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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) we uncover a hidden cave... Along the way, a world-beating mussel industry of ghostly figures. and a surreal landscape Captions (c) SBS Australia 2010

Coming up - plumes of toxic smoke

continue to billow over Canberra

after a massive factory fire.

The Health Union pulls the pin on

its alliance with Labor, as the PM

announces a party revamp. The

former Libyan rebels struggle for

one of Gaddafi's last strongholds.

And the stepmother who killed Zahra

Baker gets up to 18 years. Those

stories and more at 9:30. of the war in Europe, On September 1, 1939 - the first day issued an urgent appeal. President Franklin Roosevelt He called on all combatants to: defeated, six years later, By the time Hitler was finally had killed thousands of civilians. Allied bombs and America's lofty ideals And both enemy cities were in ruins. arrived in England The United States Eighth Air Force with confidence high. that airpower The Americans believed had revolutionised modern warfare. heavy bomber fleet, And that their new American pilots and crews, flown by well-trained the thus-far unstoppable Nazis. would prove decisive against in their first action of the war, On August 17, 1942, a small fleet of American bombers 200 miles away in occupied France. set out to bomb a railroad yard of the American bombing strategy It would be the first combat test military and industrial objectives precisely targeting and avoiding civilian populations. B-17 flying fortresses - The specially-designed bombers - off German fighters along the way. bristled with machine guns, fending despite the risks - The Americans flew in daylight - with state-of-the-art bombsites, to enable the bombardiers, to aim with unprecedented precision. The rail yard was severely damaged.

All of the B-17s returned safely. mission an unqualified success. And the Americans deemed their first the American heavy bombers Today is the first time in this theatre, have been in action and American squadrons. manned by American crews a flyer since World War I, General Carl Spaatz, American Air Forces in Britain. was commander of all Between the wars

of precision bombing. he had helped develop the theory the bomber command General Eaker commanding led this flight... putting the theory into practice, General Ira Eaker was charged with convinced that his bombing campaign to its knees. would bring a belligerent Germany a theory in the 1930s The Americans had developed specific cogs, specific nodes that was all about finding in the enemy war economy, eliminating those, and taking those out, the entire enemy war economy. and thereby dismantling was fervently believed by... Precision bombing doctrine and most airmen. by most leaders

what they were doing They really thought fighting a war. was the best way to go about After the first US mission, General Eaker's briefing American reporters attending trumpeted a great success. think much of the American bombers But their British allies did not or the American strategy. with a rather jaded eye, The British are looking at this first of all, this is a tiny effort. because they're thinking - that we tried and couldn't do. Second of all, you're doing things of the same mistakes we made. You'll make a lot Prime Minister Winston Churchill Like Roosevelt, England's off limits had once regarded civilian targets and advocated precision bombing. between the wars Churchill was on record repeatedly that the air force as saying that he believed on attacking military objectives which concentrated strictly and did not attack civilians

that not only deserved to prevail would be the side but would prevail when war came. the Germans bombed civilians... On the very first day of war, in Warsaw... and later in Rotterdam... then, in 1940, they hit England. When some German bombers in late August 1940 fly off course at night and attack a portion of London, as an opportunity to respond in kind Churchill takes this against Berlin. Hitler is so upset by that by attacking London. that he then responds into a new phase. into bombing of cities, It moves the war attacks on civilians. attacks on cities, of the attack on London The strategic intention military installations was to destroy and their harbour. But if you read the commentaries into his diary. which Joseph Goebbels wrote went astray into the civilians!" He didn't write "Shit! The bombs No! No. He's rejoicing. then the bomb takes the city Hitler says "Take the harbours" - and Goebbels says... "Fine. We make a hell out of it!" what to do. So the bomb teaches the bomber Commander Arthur Harris,

Air Force's Bomber Command in 1942, who took over as head of the Royal the bomb's lessons well. had learned on England, He had studied the Nazi attacks the damage inflicted meticulously analysing by explosive bombs and incendiaries. could be done better still. The deadly work, he concluded, under the rather childish delusion The Nazis entered this war

everybody else that they were going to bomb and nobody was going to bomb them. and half a hundred other places, At Rotterdam, London, Warsaw into operation. they put that rather naive theory going to reap the whirlwind. They sowed the wind and now they are German military targets by day, The RAF had initially tried bombing and poor results until unsustainable losses compelled them to change.

on the enemy, Harris now insisted, The way to inflict maximum harm hard-to-miss German cities, was to bomb under cover of darkness. The Americans emphatically disagreed. among most Air Force leaders There was a fervent sense that this was not the way to go. Bombing cities was inefficient. It was ineff... It was... It was the wrong use of your air assets. than the Brits. We felt we had better weapons better bombers than the British had. We felt the B-17, the B-24 were better training. We had better bombsights,

We could do this. Even though they couldn't, we could. Allied leaders, meeting in January 1943, opted to combine the American and British strategies. Harris and Eaker were ordered to coordinate a round-the-clock bomber offensive. To undermine "..the morale of the German people "to a point where their capacity for armed resistance "is fatally weakened" the British would focus on bombing cities at night. The Americans would do their best to achieve "..the progressive destruction "of the German military, industrial and economic system" bombing by day. Both air forces took aim at Hamburg, a ship-building centre on the Elbe River. The Americans were interested in it because they wanted to attack the elements of the German war economy that were located in Hamburg. The British were interested in it because they wanted to take it down as a city. KEITH LOWE: There was another reason why they chose Hamburg. It was because it was close. It was just a short hop across the North Sea. So, not only was it a very important target, it was also a very convenient one. Hamburg was the largest port in Germany and the country's second-largest city with over one-and-a-half million people. Among them, 10-year-old Ralph Giordano. The same shipyard was turning out the submarines that were wreaking havoc on Allied shipping in the Atlantic. And close by, were important manufacturing centres for the German aircraft industry. Hamburg was exceptionally well-defended. Air raid shelters, some in massively armoured concrete towers, provided protection for nearly a quarter million people. With heavy flak guns on top they could fire shells four miles into the air. Outside the city, interceptor bases were scattered along the North Sea, with 1500 Messerschmitt 109s on constant alert. The challenge for the Allies was to evade those formidable defences controlled by a string of early warning radar stations. On Saturday July 24, 792 RAF bombers readied for a night attack on Hamburg. Each loaded with tons of high explosives and incendiary bombs.

It was the first of a series of attacks that would continue for an entire week... code-named Operation Gomorrah. KEITH LOWE: It was a hugely complicated operation getting all these 700 or 800 bombers into the sky without causing any collisions. They would take off one by one from each of the airfields which lined the coast of Britain. Gradually they would assemble over the North Sea into a very long bomber stream. Tonight, for the first time, they were using a brand-new secret weapon. The flight engineer would shovel out these silver foil strips each would show up on the German radar as a single blip

And the German defences were completely negated.

Between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m., more than 2000 tons of high explosive bombs and over 350,000 incendiaries were dropped on the west side of the city. Ralph Giordano and his mother were in a shelter below. Then, that afternoon, came the Americans. 123 B-17s, flying in broad daylight. Once airborne, the fleet assembled into box formations to defend themselves against enemy fighters. Harry Crosby, just out of college in Iowa, was a lead navigator. Hardest part was to get them all in order, because we... when we flew, we all followed the lead crew, which would be me. And if I didn't find that target the work of a million Americans was wasted. The Americans had a much more difficult job to do than the British did. Firstly, they weren't bombing under cover of darkness and they didn't have the benefits of this new radar-jamming device. So as soon as they approached German air space the German fighters were on them in a trice. The Nazi fighters did their share of damage, then peeled off as the bombers approached the city. Now the Americans faced an even more fearsome obstacle - the giant flak guns firing at them from below. When people were shooting at you, you should be able to dodge, but you couldn't do it. You just had to go right straight on in. When they arrived over Hamburg, the entire city was completely smothered in smoke. They couldn't see anything, let alone their targets. Then, almost by a miracle, a gap appeared and there they could see the Blohm and Voss shipyards. Hamburg's key shipyard was badly damaged... along with an airplane engine factory, and a power station: military targets, rendered all but useless by American precision bombing. (ROAR OF PLANE ENGINES) On the fourth night, the RAF returned with more incendiaries. One of the pilots was 22-year-old Bill McCrea.

BILL McCREA: This was the big raid, the firestorm raid. We could see the fires an hour's flying from Hamburg, but when we got nearer we could see this tower, this pillar of smoke which was rising over 20,000 feet. (ROAR OF PLANE ENGINES) It was just like an active volcano. The bombers went across, dropping their bombs in there. It kept erupting and shooting up these sparks and flame. When Operation Gomorrah finally ended, there had been four British attacks on the city and two American raids on the port. The toll was 45,000 people killed - 60 per cent of the city utterly destroyed. I wasn't thinking about the people on the ground. I was just thinking about myself and my crew.

I had been ordered to do a job. I'd been ordered to put these bombs in the aircraft, drop them on Hamburg and get back home so you could go again tomorrow night or the night after. There would be a bridge to hit or there would be a factory to hit, or there would be a gun emplacement to hit. And you never thought about any human beings there. KEITH LOWE: In the aftermath of the firestorm, almost a million refugees fled Hamburg and took with them stories of the most terrible horror that they had witnessed. This caused a panic across Germany which was unlike anything that they had ever experienced before. The panic extended to the highest reaches of the Third Reich. Hitler refused even to visit the devastated city, sending Luftwaffe head Hermann Goering in his stead. His minister in charge of armaments warned that a series of similar Allied attacks would bring German war production to a complete halt. And there were many who truly believed that the Germans would be forced to capitulate. The British establishment certainly thought that this might be the case, and there was a flurry of memos suggesting that perhaps the war might even be over by Christmas. The war would not be over by Christmas - far from it. Allied airmen would still be sent on missions from which many would not return. They would still confront a determined enemy that fought on, despite relentless punishment. And the Americans would still insist pinpoint daylight bombing would win the war. BOY: The Kwongs - the kids love playing games all night. And Mrs Kwong does an amazing duck on a spit. (CAT YOWLS) Ah, the McIntyres. Little Luke loves movies on his T-Box, and the others are always glued to their laptops.

They must have a Telstra bundle like us. (KNOCK AT DOOR) I hope you're not spying again! Nuh! VOICEOVER: Telstra have a range of great-value home bundles starting from $89 per month for 24 months, plus $35 upfront. For your perfect bundle, visit a Telstra store or telstra.com. (DOG BARKS) In the aftermath of the Hamburg attacks, the American and British commanders remained committed to their sharply divergent strategies. Eaker continued to press precision attacks on industrial targets. Harris championed the bombing of cities. And the city he was focused on was the centre and the symbol of Nazi power... Berlin. (Crowd sings) # Deutschland, Deutschland uber alles... # SIR MAX HASTINGS: Berlin was almost Harris's nemesis. He allowed himself to become obsessed with it. He convinced himself that if he got 4000 Lancaster sorties to Berlin, he could bring Germany to defeat, to surrender by April 1, 1944. He gave an explicit date. He said in another memorandum that attacking Berlin might cost Bomber Command 400 or 500 aircraft, but it would cost Germany the war. Over six months, the head of Bomber Command sent his planes on 19 mass attacks on the Nazi capital. As many as 800 bombers on a single mission... nearly 11,000 bombing sorties. In the city below, over 10,000 civilians were killed. Nearly half a million made homeless. All this pain inflicted on Berlin in the hope that the Germans would rise up against Hitler. That's the method of terror. You cannot torture 80 million Germans, but if you torture successfully... seven millions in Berlin, the rest of Germany would come to their senses. So you need the theatre of pains. All German cities should witness the Hamburgisation of Berlin, the great Sodom of modern ages. And then, afterwards, all the sinners would say "Not me," and overthrow Hitler. But in a police state, withdrawing support from the government means death. You're not going to have a mass uprising. So yes, morale was lowered, but it didn't matter. People still showed up for work, and they went about their lives - crushed, not believing in victory, but persisting. Civilian populations have a special war aim, which is completely different from their leaders' war aims. It is a very simple one. The war aim of the civilian population is to survive. Despite the incessant bombing, the Nazis' hold on Berlin remained firm. But the RAF took tremendous punishment. More than 600 planes downed. Nearly 2700 fliers killed. All with no discernible impact on German morale or productivity. In the midst of Harris's city-bombing campaign, the American airmen had been preparing for an important test of their own strategy. On the morning of August 17, 1943, General Eaker's fliers were briefed on their mission. Their primary target - ball-bearing factories in the southern German city of Schweinfurt. Schweinfurt kind of crystallises the entire American theory. Here are ball bearings, which are essential in virtually all industries - in the-the working of a modern industrial economy. DON MILLER: You need ball bearings for everything. This is one of these choke point targets, that if you knock that out, without ball bearings, industry starts to break down. TAMI DAVIS BIDDLE: They were flying deep into Germany without fighter escort and because they were having to fly across enemy territory for a very long time

they could be tracked and intercepted. Hundreds of Luftwaffe fighters took dead aim at the unescorted B-17s. DON MILLER: These air battles are absolutely ferocious. And they're going in there naked, as it were. The plane is not pressurised as low as 60 degrees below zero, so the mask is on and it's freezing, are actually gun portals because the rear windows and they're open to the air. you're fighting the Luftwaffe. So you're fighting the weather, flying over their homeland, And the Germans, you see, and up again. can land, re-arm, re-fuel, all the way in. They're just pulverising them through the fighters The crews that made it were still at great risk. To bomb with precision,

flying straight and level they had to approach the target through dense flak. They could not take evasive action until their payload was dropped. Even after the bombs were away, returning from Schweinfurt the American crews from enemy fighters. found themselves under withering fire And it's a catastrophe. DON MILLER: One of the guys in the planes on the ground, said that he looked down and he said "My God, there's... "there's haystacks burning all along the ground." Well, they were B-17s. They lose 60 bombers. That's 600 men. lost on a single mission It's the largest number of Americans up to this point in the war. for the 8th Air Force. A staggering blow Despite the losses, dangerous mission two months later. Eaker sent his men on the same

in October of 1943. They went back to Schweinfurt

the losses were truly devastating - And in that raid another 60 bombers shot down, 138 damaged. that kind of loss levels You can't sustain and continue to have an offensive. over any period of time, 77 per cent of the guys DON MILLER: are casualties. who flew in the first months of surviving. They have a 1-in-4 chance You'd go out and come back, would be missing, and part of your crew

part of your plane would be missing. It was pretty hard on the young kids. I was afraid! You know... (Laughs) Ah... but... I just had to do it. And... of course, the worst part was getting up the next day and doing it again. TAMI DAVIS BIDDLE: Crews were coming home and looking at empty bunks buddies were the night before. where their friends and their They're no longer there. in a prison camp somewhere, Maybe they're alive or maybe they're dead, but they're not there any longer. they're guinea pigs DON MILLER: The guys start to feel in an experiment that's not working.

20% casualties in every mission. No air force can survive of gloom and doom There's a growing sense to win the war with this air weapon, that they're not going to be able

and too dangerous. that it's just becoming too costly Eaker remained undeterred, his strategy unchanged. Precision bombing, he insisted, conducted by unescorted B-17s, could do the job. He's terrifically stubborn. gets it out of his mind - And he never, ever I should say - out of his belief system, that this thing won't work - into the heart of the Reich, that unescorted bombers can go do heavy damage, and not take unsustainable losses. And he kept that belief stubbornly relieved of his command. to the point where he was (BAND PLAYS MILITARY MARCHING MUSIC) In December, 1943, with a legendary airman, Spaatz replaced Eaker General Jimmy Doolittle. distinguished guests, General Spaatz, the strategic effort must go on air effort is carried out, and the better the strategic the shorter will be the war and the fewer of our boys will die. is the charismatic combat leader, Jimmy Doolittle the first guy... the first guy to bomb Tokyo, he bombs Rome, he bombs Berlin. he has his own fighter plane I mean, over the 8th Air Force. he flies around in the skies He's a larger-than-life figure. an agile, new, long-range fighter, Doolittle's arsenal included the P-51 Mustang. Now, for the first time, deep into Germany and back. the bombers could be protected The Mustangs would prove crucial as Doolittle's forces prepared the skies for the anticipated Allied land invasion, scheduled for spring - D-Day. The foremost concern of the Allied commanders in advance of D-Day absolute air superiority over northwest France. And in order to achieve that they set out to attack Germany's aircraft factories by the Mustang long-range fighter. for the first time escorted

The 8th Fighter Command

to targets will give fighter cover and back from the targets. as many fighters as possible It's desirable that we peel off and strafe ground targets. to come down The strategy now is draw up the Luftwaffe aircraft factories by hitting things like that Hitler has to defend. He sends his force up, and the Mustangs massacre them. when you return from missions, In addition, and strafe German airfields, you can drop off and fly low destroying German aircraft on the ground. For the Americans, the result was a dramatic change from the disasters at Schweinfurt. The Eighth Air Force destroyed twice as many enemy planes in March 1944

than had been downed in the previous two years. Three months later - on the shores of Normandy - the Air Force's achievements paid off. The D-Day landing proceeded without interference from the air. The Luftwaffe was nowhere to be seen.

of strategic bombing. It's the first great accomplishment air frame factories, yes. We were destroying some ball-bearing factories. We destroyed

a world-turning event, D-Day. But when you think of this, this is the entire war in northern Europe. This is what turned the tide of And it isn't possible - wasn't possible - the 8th Air Force had done. without what

it was a crucial time. For Allied commanders,

With the right strategy, could be within reach. the end of the war in Europe There was a lot of excitement might be at the precipice, about the fact that Germany on the brink of collapse. Germany might be for a major attack And so ideas were developed on the city of Berlin to shock the Germans into surrender. In the late summer of 1944, Operation Thunderclap - the British proposed of the centre of Berlin. the total devastation Thunderclap looks distasteful

of the American air commanders to a number because it looks like terror bombing. for shock effect. It looks like bombing to the Allied Supreme Commander, In a letter General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Spaatz expressed his objections. "The US bombing policy, as you know, precision military objectives, "has been directed against "and not morale. as now planned." "I am opposed to this operation That fall, the plan was tabled. rendered moot. The disagreement between the Allies But Eisenhower made it clear should still that the American Air Force in anything "be prepared to take part of ending the war quickly." "that gives real promise In the fall of 1944, Germany's collapse American planners sought to hasten identified by Allied intelligence by bombing targets at this stage of the war. as most critical (ROAR OF BOMBER ENGINES) To deprive the Nazi war machine of its lifeblood,

American bombers zeroed in on the synthetic oil facilities spread across the countryside. To disrupt the struggling Nazi economy, they targeted key railroad marshalling yards. DON MILLER: The Germans have to assemble these gigantic trains with thousands of cars at places called marshalling yards. So there you have this tremendous massing of economic power in these marshalling yards, these central marshalling yards. Hit them. But they're inside or close to cities. The marshalling yards were often located near workers' housing. When visibility was poor, and the Americans had to rely on their primitive radar, known as H2X, civilian casualties were unavoidable. H2X could not allow for precision targeting. It could allow for finding an area and bombing an area, but that's about it. You only have a hunch as to where the target is. And you bomb or you don't bomb. Well, they bombed. There was never a question about stopping the bombing. It becomes a moral issue because if you continue to bomb like that you are hitting an awful lot of civilian targets... homes... and there's a lot of collateral damage. So you're nudging closer to the British concept of area bombing. Even as Allied bombing took its relentless toll, the Germans refused to give up. By the winter of 1944, hopes for a quick end to the war had been replaced by smouldering frustration. Nazi resistance had kept Allied troops from crossing into Germany. The Russians remained mired in Nazi-occupied Poland. Even a badly depleted German Army remained a formidable foe. The Deutsche Wehrmacht was the most terrible, most ruthless, most spirited fighting force which was ever seen on any battleground. I don't say it with any pride.

It was a terrible, aggressive machine, but with military capacity beyond any comparison. The Wehrmacht had launched a massive and unexpected counter-offensive - the Battle of the Bulge - which cost the Americans more lives than any other battle of the war. They had launched their own aerial terror weapons, the V-1 and V-2 rockets, raining destruction down on London. They had shocked the Allied air forces with the sudden appearance of the world's first jet fighter, the Messerschmitt 262. Now there were fears that Hitler might have one more surprise, perhaps big enough to turn the tide of war. There's a great deal of pessimism that starts to enter into Allied High Command. They start to think that the war may drag on, well into the summer and into the autumn of 1945. And this is a very frightening scenario. The focus has to be Japan. We've got to finish off the Germans. There's this idea of an enemy they can't understand. An enemy that is beaten but won't surrender. There was intense pressure coming from the highest levels of command to bring the war in Europe to an end.

Even Roosevelt, who had long decried the bombing of civilians, was now prepared to accept massive aerial bombardment. And so what Allied planners do, at this moment in time, this crucial moment in December and January, 1944-1945, is to look around and say "What instruments do we have "to end this thing, to get this over with?" And they recognised that if the war's going to end the Soviet winter offensive has got to make progress. That January, with the backing of Eisenhower, Spaatz revived Operation Thunderclap, the all-out assault on German morale he had once vehemently opposed. This time it would include attacks on transportation hubs in Leipzig and Dresden, to put pressure on German defences on the Russian front. But the centrepiece of the operation, reversing years of American strategic policy, would be a massive air assault on Berlin. Doolittle is told that he will bomb the CITY of Berlin. This is different language. He's very uncomfortable with it. He's not comfortable with designating an entire city as a target. He protests to Spaatz and he says "This is not what we do. "We attack specific locations within cities. "We may attack cities, but we're looking for marshalling yards, "we're looking for factories, "we're looking for specific sites within those."

And Spaatz says "No. For this raid we have to bomb the... the centre of the city. "This is an attack on the centre of Berlin." Doolittle sent a hard-edged memo to his commanding officer. The Berlin attack, he wrote Spaatz, would violate "the basic American principle "of precision bombing of targets of strictly military significance." Spaatz was unmoved. Operation Thunderclap - the all-out attack on Berlin - would proceed as planned. The Thunderclap raid is important in that it can clearly identify where the American Air Force says "Yeah, we're going to destroy a city." That's one of the things that made Doolittle so disturbed about it, because he says "We're really moving completely away

"from everything that makes us different, unique, "makes us more humane." But he did it. He followed his orders and he did it. And you can, you can argue that once the... once you've done that once, it makes it easier to do again. On February 3, 1945, 1003 bomber crews were briefed for the largest American air mission of the war: an attack on Berlin - a city of nearly four million people. Sam Halpert was a navigator with the 91st Bomber Group. We were briefed to go to Berlin. The map of northern Europe was up there, and there was a ribbon going across, which was our route. Although the target designated by Spaatz was the city of Berlin, Doolittle did his best to give the crews aiming points with clear military value: train stations, marshalling yards, and Goering's Air Ministry, just 500 metres from Hitler's fortified bunker.

The bombers, and their escorts, headed east. By then, the Luftwaffe had been pretty well beat up but they still had quite a bit of planes in force. As a matter of fact, they started sending up jet planes against us. After four hours' flying time, the squadrons approached their target. (SIRENS WAIL) Horst Sinske, a 15-year-old apprentice studied the skies above. SAM HALPERT: When we approached the target, we'd start seeing the flak bursts come out. The closer you got, the more flak there was.

And the pilots just had to ignore that and head right into it, when everything in their body was telling them "Turn that plane around and get the heck out of there." I don't know what the geese feel like when the hunters are shooting at geese, you know, as they're flying over a pond. What I kept in mind, one thing, was that a lot of geese get shot but most of the geese get through. SAM HALPERT: When we got over Berlin, sure enough, the lead ship was hit right in the middle, maybe about 5-10 yards beyond our wing. And I could see bodies coming out. That's what I remember. I didn't see any parachutes - I was pretty well shook up by that. That day, 21 B-17s were shot down over Berlin - but it was only a small fraction of the massive American fleet raining down devastation from above.

The February 3rd raid killed approximately 3000 civilians. 120,000 Germans lost their homes. But this attack on Berlin would have significance far beyond casualty numbers. DON MILLER: With this raid, the 8th Air Force crosses a moral threshold. And that moral threshold is, we will not deliberately bomb civilians. Usually the moral divide for historians is the Tokyo raid, which took place the next month, where we incinerate the city and kill almost 100,000 people. And... but I think, once we crossed the moral divide, in Berlin, it made everything else, including the atomic bomb, a little bit easier. (MACHINE GUN FIRE) The war in Germany Months that saw the city of Dresden destroyed in a firestorm just weeks before American bombers burned Tokyo. Months that saw 200,000 Russian soldiers killed in the final assault on Berlin - an assault made possible, in no small part, by Allied bombing. In the end, the Nazi surrender that had seemed so close for months finally came, in May. The American air strategists could now devote their full attention to the urgent task of defeating Imperial Japan. The war had brought utter destruction to Germany, the nation that began it, and death to more than 100,000 British and American airmen. Half a million German civilians were killed by Allied bombing, adding to the more than 20 million civilian deaths in Europe as a result of this war. When democracies go to war and they find themselves in total wars, they have to work through a set of moral choices that are sometimes extremely difficult and extremely painful. Fighting Nazi Germany, in the end, meant fighting all-out, meant utilising every resource that we had. But in order to defeat this enemy we had to make some choices that were in some ways regrettable. DON MILLER: Wars are uncontrollable

and no one knows how and why they get out of control, but they do. Witness Roosevelt's first statement about fighting a clean war and not wanting anybody to bomb children or innocents. Wars just fly out of control. CONRAD CRANE: I see this idea of just killing civilians and targeting civilians as being unethical - though the most unethical act in World War II for the Allies would have been allowing themselves to lose. (ROAR OF BOMBER PLANES) Captions (c) SBS Australia 2011

This program is captioned live. This program is captioned live.

Battle joined - the bitter struggle

for Sirte, one of Gaddafi's last strongholds.

Canberra inferno - a massive toxic

chemical fire in the nation's capital.

Labor's union shock - the HSU quits

the party, as Julia Gillard pushes

for a major ALP revamp.

And race against time - the

desperate search for three Welsh miners trapped underground.

Good evening. Kathy Novak with SBS

World News Australia.

Turkey's Prime Minister is the

latest foreign leader to arrive in

Tripoli, as anti-Gaddafi forces

attempt to capture the ousted

Libyan leader's last strongholds.

They're regrouping for a new

assault on Gaddafi's birthplace,

Sirte, after fierce resistance beat

back an earlier attempt.

Revolutionary forces are also

advancing on another advancing on another loyalist hold-

out, Bani Walid, and renewed

fighting has erupted there.

Gaddafi's supporters were always

expected to make a last stand in

Sirte. It shows no sign of

surrender, weeks after the capital,

Tripoli, fell to rebel fighters. Tripoli, fell to rebel fighters.

Now, Libya's new rulers are

marshalling all their forces as

they attempt to capture Gaddafi's

home town. They launched a

coordinated assault, and got to the

outskirts of Sirte. But the former

rebels ran into heavy resistance

from Gaddafi loyalists, taking casualties...

Fighting has also broken out around

another Gaddafi remaining

stronghold, Bani Walid, south of

Tripoli. It's been under siege from

revolutionary forces. Residents

have been fleeing, anticipating an

assault. Anti-Gaddafi fighters say

they came under attack as they

advanced on Bani Walid. They just

want to make us confused. So they

are cowards. All they do is just

shoot and take off. They don't stay

and fight. But Gaddafi loyalists

are still putting up plenty of

resistance. The British and French

leaders, who led international