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(generated from captions) is woefully inadequate. It's been woefully inadequate for

quite some time. We made it

less inadequate. When we were

in government, John Howard in

particular had a very deep

compassion for helping people

with disabilities and were caring for disabled

children. He was deeply passionate about that. Clearly

more needs to be done. And we

will do it. We foif got the will do it. We

report. We're looking at it.

We're approaching it with an

open mind and we will be - as

the policy debate evolves, we

will be approaching it generously and compassionately

as I hope the government is

too. Almost a first bipartisanship we've seen on this panel but we have time for

one more question. It comes from is to Malcolm Turnbull. In a

few years I will be eligible to

vote and I want to support a

party that can manage economic

affairs of our nation while

conscience. At the moment I having a true social

don't think the latter evident

in your party's conduct. When

will your party truly demonstrate social policies that young people can support?

(Applause) Zac, you should

vote for our side of politics. (Laughter) Because

we have demonstrated we're

better financial managers than

Labor, that's pretty clear. But

fundamentally, deep down, when

you strip away you strip away the debate about

this policy and that Zac we

believe that government's role

is to stable you to do your

best, right? Labor's view is

that government is there to

tell you what is best. And

that's the fundamental

difference. from Samah first. Unfortunately (Applause) I want to hear

what we've heard tonight is

from Malcolm Turnbull I'm not

actually sure. In regards to

climate change, what is it that

you're going to do? Because

this is a serious issue for young people. And young

Australians. So I'd really like

to know what you're offering

... We don't have time for

internal interviews. But if you

want to respond to what the

young man is asking, in fact,

what did you think about the

answer you heard from Malcolm Turnbull, did it satisfy you?

Yes. It did? (Laughter)

(Applause)

Gretel? It's a good

question, Zac, because I think

many of us during this time many of us during this

have looked at the leaders of

both parties and wondered how

good they really are. And my

question I guess during this

time was in any conflict,

whether it's carbon taxed or whatever,

it whatever, you want to know what

it is you're trying to aheave.

What's your goal? And I'm just

wondering if both of the the

parties feel in this week if

you've been setting out to

achieve. I will go with Zac's

question first. But Zac, how

old are you now? 14. 14. My concern is that concern is that with the

Liberal Party, by the time

you're 18, if they still are

able to stymie climate change

we'll still be arguing about

it. We want to get on with

climate change. For yourself,

whoever you vote for, I'm sure

you will be right for what you need. In terms of Julia

Gillard, we think that the best

thing we can do for young

people growing up is give them

a good education and work on

that. That's

stand. Piers Akerman? Zac, I

would say you've seen what this

government has done in terms of

wasting money on the school buildings, in terms insulation, and everything buildings, in terms of

else. (Applause) Take

Malcolm's advice and think what you can do for yourself and

help your country that way. I'm

afraid that is all we have time for. Please thank Piers Akerman, Samah Turnbull, Bill Shorten and Akerman, Samah Hadid, Malcolm

Gretel Next Monday, Q & A falls on the eve of the 100th

International Women's Day. We

will be joined by Australia's most powerful businesswoman,

Westpac CEO Gail Kelly, the Minister for the Status of

Women, Kate Ellis, the shadow

Treasurer, Hockeyroos hork, the 'Australian's Janet 'Australian's Janet Albrechsen and journal yifrt and

commentator Mike Carlton. We'll

see you again next week. Goodnight. Closed Captions by CSI

Tonight, axing the tax. If

the Coalition wins the next

election, you can be absolutely

confident that there will be no

mining tax and no carbon tax.

The most reckless political

position taken by a national

leader in 15 years. Mr Speaker,

account for that every minute we will be

of every hour of every day of

every year. every week of every month of

This Program Is Live.

Good evening. Welcome to

Lateline. I'm Ali Moore. There's plenty of

glamour as Hollywood celebrates

the Academy Awards but one film

that was up for best

documentary couldn't be more

raw or violent. It's fly-on-the-wall real-life

account of the war in

Afghanistan from the perspective of a single American platoon stationed at American

in one of the most remote outposts

in the country. If you want to

study how men endure and react to combat, Korengal Valley a pretty good place for it. to combat, Korengal Valley was

They were in fire-fights, a fifth of all the

combat in all of Afghanistan at

that time was being absorbed by

the 150 men of Battle

Company. Writer and documentary-maker Sebastian

Junger later in the program.

First - losing his grip,

Colonel Gadafi's iron-fisted

rule of Libya is slowly but

surely being eroded as

Opposition forces continue to

win over more and more of the

country. And grazing war, the

Government lock horns over Federal and Victorian

reintroduction of cattle into a

National Park. Having announced

plans for a carbon tax, Julia

Gillard's now trying to sell

it. Today she's been in SA unveiling a new fuel efficient

Holden, underlining her message

about how a higher carbon price

will encourage new Australian

ideas on energy use. Our political correspondent Tom

Iggulden has more. Labor

leaders love a car launch going

back to Ben Chifley in 1948 and today it was Julia Gillard's new Cruze model, Australia's

only locally made small car,

was made possible by a generous Federal

Federal Government Federal Government assistance. She told workers she was

following the vision of one' Labor's iconic Prime

Ministers. In 1948, Chifley

wasn't just launching a car. He

was building a nation, taking

Australia into a future beyond

wool and wheat. Today, we build

the nation with new tools the NBN and a price on carbon. Not surprisingly, Tony

Abbott's got a different interpretation of Prime Minister Chifley's contribution. Ben Chifley

loved petrol rationing and this Prime Minister loves the carbon

tax. Ben Chifley wanted to stop people driving their cars and this Prime Minister wants it to

be more expensive for people to

drive their cars. Petrol

rationing and bank nationalisation cost Ben Chifley carbon tax and the mining tax

and all the other taxes that this Prime Minister want to

impose will cost her the next election. And the Opposition

Leader again launched a line voters can

voters can be sure they'll be

hearing a lot more of. I ask

the Prime Minister, given that

the carbon tax lie she told

before the election, how can

Australians ever again trust

this Prime Minister? And to say this, if he wants to have a

debate about political honesty,

well, bring it on. Bring it

on. This issue has degraded itself itself down to whether the

Prime Minister told a lie or

not. The substantive issue is

much bigger than that. Tony Abbott now

Abbott now says he'll scrap a

carbon tax if elected Prime

Minister but Tony Windsor says during negotiations with him

following the last election,

the Opposition Leader wasn't as

rigid in his approach. One of

the things I can say that Tony Abbott did discussions was that he would

do anything to gain power,

anything. So I presume that

that would mean if the demands

were made in terms of climate change

change or anything else that it would have been on the table.

And he may have to show more of

that flexibility when shadow Cabinet comes to deciding

whether or not to support the

Government's ultimate move to a carbon emission trading system. Former leader Malcolm Turnbull says he hasn't changed his

support for a carbon ETS since the issue cost him the top job

by one vote. It's always open

to any member of the shadow

Cabinet if they can't live with

the collective decision to resign

resign and that of course is

what Tony Abbott did to me. He

resign ed over the issue and

challenged me for the leadership.

leadership. That's not to say

he supports the Government's

current carbon proposal which

he says would cause extreme economic damage. Amid the political mudslinging it's

important to note we're a long

way off from knowing how the

carbon tax would actually work, Scheme that could be years off.

Still, the Greens are signalling they'd like to see petrol

petrol taxed in any

scheme but Tony Windsor is

threatening to block any

legislation that taxes fuel.

The reason I think that

everybody has got a bike track

to ride to work on but they

haven't in regional Australia

and they haven't got public

transport. We're not insisting

on anything because we're into

a spirit of finding the outcome for Australia using the

committee system. A national

insurance scheme could be set

up to cover the care of

Australians with a

The idea is in a draft report from from the Productivity Commission on how Commission on how to care with

the 760,000 Australians with a

severe or profound disability. The disability system is

underfunded, fragmented, unfair

and inefficient. The new

insurance fund would be no-fault scheme covering needs like help with bathing and

meals as well as disability

aids. It would cost an extra $6.3 billion on top of what State and Federal Governments

already provide. We do

understand that big reform like

this will take time. We do

believe that this will also,

like Medicare, be a transformational system in the

way people with durbs not only

get support but - disabilities

not only get entitled to support. The

Productivity Commission is also

suggesting a second smaller

scheme to cover catastrophic injuries from Foreign Ministers are

assembling in Geneva to develop a response to the growing

humanitarian crisis in Libya.

Tens of thousands of people

have fled the country, crowding

the borders of Tunisia and

Egypt. Inside Libya, Colonel

Gadafi is good becoming increasingly isolated, with anti-Government taking control of a town just

50km from the capital, Tripoli.

There are reports a military

aircraft has been shot down

that was firing on demonstrators. Colonel Gadafi

remains in power and remains

defiant but the net keeps

tightening. Here, anti-Gaddafi

demonstrators celebrate taking

control of Zawiya just 50km

from the capital, Tripoli. All of Zawiya

people do not want

Gaddafi. Zawiya is just the

latest town to fall to the

protesters but it's significant

because it's in the west of the country, up to now a Gaddafi stronghold. On Sunday, a

faltering regime took foreign

journalists into Zawiya,

claiming to show the country's

calm and force is not being

used against protesters. The

point that you are hearing

rumours, please take your

camera tomorrow morning, everything is calm, everything

is peaceful. The point there is

a big, big gap between reality

and the media reports. But

Zawiya is ringed Zawiya is ringed by pro Gaddafi

militia with tanks and

anti-aircraft guns and there

are fears of a brutal response

from them ordered by Colonel

Gadafi. A few kilometres closer

to Tripoli, Gaddafi supporters

put on a show of strength in

the location and the final push

for the Opposition and it's an Opposition which is starting to

take some form. Libya's former

Justice Minister has been

appointed head of a provisional

Government in the parts of country no longer controlled by

Colonel Gadafi.

TRANSLATION: What is happening

in Libya is a popular

revolution led by the youth,

supported by the people against

oppression and against a

dictator who has led Libya with

a singular point of view and

with a vengeful attitude and blood-thirsty announce to the world that we

intend to build a Democratic

nation with institutions that respect international obligations and treaties. Mr

Abdul is frustrated by the lack

of support for the protesters

by other count raise and he's

called for the international

community to enforce a no-fly

zone over Libya to prevent mercenaries being flown into

the country. The death toll of

the past

estimated by diplomats to be

around 2000 and tens of

thousands of people have also

fled the country to escape the

violence. The vast majority of

them are Egyptians but there

are among them Bangladeshis,

Vietnamese and Chinese workers too. The United Nations High

Commissioner for refugees has

now expressed concern about the

mounting humanitarian crisis on

this Libya-Tunisia border. In

the past days the tide of

fleeing foreign worker hassic

celerated, now around 10,000 a

day are streaming across the frenteer but some Westerners

found escape from Libya nearly

as harrowing. Among them was

50-year-old Australian Brian Walker who was working in the

south of the country. We

started walking out Monday

night so it's Sunday night, one

week. It hasn't been a good

week. They were fired on by

bandits before weeing rescued

by the British royal scpafrs

flown to Malta. In the back of a

a dump truck for a couple of

days. 1,000km in a back to where we started from

in the bus. Then the RAF got us out tonight. It was

great. Libya is being quickly

emptied of those who kept its

economy running. The Federal

and Victorian Governments are

about to lock horns over the

reintroduction of cattle into

the Alpine National Park six years after the animals were

banned. The State Government

says cows are being used in a

trial from January to April each year for six years to see if grazing helps reduce fuel

for bushfires. A study already

being labelled a sham by its critics. The Federal

Environment Minister told

Lateline he's written to the Victoria demanding to see the science behind the science behind the trial within two weeks. Hamish Fitzsimmons reports from Victoria's reports from Victoria's high

country.The image of the

mountain cattleman has long

been celebrated in film, verse and

Victoria's high country a post-card setting. Now the serenity has been shattered

over the reintroduction of cattle to the Alpine National

Park. There's so much

Park. There's so much grazing

there, mate. If there's a there, mate. If there's a fire

it's going to burn pretty hot

so we've got to get it chewed

out and reduce the fuel that's

in there, yeah. In 2005, the

State Labor Government put an

end to over 100 years

Park. A policy reversed in mid

January when 400 head of cattle

was moved into the park for a

6-year trial to determine if grazing reduces the fuel

available for bushfires. This trial's about understanding how

we can use cattle grazing as a bushfire

bushfire mitigation tool. We

have a legislative obligation

to ensure our parks are

protected from fire and we're

seeing whether we can use

cattle grazing to do that. The

move has incenseded the Federal Environment Minister written to the Victorian Government demanding an explanation within two weeks. I don't know of situations I don't know of situations

where people go and visit our

beautiful National Parks around

Australia and say, "It's pretty

good. All it needs is some

cattle." Studies have been done

for many years and so far every

study that's been done says

that in a situation like this

cattle do not reduce the risk

of bushfire. It's shaping as a

major battle, with the Federal Government whether the Victorians have whether the Victorians have

breached environmental laws but

the new Government of Ted

Baillieu says it has every

right to conduct the trial. We

don't see any reasons don't see any reasons why they

would hop the trial. We've had

no opinion from the Federal

Government as to whether it's illegal. Australia's been having an argument internationally with Japan for

a long time now about a long time now about so-called scientific whaling. I never

thought we'd be in a situation

where we were dealing with a

State Government about

so-called scientific The bizarre thing about this

science project is there is no

scientist that's owned up to

the design of the first year of

this research. It's been brought in as a political

imperative to get cattle back

into the previous cattle

grazing licence areas, a sham

for science. Today the sole

Greens representative in the

House of Representatives tabled

a claim to halt the grazing.

The interference of the Federal

Government should be rejected for what they are, excuses and hypocrisy. The Victorian State Government's return of cattle

grazing to the Alpine National

Park is an act of environmental vandalism and this

end to it. But those who work

on the land take umbrage at the

accusations of vandalism. We

are probably the ultimate conservationist and we dislike

seeing unnecessary destruction

when there's obviously ways around it. Many high country

graziers feel no lessons have been learnt from the Royal

Commission into Victoria's

catastrophic bushfires in 2009.

They say grazing can lessen the

severity of fires by reducing

the amount of ground fuel

between controlled burns. With

the Royal Commission coming out and saying

and saying that we needed to

increase the amount of fuel

reduction burns markedly, well,

it's going to be a long time between doing it then going around again. Well,

grazing can extend the period

of time between burns. The bushfire Royal Commission made 10 recommendations for priorities of research. This was not one. Ken Heywood's family has been farming near

Merrijig since the 18 70s and

he's had cattle in the he's had cattle in the high

country for 40 years. He's one

of six farmers taking part in

the trial which he believes

will prove grazing does help prevent severe prevent severe bushfires. At

last, we might get some answers

or prove to the doubters this does work. We've been

saying it for years. We know it

works but we've got to prove it

to the doubters. Opponents of the grazing trials say this

wetland is one of the areas

most under threat from cattle.

They say in just over a month,

cows have already done significant damage to an area

that contains protected flora and fauna but graziers say cows

are now being blamed for the

damage done by feral animals.

Some of our critics have taken

photos of deer wallows. Deer

wallow in muddy water. wallow in muddy water. People

see that and thing cattle.

Bruce McCormack's family have

also been high country graziers

since the 18 70s. He rode in both 'The Man from Snowy River'

films and is sad to see a

celebrated way of life come under under attack. We are part of history, I think, being

involved in something like that

up there for that long. It's

just frustrating and hard to

believe that they just want to get rid of you. Hamish

Fitzsimmons, Lateline.

It's been a right royal year for 'The King's Speech' after

winning a string of awards the

Anglo-Australian production has carried off

Oscar for best film. Australian

actors missed out this year but

it wasn't all bad news for

local talent. Three Australians

picked up Oscars for their picked up Oscars for their work behind the camera. Ann-Maree

Nicholson reports. The story of the stuttering monarch George

VI beat eight other nominees

for best film. Australian producers were behind 'The

King's Speech'. To have been

part of a film that's touched

and moved people so much around

the world has been a huge

privilege. The film scooped four

four Oscars including best

have a feeling my career's just peaked. (LAUGHTER) Natalie

Portman also did the Oscar pirouette, winning best actress

for her portrayal of a dancer

in 'Black Swan'. I am so

grateful to get to do the job

that I do. I love it so

much. She beat a strong field

including Nicole Kidman who was

nominated for 'Rabbit Hole'. Australians behind the camaru

excelled. Author film-maker Shaun Tan's movie

'The Lost Thing' won the Oscar

for best short animated film.

This is quite surreal. Our film is about a creature is about a creature that nobody pays any attention to so this

is wonderfully ironic. Rocky

Elsom's make-up in 'The

Wolfman' carried him across the

line. Crikey. And Kirk Baxter

picked up the best editing gong

for 'The Social Network'. To

my daughter, Bronte, find something and great things can happen. Australian actors might

have lost out but not before

making a red carpet splash. Back home in Australia they

seem to be all rooting for me which is really nice. Jackie

Weaver was passed over for the

best supporting actress in 'Animal Kingdom' in fave of

Melissa Leo in 'The Fighter'.

It was Leo's first Oscar and

she also broke new ground with

her acceptance speech. When I

watched Cate two years ago it looked so (bleep) easy. Oops. Geoffrey Rush playing the

speech therapist in 'The King's Speech' wos trounced by

Christian Bale in 'The Fighter'

for best supporting actor. The

83rd Academy Awards showcased

Hollywood's best but by night's

end an Anglo-Australian movie

snuck in and took home the big prize. Why are you here? Because I bloody well stammer!

Do you know any jokes? Timing isn't my isn't my strong suit. Our

guest tonight was himself

nominated for an Oscar for his

documentary, 'Restrepo', a

story of a military platoon stationed in Afghanistan's Korengal Valley which has seen

some of some of the Afghan conflict's most intense a

fighting. He is author of 'The

Perfect Storm' and forces in Afghanistan. In a

lead-up to the glitz and

glamour of the Academy Awards, Sebastian Junger joined us from

LA. Sebastian Junger, thank you

so much? Joining Lateline. My

pleasure. Why this war and

this valley which you describe

as a small but extraordinarily

violent slit in the foothills

of the Hindu cush, too remote

to conquer, too poor to intimidate, too autonomous to

buy off? I have Afghanistan since the mid 90s and this is really a

continuation of 15 years of

focussing on that country.

Usually I have been with Usually I have been with the Afghan population, obviously during the during the civil war in the

'90s I was with them, and in

this case - for this project I wanted to know what it was like

to be a soldier in the US military, fighting in this

very, very rugged terrain. I

wanted to understand the

emotional consequences of combat

are fighting it. It was all men

in the Korengal Valley by the

way. I had a connection to

battle company of the 1 73rd. I

had been with them had been with them in 2005 and

when they went back to Afghanistan they just happened to be in the Korengal Valley and so that's how I wound up

there. I wanted to follow one

platoon, 30 men, for an entire

deployment. We wound up in a

remote hill top outpost

position called 'Restrepo' and

that's where I spent much of

deployment in 07/08. In some deployment in 07/08. In some

ways was that fortuitous

because it seems everything that happened in the Korengal

Valley was a micro cosm of what happened elsewhere.

Absolutely. If you want to

study how men react - endure

and react to combat, the

Korengal Valley was a pretty

good place for it. They were in

over 400 fire fight, a fifth of

all the combat in all the combat in all of

Afghanistan at that time was

being absorbed by the 150 men

of Battle

second platoon who were in a

very remote outpost which is

where I was with second platoon

most of that year. It was of perfect for my purposes

although it had its risks and hardships. I remember looking outlet the little bubble

windows on the side like this

because I was right next to the

window and I could see when the Chinook

Chinook had made a hard right

turn into the valley. I was

like, "Holy shit. We're not ready for this." I remember

thinking, "Holy shit, did

everybody from the entire

country come to this valley?"

Is nobody else fighting any more? Is every bad got to be

in my face? You very deliberately set out not to

discuss the politics of this war. There are war. There are no interviews

with generals, there are no

diplomats, there are no

commentators. You talk

about.ing to bear witness?

That's right. I mean, the idea was to make a movie that would

allow viewers to have the

experience of being in combat

and being in a remote outpost

and with documentary film, as

soon as you cut away to an

interview with a general in an

arm chair or what have you,

your not in that reality

anymore. The soldiers can't ask

generals questions like that,

they can't go home and visit

their families. We wanted things the soldiers had access

to. The soldiers don't talk

about the politics of the war

they're fighting. It is a volunteer volunteer army not a draft

army. In Vietnam, if you were

drafted and wound up at an

outpost in Vietnam you may talk

about the decisions that put

you there but the soldiers in

this war all volunteered so the

fact they're there is not controversial much as we can tell them about

the positives, it seemed the positives, it seemed like

it didn't go anywhere. We took

one step forward, seemed like

they took two steps

backboards. The three chapters

of your book are titled of your book are titled Fear,

Killing and Love. Take us back to the Korengal Valley. Why

Love? Well, I wanted to

describe the three primary emotional experiences of

combat. There's fear combat. There's fear obviously and everyone out there learned to

in some ways sort of deny it,

deny its power. Myself

included. I had to deal with a

huge amount of fear as a

journalist, as a civilian. My

biggest anxiety was that I

would somehow fail in some way

physically or psychologically and compromise the group.

Killing is a very complicated

thing for people to do. Morally complicated, emotionally

complicated and, you know,

finally what I meant by Love the bond within the platoon. As

one of the guys said to me,

there's guys in the platoon who

straight-up hate each other but

we would all die for each

other. That kind of commitment is a very profound is a very profound form of love and it's that concern for

everyone else in the group that

allows these young men to

overcome their fear and to

overcome their moral confusion

about being asked to kill other

people. You talk about discipline? Yes t was very

interesting. In a situation

like that, it was a 20-man

outpost on a hilltop and there was one day the outpost was attacked 13 times so in a

situation like that very, very

small things can lead to

disastrous consequence those if

you don't clean your rifle or you don't tie your shoelaces

correctly and your shoes come

untied ed and you trip at a

crucial moment or dehydrate three miles from the

outpost and have to have an I

V/Line stuck in your vein and

the patrol has to stop for a

while, all those tiny can have grave consequences for

everyone else so the watchdog

of one's behaviour was not -

were not senior officers,

wasn't the lieutenant, wasn't

even the platoon sergeant

really t was your buddies. I'm

speaking as if I was a soldier, if you didn't clean your rifle

you didn't get yelled at by the lieutenant, you got yelled at

by the guy in the next bunk

over. So the discipline

really lateral, it was peer

enforced and because of that it

was extremely effective. There

was nothing to sort of rebel

against because there's no

authority to rebel against. It was your peers you were letting

down if you didn't behave

properly. I guess it's more than discipline, prarpts of

that bond that what happens to you in combat happens to everybody else? That's right. There's no such thing as

personal safety. If you're

careless with yourself you were

compromising everyone else.

There was one guy who got very

despondent and depress ed

after one of his best friends was killed and

was killed and on patrol and in

fire fights he would act very

carelessly and said he was

almost tried to get himself

killed and someone said, "Hey,

you get shot and other men are

going to have to run through

whether you're wounded or dead.

They're going to have to drag

you - they're going to have to

expose themselves to gunfire

and drag you behind cover and you're going to get someone

else killed so knock it off,"

and he did. That finally kind

of made sense to him. Get

down. What's going on? Chig

out, dude. Chill the fuck out.

Oh, my God. Shut up! It be extraordinarily difficult to

put that emotion in a box put that emotion in a box to

untie later? Absolutely.

That's right. That particular

guy, his name was Cortez, after

the deployment he said he was

on many different kinds of

sleeping pills because he was

so fraught with nightmares.

Every night he had these terrible nightmares about trying to save his friend who

was killed, trying to run up this his life and in reality he

didn't get up the hill fast

enough and every night in his

dreams he was back running up

the hillside trying to get

there in time. He was tormented

by that situation but interestingly he chose to stay

in the army. He didn't get out.

He cheese chOez to stay in the

arm scpe did another deployment. I can't even

sleep. I have been on four or five different types of

sleeping pills some none of

them help. That's how bad nightmares are. I prefer not to

sleep. To see the picture in my

head is pretty bad. You write

in your book, indeed at the

very end, that maybe the

ultimate wound is the

makes you miss the war you got

it in. Yeah, it was a really

interesting phenomenon. These guys wept guys wept through hell. They

were on this remote outpost, no running water, they couldn't

bathe for a month at a time.

They had a huge casualty rate

there, because no phone, no

Internet, no connection with

the outside world. They slept on the ground for the first few

months, no electricity. It was

brutal out there and a lot of

combat and they came back and

they missed it. That confused them. They missed it.

They didn't want to be in

Italy, they wanted to go back.

They missed combat. Part of them wanted to be back at

'Restrepo' and that was very

confusing to them and it's

something that these young men

really struggle with and that

society, I think, is very

loathe to sort of to accept. Combat is so obviously such an awful thing,

it's almost politically

incorrect to try to understand

why a young man might miss it. Big fire-fight. Big. Fucking packing up rounds. That's fun

though. That's fun. You can't

get a better high. It's like

crack, you know. Does it go

back to the lateral discipline

that you talk of that when you've been working in a unit

with that sort of bond, what

hatch whns you go home and that

bond - what happens when you go

home and that bond's not there?

That's exactly right. What

they miss in society isn't -

it's easy to pathologise the missing combat, they're

adrenalin junkies, addicted

adrenalin junkies, addicted to combat. I

combat. I think there is an

adrenalin component to it. The

mortality statistics for men are monstrous compared to

young women or older men so

adrenalin is part of it but I

think what they miss is the

brotherhood and absolute commitment

you're 19, 20 years old and

you're in a unit like that and

you have a clear sense of

purpose about what your job is

and what your responsibilities

are and you're very respected

by your peers for carrying

those responsibilities out

successfully and then you go

back to society and you're just another 20-year-old walking

down the street trying to get a

job, you don't know what your purpose is know - you're not particularly

respected by society, that's a

very hard transition and they

miss that certainty, that sense of completeness and inclusion

that they had at a place like

'Restrepo' and so they stay in 'Restrepo' and so they stay in

the parmy. What do the men make of your documentary in the

end? They loved it. The first

screening we did was for the

men of Second Platoon. We brought them to New York with their wives and showed them a rough cut. Why

did they love it? They loved

the fact that it was

nonpartisan and that it showed

their reality. They loved

fact that we did want interview

generals, that we really - we

didn't interview generals, that weal really allowed viewers to

watch a movie and understand

what it's like to be in combat,

to engage emotionally in what

it fields like. Tim and I

started getting emails and conversations with people,

soldiers from other platoons,

other units, other years in the

war who said, "You did de. This

is it. This is what war is

like." Even Vietnam Vets

veterans of the war in Korea in

the '50s would approach Tim and

myself and say, "That's what it

was like. Thank you so much for

making a movie like this." By

the very nature of what you

were showing, were you making

an anti-war documentary? That

is such a complicated issue. When is

go to war and when is it not?

We all know that war causes an

enormous amount of enormous amount of suffering

and on that level, any

realistic movie about war by

default is an anti-war

statement but I have been covering Afghanistan since the

mid '90s. My primary concern as

a journalist is human

suffering. That's what drives

my work and most of the foreign press corps that I know, and

mattes where it gets

complicated - that's where it

gets complicated. The chaos in

Afghanistan of the early '90s, the civil war, the the civil war, the bloodshed there killed 400,000 Afghan

civilians. That era ended on

9/11 when the US and NATO

forces entered Afghanistan and

more or less stabilised it and

in had decade since NATO's been in Afghanistan, 30,000 Afghan civilians have two-thirds from Taliban

attacks. We've gone from 400,000 to 30,000. This the

lowest level of civilian

casualties in 30 years

Afghanistan so on one level I

think you could say our film is

sort of a statement about the

horrors of war. On another

level, if you broaden the

picture a little bit, it's very, very hard for anyone

concerned with the welfare of

the Afghan people to say we

must pull out now because it

certainly will go back to the

level of vile '90s which would

be a - violence of the '90s which would be a tragedy for that

that country. It's very complicated. We did our job

and we're out of

here. Sebastian Junger, many

thanks for talking to

Lateline. Thank you very much.

I appreciate it.

has outlined a $120 million

package to help keep businesses running in quake-ravaged

Christchurch. It comes on the same day same day one of the youngest

victims was laid to rest. New

Zealand correspondent Dominique

Schwartz reports from Christchurch. No coffin should ever be this small. Baxter

Garland was only five months

old. He was born in the days

after the September quake, only to lose his life in the one

that followed. But amid the

death and tragedy of disast there are increasingly

signs of life. Business is signs of life. Business is as usual today. Just get back up

and running. Got to move on. After on. After a massive clean-up... What did it look

like? A box of licorice all-sorts. ..some businesses

are up and running. Since

opening its doors this morning,

this hardware store has been

doing a steady trade. The most

popular items? Solar showers,

cleaning agents and face masks. In a In a bid to keep the local economy from collapse, yawn Key

is offering up to $500 a week

wage support for people in work

and up to $400 a week for those

who've lost their job. There

would be around 42,000 people

caught by the package and we

would be looking at a cost of

around $100 million to $120

million. After the last

earthquake, only small business

qualifieded. This time it

might be easier to consider

which businesses are eligible rather than which ones are. The Government package today will be the first stage

of many, I hope. Like many

other businesses, the peak

employers' group has had to relocate to the boss's kitchen.

The Prime Minister estimates

the overall earthquake damage

will will be $20 billion but

Peter Townsend says more. 30

billion dollaricise about my assessment at this stage. We consider ourselves lucky. We're

well, family's well, got jobs...some don't. In this

silty, luck whole new meaning. Dominique

Schwartz, Lateline. Now to the

weather. A shower or two for

Melbourne, Sydney and Canberra, showers and a possible storm in

Darwin. Windy with showers and

mountain snow for Hobart.

Mostly fine in Brisbane,

Adelaide and Perth. That's all

from us. If you'd like to look back at tonight's interview

with Sebastian Junger or review

any Lateline stories or transcripts you can visit or

website and you can also follow us on twitter or Facebook. I'll

see you again tomorrow.

Goodnight. Closed Captions by CSI This Program Is Captioned

Live.

Good evening. Welcome Lateline Business, I'm Ticky

Fullerton. Tonight we talk to Edward DeSeve President Obama's special adviser on economic recovery. Corporate profits

breed employment and economic

expansion. And we're delighted

to see them, but we all have to

be careful that those kinds of

shocks like the oil shock are

anticipated and dealt with. Also on Also on the program, QR National's maiden results show

a healthy profit but the impact

of the Queensland floods are

still to come. We have 2,300

kilometres of track in

Queensland, which we own. In

one way or another, every

kilometre was impacted. And

Woolies weighs in to the milk

wars behind the farmers.

Genuine concern or just an

opportunity to have a pop at Coles? We think this rapid reduction in prices coming

after the floods was a bit stunt designed to create noise,

and it wasn't fully and it wasn't fully thought

through. To the markets, where gains

gains for energy stocks and

miners were cancelled out by

falls for banks and insurers.

QR National has posted its

first half year result since

being listed as a public company last November. Profits

came in at a solid $278 million

after tax. The picture may not

look quite so rosy by the end of the year, though. Queensland's floods and Queensland's floods and cyclone

Yasi barely impacted on these figures. figures. The company is warning

the full force will be felt in

the second half and downgraded

its earnings forecast. When QR

National was floated last year, some analysts thought it was

overpriced. But today they were pleasantly surprised with a solid half-year profit. I think

today's results certainly give credence to the fact that it

was actually a very good float.

the company posted a half-year

net profit of almost $278 million, significantly better

than the same time the previous year. I think

everyone a bit by surprise. I

think it was a very pleasant

surprise. Judging by the price

of the stock after the announcement, it's up around

record levels now. But it was

mother nature that caught QR

National by surprise with theed

into and cyclone Yasi leading to a

to a loss in earnings of $7

million from the freight

business. We have 2,300 kilometres of track in

Queensland, which we own. In

one way or another, every kilometre was impacted. kilometre was impacted. The

company also faces a $4 million bill to fix the network but

Chief Executive Lance hock

ridge says it's a small figure in the scheme of things. This

entire network is built to

withstand that kind of

condition. It's all built to a

1 in 100 year flood standard.

All of it was back fully in

operation within a matter of

days. The Queensland floods have caused QR National to

downgrade its forecasts downgrade its forecasts after a reduction in coal haulage volumes by 25 million tonnes

this financial year. And the company expects

company expects full-year

profits to reach between 380

and 410 million dollars, down

from previous forecasts of

almost $430 million. Despite

the bad weather CEO Lance hock

ridge says it's been a seamless

Tran cities to a public

company, enabling them to move

away from inflexible legacy contracts to more commercially

viable lucrative ones, such as

the $600 million contract to service the Gillenbah mine. The difference from our

company's point of is that from

those very low single digit

returns, we are seeking and

achieving mid to high-teen returns of returns of these new

contracts. He's also hoping to

streamline the work force, with

up to 3,500 employees offered voluntary redundancies from

this Friday. This is very much

about bringing foward the

opportunity to be able to

reform the business, to drive

productivity, efficiency and of course the cost base in the

business, for better business, for better returns

for the new owners. The ear big uncertainty is the Federal Government's plan to set a

carbon price which is due to be

debated in Parliament debated in Parliament this week. In 2010, for example, we

were able to hold steady our

carbon emissions despite the

increase in tonnage through-put

in the company. This is as a

result of a wide range of

efficiency measures in our company. And QR National says

it will be resilient to any

changes in carbon policy. shifted in the milk war between

the supermarket giants.

Woolworths has joined dairy

farmers in accusing Coles of driving

driving prices to unsustainable

levels which threaten the industry. But Coles says it's the middle men, the milk

processors who are to blame. Australia's supermarket chains

are not known for their

benevolence, so consumers are

takeing what they can get. Any bit of saving in this economy

hems. My kids drink of lot

of milk. It's just cheaper for

the amount we consume. Although some are looking price tag. Certainly the dairy

industry is. A dollar a litre

was 20 years ago. To be able to

say that costs haven't gone up

to a point where it's able to

rereturn to those levels it's

ludicrous. Farmers claim it

will destroy the industry. They say branded milk is

realistically priced but it

will eventually be wiped out by cheap brands, leaving supermarkets far more pricing

power in the future. Coles says

the prices are sustainable, the middle men who process the