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Lateline -

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Tonight - Australia's economic growth hits a In a volatile global environment there are bumps in
the the road.

These disappointing growth figures are a sign that you can't trust Labor with the Australian
economy. This Program is Captioned Live.

Lateline. I'm Tony Jones.. Today senior figures in the right faction of the Labor Party called for
a debate within the ALP on nuclear power. While it was partly a dig at the left focus on so-called
soft issues like gay marriage, it has re-opened discussion on whether nuclear power should be in
the mix of energy options for a government determined to reduce carbon ee misses. So where does
Australia's Chief Scientist stand on the value of nuclear power and on climate change generally?
We'll be joined shortly by Professor Penny Sackett. That's coming up. first our other headlines.
Marked man - both sides of the US Government vow to silence Julian Assange as the WikiLeaks
continue. The final shot at goal - the Governor-General arrives in Switzerland to give a boost to
Australia's football World Cup bid. And when it rains, it pours - are we prepared for the floods
that may come with the La Nina weather pattern?

Flat-lining growth 'nothing to worry about'

Flat-lining growth 'nothing to worry about'

Broadcast: 01/12/2010

Reporter: Susan McDonald

GDP growth dropped to its slowest pace since the financial crisis over the September quarter but
Treasurer Wayne Swan says there is nothing to worry about.

Transcript

TONY JONES, PRESENTER: Nothing to worry about: that's the Treasurer's response to an unexpected
softening of economic growth.

GDP has almost flatlined to its slowest pace since the global financial crisis.

The dollar fell on the disappointing figures, but most economists agree there's no cause for alarm.

Meanwhile, the nuclear energy debate has reignited within Labor ranks and the issue could split the
party.

Susan McDonald reports from Canberra.

SUSAN MCDONALD, REPORTER: A year into his tenure as Liberal Leader, his party celebrated the Abbott
anniversary. With a devastating defeat behind him, Tony Abbott's looking to the year ahead to
reshape his policies.

TONY ABBOTT, OPPOSITION LEADER: We would be ready for government, should that opportunity come our
way.

SUSAN MCDONALD: But he won't be stopped from doing what Opposition leaders do: oppose.

TONY ABBOTT: These disappointing growth figures are a sign that you can't trust Labor with the
Australian economy.

SUSAN MCDONALD: The latest national accounts show economic growth expanded at a
softer-than-expected pace in the September quarter, a mere 0.2 per cent.

Only growth in agriculture stopped the economy sliding backwards.

WAYNE SWAN, TREASURER: In a volatile global environment there are bumps in the road for our
economy. But Australia's economic fundamentals in growth prospects remain strong.

SUSAN MCDONALD: The Treasurer says the figures are easily explained.

WAYNE SWAN: This is unsurprising, given the increased uncertainty in the world economy, the impact
of the high dollar and of course the wind-down of policy stimulus.

SUSAN MCDONALD: Wayne Swan maintains there's nothing to worry about and most market economists
agree.

DAVID DE GARIS, NAB ECONOMIST: The economy's making the transition now from fiscal support, which
we've seen over the past year, towards a more business-investment driven economy over the next year
to 18 months.

SUSAN MCDONALD: On the upside, the Reserve Bank might keep interest rates on hold a little longer.

DAVID DE GARIS: Today's figures probably gives them a little bit more room to wait for several
months yet into the - at least the meetings in February, March, April next year.

SUSAN MCDONALD: Overshadowing any positive message on the economy is a more explosive issue for
Labor - once again, nuclear power is back on the party's agenda.

MARK BISHOP, LABOR SENATOR: Sooner or later, the Government and the Australian Labor Party are
going to have to address seriously the utility of nuclear power in this country.

SUSAN MCDONALD: The senator estimates 40 per cent of Labor supports nuclear power and he's shaping
it as a cost-of-living issue.

MARK BISHOP: Anything that has the ability to reduce prices for families, to reduce costs for users
is something we should look at and examine in a serious manner.

SUSAN MCDONALD: The issue of gay marriage will be debated at next year's ALP conference and members
of the party's right faction say nuclear energy should too.

MARTIN FERGUSON, ENERGY MINISTER: If there's to be a debate at national conference, so be it. It
won't do the party any harm to actually have debates about a range of complex issues.

SUSAN MCDONALD: The Prime Minister says she won't stand in the way of debate, but she doesn't think
there'll be a change in policy, as do others.

MARTIN FERGUSON: Nuclear power does not stack up commercially.

WAYNE SWAN: I'm not a great supporter of it at all, never have been.

TONY ABBOTT: This is a debate which is obviously going to tear apart the Labor Party over the next
12 months or so.

SUSAN MCDONALD: The debates over gay marriage and nuclear energy are symptoms of the broader
soul-searching going on within Labor. The party's assessing how it can stem the bleeding of support
evident in recent elections. And while the Prime Minister is encouraging discussion, it could pose
a distraction at a time she wants the focus on her reform agenda.

Susan McDonald, Lateline.

US takes aim at WikiLeaks' Assange

US takes aim at WikiLeaks' Assange

Broadcast: 01/12/2010

Reporter: Peter Lloyd

US Republicans are pushing for a criminal prosecution of WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange under the
Espionage Act.

Transcript

TONY JONES, PRESENTER: The Obama administration is taking aim at the founder of the WikiLeaks
website, Julian Assange.

Republicans in Congress are pushing for a criminal prosecution under the Espionage Act. But
specialists in international law say US authorities will face significant hurdles shutting down a
foreign national operating beyond American shores.

Meanwhile, from cyberspace, the WikiLeaks continue. Tonight we have some new insights into the
fragile state of affairs in nuclear-armed Pakistan.

This report from Peter Lloyd.

PETER LLOYD, REPORTER: Pakistan has the bomb, its army is fighting a home-grown Taliban movement
and the political class is better known for squabbling than governing. It is a diplomacy nightmare
and the US diplomatic cables released by WikiLeaks reveal a catalogue of fears.

"The UK has deep concerns about the safety and security of Pakistan's nuclear weapons," said a
senior British diplomat. "Our major concern," wrote the US ambassador to Islamabad, is that someone
working in a nuclear facility, "could gradually smuggle enough material out to eventually make a
weapon."

Many cables refer to deteriorating security in Pakistan. There's mention of an attack by extremists
on a bus carrying nuclear workers. A Russian official told the US that, "120,000 people are
directly involved in Pakistan's nuclear and missile programs ... there is no way," he said, "to
guarantee that they are all 100 per cent loyal and reliable."

SAJJAN GOHEL, ASIA PACIFIC FOUNDATION: No nuclear material has been stolen, but certainly it has
been offered by some scientists on the black market.

PETER LLOYD: Another set of cables reveal that a year ago, the United States knew that certain
Pakistani Army units were murdering hundreds of captured militants, rather than turning them over
to civilian courts for trial. Nothing was said about the outrages publicly because the ambassador
argued that would erode goodwill between the Pakistan military and the US.

ROBERT GATES, US DEFENCE SECRETARY: Um ... the fact is governments deal with the United States
because it's in their interest; not because they like us, not because they trust us and not because
they believe we can keep secrets.

PETER LLOYD: US Defense Secretary Robert Gates was in the Bush Cabinet too. He is regarded as a
voice from the political centre. His assessment on the impact of WikiLeaks may seem as unvarnished
as some of the leaks themselves.

ROBERT GATES: Some governments deal with us because they fear us, some because they respect us,
most because they need us. We are still essentially, as has been said before, the indispensable
nation. So other nations will continue to deal with us, they will continue to work with us, we will
continue to share sensitive information with one another. Is this embarrassing? Yes. Is it awkward?
Yes. Consequences for US foreign policy: I think fairly modest.

PETER LLOYD: Modest maybe, but arriving in Kazakhstan for a summit on security and co-operation in
Europe, Hillary Clinton was sounding like the Secretary of State for Mending Fences.

HILLARY CLINTON, US SECRETARY OF STATE: Well I of course have been reaching out to governments and
leaders around the world over the last week. I will continue to do so.

PETER LLOYD: The exact whereabouts of Julian Assange are a mystery. He's wanted for questioning
over a rape allegation in Sweden. Interpol has issued an alert for his arrest.

DON ROTHWELL, LAW PROFESSOR: Well, it's certainly not an arrest warrant. It's really an Interpol
notice that someone should be detained pending further inquiries and ultimately the issuing of a
direct extradition request, by Sweden in this case, to the country who has Mr Assange in detention.

PETER LLOYD: The Americans want to prosecute Assange over the WikiLeaks, possibly using the
Espionage Act, and key law-makers are going so far as discussing declaring WikiLeaks a foreign
terrorist organisation on par with Al-Qaeda.

PETER KING, US HOMELAND SECURITY COMMITTEE: If American lives are at risk, and every top military
official has said that, then we have to be serious. We should go after him for violating the
Espionage Act, and the reason I say "foreign terrorist organisation", because they are engaged in
terrorist activity. Their activity is enabling terrorists to kill Americans.

PETER LLOYD: But the US may have trouble making a charge stick.

DON ROTHWELL: There's no evidence at the moment or there's never been any suggestion that Mr
Assange himself has personally taken this material from US Government agencies or stolen it from US
Government officials, but rather that he's been handed this material as a second or third person
down the line. So, to that end, there may be significant technical difficulties in terms of
criminal prosecutions being brought under this legislation.

PETER LLOYD: No-one has been charged with passing the diplomatic cables to WikiLeaks, but suspicion
is focused on Army private Bradley Manning, an intelligence analyst arrested in Iraq in June and
charged over an earlier leak.

Peter Lloyd, Lateline.

Experts warn of flood-unsafe housing

Experts warn of flood-unsafe housing

Broadcast: 01/12/2010

Reporter: Margot O'Neill

Emergency services experts say some state and local governments are allowing residential
developments which could leave residents trapped above floodwaters.

Transcript

TONY JONES, PRESENTER: Some state and local governments are allowing residential development in
flood-prone areas with the potential for residents to be trapped above floodwaters, according to
emergency services experts.

With eastern Australia in the grip of a strong La Nina weather phenomenon which raises the risk of
cyclones and storms, experts are concerned that many towns and cities are unprepared for a major
flooding event.

Margot O'Neill has the story.

MARGOT O'NEILL, REPORTER: This year multiple storms and floods have flashed through Victoria, New
South Wales and Queensland. Damage is estimated to be in the tens of millions of dollars around the
country and it's only the start of what could be a long wet summer.

It's all because of warm waters off Australia's west and east coasts. The La Nina weather pattern
currently over the Pacific Ocean is one of the strongest in 40 years, with the atmospheric
measurement known as the Southern Oscillation Index, or SOI, soaring to record levels.

JEFF SABBURG, BUREAU OF METEROLOGY, QLD: I think it's the SOI that people are quite alarmed about,
with a very strong SOI atmospheric effect we're having at the moment. We'd had record September
rainfall, very high rainfall in October and also November - broken lots of records.

So, the fact that that's normally a dry period here in Queensland, and a lot of the rest of
Australia too, except for WA, it does suggest that this is quite exceptional.

MARGOT O'NEILL: Concerns about the weather prompted the Queensland Government to seek unprecedented
briefings from the Bureau of Meteorology. They were told about the grim likelihood of nearly double
the number of cyclones this season, including cyclones coming earlier and moving further south than
usual.

During another strong La Nina in 1974, Brisbane suffered a catastrophic flood. The State Government
is telling communities not to panic but to be prepared. But after so many years of drought, safety
experts say most people have forgotten the devastation and dangers of floods.

CHAS KEYS, FMR DEPUTY DIR-GEN, NSW SES: There's a lot of denial associated with flood warnings.
Floods appear relatively benign. They do their damage slowly. People think they go up, they go
down. What's the problem? You've just got to clean your house out.

It's much worse than that. Some people don't recover financially for a very long period of time, in
some cases not ever, having lost everything in a flood.

MARGOT O'NEILL: Floods are the most economically devastating natural disaster in Australia and
until 50 years ago claimed more lives than bushfires.

CHAS KEYS: People shouldn't drive or walk into floodwaters or attempt to swim them because that's
the major cause of death during floods. And yet in every flood, we see it happen.

MARGOT O'NEILL: There are concerns that some governments and councils are also forgetting the
lessons of the past. Eleven people died when the NSW town of Maitland was hit by catastrophic
flooding in 1955 during another strong La Nina.

Markers today show how deep the floodwaters ran, up to 4.5 metres in its central township. But
Maitland Council is planning to overturn a ban on new residential development in the area in a bid
to revitalise a flagging CBD. The council wants thousands of people to move back in.

PETER BLACKMORE, MAITLAND MAYOR: It wasn't that long ago, Margot, that you couldn't borrow money
from a bank to buy a house in central Maitland. Our main issue in this instance is to get Maitland
back to its former glory, to provide a safe residential area, an area where people can be proud.

MARGOT O'NEILL: Maitland mayor Peter Blackmore says flood mitigation and an early warning system of
12 hours' notice will help keep people and their properties safe.

PETER BLACKMORE: We're looking at the appropriate materials for flood area. We're also looking at
the fact that habitable areas of course will be at a certain height, that there will be storage
areas available, and most importantly, there will be evacuation areas made available. We have
learnt a lot in the last 55 years since the 1955 flood.

MARGOT O'NEILL: But Chaz Keys says it's just the latest example of governments and councils
sacrificing safety for development.

CHAS KEYS: Putting people back into areas that we know have been deeply and dangerously flooded
with fast-moving floodwaters in the past is recreating the vulnerability of the past.

MARGOT O'NEILL: A senior NSW State Emergency Services director complained in a paper three years
ago about a trend in NSW towards high-rise developments in flood-prone areas saying, "People who
are isolated during flood events are at increased risk to their health and safety, accepting
deliberate isolation to justify flood plain development is inequitable and appears to contradict
the principles of sustainable development and safer communities."

The New South Wales SES has been so concerned about some residential developments that it's opposed
them in court. They've been concerned about their inability to evacuate elderly people during a
flood, creating a situation some experts describe as the deliberate entrapment of residents above
floodwaters.

CHAS KEYS: One of these was a retirement home built on a small creek, or next to a small creek,
prone to flash flooding. The SES thought that was an unwise development. It lost in the Land and
Environment Court. I found that unfortunate.

Having people sitting above floodwaters is not a sensible thing to do. People fall down and get
hurt or are elderly and have a heart attack or have some other medical problem. What will happen
when the power goes off. Someone will knock over a candle. There will be fires. It's surprising how
common fires break out during floods. Someone will have to go in and rescue them.

MARGOT O'NEILL: For information on how to appropriately prepare for a possible flooding event,
check your local SES website.

Margot O'Neill, Lateline.

Chief scientist launches sustainability reports

Chief scientist launches sustainability reports

Broadcast: 01/12/2010

Reporter: Tony Jones

Australia's chief scientist, Professor Penny Sackett, tells Lateline we need to look at a broad
suite of technological and scientific solutions to secure supplies of food, energy and water for
the future.

Transcript

TONY JONES, PRESENTER: Joining us now in our Melbourne studio is Australia's chief scientist,
Professor Penny Sackett.

Thanks for being there

PENNY SACKETT, CHIEF SCIENTIST FOR AUSTRALIA: Hello, Tony. Thank you.

TONY JONES: Now Australia's always been a land of droughts and flooding rains and we've just come
out of a long drought and now we've got the floods again, it seems. So, what do you say to the
inevitable argument that this is proof that global warming is a myth?

PENNY SACKETT: Well, actually, it's exactly what global warming - what we would expect from global
warming and what we know about climate variability generally.

This particular incident is most probably related to a strong La Nina, as your viewers have just
heard. La Ninas and El Ninos of course have been going on for ages, but the frequency and severity
of these sorts of events we do expect to increase, whether they be floods or whether they be
droughts.

These are the sorts of things that we expect to increase in severity as the globe warms.

TONY JONES: Do you believe then there is a connection between the extremes or the extreme events in
the Southern Oscillation Index and overarching global warming, is there any proof of that?

PENNY SACKETT: The - what we do know is that we can expect an increase in the severity and the
frequency of extreme events. What we cannot say is that any particular single event is related to
global warming. It's rather statistically the number and the severity of them.

TONY JONES: Now, you've just released a report on food security, Australia's food security. What
we've seen during these floods is that farmers who'd come out of the drought on the east coast and
were expecting a massive bumper harvest of wheat, are now worried about severe damage to the crop
because of the flooding rains.

So it's - the problem is they're going to say that we're in different cycles that we've always had,
that this is nothing to do with global warming, the problem from the point of view of that
argument.

PENNY SACKETT: Well, it's of great concern to me, actually. I think that some of the communities at
most risk are our rural communities with global warming, with climate change in general, and in
fact we see that farmers will suffer, they will suffer when flooding events become more severe and
they will suffer through increased and prolonged droughts.

So this is a sector that I'm quite concerned about and I think that what the new report shows,
which is a report to the Prime Minister's Science, Engineering and Innovation Council is that the
time has come to think about food security in Australia, to think about how we need to look at it
from an integrated approach, because of course, food security isn't just about having enough food
in general, but really having a sustainable and reliable supply of affordable and nutritious food
for everyone.

TONY JONES: So what does the report say about what should happen in the Murray-Darling Basin, where
very controversially water restrictions are being proposed on farmers who've been farming there for
generations, even though the river itself is now back in flood in many areas?

PENNY SACKETT: Well the remit of the report was not to look at the Murray-Darling Basin in
particular.

As you know, there are reports that have looked into that specific issue. But rather this report
looked at general issues. And one of the things that it did recommend is looking at an integrated
use of land.

Land can be used and is used as a catchment for water, to produce food and fibre, to house rural
communities and increasingly to sequester carbon. And so what we need to think about is how to use
our land wisely, because the population is rising but the amount of arable land is staying
constant; in fact it's being encroached upon by urban areas, in part due that population growth.
And so farmers are facing many challenges and they are going to need help; they are going to need
help from the research and development sector to help increase the productivity as the challenges
that they face increase.

TONY JONES: But do you have a report or scientific advice for those farmers in the Murray-Darling
who are essentially being told they may have to pack up their farms and stop being farmers because
of climate change and restrictions to water in the future, even though they're looking at large
volumes of water now?

PENNY SACKETT: I think that holistically Australia will have to ask questions about what sort of
food it can grow, where it can grow and how it can increase productivity.

We've seen great productivity increases in the 1970s, for example in the agricultural sector here
and around the world that was largely based on research and development into how to increase
productivity, for example through genetics, through dry land agriculture, which Australia's very
well-known for.

We should be proud that productivity increases have continued to rise in the agricultural sector
until the last few years where that's levelled off.

Nevertheless, the population has increased. And so I think a big part of the answer has to be how
to use our land wisely, how to use our water wisely and how to increase the research and
development into doing better.

And if I could add one more thing, Tony, I would say that we all need to use our food more wisely.
Forty per cent of food produced in Australia is wasted somewhere along the food chain.

TONY JONES: Let me just go to one other key recommendation briefly of your report, and that is for
the establishment of an Australian food security agency. Now, wouldn't an agency like that be
simply duplicating what's already done by the CSIRO, for example?

PENNY SACKETT: The report recommends a natural - a national approach to food that would go far
beyond what one research agency, including a wonderful one like the CSIRO, can do.

It's really looking at all of the sorts of things that affect that sector, whether it be
regulation, whether it be policy development, whether it be R and D, and thinking not only about
what happens at the paddock level, but all along the food chain, through transport and delivery of
healthy nutritious food to the table.

TONY JONES: Do you expect to see the Government establish this new agency, though?

PENNY SACKETT: The Government will be considering this report at the next Prime Minister's meeting
of this council on 4 February, so we look forward to hearing what the governmental response will
be.

TONY JONES: OK, let's move on. Penny Sackett, as a scientist, are you afraid of nuclear power?

PENNY SACKETT: I'm certainly not afraid of nuclear power. Nuclear power is in use in many places of
the world. France, for example, relies strongly on nuclear power.

TONY JONES: I ask that question because the political arguments about nuclear power are often based
on fear and particularly the fear of someone having a nuclear power plant put in a suburb near them
or in their neighbourhood or even in their electorate.

So it's very hard because of this fear, this political fear, to ever see nuclear power seriously
debated in this country.

PENNY SACKETT: Well, I think that we have to look at a suite of options, and in fact resilience,
which is another recurring theme not only for the food security report that I mentioned, but the
second one that was released today by the Prime Minister's Science & Engineering Council on energy,
water and carbon - resilience in the face of an uncertain future suggests that a suite of
opportunities, including energy options, is what we need to look at and not simply be reliant on a
single form of energy.

TONY JONES: So would it be wrong then to rule out a serious debate on nuclear energy, which of
course is emissions-free, at a time when you are trying to dramatically reduce emissions in this
country?

PENNY SACKETT: I think that it would be reasonable to expect that over the next year, two, three
years we'll be hearing increasing debate about all sorts of forms of energy that Australia should
be looking at. And again, I think most of the scientific and economic evidence points to embracing
a portfolio approach, that is a suite of energy options that will likely change with time as new
technology comes on board and as we learn more and more about the relationship between different
forms of energy and other factors.

For example, we need to look at the water use of energy systems, particularly in Australia, where
water is so scarce. So the question is not only how much energy will it produce and how cheaply,
but how much water will be used in producing that energy? That's a particularly important question
for Australia.

TONY JONES: What's your opinion as to whether or not Australia should look seriously at nuclear
power?

PENNY SACKETT: It's my opinion that Australia should look carefully at all of the options.

TONY JONES: Including nuclear power.

PENNY SACKETT: I think Australia should look at all of the options, Tony, and nuclear is one that's
been discussed. Wind, energy - there was a report released today I think by ATSE, one of the
academies of Australia, suggesting that wind power at the moment is another one that we should be
looking at carefully.

Of course we want to think about how we can use coal in the short term in a cleaner way. Gas, I
have no doubt, will continue to be an important part of the mix. So, really, it's the suite. And I
think that what we mustn't do is become fixated on asking can one particular energy solution solve
all of our problems? The answer to that is almost certainly no.

TONY JONES: But if the Government asked for your advice as a chief scientist on whether nuclear
power's a viable option for Australia and whether it would be beneficial, what would you say?

PENNY SACKETT: I'd say that we would need to study it. We would need to get a series of experts in
who would not only look at nuclear energy, but a whole suite of energy options and provide a report
back. But I certainly wouldn't be answering the question without looking carefully at the evidence.

TONY JONES: Given the level of global commitments to emissions reductions are nowhere near what
scientists believe are necessary to keep global warming below two degrees Celsius, how urgent do
you think it is, as a scientist, to get serious commitments for emissions reductions targets far
beyond what's now being talked about?

PENNY SACKETT: I think that the time is now to not only get those commitments, but to begin to act
on working toward those commitments, because it isn't simply the promise, it's actually the
delivery of clean energy systems, of healthy ecosystems, of reforestation. And I'm pleased to say
that I've just returned from a trip to the United States and to Mexico where some national leaders
- governors, mayors and so forth - are beginning to take those kinds of actions in their local
community. And so this is heartening, and I think that it shows that there are communities all
around the world that are beginning to take action now.

TONY JONES: The Australian Government is currently promising a five per cent emissions reduction
target. Do you regard that as a serious target that will achieve anything?

PENNY SACKETT: I regard any action that begins to reduce our emissions of carbon dioxide and other
greenhouse gases into the atmosphere as serious - any reduction.

Because right now, Tony, there is no reduction. Right now the world total emission of carbon
dioxide and other greenhouse gases is increasing every single year. And so I think the first step
is to turn that around by any reduction. And by doing that, we will learn. And as we learn more,
we'll be able to turn that curve around faster and faster.

TONY JONES: Penny Sackett, rarely in history have we seen a situation where science and scientific
opinion have had such a huge impact on public policy. Do you believe that scientists need to get
more engaged in the political debate on climate change action?

PENNY SACKETT: I'm not so sure that they need to get more engaged in the political debate. I do
think they need to get more engaged in the informed debate generally with their fellow citizens and
with those that have been charged by those citizens to make decisions.

That doesn't necessarily mean that they need to be engaged in politics, but I do think they need to
be talking to politicians and they need to be talking to their fellow citizens. Yes, I do.

TONY JONES: Penny Sackett, we'll have to leave you there. We thank you very much for taking the
time to come and talk to us tonight on Lateline.

PENNY SACKETT: Thank you. It was a great pleasure, Tony.

Australia readies final pitch for 2022 World Cup

Australia readies final pitch for 2022 World Cup

Broadcast: 01/12/2010

Reporter: Philip Williams

Governor General Quentin Bryce has arrived in Zurich to support Australia's final pitch to FIFA to
host the 2022 World Cup.

Transcript

TONY JONES, PRESENTER: The Australian delegation is just moment away from delivering its final
presentation to FIFA's executive committee in the hope of winning the bid for the 2022 World Cup.

Governor-General Quentin Bryce has arrived in Zurich to support the pitch, which is up against
rival bids from the United States, Qatar, South Korea and Japan.

The winner is expected to be announced on Friday morning.

Here's our Europe correspondent Philip Williams reporting from Zurich.

PHILIP WILLIAMS, REPORTER: It's crunch time for all the hopefuls. Just before the final
presentation, the Governor-General, Quentin Bryce, was like everyone else here, waiting in nervous
anticipation.

QUENTIN BRYCE, GOVERNOR-GENERAL: I'm feeling very confident. I'm a little bit nervous, but I think
our bid's fantastic and I think it demonstrates that we can run a top, top-class World Cup.

PHILIP WILLIAMS: The Americans have mounted a powerful pitch, drawing on the charisma of former
President Clinton and a bit of Hollywood star dust, courtesy of actor Morgan Freeman.

But perhaps one of the surprise frontrunners is the tiny Gulf State of Qatar. Population: just 1.6
million, but with deep pockets and ambitious plans for air-conditioned stadiums that could be
relocated to poor nations after the World Cup.

The Japanese aren't highly rated, and after the North Korean artillery attack last week, the South
Koreans are despondent about their bid.

KWANG YEOUL CHUN, SOUTH KOREAN JOURNALIST: Yeah, timing is unfortunate. Timing is the problem. This
timing.

PHILIP WILLIAMS: But what about Australia? A McKinsey report rated our bid the lowest in terms of
revenue.

FRANK LOWY, FOOTBALL FEDERATION OF AUSTRALIAN CHAIRMAN: But let me tell you, if it gets to
Australia, '22 will be a very, very profitable venture for FIFA.

PHILIP WILLIAMS: The Government says the infrastructure costs of building and re-modelling stadiums
is an investment, not a burden.

MARK ARBIB, SPORTS MINISTER: We're looking at something around $2.5 billion to do the
infrastructure, but that's upgrading nine stadiums, that's building three new stadiums, and the
legacy for our country, for our sporting organisations is going to be great.

FRANK LOWY: This is an investment for Australia. We are building a better Australia.

PHILIP WILLIAMS: But even before the presentations, allegations of corruption aired on the BBC
involving three FIFA executive members have cast another shadow over the FIFA process. Corruption
watchdog Transparency International say the voting should be postponed.

ANNE SCHWOBEL, TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL: Until the facts are well-established, we demanded we ask
that the awarding has been - has to be postponed.

PHILIP WILLIAMS: FIFA says the BBC allegations are old and have been dismissed in Swiss courts
years ago.

Nothing, it appears, will stop FIFA. This show will go on; Australia's presentation about to begin.

Philip Williams, Lateline.

30-year study hopes to unlock mental illness

30-year study hopes to unlock mental illness

Broadcast: 01/12/2010

Reporter: Natalie Poyhonen

A team of researchers is using a 30-year study of 4,000 women and their children to try and uncover
what role genetic and environmental factors have on mental illness.

Transcript

TONY JONES, PRESENTER: It's the Seven-Up of the medical world. An Australian study has been
documenting the lives of 4,000 women and their children over 30 years. In the latest phase of the
project, based in Queensland, a team of researchers is trying to uncover what role genetics and
environmental factors have on mental illness. Natalie Poyhonen reports.

NATALIE POYHONEN, REPORTER: Angie Burton has been the focus of a scientific study her entire life.
When her mother Gail Murphy was pregnant, she joined one of the world's largest studies of mothers
and their children.

GAIL MURPHY, STUDY PARTICIPANT: Not knowing at that stage it was going to be, like, 30 years down
the track.

NATALIE POYHONEN: They've been asked to share information ranging from stories about family life,
health and substance abuse every seven years.

GAIL MURPHY: I don't think that there's been a subject not covered.

NATALIE POYHONEN: And that's given researchers inspiration to broaden their study. They're now
looking into the causes and recovery from mental illnesses like depression and anxiety.

JAKE NAJMAN, UNI. OF QLD: Why these thing happen, what it is about the lives of these people that
determines the onset, the duration and recovery from mental disorder.

NATALIE POYHONEN: And what link genetics might play.

JAKE NAJMAN: How a genetic susceptibility to a particular problem is impacted by particular
environmental exposures.

NATALIE POYHONEN: Providing information that could even benefit participants.

ANGIE BURTON, STUDY PARTICIPANT: I've gone and seeked help for different areas of my life, family,
relationships, substance abuse ...

NATALIE POYHONEN: But the study's got room to grow.

JAKE NAJMAN: That we should look at not only the way the health of the mother influences the health
of a child, but now let's look at the grandchild.

NATALIE POYHONEN: A scientific evolution with healthy benefits.

Natalie Poyhonen, Lateline.

A quick look at the weather now. Storms in Melbourne and Canberra. Showers rain in Sydney. Rain in
Canberra. Showers in Hobart and Brisbane: That's all from us F you would like to look back at
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