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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) about how the Vikings got around, but if I really want to find out I've got to get aboard one of these. is modern, This beautiful clinker-built longship to an ancient blueprint, but it's made is authentic... and the feeling onboard and timeless.

(Sings in Norwegian) on a fjord, in Norway, On a Viking longship brilliant!

(Continues to sing) Listening to the old Viking song, on our trip to Norway. I'm reminded of what we've found across the North Sea That memories of our shared histories fundamentally linked. keep this country and our own Our landscapes shaped by ice, our common thirst for energy, our reliance on the sea. between seafaring folk And the bond of blood in friendship and in war. whose lives have touched Captions (c)SBS Australia 2011

9:30 - Kate Middleton gleaming in

white at Westminster Abbey for

what's been called the wedding of

the century. Inside, a scene out of

a fairytale - her marriage to

Prince William. In future, the

prince will be known as the comes to an end, As the Second World War a notorious Nazi concentration camp the Soviets take over their own enemies. and start imprisoning There is no justice here. They said "Don't look for justice. we can do anything we want to do." "We've won the war, Minutes of confidential meetings reveal how the Western Allies are becoming alarmed is under Stalin's control. as much of Eastern Europe has come down around them. An iron fence

millions of Europeans the freedoms And the Soviets now deny the war had been fought to protect. which many in the West thought

to roll back the Iron Curtain. There wasn't anything we could do it wasn't going to be extended. We were darn certain of how at the end of the war This is the story the rule of one tyrant much of Europe simply swapped for that of another. And of how the Soviet Union, the war-time ally of the West, This was Berlin in 1945 of the end of the war in Europe. in the immediate aftermath

on flying into Germany of course First impressions the unbelievable devastation. were the devastation, to see the damage It was sickening the German people that were there. and to see the pathetic state of were not very great. But sympathies, I must say, but you couldn't feel... We were shocked and horrified, for them as we should have we didn't feel as sorry they'd brought this on themselves. because, after all, The battle for Berlin destructive of the war. had been one of the most over 350,000 casualties The Soviets had suffered Hitler's capital. in order to capture

followed the Soviet victory And in the days that particularly the women, the civilian population of Berlin, had been at risk of attack. "liberating" everything in sight. The Soviets were of course, quote,

mostly American-made, Soviet trucks, were hauling off anything that was haulable to the Soviet Union to be shipped back to help rebuild their economy, and so on. to help rebuild their houses we were hearing about the looting. We were hearing about the rapes, it made me feel differently I don't think

about the Soviet Union as a whole. This was just the behaviour of men enormous pressure for years who'd been under reacting in a... human brute manner. were longer range, After all, our interests there the war with us against Japan. we wanted to get the Soviets into We had some longer, bigger issues to think about at that moment. the new American president, Stalin, Harry Truman, and Winston Churchill in July 1945. met at Potsdam just outside Berlin Stalin would cooperate with them. The British and Americans hoped But it was going to be tough. Not least because Stalin believed badly treated by the West. the Soviet Union had been Enormously badly treated. For nearly four years of German aggression. the Soviets had borne the brunt in June 1941 Since the invasion of their country the Red Army had lost thousands every day. in a little-known series of battles In 1941, for instance, outside Moscow, here on the plains of Vyazma were captured by the Germans over 600,000 Soviets and more than 200,000 died. at the end of the war The final reckoning lost between them The British and Americans civilians and soldiers. around 800,000 dead, The Soviets lost 27 million. To make matters worse,

had lied to him about offering help. Stalin believed the Western Allies for a so-called second front From 1941, Stalin had called take the pressure off the Red Army. an invasion of France to his Foreign Minister, Molotov, And in June 1942, he thought with just such a promise. had returned from America But then just weeks later, brought Stalin bad news. Winston Churchill The British and American governments to undertake a major operation do not feel themselves able in September. At the same meeting Allies planned to invade France Churchill had said that the Western the next year, in 1943. there was no invasion of France. But in 1943 Once again Stalin felt betrayed. opened with D Day, in June 1944. The second front was eventually the invasion of France As far as Stalin was concerned, after it had first been promised. took place two years As for the Western Allies, honest with Stalin throughout, they maintained that they'd been to the atmosphere of mistrust. something that only added

Ladies and gents,

Macca's new premium M Selection Shakes. white chocolate flakes, One strawberry with Cadbury Dream chocolate number the other's a decadent topped with pieces of Oreo cookie. Oh, look at that! Macca's Shakes just got even better M Selections Shakes. with the premium new M Selections - not schmancy, just a little bit fancy. in the summer of 1945, A year later, this was the map of Europe. liberated by the Western Allies. In the West, the countries In the East, the countries liberated by Communist forces. With Germany and Austria divided into different zones of occupation. In July 1945 in Potsdam, the Allied leaders met at the Cecilienhof, the former home of the German Crown Prince. The atmosphere was tense. The Soviets were being less than cooperative over allowing access to Eastern Europe. And the British and Americans were unhappy about it. What we are asking for is that all satellite governments be reorganised on democratic lines,

which was agreed by all at the Yalta Conference. With regard to Romania, and in particular Bulgaria, we know nothing. Our mission in Bucharest is penned up with a closeness that approaches internment. But we know these things to be true from our representatives in these countries. Marshal Stalin would be very much astonished to read a long catalogue of difficulties encountered by our missions there. An iron fence has come down around them. Of course we could call each other's statements fairy tales, but I have complete confidence in our representatives in these countries. And then there was another shadow hanging over Potsdam. On the other side of the world there was still a war going on. The Americans were suffering massively in the Pacific. The Japanese had launched suicide kamikaze attacks on the Allied fleet. Though British and other Allied ships were also attacked, it was the Americans who endured the greatest losses. Almost 5000 were killed and more than 30 ships of the US fleet were destroyed here off Okinawa in the spring of 1945. The American aircraft carriers, with their wooden decks, were particularly vulnerable to the kamikazes. And for many Japanese the actions of these pilots of the Imperial Air Force were not foolhardy or desperate, but admirable. The Americans and the other Western Allies were increasingly worried by this level of resistance. Concern that was intensified because the Japanese culture at the time was so alien to many in the West. The Japanese had been told to worship their Emperor as a god, and that they should happily give up their lives for him in this, Japan's greatest hour of need. We were terribly worried what was going to happen going into Japan, because they were going to fight from house to house and, you know, we can see the indication of the kind of people they were with the kamikazes. To try to avoid an invasion of Japan, the Americans had mounted a massive bombing campaign. Captured Pacific islands, like here at Tinian, had been converted into giant air bases. More than 250 planes would attack a single target in Japan at the same time, dropping nearly 2000 tons of bombs between them. I was 21 years old and I really was wanting to get the war over and I wanted to get home. And if they told me "Go bomb some cities" I went and bombed cities. They were bombed to nothing left except steps and chimneys.

Complete 100% obliteration. It's not like going out and sticking a bayonet in somebody's belly, okay. You still kill 'em, but you kill 'em from a distance and it doesn't have that demoralising effect upon you. I felt everything except mercy for the people, for some reason. I did not, I was not obsessed with any... feeling of sympathy, I just wasn't. The fire-bombing of Tokyo in March 1945 had killed around 100,000 people. But despite this destruction there remained the fear that a land invasion of Japan would still be necessary to end the war.

Stalin had promised that the Soviets would soon help and attack the Japanese in China. It was also agreed the Soviets would receive the Kurile Islands and other territory from Japan, effectively as compensation. But at Potsdam, Truman knew there might be a different way of ensuring Japan's defeat, without having to invade.

Something Stalin, the Americans thought, knew nothing about. Until now. There is another matter I wanted to mention, Marshal Stalin. It is that we have recently tested a new weapon of unusual destructive force.

I'm glad to hear it and I hope you make good use of it against the Japanese. This was the weapon of unusual destructive force to which Truman had referred. The atomic bomb, at Alamogordo in New Mexico on July the 16th 1945, the day before the Potsdam Conference began.

The test had been a success. The existence of the atomic bomb changed the balance of power. Churchill was jubilant, saying in private at Potsdam "We now have something in our hands "which would redress the balance with the Russians." But Stalin seemed to have taken the news of the existence of this powerful new weapon surprisingly calmly. He never even asked a question. There was a reason. Stalin had known about the bomb for some time. A network of Soviet spies operated in the United States and secret information about the atomic bomb had been smuggled out.

To be translated by intelligence officers like Zoya Zarubina. Naturally, we got those papers from somebody. Well, let's call it friends of the Soviet Union and our own intelligence service. And we were very, very rapidly translating them for the Russians to understand. Here at the Imperial Palace in the centre of Tokyo the Japanese Emperor Hirohito was unaware of the revolutionary new weapon the Americans now possessed. But the Japanese had been informed of the Potsdam Declaration,

which called on them to surrender unconditionally or face prompt and utter destruction. Emperor Hirohito and his government would not accept these terms.

Then came the events of the 6th of August 1945. We in the Map Room were on guard 24 hours a day waiting for the moment the bomb was dropped. And on the day before we landed, such a message came. I decoded it and took it to Truman. And the substance of it was very simply "Hiroshima bombed. Greater effect than earlier tests." And that was all that needed to be said. Truman was elated. But in Moscow, news of the American nuclear attack intensified Stalin's desire to enter the war against Japan with all available force. He had said the Soviet Union would attack the Japanese, and so they would. Bomb or no bomb. On the 9th of August the Soviets launched Operation August Storm, an attack on the Japanese in China. On the 15th of August Emperor Hirohito announced the Japanese surrender after the Americans had dropped a second atomic bomb. Throughout the jungles of south-east Asia and the Pacific the soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army laid down their arms. The Second World War was over. ANNOUNCER: British and Malay officials watched 10,000 faces getting lost as the Japs march past and salute the Union Jack. Prestige is precious in the Far East and this is the way to make sure that from now on Japan's name is mud. ANNOUNCER: In Chicago, more than a million sing and dance in the streets in the biggest celebration the Windy City has ever seen. Joy is unconfined. And to the victors, the spoils. The pose may not be dignified, but the young lady is not upset. Far into the night, the happy crowd scream their relief at the end of the greatest war in history. From early Tuesday morning, the celebration went on for 24 hours.

New York never celebrated like this before, but never did they have a better reason.

Here at Nuremberg in the immediate aftermath of the end of the war the Allies instigated war crimes trials against the Nazis.

Attention, tribunal. But behind closed doors, they hadn't been easy to arrange. At a conference two years earlier Stalin had made his views clear about the type of justice

that should be meted out after the war. The British parliament and public will never tolerate mass executions. Even if in the passion of war they allowed them to begin, they would turn violently against those responsible after the first butchery had taken place. You must be under no delusion on this point. But it looked as if the Western Allies had got their way. Each case would be judged on its merits here at Nuremberg. The wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant and so devastating that civilisation cannot tolerate their being ignored. But Soviet justice was very different from American or British justice.

Just how different was shown at Nuremberg by the way the Soviets treated some of their so-called witnesses. Like Boris Bazilevsky. to the Soviet authorities. He was of vital importance Because of what had happened here in the forest of Katyn near Smolensk in Western Russia. In the spring of 1943 the Germans had uncovered mass graves, graves which contained the remains of thousands of Polish officers. The Germans claimed that these Poles had been murdered by the Soviets and they produced forensic evidence to prove it. The Soviets denied the charge, instead blaming the crime on the Germans. But it had indeed been Stalin who in March 1940 had signed the document that led to the murders.

And it had been members of the Soviet secret police

who had carried out the massacre. Which is why at Nuremberg Bazilevsky was so important for the Soviet authorities. He'd been deputy mayor in the region of Katyn at the time of the German occupation. At Nuremberg he was forced to lie about what had happened and implicate his boss, the local mayor Menshagin.

This was what he was told to say. For the benefit of the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal and the newsreel Bazilevsky now told his lies in court. The Germans had committed the murders and his boss, Menshagin, had told him all about it. And to corroborate this fantasy, the Soviets produced other so-called evidence,

Menshagin's diary. The diary was as much a piece of fiction as the testimony given in court. In fact, the diary had been faked by Soviet experts. And when the Soviets were asked where the real Menshagin was they said he'd escaped to the West with the Germans and couldn't be found. Which was another lie. The Soviet secret police knew exactly where Menshagin was. In one of their prisons. Because he wouldn't support the lies they wanted to tell at Nuremberg he had to be hidden away from public view.

The Soviet case at Nuremberg fell apart, the lies just too obvious. It made no difference to Menshagin, who spent 25 years languishing in jail. As the Nuremberg Trials continued a victory parade was held in London in 1946, organised by the Labour government of Clement Attlee.

ANNOUNCER: London gave a particular greeting to the forces of Greece in their colourful uniform. Still the list of names continues, the countries which were united in one cause. Here come the representatives of Iran... One important group was missing. The Polish soldiers who had fought on the British side weren't there. Attlee's government hadn't asked them because they didn't want to upset the new Communist-dominated rulers of Poland. Thousands of Poles had sacrificed their lives while serving in British forces. Their most famous battle was here in Italy at Monte Cassino. The Poles believed they were fighting so that their homeland would be free at the end of the war. Something about which Churchill had reassured them when he visited Polish forces in Italy in 1944. You must trust us. Great Britain entered this war in defence of the principle of your independence and I can assure you we will never desert you. But that wasn't how it seemed now to many of the Polish servicemen who found themselves in Britain at the end of the war. Zbigniew Wolak was so outraged by this confrontation

that he decided to go back to Poland along with other Polish soldiers who had fought with the British, even though the promised free elections in Poland after the war had never been held. And the Communist-dominated government distrusted anyone who had spent the war in the British army. The propaganda newsreel boasted that the Poles had returned to a better life. Zbigniew Wolak was taken to the headquarters of the secret police. He discovered first hand how accurate was the propaganda that said that the Poles who had fought in the British army were now welcome in this new Poland. The Poles who had returned after the war found themselves living in a police state. Stalin was determined that Poland would be friendly to the Soviet Union, and that friendliness would be enforced by whatever means necessary. From the Kremlin in Moscow, and much to the dismay of the Western Allies, the Soviets now controlled many of the governments of Eastern Europe. A dominance that was made clear to Boleslaw Bierut, the hard-line Communist President of Poland. He was anxious to know what had happened to a group of Polish Communists who had come to the Soviet Union in the 1930s and had disappeared. The missing Polish Communists had almost certainly been murdered. This is how Lavrenty Beria treated the Polish President's inquiry about them. And here in the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany Beria's secret police had also been at work. Even making use of this place, the Nazi concentration camp of Buchenwald, just outside the ancient German city of Weimar. It had been liberated in April 1945. This is footage of the few remaining prisoners. The world was shocked to discover this, another example of Nazi atrocity. What the world knew less about was what the Soviets did to the camp. They simply renamed it Soviet Special Camp No. 2.

and started using it themselves. Many of those they imprisoned here were former Nazi functionaries, but not all. John Noble and his father, both American citizens, were sent to Buchenwald by the Soviets after the war. They owned a camera factory in Dresden and the suspicion was that the Soviet authorities wanted them out of the way

so that they could take it for themselves. They said "Don't look for justice, don't ask for justice. "There is no justice. There is no justice here. "We won the war, we can do anything we want to do." An estimated 7000 people died here under the Soviet administration of the camp. Only in 1950 was it finally closed. Prisoners like John Noble were sent on to labour camps in the Soviet Union. Never charged with any offence and never put on trial. John Noble was not released until 1955. Everything around you was unjust, not only in the camp, around the camp, everywhere where there were Russians there was injustice, so it was just a matter of trying to survive to get this thing over with. And then as I came out immediately with the American authorities I said "I've got a lot to report." In the immediate post-war years America was the richest country in the world. And these Americans, who had been fed a diet of positive propaganda about Stalin during the war, a very different story. were now hearing As early as 1947, President Truman had announced that the spread of Communism must be stopped. We were going to resist any attempt by external aggression to control a country that was free and should remain free. There wasn't anything we could do to roll back the Iron Curtain. But we were darn certain it wasn't going to be extended. ANNOUNCER: The growing menace of Communism arouses the House of Representatives' Un-American Activities Committee. Among the well-informed... Just two years after the end of the war, this was the American rhetoric about their former ally. Communism in reality is not a political party. It is a way of life, an evil and malignant way of life. It reveals a condition akin to disease that spreads like an epidemic. This was the reality behind that rhetoric. By 1948, a mass of countries in Eastern Europe was controlled by Communist governments. The Cold War between the West and the Communist Bloc had been born. In Moscow that same year, 1948, Stalin was acting true to form. Now he would harm the man who had been at his side during the whole war. Vyacheslav Molotov. Stalin decided to punish Molotov's wife Polina whom he had long distrusted. Molotov had been the most loyal of Stalin's followers. Throughout the war and before he had done whatever was required of him. Molotov knew that to vote his wife Polina out of the Party Now, at this meeting on December the 29th, 1948, he had to make one of the most important decisions of his life. Would he sign and condemn his wife himself? Or would he not? Molotov abstained. after the Politburo meeting. Polina was arrested less than a month Molotov had been brooding on his decision to abstain in the vote about his wife, and the day before she was arrested he sat down to write a note to Stalin about it. Stalin sacked Molotov as Foreign Minister two months later, but Molotov carried on serving the Soviet leader loyally in the Politburo while his wife suffered in exile. Stalin now decided to punish the leadership of an entire city, Leningrad, today St Petersburg. During the war, the city had been under siege and more than a million people had died. But this isolation had also brought the wartime leaders of the city, like Alexei Kuznetsov, a kind of freedom. Leningrad was finally liberated in January 1944. And Alexei Kuznetsov was recognised as one of the brightest in a new generation of Communist leaders which meant, as far as Stalin was concerned, that he was dangerous. Stalin brought Kuznetsov to work in Moscow after the war. Then one day in the summer of 1949, he was summoned to the Kremlin. Kuznetsov was tortured and then shot. Stalin had never forgotten the sense of initiative and independence that had developed in Leningrad during the war. And he now moved against much of the remaining leadership of the city. Against the background of his 70th birthday celebrations, Stalin had 2000 officials in Leningrad removed from office and either imprisoned or exiled.

Stalin was thought to be plotting another purge against others who had worked closely with him during the war. Including Lavrenty Beria. Stalin had proved to be the great survivor. By now he had been in power longer than Churchill, the longest-serving president in American history. Joseph Stalin died on the 5th of March 1953. He had lain paralysed by a stroke in his room for nearly 24 hours,

his bodyguards too frightened to disturb him. By the time of his death, with the development of the Soviet nuclear bomb,

his empire in Eastern Europe seemed secure. It wasn't until the 1980s that the world Stalin helped create finally fell apart. Some of the first cracks in the Communist Bloc appeared, appropriately enough, here in Poland, the very country whose freedom Britain had gone to war to protect. We drew the sword for Poland against Hitler's brutal attack.

Never could we be content with any solution that would not leave Poland a free and independent state.

But it took 44 years for the countries in Eastern Europe dominated by the Soviet Union to gain their freedom. Their eventual independence, symbolised by the fall of the Berlin Wall. In a sense, for these people the Second World War did not end in 1945, but here in 1989.

Captions (c) SBS Australia 2009

This program is captioned live.

With this ring, I thee wed. Just

married, Prince William and Kate

tie the knot. What a dress - London

and the world turns out for a right

royal spectacular. Aslyum centre -

the Timor solution turns into the

Timor problem. And tornado terror -

more than 300 killed in the US.

Good evening. Richard Goncalves

with SBS World News Australia. It's

been called the wedding of the

century, and tonight it lived up to

its billing. As the world watched

on, Prince William and Catherine

Middleton were pronounced man and

wife by the Archbishop of

Canterbury. A packed congregation

at Westminster Abbey and countless

numbers round the world watched

transfixed as the second in line to

the throne and his bride tied the

knot. The our reporter is alongside

the Abbey. What a day it has been.