole different perspective on the politics. So we are going on air. Right now we're just about to do something called Conscious Blood. Like saying buh-buh, buh-buh. Buh-buh, buh-buh. Yeah, so that's where we're going. So it's not a word. It's a buh-buh, buh-buh? Yeah. No, it's buh-luh. How? Buh-luh. Buh-luh! Am I nearly there? Yeah, like that - bluh, blwa-wuh! Buh-bwluh-bluh! Yeah. That's like my baby does. The style may be light but the purpose is serious. A cool version of power to the people which aims to get the young to engage with the process of politics. It struck me that these guys could teach the UK a thing or two. I left the capital for a little place called Makutano, one of many small towns with the same name. In Swahili it means junction. Kenya is still traumatised by what happened when two ethnic groups turned on each other with guns and machetes after that rigged election at the end of 2007. And that's why I'm here - because Makutano junction is a soap opera which claims to reflect the lives of the people living here and to give them messages that they want to hear. And I've sort of fixed a little experiment to see whether that can work, whether it does work. My experiment takes place at the barbers. I've brought two stars of the soap face to face with their viewers. This focus group is going to watch one of the episodes of Makutano junction, which has much the same audience share in Kenya as EastEnders has in Britain. 'Washington, please. This tribalism thing is just in' your mind, deep down I know you have loved these people of this country. You and your people are rising against the wind. Just stop them. I can't, I can't stop these people. The storyline is very sensitive, an outbreak of communal ethnic tribal violence. 'Do as Mutato says and see the people get pulled down the tribalism' or be a man and do the right thing. Why do you think it works? Well, I think it works because it touches on issues. Mukutano Junction is a developmental drama so we tackle issues that actually people go through on a daily basis. I mean, in terms of like say, women issues like domestic violence, we just try to make people understand their rights and fight for their rights. But how do you know that you are reflecting the real life in a community like Makutano? We ourselves, we believe the institutions like this, we come from communities and we in one way or another, we also get feedback from the community. Stop it people, stop it. Stop it! This episode went out before that election and before the killings that followed it. They really are in touch. 'This is what we shall always be, one people.' A harrowing warning of what was to come. How do you feel when you watch that? Respect each other, no matter what religion or whatever you believe in. We believe in humanity. Well, if this focus group is anything to go by, which I think it is, you can breathe both of you a sigh of relief because you got the thumbs up. Oh, thank you. And likewise, perhaps, the British taxpayers who co-fund this soap opera. From Mukutano it's only four hours by road to Tanzania, my next destination. The new highway will link the two countries and serve an economic community of five East African nations. It's still under construction, and the old road is a bone-rattling reminder of the difference the new highway will make. When roads like this you can only go, I mean, look at that, shaking its way by. It can only go at 20km an hour rather than 60 or more, so it makes all the journeys so much slower. And this is how it was. All the roads, basically, were more or less like this until the new roads were started. These massive road-construction projects are happening in every country that I've been to so far, and they're really transforming the potential of these countries because getting from one place to another FASTER means that you can get your goods out, you can move people around, you can get your natural resources exported at a rate which means you can grow your economy. And this particular road, like so many across Africa, is being constructed by the Chinese, who are now everywhere. I arrived at the border to discover a group of Maasai women who were clearly determined to stop me from entering Tanzania. No, no, no, look I just want... Please, sorry, I'll take... I'll take, I'll take ten. Ten. OK, fine. 10,000 OK? No, 20,000! OK, give me that. No, give me that back. ' "No" is evidently not the right answer. ' No, I'm sorry, I've got enough. We're going to Tanzania, and I have to go. Tanzania? Yes. The Maasai women aside, it's a pretty open border. Today there's a customs union between the two countries which means that getting from one to the other is about as easy as going from France to Germany. I was first in Tanzania over 30 years ago. Then, as now, my first call was the town of Arusha where almost half a century ago the British formally signed away their colony. I arrived on that anniversary and was at once put to work. It's Independence Day in Arusha. No generals, no emblazoned medals, no tanks, no mass bands but a clean-up. What's Independence Day like for you, as a day? Is it an important day for you? Yes, very important day. Very memorial day because it is when we got independence before they... What? When you got rid of us? Yes, when we got rid of you! Yes, true. Actually, there is a great deal to be proud of here. Tanzania is peaceful, it's stable, it's an open society, it's a multi-party democracy and it's widely regarded around the world as one of the success stories of Africa. You don't need all that ballyhoo, do you? Modern Tanzania didn't just happen by accident, the country owes a huge amount to this man, the country's first leader, Julius Nyerere, and it was here in Arusha in that chair that his party adopted what was called the Arusha Declaration, his vision for the future of the country, a declaration which became famous throughout Africa and made him one of the figures on this continent who is mentioned in the same breath as Mandela. CHANTING They don't only celebrate the past but the present, the fact that Arusha is now a beacon for all Africa with a status on this continent similar to that of Geneva or the Hague. It was in this town that the deal ending the Rwandan genocide was signed. Here, too, that the international criminal tribunal sits in judgement over those accused of that atrocity. OK, slowly, my brother. At the local Wasi or elders club, they're warming up for the weekly football match. It's a match with a difference. I do play every Sunday here. In the red team, senior members of the Rwandan Tribunal or the African Court on Human Rights which is also based here. It's a truly international cast. Touch your boots. In the green team, rather more likely lads, local prison officers guarding those charged with the genocide in Rwanda. Plus, at the insistence of my hosts, yours truly. I'll try not to get in the way. WHISTLE BLOWS AND CROWD CHEERS WHISTLE BLOWS I've been called off, I'm going to claim injury time. Sidhu Ganu, who comes from Mali, is employed by the UN to oversee the prison which holds the Rwandan suspects. Here in Tanzania, everyone talks about Mwalimu Nyerere as father of Tanzania. Yes. Is he in one sense, also one of the fathers of modern Africa as well? Of course.

CHEERING ERUPTS I was giving them real support from here. How do you think about it as a team? It was a brilliant play. I'm afraid you were on top all the time, yeah? Of course, we are training ourselves. You're training all the time. Yeah, I knew it was experts. Yeah. It was better once I'd left I think. That's why we are here. Thank you so very much. No, I really enjoyed it. Congratulations. Thank you so much. From Arusha, south once more towards the nation's most important city - Dar Es Salaam, 300 miles away on the edge of the Indian Ocean. This city has changed unbelievably since I was last here, which must be about 25 years ago. Then it was more like a small quiet town, now it's over four million people. But then, there was also the music. Whenever I came, straight to music, I want to find some again. Just follow our ears, I'm following you, Amari, you know better than I do. And the music is still there and not hard to find, once you get beneath the glossy surface of the modern city. UPBEAT MUSIC PLAYS These are street kids rehearsing for an important professional gig. The Jagwa band is on the edge of the big time in Tanzania. And not just that, they've got an international agent who is fixing work for them in Europe as well. They are tirelessly creative and technically ingenious. Like so much in this make-do-and-mend continent, their instruments are made out of bits and pieces recycled to make music. Tanzania, like everywhere else I've been in Africa, makes a virtue of necessity. You have to be resilient and resourceful just to get by. It is a towering strength and for a westerner, who's never had to face physical hardship, it's a humbling insight. You can't come to Dar Es Salaam without a visit to the fish market.

Wow! Now that's a really good way of doing it. No carbon footprint there. Everywhere I've been on this trip, from the food market in Aksum to the fish market here in Dar Es Salaam, I've seen people facing huge challenges and sometimes crisis. But I've also seen people working as hard as they can to put food on their family's table. It really is a fantastically impressive experience.

Tanzania not only has a free market, but a free media as well - 27 television and 53 radio stations and many scores of newspapers and magazines. Daily News, thank you. 'Some are in English, most in Swahili.' How much? These papers have the mix that you might expect - some are gossip, some are scandal. But there's also a real sense of a young free press on issues like corruption, accountability, that has a real responsibility as the guardian of the freedoms that have been acquired. I met up with Dr Wilbrod Slaa, a leading member of the opposition in parliament and a fearless critic of the ruling party. He remembers only too well what it was like before democracy arrived. Way back in those good old days almost everybody was an informer. They would hear you talking about something and tomorrow you may not disappear, that didn't quite exist in Tanzania, but I guess you will feel the pinch because if you were a businessman, tomorrow they would remove your licence, business licence. If you were a farmer, then your piece of land would be taken away from you. So that horrified people. People were not happy, we are not free. Looking behind himself who is looking at him or at her. That you don't see any more now. Nyerere had been authoritarian, but he always claimed that Tanzania would one day be ready for a genuine multi-party democracy with all that that entails. You have named and shamed, publicly, people who have great potential power and who are in politics and you don't feel any fear about doing that now? I was threatened a number of times in the beginning, it has all died out. And since then, I have been mentioning names, I have been mentioning issues

and have never had any reports from the government, and even from the individuals. But I think it is a credit to the type of democracy, the tolerance that exists within the Tanzanian society. The beach on the edge of the city in the cool of the evening, what better place to reflect on my journey so far and to contemplate my next port of call, Kinshasa, the capital of the Congo. Subtitles by Red Bee Media Ltd