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hats are No, I've heard about it. The

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in it? No, but he will be

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Captions by CSI. unearthing a dramatic event. GRAHAM, VOICEOVER: Ahead on Catalyst, eaten into extinction. They've been able to see species for migraines. And a surprising treatment Botox for headaches? Really? Welcome to Catalyst. of native woodlands getting sweeter. Also in this episode, the future into the war on weeds. A sugar fix provides new insight on crustaceans. And a scientist with a crush I love them very much. (Laughs) some startling evidence - But first up, Paul Willis reveals it's thousands of years old - of just how great an impact telling the story on our surroundings. we humans can have is a paradise in the Pacific. PAUL: Today Vanuatu really when the first people arrived here, 3,000 years ago they'd arrived in Eden, they must have thought for them to leave their mark. but it didn't take long PAUL, VOICEOVER: Earlier this year, archaeological site in Vanuatu - I took you to an important in the South-west Pacific. a cemetery of the first people of a double site. But this is something there's the remains of a village. On top of that cemetery, has been uncovered - Here you can see where a post hole the corner of a hut. the garbage from that village But it's what's contained within archaeologists and palaeontologists. that has fired the imaginations of of this site comes into play. This is where the excitement of a 2,800-year-old village, This brown layer here is the site in the wall behind me, and the white stuff you can see from the people living here, that's 200 or 300 years of rubbish through that rubbish, and by carefully tracking eaten into extinction. we can actually see species literally littered with food scraps, PAUL, VOICEOVER: The site is the original inhabitants ate. giving us a good idea of what This is a pig jaw, to the island some 3,000 years ago. one of the animals introduced the the Lapita people It was first thought to island, you know, were moving from island all the marine resources, just using up then moving to the next island. early on, Here we've got a lot of pig bone so this will quickly establish did bring pigs with them. that they actually a closer look at these paleo diets. Stuart Hawkins has been taking eating well. STUART: Well, they're basically with them, They're bringing introduced animals a lot of the local resources. but they're also eating and quite easy to catch, These were quite vulnerable quite big and tasty. and some of them Matthew Spriggs has seen before. It's a pattern that archaeologist there's a naive fauna, People arrive, upon these wild resources early on. and there's a massive impact Among this abundance of easy prey, is the appearance and disappearance what's got everyone excited of a very strange beast. Is this tortoise? humerus, from the upper arm. Yes, this looks like a tortoise from the Meiolania genus, We think it's a land-bearing turtle the strong muscle attachments, and you can see here in here in the curved bone. for bearing weight on land. The nature of the bone - flat for swimming in the water. Sea turtle bones, the bones are all One problem at the site of this unusual creature, is they're only getting bits to the Australian Museum so I've come to see some more complete specimens. that they're talking about. This is the kind of animal or Meiolania. It's a horned land turtle, Darling Downs in Southern Queensland. Now, this particular one comes from and also on some Pacific Islands. They're found throughout Australia Now they're found in Vanuatu. This is the skull. You can see the eye here. large horns at the back of the skull And what's notable are these two pull back into its shell for defence. which meant that this guy could not this is the tail club. At the other end, defend themselves. Obviously, these guys could from the University of NSW PAUL, VOICEOVER: Trevor Worthy to this archaeological dig. has been the palaeontologist attached I receive a bag full of bones, MAN: Basically, to identify what they are, and the archaeologists want me 'cause that's my speciality. and usually it's birds, So, Trevor got quite a surprise PAUL, VOICEOVER: turning up in the Vanuatu site. when the horned tortoise started our turtle is the shoulder girdle, One of the interesting things about which is this element here. turtle, with a wide angle here, So, what this tells us is this is one of the terrestrial turtles, kind of turtles, 'cause for the swimming it's a much more acute angle. to a substantial size - In Vanuatu, these land tortoises grew which raises the question, up to a metre across the shell - get across the seas to Vanuatu?' 'How did a big terrestrial tortoise TREVOR: Most people would agree that basically floating, they came over the sea, and one turtle has actually walked onto the beach in Tanzania covered in barnacles. So, it was obviously in the sea a fair while. Back at the site, and it's the distribution of the tortoise bones that is the key to a deeper mystery. The midden starts here, it develops on top of this old beach, and it built up over about 200, 300 years. From about 2,800 years ago up to about 2,500, but the tortoises are only found in the bottom 10cm or so, which means that between 2,800 and 2,500, but much closer to 2,800, they're feasting on these tortoises. It's like a carpet of them along the bottom of the midden here, and then after a while, they've eaten them all. And it's not just the tortoises that suffered this fate. The size of the shellfish, we've noticed, changes over time. When people first turn up and are using it as a village, The shellfish are a much larger size than you would find today, and this was really brought to our attention by the local people working on the site, saying, 'Wow, you know, never find shellfish this big, you know, when we go go out o the reefs today.' Also there's a crocodile that we know was here, A land crocodile, not a marine crocodile, and again, when we find that in sites, it's only right about the 2,800 years ago. After that, they're all gone. PAUL, VOICEOVER: While this is the first case of terrestrial turtles and crocodiles being eaten into extinction, it reflects a pattern seen in birds and other creatures in islands around the world. You can go from here into Polynesia, to New Zealand to Hawaii, and you see the same pattern time and time again, but in each case, within a couple of hundred years of people first arriving, these extinctions happen. PAUL, VOICEOVER: More fuel to feed the debate about the nature of extinctions elsewhere. We could argue that these giant turtles, this whole family died out due to climate change, but this indicates that at least this branch of the family survived until the very recent past and was a casualty of humans. And you can call me morbidly obsessed, but among all the questions this amazing site answers, there's one thing I'll never know. What did they taste like? GRAHAM, VOICEOVER: Ahead on Catalyst, ants getting a free ride from wasps. So, do you have any beauty secrets? Just a daily moisturiser. I exfoliate. And wear sunscreen when you are in the sun. New wave man cream. WOMAN: Everybody has their beauty secrets, but when the subject of cosmetic surgery comes up, there's a lot of mixed reactions. Would you ever consider plastic surgery or cosmetic surgery? Never. If I felt that I needed it, yes. I think it's better to go au naturel, personally. How do you feel about Botox? I don't like it. Crows feet actually add some personality, so I don't think that anyone should ever consider Botox anyway. If you're looking for some simple solutions, it's a bit of a turn-off. For you to sit there and take away those laugh lines, those worry lines, you're just limiting your ability to communicate with other people. It may surprise you, but close to a quarter of a million Botox injections are given to Australians each year, but as Jonica Newby reveals, Botox is more than skip deep. A funny thing happened on the way to to the Botox clinic, or more precisely, on the way back. The next day, there was a message to ring her, has something gone wrong?' and I thought, 'Oh, God, what the problem was, And I rang her up to see says, 'I feel fantastic.' and her emphatic, very excited voice interrupt this story JONICA, VOICEOVER: Now, I'll you're wondering, because just in case wasn't for mere beauty. Maureen's patient's Botox were reacting badly She was worried her kids to her permanent frown lines. my relationship with my kids.' She said, 'It's affecting all the time? Mum, why are you so cranky had said to her, When in fact, one of them with us?' 'Mum, why are you always cranky OK, back to the story. 'I feel fantastic.' Very excited voice says, 'Oh, that's good,' you know. And I said to her, I feel really, really good.' And she said, 'No, you don't get it. 'Well, what - is the frown gone?' And I said, 'Oh, not completely, no,' And she said, 'my headache has gone.' but she said, you had headaches.' And I said, 'Oh, I didn't know 'No, neither did I, really.' And she said, a constant presence in her life, I think the headache was such that she'd just become used to it. this constant tension headache, To everyone's surprise, a treatment not just for frowns, it looks as though Botox might be the migraine. but for that mother of all headaches, where a medical treatment This is one of those great stories to a cosmetic treatment, accidentally led to a medical treatment. which accidentally led back here's a brief history of Botox. So, to set the scene, botulinum poison was identified JONICA, VOICEOVER: In the 1890s, a few dinner party guests after it accidentally killed by paralysing them. It's actually botulism, produced by the food-poisoning bug: Then in the '60s... could block nerve spasms in the eye, was realised small doses which is when another doctor realised of frown lines, her patients were also being cured of cosmetic uses which led to an explosion Botox spotting. and a guilty new pleasure - Definitely! it came to the attention JONICA, VOICEOVER: Which is how like Dr Maureen Boyd. of cosmetic doctors that is a common experience, On the whole, get as many headaches.' that people will say, 'Yeah, I don't to those muscles of the scalp Often the headache is due being tight and 'spasmed', and by relaxing those muscles, the cause of the headache. you actually treat but not all headaches are the same. That's a classic tension headache, Some are spectacular. I notice WOMAN: One of the first things in my mouth, is I've got a metallic taste my back teeth are rotting. sort of as if pins and needles in my face. Then I'll get some My arm getting really heavy. right-sided intense throbbing pain. The pain would start in my head - throbbing pain, Just massively intense and then you wouldn't be able to think, you'd just lose hours. Aimee was a dancer and highly trained occupational therapist when, age 22, she was felled by a migraine that lasted five months. And that's when they said to me, 'Oh, we think you've got hemiplegic migraines.' I'd never heard of hemiplegic migraines. I ended up divorced. I wasn't able to work. to have my leg amputated. I was ready to ask I couldn't deal with the pain. (Cameras click) from the cosmetic doctors By now, rumours the heavy hitters of the head world, were starting to filter through to on hardcore headaches. like Dr Peter Goadsby, world expert certain incoming information, What happens in migraine is that information from the head, like light and sound and pain and what's called modulated, instead of being controlled and it all charges through. so, turned down, it's not, While advances in brain imaging into the cause of migraine... have given new insights is crucial.. We think this area in the brain stem have not been exactly flash. ..our preventive options to date medications they tried with me. I was on maybe 15 different Every single one of the different medications has side effects. My legs would swell so badly, I couldn't get shoes on, or my hair would start to fall out. Five years, she went through this, until... My third neurologist... said to me, 'Let's give it a shot. Don't know whether it will work, but it's worth a shot.' The shot, of course, was Botox, to be sceptical. and her doctor was right Botox migraine studies There were already which weren't very convincing. which is quite unconvincing. All initial work failed, doctors wouldn't go away. But the rumours from the cosmetic OK, I'm ready for my Botox. years ago, migraine specialists, JONICA, VOICEOVER: So, a couple of got together to try again. including Dr Goadsby, Altogether you do 31 points. This time with a blue chip study more than 15 migraines a month. focusing purely on patients suffering would I? I wouldn't have a wrinkle anywhere, a lucky subset, it actually worked. JONICA, VOICEOVER: This time, for It's not like a miracle cure on the planet with chronic migraine, for the entire... for all people but for the group who respond, it's really quite spectacular, I have to say. It's given me my life, yeah. The opportunity to work, to have a family. Scientists still don't understand why it works, but Aimee reckons, 'Who cares?' And it's got that unfortunate side-effect that you'll never look older. It's just so horrible. Oh! Look, it's horrible. and respect MAN, VOICEOVER: While we fear nuclear radiation these days, we haven't always been so concerned. In fact, during the 1920s and '30s, the radioactive element radium common household goods, was used in many paint, and fertilisers. including toothpaste, popular part of beauty treatments. Strangely, it was also an extremely A flapper's idea of a facelift to remove wrinkles was to strap on radium pads were exposing themselves What they didn't realise was they to an element way more radioactive than uranium. radium's faint blue light Perhaps they thought elusive glowing complexion. could give them that But the fact is, radium causes anaemia, wasting flesh, and cancer, and gave a look that was literally to die for. Sure, it seemed OK at the time, but how will we feel next century about what we're doing to ourselves in the name of beauty today? TANYA, VOICEOVER: Grassy box gum woodlands once covered five million hectares of the slopes and plains that run from Queensland through to northern Victoria, but now less than 10% remain. in high-quality condition. and only 1% are came through, When the first explorers right up to their saddles. they saw this tall kangaroo grass which their sheep ate really fast, They saw yam daisies, and all the lilies, the great potential with this and they saw agricultural history. for what made Australia's our canola, our wheat, These are the areas where our crops,

south-eastern Australia. and our sheep farms are across development of agriculture TANYA, VOICEOVER: The rapid from the 1800s onwards eco-system disappear. saw most of the grassy woodland are in these very small remnants, So, now the best patches towns, along railway lines, especially in cemeteries in country where the fences went up really early and that stopped grazing animals getting in there. That's protected all these species that have disappeared from everywhere else on the landscape. So, how can the understorey be returned to native grassland? Maybe the old cemetery sites hold the clue. In the cemeteries, there were hardly any weeds, so, we asked the question, 'Well, if these sites have got lots of weed seeds coming in and blowing into them, why aren't they establishing and becoming weedy just like all of the sites around?' This looks like a really diverse patch here. So, all across here we have chocolate lilies. They'll come up in fields of yellow later in the season. This is a goodenia. It has a yellow flower. This is a common everlasting, with the silver foliage here. Look, here's a little greenhood orchid, which is really rare in the region. What are these here? This is a sundew. So, it's a carnivorous plant. And over here we've got a yam daisy, which is one of the rarest of the plants in this region now that persists only in these small cemeteries. TANYA, VOICEOVER: They sampled the soil in the cemeteries and compared it to the soil in the weedy sites. The results were astonishing. WOMAN: What we found was that the cemeteries had very low soil nutrient levels, and in particular, very low soil nitrate. The levels were down below 2mg per kilo, whereas in the weedy sites, you might be finding up to 30mg per kilogram. Could the solution be to starve the weeds of nutrients? First we wanted to actually test whether our idea that soil nitrate or soil nutrients were actually driving the weeds. A series of test plots was established, along with a control area full of weeds. IAN: We did an experiment where we tried to reduce the amount of available nitrate in the system, and an extraordinarily easy way to do that on small plots is to add sugar, just white sugar. So, we went to the local shop and bought up all their bags of white sugar, and threw 'em over the ground. So, when we put this carbohydrate on, the soil microbes gobble that up really quickly, and when they do, they gobble up a lot of that nitrate, and it's a race to get that nitrate. They get it faster than the weeds do, so then the weeds get starved of nutrients. So, what impact does that have on the battle between the weeds and the native vegetation? So, this is the control plot here. So, at this plot, we haven't applied any treatments. Very lushly filled with weeds. Indeed. The first thing you notice is how thickly filled with weeds it is, and how few spaces there are for the little native species. And what about the sugared plots? We've added sugar every three months to this plot. We've really changed the structure of this grassland. We've now got lots of nice open spaces that the native plants can grow in, and even though we haven't added the native wildflower seed to these sites, we are starting to see that we're getting some of the native wildflowers growing back into these little spaces between the grass tussocks. TANYA, VOICEOVER: Sugar provides a short-term hit, but it isn't seen by the researchers as a solution. In our plots, we used sugar to find out that nutrients were really important, but then when we got the native grasses in, we realised that, actually, they could do that role for us. So, kangaroo grass in that system is a really keystone species. Kangaroo grass takes up the nitrates for the weeds. so they aren't available The weeds stay small, get the competitive edge. while the native understorey plants that's really important IAN: The next bit to a scale that becomes practical is to be able to upscale this to use over large areas, for landholders and managers is really working out and the key component there native grasses established. really reliable ways to get forests of New Zealand GRAHAM, VOICEOVER: The honeydew beech Prolasius advenus, are home to the native ant Vespula vulgaris. and the introduced common wasp The common wasp, which is on the list for the 100 world's worst invasive species, has settled in nicely since being accidentally introduced over 30 years ago. As the wasps and ants are both predators and scavengers, Dr Julian Grangier and Dr Phillip Lester of the University of Wellington decided to investigate if competition exists between the two. They set up bait stations, and videotaped the interactions. What they saw is something that's never been observed before. from the food The wasps remove the ant competitors mandibles, flying backward, by picking them up in their some distance from the food. and dropping them unharmed and rush the wasps, Now, the ants could gang up even spraying them with acid, biting them, with respect, but because they're treated they simply wander off. a native species and an invasive one, So, it's not just a showdown between plasticity. but an example of behavioural behaviour according to the situation The wasps' ability to vary their been such successful invaders. could be one of the reasons they've My primary interest WOMAN, VOICEOVER: or threatened species, is in saving endangered the freshwater crayfish of Australia and I've been focusing on for some years now. on fruit flies. I actually did my PhD So, I wasn't a crayfish enthusiast from the beginning, but when I was moving to Australia to work at La Trobe University for the first time, I had a colleague in America who was passionate about crayfish, and he said, 'Do you know where you're going? for crayfish.' It is the coolest place on Earth of really cool traits. Crayfish have a lot with sensory information. They're absolutely covered They've got their antenna, what is happening in the water, they can smell they can smell a predator, if another crayfish is unhappy. Most people don't know this. They have personalities. They make great pets, of course. is Swampy. Our current crayfish's name He's a swamp yabby.

I find them really quite friendly. Crayfish aren't really cuddly, but Yeah, they'll take your finger off if you give them a chance, but then, that would be your fault, not theirs. Different species have different temperaments. The small ones that we dig up out of burrows, they're unafraid of you completely, and they will just walk over your hand, and they're just calm as can be, whereas the swamp yabby, they're quite aggressive. I've pulled them out and put them both in the same bucket, and the swamp yabby goes the normal yabby pretty quick, and cuts him in half, and it's nasty. a very interesting period I think that I'm watching in their distributions. of crayfish change which we're quite concerned about, The Murray crayfish, in South Australia, used to be common used to be common in Mildura, in either of those places. and now you can't find them where the juveniles live, We don't know about where the young, into the habitat. or how they move from the mother of their life So, the first three or four years are a complete mystery to us, need to know something about that. and if we're going to help them, we He's got kind of a... See the fuzz growing on him? It's plankton, it's quite natural, and when you catch a swamp yabby in the wild, they've got all of that sort of growing on them as well. SUSAN, VOICEOVER: Being able to do a really good job of research while doing a good job of teaching can sometimes be challenging, but some of my best research has happened with the help of research students. This little fella came from Murchison, and he's my family pet. SUSAN, VOICEOVER: There were students who were not interested and dug up a crayfish, in my class until we went out they became very interested. and suddenly What they do is they actually... about crayfish SUSAN, VOICEOVER: There's something that takes us back to our childhood. and they stir up emotions somehow. They're really sort of primal, with crayfish I don't think I'm more obsessed is with their organism. than any other researcher psyche, and I do dream about them, They certainly have snuck into my and I love them very much. (Laughs) and I worry about them, Next time on Catalyst, GRAHAM, VOICEOVER: restoring balance to your gut. A radical cure for a stomach bug. African livestock. breeds to help modern farmers. Looking at the genes of ancient Take our canine comprehension test. Quickly grab a pen and paper. And pachyderm problem-solving. Thanks for watching. information, go to our website, Now, remember, if you want more and download stories there, and of course, you can also view and why not stay in touch with us on Facebook and Twitter? I'll see you next time. Closed Captions by CSI

This Program is Captioned Live.

Good evening, Virginia Haussegger

with an ABC news update. More

on the Government's carbon tax are with an ABC news update. More details

trickling out. The ABC has learnt trickling out. The ABC has

narrower Julia Gillard's scheme will be

narrower than the one Kevin Rudd had

pushed, and it'll start with a lower

price. The Opposition tried to

censure the Prime Minister over the price. The Opposition tried to

tax during an unruly Question Time.

Tiger Airways xs agreed to stay grounded Tiger Airways has agreed to stay Tiger Airways has agreed

Tiger Airways has agreed to stay

grounded until the end of the month.

CASA says it'll take that long CASA says it'll take that long to

address all of its concerns. Tiger's

CEO resigned overnight, raising

concerns about the airline's future.

Five journalists and executives

soon be arrested over the News Of Five journalists and executives could

soon be arrested over the News Of The World phone hacking scandal. British

police are now investigating whether

families of soldiers families of soldiers killed in Iraq and Afghanistan have been targetted by a fghanistan have been targetted

and Afghanistan have been targetted by the tabloid. The mountain resorts

are gearing up for one of the

weekends they've had in weekends they've had in decades. are gearing up for one of the whitest

weekends they've had in decades. Snow depths are close to 160

been in some areas. Those depths haven't depths are close to 160 centimetres

been seen in early July for 20 years.

Buildings, cars and slopes have been Buildings, carss? 6copes have been b

blanketed. Jubilant skiers and hardy Buildings, cars and slopes have been

locals are hoping for one of the

snow seasons in years. To Canberra's locals are hoping for one of the best

snow seasons in years. To Cq1erra's weather

weather - morning frost then sunny. snow seasons in years. To Canberra's

Minus 5 overnight with a top of 11. Sydney Minus 5 overght with a top of 11. More news in an Sydney 16, Melbourne 14, Adelaide 14. More news in an hour. This Program Is Captioned Live. APPLAUSE Good evening

and welcome to 'Leaky Boat' and

this special edition of Q&A.

I'm Tony Jones. Sleekers,

especially those that come by

boat, played a crucial role in

Australian politics for more

than a decade. The 'Tampa' Pacific Solutions were the defining issues of John

Howard's election victory in

2001 and 10 years on border

the mandatory detention of control, people smuggling and

children and adults are still children and adults are

defining contemporary politics.

'Leaky Boat' is a new

Australian documentary that Australian documentary that

reviewathise events of 2001,

the arrival of the 'Tampa' and

then the 9/11 attacks, to the

election campaign and Children

gathered Overboard. Tonight we've

gathered an audience of more

than 200 people and a panel of

politicians and commentators

representing a range of views.

afterwards for a Q&A special. Join us now to watch 'Leaky

was cool and bright in Australia. NONI HAZELHURST: August 26th, 2001, A Sunday. As the last of the weekend slipped away, far off our north-west coast, out on the Indian Ocean, a fishing boat was about to sink. The engine blew, the boat flooded, fish swam across the decks. Then, far off on the horizon, a dot. A Norwegian ship that had answered a call from Australian Rescue. The ship's crew watched in amazement as out of the little boat came 433 refugees. They told their rescuers to take them to Christmas Island or they would go crazy. the Australians radioed When the captain changed course, from the very top. The order had come would not be allowed to land. This ship, the Tampa, who comes to this country We will decide in which they come. and the circumstances