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THEME MUSIC Hello, I'm Leigh Sales.

Welcome to this ABC News special, Hillary Rodham

Conversation. Let me explain Clinton, an Australian

today's of State will address our

audience here in Melbourne for

about 10 minutes or so and I'll

afterwards. I'll then open the briefly interview her

floor to questions from our audience which will go for

about 45 minutes. In our discussion, we'll also include

a handful of the hundred of questions we've received from all around the country via

Twitter and FaceBook and also

on video. To Secretary of State, here's

University of Melbourne's vice

APPLAUSE Davis. chancellor Professor Glyn

Leigh, thank you. Foreign Minister Dorsin, chancellor, colleague, friend, good morning

and welcome to the university

of Melbourne. It's an enormous

pleasure to welcome you on what

will be a very special event.

It's a special honour to

welcome an outstanding global

policimaker and leader, the United States Secretary of campus this morning. State Hillary Clinton to our

State Hillary Clinton

campus this morning. This is an

extraordinary opportunity to

hear from and to engage with

secretary Clinton in our

acknowledging the traditional fashion, I begin by

owners of the land on which we

meet and pay respect to their

elders past and present. I want

to acknowledge the ageist

society which has played a

crucial role in bringing about

today's gathering. And I want

to acknowledge Asia link led by

university of Melbourne and

Leigh Sales as well and the ABC

for all the work that's made

today possible. This morning

we'll hear from secretary

Clinton who is travelling

through Asia Pacific to remote

the strong engagement between the United States and many of

Australia's regional

neighbours. On her current trip, she has experienced distinctive regional culture

including Cambodia's including Cambodia's remarkable

sites and some of New Zealand's wonderful ceremonial greetings

and now this her first visit to Melbourne. We look forward to her reflectionness to United

States, Asia and Pacific relations as well as her

perspectives on the future of the Australian-American

alliance, which has been

central to our interests since the signing of the ANZUS

alliance almost 60 years ago.

So it is a great pleasure to

ask you to join me in making welcome our most distinguished

guest, please welcome the

State Hillary United States Secretary of

APPLAUSE Good morning. APPLAUSE . Thank you.thank you. It is

wonderful to be here today and

I want to thank Alex, the

chancellor and the vice

chancellor for their warm

welcome. I want to thank

Myer the Asia link chairman, I

see my colleague and friend friend, our Foreign Minister,

Kevin Rudd here and I thank him

for working so closely with us

and I am delighted that in a

few minutes I will be able to

sit and talk with Leigh Sales

and so for me, this is a

special occasion to be with you

in Melbourne at this great

University. I've had the extraordinary pleasure visiting Australia before, spending time in Sydney,

snorkeling at the Great Barrier Reef, going to Canberra, meeting crocodiles and

Kangaroos and I am very pleased

that finally I am here in

Melbourne which I first

glimpsed on my family's very

small black and white television screen during the

Olympics in 1956 and before you

do all the calculation, that

was a really long time Like many Americans when I was

growing up, what I knew about

Australia was great open

spaces, lots of exotic flora

and fauna, really hardy people,

kind of like the wild west but

with better beer and a lot more

of a sense of pioneering spirit

at that time. And of course I'm

sure that for many of you, from

afar, the United States looks as though every

living his or her own reality

TV show and part of what I'm

doing as Secretary of State is

not only meeting with the leaders leaders of Governments like

your's here in Australia but

also meeting with citizens,

particularly young people,

because I want meerk's outreach

around the world to go far

beyond the Government halls and

all of the official back and

forth to and to have a chance

to hear what is on your minds as well as for you as well as for you to ask me questions. Our two countries

have a lot in common. We are both pleuralistic, democracies, founded

founded by immigrants and

pioneers and dreamers who

didn't take no for an answer and refused to accept limits on

what they nought was possible.

We have been and I hope always

will be nations that are ready

to face the future without fear, rolling up our sleeves

and getting on to whatever the

next challenge might be.

we may go into some of that

during the question and answer period. I've never understood

why you would ruin a perfectly good slice of bread with

Vegemite, but I'm sure you have

you travel to our country and some of the same reaction when

see what we eat. I had hoped to

be here last January, but I was

on my way when the earthquake

in Haiti struck and felt

compelled to turn around and go

organise our relief efforts back and help supervise and

there and of course I knew Australians would understand because Australians have

responded with such generosity

to disasters among your

neighbours. After the tsunami

in 2004, Australia sprang into

action, sending rescue teams, doctors supplies all over the region

region and more recently

Australian medical teams have

helped the people of Pakistan

cope with the devastation of

the trerible flooding there. I

think that is one of the most

important qualities we have in

common and an impull of

generosity that is deed deep in

regardless of political our national character our national

affiliation. Both Australia and

the United States work to

advance not only our own

interests as we see them but

also to protect friends and

allies, to work towards the

causes of peace, prosperity and

Justice for people everywhere.

It's just who we

our DNA and it helps to explain

the enduring bond between us

and today in a time of such complex challenges, climate change to nuclear

proliferation, the world needs

nations like ours that accept

the responsibility of working

together, to solve shared problems. Leadership from

countries like Australia and

America and the stredget of the alliance

alliance that binds us is more

important than ever, not only

region alley but global as well. Australia has always understood and accepted this responsibility. It has increased military cooperation with malaisa, and Singapore,

provided crucial assistance in

Timor's transtoition independence and led

stabilisation forces in the

Solomon Islands. And your efforts to promote sustainable

development around the world

reflect an understanding of how

important it is to lend a hand

to those in need. And sending peace keepers to dangerous missions in troubled

lands sets a very good million.

For our part, since the first

days of the Obama Administration, the United States States has reaffirmed our

commitment to be an active

partner and leader in the Asia

pifric. We're practising what

we call frard deployed diplomacy, sending our

diplomats and our development

experts across the region. This

is my siment visit to the Asia

Pacific as Secretary of State.

The President is making his

second as we are here in Australia, he's he goes on to Indonesia then to

the G20 meeting in Seoul,

Korea, and then the APEC

meeting in Yokohama Japan. We

are working very hard to build even stronger or historic

alikeses with Japan, South

Korea, Thailand, the

Philippines and of course

Australia and we know that the

relationship and the treaty

alliance between us has really

been forged in war, but it is

founded on ur our shared love of piece. Yes, our soldiers

have fought side by side from

the trechs of World War I to

the mountains of Afghanistan.

In defence of democracy and our

common values. And Americans will never forget that after

the terrorist attacks of 9/11,

Australia invoked our treaty

alliance. That meant a great

deal to us and which grieved

with you after terrorists

murdered 88 Australians in Bali and we have renewed our

determination not only to

defeat violent extremism but to

offer alternatives and a

different vision of the future to people who might otherwise

be unwilling to pick sides. So

the United States has no better

friend than Australia and it is

a partnership that we have to

keep evolving, we can't just

look to the past and say,

"Haven't we been great

together?" What do we now need

to do going forward. First on

security, our further security

depends on our abilities to

acapital to emerging threat and

unaccepted challenges. So today

that the assess sief from piracy, protecting our computer

networks and infrastructure

from cyberattacks and finding

more effective ways to prevent and respond to natural disasters . That's especially

important here with

earthquakes, tiefr yoons and tsunamis continue to friends and neighbours as I experienced with one of tsunamis continue to batter our experienced with one of the

aftershocks in Christchurch at

2:43 in the morning the other

day. We know that this will be

a kongt set of very

problems and we need to be

smarter about how we address

them. Unfortunately, if climate

change continues unchecked,

natural disasters may only

become more frequent and more

deadly. And I want to thank the

people of Australia for being leaders

how best to deal with climate

change, I think it's understandable because in this

region of the world including

here in Australia, your subject

is some of the worst effects from rising ocean levels and

extreme weather to drought and

mass migration. Later this

month the nations of the world

will meet in Cancun to continue

the work we started in

Copenhagen. And it's especially

important to recognise that the

very existence of a lot of our small Pacific Island neighbours

is at stake. So we want to step

up our work together on climate

change and later today I will

go with the PM to look at

of the renewable energy

programs that you are doing

here. We need to do more to work

work with our Pacific island

friends and last week I was

pleased to announce that our

development agency will open a

new office in Fiji to serve as

a base for work throughout the

region and we will work on

health, we will work on empowerment, on good governance but we will pay special

attention to a new fund we're

creating of $21 million for the

small Island nations to adapt

to climate change. And we're

going to be working together

with Australia to persuade the

military Government in Suva to

meet its commitment to bring

democracy back to Fiji. In the

short-term we would like to see

step it's advance political

freedom such as allowing

professional civilians so

return to key ministries. So we're going to

look for new opportunities and the Foreign Minister addressed

some of those in our press

conference yesterday. We want

to forge a close working

relationship on development needs between the United States

and Australia, particularly on

education, health, women's

empowerment and sustainable economic development as well as

championing democracy and human

rights. Increasing trade and

spurring economic growth is one

of our additional major goals.

We think it's a win-win for Australia Australia and the US, our free

trade agreement has boosted

jobs in both countries and I

will see more of that when I do

an event about trade between

Australia and the United States later this continue this progress, we are

both pressing ahead on

something called the

trans-Pacific partnership. It's

an ambitious multilateral free

trade agreement that would

bring together many more

nations of the Pacific rim.

Australia and the United States

are helping to lead those

negotiations and we're also

working through APEC, United States will host in

Hawaii in 2011. We see that as

a pivotal year to drive progress on internal economic

changes that will open more

markets and make sure that any

growth is more sustainable and inclusive. And finally we

believe that the United States

and Australia have been at the

forefront of figuring out how

to organise the entire region

for the future. It's not enough

just for to us have a strong

bilateral relationship, bilateral relationship, how do

we interact with everyone else?

And Kevin Rudd has been one of

our best consultants on how best best to cothis, the Foreign Minister's arguments helped convince both President Obama

and me to join east Asia

summit, because we think being part of the regional

architecture in the region is

absolutely essential. Together

we're engaging emerging powers

like China, India and Indonesia

and with burgeoning partners like Vietnam, like Vietnam, Singapore and Malaysia. Clearly, client's

rapid growth in recent years is

among the most kons queptial

developments in the Asia

Pacific, indeed, in the world. And both the United States and

Australia reject the zero sum

view that some have that one country's rise means country's rise means another country's decline. We're

actually working to build a positive cooperative and comprehensive relationship for

China. This relationship between Australia and China,

between the US and China and

among the three of us is one of the most consequential that we have. So among the three of us is one of have. So we're committed to

getting this right. And as you

can see, we have a full plate

of issues that we are

addressing every single day.

But what's most important to me

is that the bonds between our

people runs so deep. We are a

very future oriented set of

peoples and I travel the world

as Secretary of State and I go

into many countries that are

riven by riven by conflict, having great difficulty addressing the needs

of their own people in part

because they cannot leave the

past behind, they cannot say we

have to move forward have to move forward together.

We need a different approach to

how we're going to build and

inclusive society, create

better economic opportunity and

so much else. We look at Burma

today holding flawed elections

that once again expose the

abuses of the military junta a,

and it's heartbreaking because the people of much better and Australia and

the United States will continue

to work together to establish

an international commission of

inquiry to hold inquiry to hold those leaders in Burma accountable for human

rights violations, continuing persecution of ethnic minority

and we hope that perhaps out of

these elections some leaders

will emerge who know that Burma

has to take a different track,

that they cannot continue to do

the same thing and realise the

importantly of their people.

Because at its heart

alliance is one of values and

as we look to the future we

have no greater responsibility

than staying true to those

values and expanding

fundamental freedoms to places where they are denied. So we

must redouble our efforts to

advance democratic reforms and

human rights especially women's rights

rights throughout Asia Pacific

and the world, and over the

years we have fought side by

side not just because our

shores were threatened or our

interests were at risk, but to

defend these core values that make us who we are. We are both

countries that attract many

immigrants andst and as I look

at this audience I assume there

are some here or the children

of immigrants who came to

Australia for Australia for a better life.

Who came, yes for the economic

opportunities that a free

market economy provides but

also came for the freedoms to

be oneself, to express one's

opinions, to worship as one

pleases, that is at the core of

what we believe . I've been to

the war memorial in Canberra,

and I've paid my respects at

the tomb of tun known soldier.

We have similarly hallowed

places in America. places in America. Inevitably time will weather the monuments

and thin the ranks of the veterans

veterans who march in the parades. I'm particularly hopeful that young people who

Ier if vently wish never have

to go to war will understand

that you are here at this place

at this time because of

sacrifices of those who went

before. It is our job and not

just those of White House serve

in public service but it is our

job as citizens of free

countries to make sure that

those values are understood, respected and passed on from

generation to generation. Our alliance demonstrates a

commitment to doing that. Yes,

we're looking back to make sure

we never forget, but looking forward to make sure we

envision and then produce a

future worthy of your dreams.

Thank you all very much. APPLAUSE

Welcome, I think you can see

how thrilled our audience is to

have you. I'm very political

thrilled to be here. They get a break from studying for exams. Exactly. You've done these forums all around the

world, what is it that you like

about them and what do you feel

that you've learned from doing

them? What I like about hem them? What I like about hem is

it gives me a chance to stand

up or sit up on stages like

this and look out at audiences

that are primely that are primely of young

people, and to then have a chance to answer as many

questions as we have time for,

and the questions are always

informative, the pros the

perspective that people have, I've been everything, from one end ft

globe to the other and I learn

a lot about what's going on.

For example, I was Cambodia just a few days ago at an event

like this with about 500, 600

young people, mostly students,

and what was on their minds was

very much in line with what we

see as great potential for Cambodia. You know, economic

opportunity, more emphasis

placed on and political freedoms and so

when you hear it from people in unscripted settings like this,

it does give you a

of what's really going on, what

people are talking about and it

also gives me the opportunity

in my discussions with leaders

to make the talk about human

rights or political reform or

anything else, more contextual

so I get a lot from these

settings and hope that the

audience does as well. You

mentioned in your speech that the Australia-US partnership we have to keep

evolving. Our Foreign Minister

Kevin Rudd said in your press conference yesterday that

Australia welcomes the US

making greater use of our defence facilities. Does the US consider that it needs an enhanced military presence in Australia? I think what the Foreign Minister and I were

discussed yesterday is the

decades-long tradition of the United States sharing

facilities, being invited by the Australian Government and military going back to train, to work together military going back many years to train, to work together on military going back many years to train, to work together on

projects, and take just one

example of forward deployment

to respond to disasters. We know they're going to get

worse. Even if we all did

everything we believe we should tomorrow on climate change, we

believe that the long-term

weather forecasts are such that

we're going to have a lot more

displacement. So we need to be

smarter about how we work

together and so we'll be

discussing this Ausmin, the

Foreign Ministers and Defence how better to do that, or take

joint cooperation in space, something that we think should

be reserved for peaceful uses.

And how can Australia and the

United States advance our

partnership on that? There are

many ways that we will build on

what has been a cooperative

joint relationship going back

in the past to make us stronger, stronger, better prepared in the future. On climate change,

that you mentioned you've been

travelling during the US mid term elections but President Obama has that result that cap and trade

on carbon emissionings is dead

as a policy for the United

States. Where to next then on

climate change? I think that

there are a number of there are a number of different approaches. The President tried

very hard and passed through

one House of the Congress a

very effective framework for

cap and trade, but the

political winds have shifted

and there will not be the support in the Congress to move

forward with that. So

meantime - and I don't know

that this is a particularly

well understood program - is

that the President

using the tools of the presidency through regulation to make significant changes,

increasing the mileage of

automobiles, working to require

utility plants to do more to limit their own pollution.

We're going to explore

everything, because the Obama

believe that this is a serious

problem, it's not going away,

people can believe in it or not

but it's not going away and

we're going to have to deal with it and the consequences

will be more and more pressing on countries like the United

States and Australia, so we're

going to be consulting and then

figuring the way forward You've

just come from New Zealand and

while you were there you were

asked a question which led you

to rule out Presidential runs

in 2012 after-2016. A lot of your disappointed

rule it out? First of all, it

is a great honour to have run

for the presidency of the

United States and to United States and to have put those 18 million abcracks in

the glass ceiling and now you

have a women PM and we're

seeing that around the world.

Brazil just elected a woman President. I am very committed to enhancing the empowerment

and the roles of women in

politics and every other aspect

of society. And I hope to woman elected President of our

country, it's those of you who followed

followed an incredibly intense

and contentious political system,

system, but I'm very serving as Secretary of State

and this are other things I

want to do in my life in the

future so I think I'll be a

strong advocate for whoever throws his

throws his or her hat into the

ring. I think we should talk to the audience. All right, let's

take our first question from

Adrian McMillan. Do you think politics has moved beyond a contest of ideas to a straight

popularity contest? The good

question. It's always been a

bit of both and sometimes ideas are predominant and sometimes

personalities are. It has to

remain in a democracy a

combination otherwise I think

it's hard for someone with the

best ideas who cannot

communicate or connect with

people to get elected, to implement

hard if all you have is a great

personality and no ideas to

govern, so somehow there has to be a meeting of be a meeting of the minds you

know? I believe strongly that

we need balance and balance in

mature democracies like ours

requires that you have the core

of ideas and plans and policies

and that when you compete in

the electorate al system you

learn if you don't already know

you believe so that people do

have something of a road 457 as

to what you will do should they

vote for you. We have a very

famous saying from one of our

well known well known political leaders in America, former Governor of New

York, who says that you

campaign in poetry and you good

afternoon in prose, so you get

out there and you don't know

what you're doing but you've

got a great way to get people

to vote for you and then you

wake up the day after and say,

"My goodness, now what?" It's

like the dog catching the car,

you have get to work and implement a policy. So we need

in today's very media-centic

world, people who can do both.

I do somehow worry that in my

own country, own country, could Abraham

Lincoln have been elected

President in the 21st century?

You know, he was awkward and

gawky looking, he was so tall,

he had what were called

depression. Could he with swad not just the 24/7 news

reporter with a cellphone? I

don't know. And what are

countries like mine or yours or

any other losing out by if we

don't take politics seriously

enough to get beyond what is

the sort of the flash and the

celebrity part of it to really

get into understanding who

these people are and what they

stand for? So I hope it stays a combination,

combination, and that we hold

our elected officials to a

standard where, yes, they have to be they also have to have a

platform. Our next question is from a political science student, Alexander Maschmedt,

where are you? Thank you for

your time today. My question is do you think the Republican

takeover of the House will

affect the timeline for the

draw down of troops in Afghanistan next year? Another

good question. It's one that we

hope not, because we think we

have a good plan going into the

NATO ISAF meeting in

about two weeks. We think that

striking the right balance,

you'll hear me say that word, a

lot, 'balance' between moving

and expecting the Afghan

Government to do more for its

own defence, but not being

hasty in our transition to

their lead in security is what

we're attempting. And we that that's well understood and

accepted by the majority of

members in Congress but until

the #234u Congress the #234u Congress gets

assembled into session early

next year, we're not going to

know exactly what their points

will be and their discussions

with us. Just one final thing

on that - I'm very grateful for

Australia's support to the

mission in Afghanistan, you

have the largest non-NATO contingent of troops serving and by everyone's estimatation,

doing an excellent job under

very difficult circumstances.

And we are seeing progress. I

mean, again, sometimes it gets

lost in the headlines of

everything that can and does go wrong,

wrong, but if you talk with the

people who are on the ground

actually bought together the

defence forces, both the army

and the police, looking at the

increasing buy-in from local

leaders to their own defence, we

hope we can keep a steady

course, hold ourselves to our

own benchmarks and make the

progress that we need between

now and July 2011 when we do

begin a transition and then

President Karzai and the Afghan

Government have said they want

to have complete control by

2014. I want to underscore that certainly the United States and

NATO will remain in a non-

combat supportive role as a

partner of the people and

Government of Afghanistan which has gone through a traumatic 30 years

years of invasion and civilian

war and war lordism and

Talibansation and so many of

the other challenges they have

faced. We don't want to abandon

the people of Afghanistan, so

we will take this step by

step. We'll take one of our Twitter questions Madam

Secretary, Mr Seggler who is 21

asks what do you see is the

billingest international relations challenge my

generation will have to

overcome? Oh my . An easy one, isn't lot of political science

students in this crowd who plaf

a more personal view of this.

Let me just mention a couple of intersecting ones. And put it

into kind of a framework. I

think the biggest challenge

that people 21 are going to

face, is how to ensure that the nations of the world work

productively together to meet

shared challenges. That the world is coming together, not

falling apart. That the forces

that are forces of negativity, and disintegration are matched

and overcome by the forces of

integration and positive

development. It's especially

important when one looks at

many of the countries that are

under tremendous pressure internally because of extremist activities. You know, how do

you evolve democratic forms,

give people voices, improve

economies, so that the

percentage of the population

that is under 25 in most of the

developing world believes they

have a chance to have a future

of positive and successful

development? So, this is a

large overarching issue , but

if one looks around the today and you see the conflict,

not just in Afghanistan but in

the neighbour Pakistan, the neighbour Pakistan, through

much of the world going toward

North Africa, with Somalia and

Yemen being two examples, it's

a real - it's a really hard question and everyone need to

be thinking about how to work

towards some answers, and I'll

just end with this - I mean, I'm hopeful that the changes in technology that promote social technology that promote social connectivity, will help to hold Governments accountable it's really someone like the

young man's age and some of the

students here who are going to

determine whether or not that's

the case. But we're beginning

to see some positive signs. Of

using Twitter and Flicker and

YouTube and FaceBook and all

the other manifestations, in fact I have a whole State Department that is

devoted to what we call 21st

century state craft or 21st

century diplomacy. We're using

outreach, young people to

people, to not only tell you to

connect with your friends and

talk about pop culture or make arrangements to meet up, but

talk about what's going on in

your society. There was a

recent example in Syria which I found especially interesting,

students who were being

physically abused by some of their teachers in the State physically abused by some of their teachers in

their teachers in the State

schools began filming that and

putting it on YouTube. And all

of a sudden the Government

could not ignore what had been constant complaints about

abusive teachers in the class room and those teachers were dismissed. We're working with

young people who are creating

applications in Africa to help

farmers get real time weather

information and prices of their

crops so that they can build a

better harvest for themselves and fair families. many examples like that and I

think that may be one of the

biggest changes if used

correctly, where we can open up

Governments and hold them to account. We'll go back to our audience. Michelle Yuan? My

question is how do we handle

the stress of being the US

Secretary of State because I

can not even handle the stress

from my exams very well? Good

luck on your examples. Actually I think being Secretary of

State is less stressful

taking exams. First of all, I

feel energised by what I'm

doing on behalf of our country,

it's a great honour to it's a great honour to come to Australia representing the

United States of America, representing President Obama, making the case for closer

cooperation not just between

our Governments but between our

peoples, and I think like any

job in the 21st century, it

seems compared to these jobs in the past much more stressful,

because it's a 2 #/7 job. I rate about my predecessors who

had a lot more time to and to consult and they weren't

expected to be available around

the clock to answer questions

from the press or talk with a

world leader across the globe.

So you just have to adapt to

it. It's part of the

environment in which we work,

but it is energising so I am

very grateful that I get to do this job at this point in

American history and I'll be

doing it as long as I can, to

try to make a difference One of

your biographers has noted that

you were self-confident. Do you

ever have self-doubt? Of

course. Everyone does. If you

don't I would worry about you.

But just don't overdo it. I

think that maybe because , you

know, I have now lived a lot

longer than most of the people

in this auditorium, I look back

on my 20s and just so many hard

going to do and how was I going

to do it and as a young woman,

what were the barriers that

needed to get around over or

through and what about relationships and was I going

to get married, not get

married, what did that mean,

was I going to keep my name? I

think the 20s are among the most

most stressful time in anybody's life was your

information, you're trying to

figure all those things out and

yet I also hope that young

people don't - how can I say

this - don't be too hard on themselves, you know, it's so

easy to compare yourself now in

this totally media saturated

environment with everybody else

you know? Everyone else is

smarter, more attractive, who

does this or that, and get over

it. Be the person you can be,

and take stock of who you and deal with whatever

challenges you have and try to

be as open to new experiences

while staying on a course that gives you a level of satisfaction and reward and the

other thing is you will likely

live to much longer than most

people that preceded in your

families going back

generations, that you'll have

chances to make different

choices along the way. You

know, I have dear friends who -

woman, who

at 18 and at 45. That was impossible 50 years ago.

Women's lives are so much more adaptable and Lexible adaptable and Lexible than certainly my mother's was, and

for young men the same thing.

So many more choices are

available to you and so I hope

that you learn techniques for

dealing with the stress and

that it doesn't overwhelm you

and, you know, kind of tear you

down and instead you really

find a way to be satisfied who you are and what you're doing. We'd like find a way to be satisfied with who

doing. We'd like you to give

Australia quick response to a

video question next on

education, it's from South

Australia. Hi, my name is Penny Marshall from Adelaide and I'm

in training to be a primary school teacher. My question to

you is based on your opinion it

takes a village to raise a

child, how do you think it is possible to possible to achieve

community-ways based education if our increasing

overprotective and cautious deciding to be a teacher,

number one, particularly a primary

primary school teacher, but

that's a really interesting question. Also, because it is the

the case that we are perhaps limiting our young children's

opportunities to explore, make

mistake, learn from them, pick

themselves up, dust themselves

off, go on,, you know, many families don't want their children

walking to school families in the United States walking to school alone, don't

want them riding a bike, don't

want them out of their sight,

don't want them I playing

outside, want them in activities instead of free play, using your imagination,

and I think it is hard to deal

with what are legitimate fears and anxieties that are often

stoked by the press, you know,

what terrible case of a

kidnapping when that's one out

of 30 million but still it

makes any parent just - they're

heart contrakt with fear. We

then overraegt and prevent or

children from taking what are

the normal risks of growing up.

I think about my own childhood

and I know it was very

different the way I different the way I was raised and then obviously because of

circumstances, the way my

daughter was raised but even

her friends, we have to be

careful that we don't too early kind of confine kids into structures that don't give them

the chance to explore and find

out who they are and what

they're good at, so I hope that in context of schooling and support for it,

that you can find the answer to

that as you begin your career

as a primary teacher but it's a

good question because it's very

different. We are exposing our

kids so so many more things

than children have ever been

exposed to in the past. They

are in some ways more wordly

wise but less personally experienced have to take care of themselves

as younger generations of kids

had to do so we're kind of

conducting an experiment and I think we have to be very

careful that we are not somehow

undermining the natural stages

of children developing a sense

of confidence and ability to

cope that is the bases of bag

successful adult. Let's try to

whip through a couple of

audience questions. I'd like to

call on Azmeena Hussein. As an Australian born husband limb

that wears head scarf to know your opinions that wears head scarf I'd

to know your opinions on those

who claim that the hijab and

Burqa is un-Australian and more

importantly your opinion on a

women's right to address as and

how she pleases? I am aware of

the difference between a head

scarf and a Burqa and a hijab.

And I think that there is a

difference. I think that a head

scarf is a very appropriate manifestation of a woman's

choice a long as it is choice which is of premise of

my answer, but I think we have

to face the reality that in in

a society where there is a

legitimate threat of terrorism,

not being able to see one's

face, not being able to have

some sense of communication in

that way is for many societies,

a challenge. So I understand

the dilemma, and I think it is a legitimate for example in Pakistan, you

know, many of the men who are conducting suicide bombing

missions arrive covered in a

Burqa, so if you are looking at

other countries that are

understandably nervous about

extremist activity like France,

and other European countries, I think it's a close question, I

think it's a hard question. If

we were, you know, able wheel the clock back several

decades where we were not

facing these security threats

from, you know, packages put airplanes or like what we saw

in Mumbai and the rest, I'm not

sure people would be so

concerned about it. So, that's my answer. Patrick Clark, it's

your turn to ask a question. In your opinion, Madam Secretary,

how close are we to achieving

true gender equal here in the

western world? We've made a lot

of progress and we are

constantly in societies like Australia's and Americas,

pushing forward, so on balance

again, I think we've made a lot

of progress. But if you look at

much of the rest of the world,

that progress has not moved forward. I was recently in

Papua New Guinea and met large group of women leaders

there and the violence against

women in that society is di

billtating. It interferes with

girl's go to school. It

interferes with women being

able to be productive members

of their families and

communities and it was one of

the most important issues that

the women raises with me. If

you look at many other

societies, where women are not

given the right to go to school, to get health care, to

get access to credit, where

they are diminished

marginalised, where crimes against them are considered

marginal if at all, we have a

lot of work to do and why do I

emphasise that? Because I think

that there's very clear

evidence, it's irrefutable at this point from the World Bank

and other respected international organisations,

that societies that do not

expand opportunities for women will societies that are more

prone to authorityism, more

prone to ex-trialism, less

likely to develop, more likely

to be left out of the 21st

century's opportunities. I also

think there's a lot of

unfinished business about the LGBT community, we believe

strongly that there threedz

needs to be more attention paid

to the% kooution abuse of LGBT

people around the world. Just

explain what that means. Lesbian, gay, bisexual,

transgender people, that's what

we call - our shorthand in the

United States and we're concerned about some

legislation in some parts of

Africa that calls for Africa that calls for death penalty for people who are

LGBT. A lot of persecution, a

lot of trerible abuse. So, the

human rights agenda is a very

active one and needs to remain so. Because group of people or any

individual as we've seen from

with the recent Nobel prize

winner in China, are persecuted

for either who they are or what

they say or what they believe

as opposed to what they do,

that diminishes freedom far

beyond the individual cases, so

we're making progress on these

human rights agendas but I think

think it's everyone's business to not Government to try to put into place a framework for regulatory protections but, you know, to stand up against sexist jokes or homophobia or

prejudice against people with

head scarve, whatever you see

that is really chipping away at someone else's humanity, say,

"No, we don't do that in

Australia, we didn't do that in

the United States." It's not

just a Government to Government

thing with a lobbying pass but

it changes the attitudes

a daily base . We have a video question that relates to some

of that. It's from regional victim Victoria. My name is

Jack, I live in the La Trobe

valley. We know from several

surveys that inquality in marriage legislation often

translates to to an inequality

of worth. What's your view on

same-sex marriage? I have intn

a strong supporter a strong supporter of ending discrimination and particular

ly focussing on hate crimes and

workplace bias and the workplace bias and the like.

And in our country, the issue

of same-sex marriage which is a

matter left to each state, each

State sets the rules, is

proceding on a state by state

basis. I think that's the best

way for it to not supported same-sex marriage. I have supported civil partnerships and

contractual relationship s, yet

I am supportive of our state's taking actions that they

believe reflects the evolution of attitudes about this. It is

a signature issue and as the

young man just said, for many

people it is sort of a symbolic

issue that if you don't support

that, that, you don't support

equality between people and particularly

particularly for the LBGT

community, but I am very comfortable saying that we in the stroobs fully support every

kind of equality, opening up

opportunities in the State

Department which is my province

of jurisdiction, and we will

continue to support States

making their own decisions

about this. I imagine given the

evolution of this issue, that

20 or 30 years. I think it will

be have moved on and if you

look at surveys, we want - I

personally want to see gays

serving openly in our military and young members of the

military have no problem with

that, people older are still

somewhat resistant to it, so I

think it's like anything else

that is a new change, a new

mindset of what it means to person that you'll see that

evolve. Let me invite Wayne

Bergmann, the executive

director of the Kimberley land

council to ask his question. Madam

given the history of indigenous

people, native Americans in America, and the Obama

Administration's what I call

uncompromise ing commitment to engage with that leadership,

can Australia learn from those

experiences when engaging with Aboriginal people here? Well ,

we have a long history of the

mistreatment of our native American population in the

United States. It's a series of

sad chapters in our history. We

have now what we call sort of

sovereign relations, our native American tribes which

given land or are otherwise

recognised by the Federal Government, are in a Government

to Government relationship with

the United States, and really focussed on doing

everything we can to improve

lives in Indian country, there have been some positive changes

giving more authority over the

use of that land to tribes,

creating opportunities for them

to exploit natural resources,

to start casinos which for a number

number of number of tribes is a great economic development tool. So

we're going to continue to try

to develop a more respectful

responsive Natalie Hutchins a Labor

candidate running for office

has our next question? It's an absolute honour to have you

here in the room with us today

and to be in Melbourne. My

question is a little bit of

personal advice, my husband is

an Australian Senator and I've

been preselected to run in the

State election in a few weeks

and I was wanding a bit of advice successful political career and a happy marriage? Well, you're

both going to be serving at the

same time, is that right? If you're elected? Well going to be interesting at

home. You know, I think -

home. You know, I think - every person is different, every

marriage is different, every

political career is different,

but trying to work out routines

so that you can actually see

one another despite one another despite your busy

political careers is important,

and maybe having some ground

rule going into it as to what

you will and won't you will and won't discuss, because it is challenges

especially if you by any chance have slightly differing point

of views. So it would be my

hope that you could have a very straightforward straightforward conversation

about how you're going to

manage this and how you're

going to organise your time, in

order to keep, you

private marriage part of your life going while you're both

out there doing all the

politics, because it can be all

Kong assuming. You - - all

consuming. In political life,

you need - never will answer

not answer, do what you have to

do if you are just don't do if you are just don't draw

some lines and some boundaries

as to where your political day

stops and the rest of stops and the rest of your life starts. Speaking of life around

politics, we have a FaceBook question from YiaYia Zoe. What

do you and President Obama talk

about howside the

spectrum and how do you understood wind? President

Obama and I talk about raising

children in the White House.

Since he has two daughters and

we had our daughter from the

age of about 12.5 until 20,

with her father being

President, so we talk a lot about that and he's a very

active parent as is Mrs

Obama. What's your advice to

him on that Early on, before

they took office, I spoke with both the President and Mrs

Obama, they talked to me about

the school that Chelsy went to

when she was in Washington and

they ended up with both of

their girls going to that

school in part because it's a

very supportive environment but

one where the girls get treated

like everybody else. It's not

some big deal where they're kind on deadly for young kind on a pedestal which

deadly for young girls and boys

who are trying to find their

own way. We talked about what

it's like living in the White

House where you have House where you have 138 rooms

and hundred of people who are

doing everything, how you

maintain some semblance of a

normal life with your children

doing chores and being expected

to do their home work and all

the other things you would do

if you were not living in the

White House. And, you know,

they've done a great, great job involved parents, going to

soccer games and basketball

games and parent-teacher

conferences, and drawing the

lines so that their are not exploited for the press

or for politics, but giving

them the chance to enjoy the

experience so that, you know,

when we have a State visit for

example, when PM Singh from

India was there, you know we a

small gathering on the second floor of the White House before

you go down to the State

evening, and the girls came in

to meet PM Singh and his wife

and his daughters who were

there, so we talk a lot about how

how you again keep that balance, it's a wonderful experience, you get to go

places, meet people, see things that are truly unique,. And

what about you unwinding? Oh

for me. I get away from it as

far as I possibly can. You

don't have any anonymity, how -

you had an hour of anonymity,

what would you do? Don't tell

anybody, but I do! You know, I

and I love in New York and our

daughter and her husband live

in New York. Whenever I can I

go home to york. We have a house about 50 minutes from New

York city. We go for long

walks, we take our dogs into

the nature areas around our

home, we go to movies, you know

we just do normal every day

things to unwind and just to

catch your breathe. When I

travel, it's hard, but if I have a minute, I'll go for a

walk, I went for a long walk

along the waterfront in

Wellington when we got in to

New Zealand and went for a walk

in the rain in Christchurch and

I hope to be able to go for a

walk if our schedule gets a

little more forgiving sometime

in the next two days here but it's

it's just to try to literally

let your breath out, to take

some time to not think about

all of the problems and

especially out in nature, just

being outside and feeling like you're

much bigger than, you know, the

to and fro of politics and

international diplomacy. I'm

sure everyone would love to

keep going but you have many other engagements that your to

get on to so we'll have to wind

it up here. I know our audience

here and at home pressures your

time. So thank you Madam

Secretary and thank you to all

of you who have taken part too. Thank you. APPLAUSE

.Captions by CSI.