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brush up on your algorithms. Ahead on Catalyst - You could make millions. And little things causing a big stir. the scientists all hot and bothered. Carbon nanotubes have got G'day. Welcome to Catalyst. counting whales in the Kimberley, Also in this episode - fast food for humming birds. and lickety-split - But first, Jonica Newby finds out why excited about carbon, more and more scientists are getting the Goldilocks element. and why they're calling it these days, Carbon tends to get a bad rap but I think that carbon is amazing. It makes diamonds, it makes us... makes energy. in the universe So what is it of all the elements that makes this one so special? of the nano world? And why is it the darling by the way. Oh! That's a space elevator, in the big city. You never know what you'll find the poster-child dream The space elevator has become of the carbon nano future - here on earth, with these - a dream that started back commonly called buckyballs, Buckminsterfullerene, Sir Harry Kroto. and this man - their discoverer a molecule with 60 carbon atoms, What is a buckyball? Well, it's as a soccer ball. and it has the same structure five-sided numbers, and 20 hexagons, It has 12 pentagons, and to our great surprise, when you vaporise carbon. this molecule self-assembles No element, other than carbon, 60-point shape, wants to form this delicious the Nobel Prize. which earned its discoverer Carbon, you see, is unusual. and all other elements is so huge The difference between carbon say life based on any other element. that it's very difficult to conceive mystical carbon show. And now to explain the magical, on the periodic table, At position 12 carbon hits the Goldilocks spot. It's not too big, not too small, dying to hook up, and with four outer electrons perfectly primed for bonding. triple bond, single bond, It can double bond, so it gives carbon a flexibility even comes close. that no other element to form complex molecules, It'll bond with others the bases of all life... ..or it'll just bond with itself. to form diamond - strong and stable, It can use all four electrons to make graphite, or it can use three electrons and all forms of nanocarbon. used in pencils, buckyballs remaining free in an electron sea, And with that extra fourth electron is potentially conductive. it means nanocarbon and it's promiscuous. So it's strong, it's electric No wonder it's so popular. (Blows) haven't proven that useful... And while buckyballs themselves like a chicken wire, ..if you stretch a buckyball out, you've got a carbon nanotube. conjuring up here in Cambridge. And that's exactly what they're the scientists all hot and bothered, Carbon nanotubes have got inside this smoke. and that's what's forming gases like carbon-rich methane In this furnace, into an elastic smoke are transmuted nanotube wisps, from which they literally pull out and roll them up as a fibre. them in Prof Alan Windle. And the man in-charge of reeling ALAN: That is unbelievably thin. How thin is that fibre? only weigh a twentieth of a gram. A whole kilometre of it will Good God! the first means These chemical wizards have invented carbon nanotube fibres of making continuous up to kilometres in length, of teeny nanotubes. made up of billions of bundles through an obstacle course - And now we're going to put them a really little one. very simple experiment here. OK, we've got some... Yes. This is conventional carbon fibre... on it and I've got a knife, ..and we've got a small weight lift this up with the knife. and I'm going to very gently And it gives up. (Clattering) carbon nanotube fibre, But look what happens when you use and even try twice the weight. more resistant to bending. And it holds it. So it's very much potential to become the strongest, It means nanotube fibres have the ever seen on Earth. stiffest and toughest fibre carbon nanotube ALAN: Now the strength of a single than the strongest material is about ten times stronger which man knows at the moment. of potentials. So that opens up a whole range Right at the top end of that scale, to make a cable to go into space we've got perhaps the ability for a space elevator. But even if one just can get twice the strength in the best carbon fibres, that you can get to your door then the world would beat a path wanting it for better composites, better sports goods. stronger aircrafts, HARRY: It has the possibility of giving us that we could ever think of. the strongest, lightest material make possible an aeroplane If they do break through, it would that it will bounce. that's so strong that carbon nanotubes And don't forget can be electrically conductive, solar cells, opening the potential for better individual molecules, teeny-tiny test tubes to trap for satellites. electromagnetic shielding in sight yet though. No space-elevator cables in town. But tubes are the only nanocarbon the chicken wire of the nanotube, What happens of you take Well, then you've got graphene. cut it and unroll it? of linked carbons It's a single layer to dance across the flat surface. with those extra electrons free in 2005 Groundbreaking work on graphene earned the Nobel Prize in 2010, wants to play with it, and now everyone dressing like a Teletubby. even if it does mean transparence-marked window, So this device is called and is based on graphene. It's a flexible material as you can see. Yeah, flexible like plastic. OK, now hold it up to your face. OK, yeah. And flick the switch. Oh! Now you see me... now you don't. It may not look much, but graphene is the most transparent conductive substance in the world that is also fully flexible. That means you should be able to turn it into a fully-flexible touch screen. So, for example, if you love skiing, as usual you have these paper maps, and you get... you know, it's difficult to take them out. So you can have this integrated into your jacket, completely flexible. So you can have this wrapped around your wrist, and have a Google map on it. Absolutely. And you just switch it on or of. Yeah, I think... That is brilliant! (Laughs) Hopefully it is. And it may not be that far-fetched. I think a prototype wrap-around mobile phone will be available in two or three years time. Two or three years. Yes. And like nanotubes, there are scores of teams around the world working on a myriad applications for this wafer-thin slice of perfect carbon. But, reality check - as usual with science, everything is five to 20 years away. Will carbon nano ever live up to the hype? It is not hype. It is not hype. So we had the Nobel Prize last year not because of the hype, but because of the amazing results that people were able to achieve with this material in just three or four years time. Having said that, nanotube researchers had longer with not much on the market so far. As for the fabled space elevator - between you and me, I can't quite see a carbon nanotube cable 40,000km long, when the longest one we can make so far is about... Well, actually, we haven't made any decent cables yet. But we can dream, which is what this carbon-based life form is doing right now. After all, carbon is a girl's best friend. Ahead on Catalyst - physicist Derek Muller takes science to the streets. Here I have a metal hard drive and a book. Which one do you think will feel warmer? VOICEOVER: With wings that flap up to 90 times per second, and a heart rate of over 1,200 beats per minute, it's hungry work being a humming bird. And these little guys certainly have a hefty appetite. Flicking their tongue up to 20 times per second, they extract nectar from flowers, easily consuming their body weight in a single day. Nectar was thought to travel up the humming bird's tube-like tongue by capillary action - a hypothesis taken as fact for more than 180 years... ..until Alejandro Rico-Guevara and colleagues, from the University of Connecticut, decided to see exactly what happens when humming birds drink. They built see-through flowers to capture high-speed, high-magnification video. Instead of a tube-like tongue, humming birds have a forked tongue lined with hair-like extensions called lamellae. When the tongue enters the nectar solution, the forks separate and the lamellae extend out. When the tongue pulls back, the lamellae roll in, trapping the fluid and bringing it to the bird's mouth. Now that's fast food in lickety-split timing. TANYA: When I turn in for the night, I like to do the crossword. Phil is a bit like me. He's just come home from his day job at IBM, and he's working on his nightly puzzle - trying to prevent over-expenditure in the American healthcare system. A lot of money's wasted ever year in unnecessary admissions in hospital. What we're trying to do is to get an algorithm that's able to predict which patients are more likely to need hospital admissions, and which probably won't. It might seem odd for a Melbourne data analyst to be worrying about US health care, but there's a good reason. Potentially, if you come up with the best algorithm, there's a $3 million prize coming your way. $3 million has a lot of people thinking. In fact, 644 other people across the world are competing with Phil on this one problem through a website called Kaggle. Tell me how Kaggle came to be. On one hand you've got companies with piles and piles of data but not the ability to get as much out of it as they would like. On the other hand you've got researchers and data scientists, particularly at universities, who are pining for access to real-world data. The idea of Kaggle is to join them both together, and turn data analysis into world-wide competitions. I found a new way to predict the outcomes of chess matches. I came up with an algorithm to map dark matter in the universe. I want to come up with a better way of predict travelling times on the M4 in Sydney. Anyone can host a competition if they can provide the data for a real-world problem. And there's an infinite number of possible data problems to solve, from traffic congestion, to the likelihood of it raining on my way home. Data really underlies just about everything. So we've done a competition for Ford to build an algorithm that tells you how alert the driver is. We've done HIV data sets, we've even done something on Eurovision song-contest voting. (Crowd cheers) Competitors are given the same sets of data. Using this, competitors try to build a data model to solve a predictive problem. Allowing competitors to see how their models compare to others drives better and better results. PHIL: Well, Tanya, this is the leaderboard. Well, when I initially started I was about 55th, which made you think, 'What does someone else know that I don't?' How are you going now? So, currently third on the leaderboard. Third? So you're third in the running for $3 million? Well, bad thing is, the top two win the money. So I've got to try a bit harder. (Laughs) No prizes for coming third at the moment... unfortunately. Competition may be fierce, but does Kaggle really help solve big problems? On 23rd May of this year... ..NASA, the European Space Agency and the Royal Astronomical Society posted one of the great problems of our time - how to map the presence of dark matter in galaxies when we can't see it. ANTHONY: The universe is behaving a little bit oddly. It's behaving as though there's more matter than we can actually observe. So the competition is to build algorithms that detect this additional matter and where exactly it is. In less than a week, a glaciologist from Cambridge had produced an algorithm that outperformed those developed in over a decade of research at the space agencies. So, Martin, how did you do it? I'm a glaciologist, and one of the things that I do is I look at satellite imagery of the front of glaciers in Greenland, and try and monitor the position the front of the glacier over the course of the year. These images are often corrupted with things like clouds in the way, there might be some sensor noise. There's probably more bits of ice sitting in the fjord in front of the glacier, which will look very much like the glacier. So one of the things we have to do is guess where the glacier's front position is based on these noisy images. Glacier fronts and mapping dark matter in the universe - they seem like two markedly different things. It turns out that when you're looking at an image of a galaxy far, far away, it's quite noisy, there's things in the way, there's blurring happening. It's got a lot of the same problems. as working in the glaciological context. By combining simple astronomical algorithms, in the same way he did glacial algorithms, Martin hit on a winning combination. It came up with a number for a score. I said, 'Oh! That looks OK. Excellent.' I put it away. Then I got an email a week later saying that I'd beaten the best astronomical algorithms. I had no idea. The results don't surprise Anthony. We have people from over 200 universities in 100 countries around the world. It was at least my thesis that if you open a problem to a wider audience, everybody tries their own different techniques, and the most successful one will end up winning. VOICEOVER: We all know what it's like to feel like we're half asleep, but did you know some animals are actually able to punch up zeds with just half their brain and body? Whales and dolphins are able to come for air while half in the land of Nod. And while terrestrial mammals like us always sleep with both hemisphere's of the brain, fur seals are multiskilled little nappers. On land, they shut down all systems just like us. When in the water, they can be half comatose and and vitally half alert. So next time you see a fur seal winking at you, it's unlikely he's being chummy. More likely he's having a snooze. DEREK: When you touch an object and it feels warm of cold, what is that really telling you about the object? Here I have a metal hard drive and a book. And I'm going to ask people to compare their temperatures. Which one do you think will feel warmer - the book or the hard drive? The temperatures? Tell me if one is hotter or colder, or if they're the same temperature. How do they feel? This is slightly cooler than this one. That's warmer, way warmer. Yeah, agreed. I'd say the hard drive is a lot colder than the book. I don't know, 'cause the book's got more knowledge. (Laughs) And why do you think that is? Metal's normally a little bit chillier if you leave it in a colder temperature. What if I said they're both the same temperature. What would you say? I think you're lying. I think you're lying. Yeah. Oh, geez! Well, maybe the way I could prove it is I have an infra-red thermometer. What do you think we're gonna see? I think science might be able to answer that and I'm not a scientist. Make a prediction for me. I still that that's colder. Would you bet me money? I don't have any cash. Let's measure the temperature of the book. What do you see? 19.0. OK. And measure the temperature of that. 19.0. Alright, now I believe you. I'm trying to actually figure it out, trying to figure out why they'd be the same temperature. They don't feel the same temperature though. Why does that feel colder if they're basically the same temperature? Good one. You have the answer? (Chuckles) I'm coming to you guys for answers. Well, we're creatives, not intellectuals. Well, create an answer for me. I'm not a scientist. Come on, you tell me. I'll try to answer that question with another little experiment. Here is an aluminium block and... Ooh! Nice and cold. ..a plastic block. How do their temperatures compare? Completely different. Completely different. The aluminium's much colder. Yeah? This actually feels colder. Let's take this to the next level. I'm going to put an ice cube on both plates. What are we going to see? I'm guessing it would stay solid on this one and melt on this one. So it's going to melt on the plastic and stay solid on the aluminium? Yes. Or maybe I'm wrong. That one would melt more quickly than on the aluminium block. You think so, I mean they're colder. Yeah, 'cause it's colder. I think they'll go the same. Alright, so we put an ice cube on each block. What are you seeing? It's melting a lot quicker on the aluminium. My God, it's melting! This is melting quicker than that one, even though this is aluminium and that's plastic. So which one felt colder? This one. How does that make any sense? I have no idea. Could aluminium be bad for the environment? How will aluminium be bad Well, it's thawing out the ice a lot quicker. Isn't it? Sorry, you want the answer? Yes, please, please! It's about thermo conductivity - the rate at which heat's transferred from one object to another. So when you felt these blocks originally, I know this one felt a lot colder. BOTH: Yeah. But you know from the other example we did that they must both be at the same temperature, because they've both been outside for a while. But we see that the aluminium block is melting the ice faster than the plastic block, because it's conducting the heat to the ice cube faster. With the plastic block, it's a worse thermo conductor. So heat is being transferred less quickly to this ice block, and so it's staying ice. OK. I believe you. Makes sense? BOTH: Yes. You know, in our first example, the hard drive felt colder even though it was at the same temperature roughly as the book, and that's because the aluminium conducts heat away from your hand faster than the book conducts heat away from your hand. Sure, that seems logical. Which makes the hard drive feel colder and the book feel warmer. So when you touch something, you don't actually feel temperature. you feel the rate at which heat or away from you. is conducted either towards hop out of the shower in winter. Think about this the next time you mat than on the towel beside it. It's must nicer to stand on the bath Not because the bath mat is warmer, less quickly away from you. but because it conducts heat (Birds chirping) in a science family. RICHARD: I sort of grew up out in the bush. We used to spend a lot of time I really love the Kimberleys. that I'm passionate about. It's not just the marine environment in the world It's one of the few areas of rivers. where you've got an amazing network They all feed through the estuaries mangrove areas, with all these amazing in marine life. which are really, really rich little research done in the area. Up until now there's been very, very what's on the coast - I've just continued to try to record both filming and photographing. Looks like a mother and calf. I'd have to see that breach, mate. round about a mile and a half. We've got two at 310 degrees, started up in Camden Sound - The interest in the survey work of whales up there, just recording the numbers of their natural behaviour. and also trying to get an idea was a major area, Basically, we found that it for the whales, and congregation area and calves. and in particular the cows is now considered to be Breeding group D of humpback whales in the world. the largest single population is where they spend a lot of time. The whales are born up here, this or five months of the year So, probably up to four the Kimberley coast. they spend along to the Antarctic, Then they migrate back to feed down there. to top up on krill, is this is their home. So, the way I look at it (Whale song) any whales. Quite often you can't see the side when you've got this huge, You throw the hydrophone over underneath there. and amazing orchestra of song (Whale song) and serenading the cows, Well, the bull's singing out and it's just quite amazing. (Whale song continues) The main concentration of whales the last few years from the work we've done over stretches from the 80 Mile Beach, of Camden Sound. all the way up to just north at the moment There's a process in place to hopefully recognise Camden Sound and a special marine area. as a marine sanctuary that protection will be extended But then we're also hopeful that right along the coast. people are starting to look, The more the scientists and the more the more they're starting to find. there's fish species There's coral species, undiscovered in this area. that are still basically the mackerel, the dugong, The reason the bait fish, come to this area the turtles and the humpback whales is because of the marine habitat, of tides and currents and also because of the combination that run through this area. (Bird calls) of the Kimberley coast One of the most amazing features are the big tides that we get here. washed up on the rocks. There was a dead whale actually the oil from that particular whale And we were quite amazed that down to Doubtful Bay, was distributed from all the way probably about 14 or 15km offshore right up to Augustus Island and and that was just whale oil. over one tide cycle, that if you have So it made us realise along the coast here, a major oil spill of containing it. there's virtually no way that the Australian people I think it's really important science projects get involved with community just basic information on habitat... that go out to collect wild numbers, ..whether it's recording species in a particular area, whether it's recording the marine to their own country, as another way of connecting them information and also as a way of gathering to the community. that is then owned and belongs over the last few years I'm hoping that the work we've done about the Kimberley coast, has contributed to raising awareness raising awareness about the whales, of the coast it is. and just what an amazing part GRAHAM: Next time on Catalyst - full of little wonders. a Catalyst special atoms exactly where you want them. This machine can place individual Shaking up drug delivery. is a nano earthquake. The secret weapon Giving insight into living cells. And nano diamonds. special next time on Catalyst. That's a medical nanotechnology Now, quickly before we go, on any of the contenders you can view profiles People's Choice Award on our website for the Eureka Prize's before you cast your vote. on Facebook and Twitter. And please, stay in touch with us I'll see you next time. Thanks for joining us. Closed Captions by CSI

Oh, the Mervich case! with the boltcutters. The one with the guy who got bashed The evidence is pretty clear. in the middle of nowhere I mean, the guy was living him dead with the boltcutter. with two crazy sisters who belted when he drank. We always copped it worse Heather-Marie, she just... and she got him. ..she picked up the boltcutters was also in the house The defendant's sister at the time of the offence. since the night in question, She has been in a coma to make a statement but she may soon be in a position a critical impact on the Crown case. which could have Dick. That's it. Gloves are off. Don't be a child. I'm so scared. imaginary gloves. I didn't just peel off up to the office after the party. I took Jimmy Butcher You showed him the file? an anonymous text about it, He says he got but he might just be protecting me. (Gasps) Are you OK? No, it's fine. It'll pass. Should I call someone? I'm on IVF. ? Theme music Stand in a shop ? What do I do ? Waiting for that money to drop