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Inside The Human Body -

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well under way. Oh, wow. You're already (SINGS) # It's gonna look good... # personality... Chez's bright and exuberant How rude! characters from The Block 2010. ..make her one of the most memorable Oh! (SQUEALS) O-oh! (SINGS) Do it! (SINGS) Ahhh! that I've just spent, Now you're telling me the five grand in arrears. we're now another five grand That's bubbas. you go dobbing...dibber-dobber. Speak to me first before I thought Sydney was bad. like it's about to fall down. But this is a house and it looks so above and beyond our budget. I remember our first room. We went BOTH: Yeah. I know! You just, you want to win the room. on their first room. I think the boys spent nine grand What?! estate and she's from Melbourne, We realised that she's in real and thought, so we put two and two together a call and pick her brain." "Oh, it'd be awesome to give her People love that. It's character. Use your period features. are taking out their fireplaces. 'Cause other ones, I think, No! They've boxed over fireplaces. and boxed over them. I think they ripped out fireplaces You're kidding. ceiling roses and stuff. small cornices and taking out I think they're putting (WHISPERS) No way! live in Melbourne, But if you didn't we only moved here last year, like, we were from Albury-Wodonga, love period homes and features. you wouldn't have known - people I think it's time for a wine. Oh, they love it. Yeah. Are we allowed to have a wine? Enjoy! Sorry, but you've gotta paint. I'll bring you in some baked beans. I'll be out here if you need me. OK, cool. Awesome. Vinos! So while Josh gets on with painting, the girls have a chance to bond. Yeah, big-time. Have you been having fun? No-one understands. Wait until a couple of weeks. It's so much pressure. Exactly. No-one gets it. Yeah, yeah. unless they're in the situation. No-one would ever understand Exactly. if I can. I know your style already. I definitely want to help you win, Exactly what it is. Eclectic second-hand antiques. No. Never heard of it. Do you go to Camberwell Market? You're kidding?! Really? Camberwell Market? Get on board! Get on board! Nice. Yay! Thank you. days and nights of renovating Morning on the Block and the long are starting to take their toll. (GROANS) last night painting. I think we were up till 3:30 get organised and get renovating - We've got to get up, every day. Up in the Hilton will do me. Just one night in a motel, thanks. Please? (KNOCK AT DOOR) WAZ: We had a late night. till about 4:00. I don't think she got to sleep so that's about three hours sleep. It's only about 7 o'clock, Great. but I'm not game to. (LAUGHS) I mean, you can wake her up Uncle Rod and Aunty Tania, at about 6:00pm yesterday. I'm pretty sure they went to bed have slept sound in the knowledge 'Uncle Rod' and 'Aunty Tania' the massive advantage that today they've got the two fat tradies for a day. of the use of Ta-da! for today. (CHUCKLES) Here's Mark and Duncan's job than what you will, so... Well, they'll do it a lot quicker Rod and I were talking last night Mark and Duncan to do about what we were gonna get the skirting and the arcs - and it was only two things - that we could think of. really needed to win the challenge But then we thought, "Well, we didn't get 'em, really, "so the other guys to have an advantage "because we didn't want them for two days." "of not paying two tradesmen a special delivery Well, it's time I made to Mark and Duncan. and revealed the new-style Block Welcome to the Block. We have arrived. MARK: Are you serious? I'm serious, mate. Four houses. It's the Block sideways, not upways. but inside they're very similar. They're all a little bit different Let me take you to Rod and Tania's, lots of work for them. where you're gonna be doing Lots of work. Well, I tell you what, invited back to the new Block. we're absolutely flattered to be Four individual... We were taken aback a bit. Four! We couldn't believe that. Four houses, yeah. Yeah. And every one's different. Got that little bit of character. themselves the way they want. Yeah, they'll be able to express by the look of it, But they've got their work cut out, nothing's changed. so it's good to see for the next eight hours, boys. Here you go. This is your spot Hello! Let's go in. from the experts To get the best renovation advice head to: and watch tonight's challenge online, Red Bee Media Australia Supertext Captions by

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without breathing. the depths of the ocean This diver is able to swim in This is "The Iceman". where his flesh should freeze... He can thrive is about to make his final journey, ..while Gerald from life to death. Their stories are part of your story, the story of what makes YOU human. Inside you is a wonderful, hidden universe... ..covered with skin, which protects you against the harsh world outside... ..controlled by a brain, which is the most complex on the planet. Even how you make another human involves unrivalled ingenuity. This is a fantastic voyage through the most extraordinary survival machine on Earth... Just existing for one minute feels like the simplest thing in the world. Yet what goes on inside you every 60 seconds is wonderfully complicated. If you stop and think about it, it is truly remarkable, the way that your body, every minute of every hour of every day, is doing a million different things to keep YOU alive. And you're not even aware of it. Your heart will beat 70 times, driving 5 litres of blood around the 96,000 kilometres of your circulation. Deep inside your bone marrow, each minute, 150 million red blood cells will be born. And while you're sitting there, the 250 square metres of your gut are busy digesting the meal you've just eaten. What's really impressive is not just that our bodies do all these things all the time, but they respond instantly to any change in our environment. No matter where you go... ..or what you do... ..every minute of your life depends on your body performing countless small miracles. And this film will show you how you do it. Your survival depends on your body working hard to keep everything inside you balanced and stable, just so. For the first nine months of your life, you are kept alive and warm by a life-support machine, which also breathes for you and eats for you, a machine also known as Mum. Then, suddenly, you're on your own. This is Tyriece. He's just been through a very traumatic minute, the first minute after his birth. For nine months, you were enveloped in the warm, comfortable, watery world of your mother's womb. Your every need was taken care of. As you lay immersed in a bath of amniotic fluid, your temperature was a comfortable 37 degrees. You didn't have to eat for yourself, you didn't even have to breathe for yourself. Your mother's blood supplied you with oxygen, so your own lungs weren't needed. And because you didn't need your lungs, your body didn't bother sending blood to them, but shunted it through a hole in your heart instead. Then, suddenly, the tranquillity of the womb was shattered. (GROANS) Well done. He's coming. There he is. There he is, we can see his face. Nice and relaxed. Nice and relaxed. I can see my grandson! For April, the hard work of labour is almost over. He's turning to face this way. Can you feel him? Yeah. There he is. Say hello. But for baby Tyriece, the struggle for survival is just beginning. As he emerges into the world, his body must take over from his mother's. The shock of cold air and bright lights triggers your first breath. But before Tyriece can take in oxygen, his heart has to connect with his lungs. And to do this, the hole in his heart has to close. As you draw your first breath, the airways of your lungs open, and the drop in pressure causes blood to rush into them to pick up oxygen. That oxygen-rich blood then flows to the heart for the very first time. The pressure of this flood of blood pushes on a flap, closing the hole. But sometimes it doesn't seal. One in four of us has a hole in the heart, and most will never know. Your heart and lungs are now fully connected. Your circulation is complete. Finally got my boy. Got what I've always wanted. Over the moon. Yeah. So you can take another breath and another.

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This man can hold his breath for a whopping nine minutes. Herbert Nitsch is a world champion at freediving. Powered by a single breath, he can not only stay underwater for longer than seems humanly possible but glide through the water with the freedom of a fish. As Herbert plunges deep into the sea, the cold water on his face prompts something we all have - the dive reflex. This reflex causes your heartbeat to slow by as much as 25%, so you use less oxygen. And the dive reflex does something more. It priorities the brain and the heart's survival, by switching off the more dispensable parts of the body. After mere seconds, Herbert's body shuts off blood flow to his extremities. First, his toes and fingers. Then his hands and feet. And, finally, his arms and legs... until all that remains is a circuit of blood flowing between his heart and his brain. And that is what allows him to stay underwater for an incredible nine minutes. What this really shows is how good your heart is at adapting to any environment. Your heart is an exquisitely engineered pump, made of muscle. And you can see the true elegance of this engineering if you slow it to a single beat. Inside the cavernous chambers, the muscles work together in perfect harmony. These muscles never get tired and never stop working. As your heart expands, blood flows from your body into its chambers. Then an electrical signal storms through the heart, causing it to contract... ..forcing blood all the way through your body's vast network of vessels. And to stop the blood flowing backwards, your heart needs valves. As they slam shut, these valves make the familiar "lub dub, lub dub". (HEART BEATS) The soundtrack of your life. That "lub dub" rhythm changes in step with your needs. These are the cells that control the beat of your heart. They spontaneously create its rhythm. And they have been doing this since long before you were born. When you were just an embryo, merely three weeks old, they first started beating. And from that moment, these same pacemaker cells would stay with you for the rest of your life, never to be replaced. Most other cells in your body come and go. Your stomach lining is replaced every three days. Your skin sheds and regrows every month. And every ten years, you'll have a new skeleton. But your pacemaker cells stay with you always, faithfully speeding up or slowing down, depending on your body's demands.

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Your heart's will to beat is incredibly strong. (SWIFT HEARTBEAT) And that's just as well, because it drives your entire circulation. (SLOWER HEARTBEAT) The hard graft of carrying that oxygen is done by some of your smallest and most peculiar cells. Their story begins deep inside the marrow of your bones. Here, every minute of your life, 150 million red blood cells are produced by a dedicated factory. The workers are specialised white blood cells, affectionately known as nurse cells. As it's swept away in the bloodstream, it joins 25 trillion others whizzing around your body. They're on a long journey. If all the blood vessels in your body were joined, they'd stretch more than twice the way around the Earth. Each cell travels through wide arteries... ..spiralling off into smaller arterioles... ..and then squeezing through tiny capillaries. Here, in the smallest, narrowest vessels, our cell does the job it's been created for. It releases its payload of oxygen into your tissues. It'll do this over and over again for the rest of its life. And this oxygen is so vital for life because it's a key ingredient in releasing the thing that keeps us all going - energy. You need energy for every single thing you do, no matter how grand or how tiny. And you get it by combining oxygen with one of the other essentials of life... I try to eat a rich and varied diet with just the occasional big blowout. Now, I've got a real feast here at the moment - nice piece of fish, chips underneath. Lots of protein and fat there, and a big blow of salad here with lots of colour in it, oozing with vitamins and other goodies. But I think you would be surprised at just how meagre a diet some people can survive on. This is Debbie Taylor. And this is what Debbie Taylor eats. This is all Debbie Taylor eats. This is lunch. And this is dinner. Now aged 31, for over a decade she's barely eaten anything else. In the fridge, I have sausages. I haven't had sausages since I was under 11 years old, but I still cook them for other people. I've never had a pepper, so I don't know what it tastes like and I don't want to either. Not had grapes since I was at primary school, I should think. There can't be any nice flavour in that, cos it's all rubbery, look. It's probably really chewy on the outside. I can imagine that getting stuck in your throat or something and it just... No matter the occasion, Debbie's diet doesn't deviate. On Christmas Day, I won't eat the turkey or anything like that. I'll leave that to the family. I'll just eat a bag of crisps. When we go away on holiday, I usually pack a suitcase, hand luggage, full of the crisps that I eat, my flavour, because sometimes you'll find that they don't sell them abroad, Debbie's unusual eating habit began as an effort to lose weight. I mean, I know crisps are carbs, but at the end of the day, I'm not eating meat with it and gravy and all the... you know, vegetables. It petrifies me, the thought of eating a meal. With such a singular diet, there's a price to pay from a lack of vitamins and minerals. The hair is really bad, nails don't grow, skin's colour is awful. Sometimes you can't sleep. Teeth, as well, are another thing. When you brush them, they bleed a lot. Despite the long-term problems, a diet of just crisps gets Debbie through her busy working day. My job is a housekeeper in a hotel. It is a very energetic job, physical job. It may seem surprising, but in terms of energy alone, Debbie's crisp diet is no problem. And that's because the human digestive system is very efficient at squeezing all it can out of any food, including crisps. After chewing, your food drops into an expandable bag of acid, also known as your stomach. The pulverised pieces then pass into your small intestine Here, there's a carpet of finger-like projections called villi. And on top, smaller versions called microvilli. Together, they increase the surface area of your gut to that of a tennis court. In the small intestine, any carbohydrates you've eaten are rapidly taken up and converted into a simple sugar - glucose. This glucose is carried in your blood to your tissues, Here, the glucose is finally combined with oxygen to produce precious energy. And this is what powers everything you do.

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For these elite firefighters in Texas, their body's ability to regulate temperature is a matter of life and death. And the way they do it is by sweating. When your body starts to overheat, it stimulates sweat glands deep down within your skin... produce a tiny bead of sweat. Each bead must then work its way to your skin's surface. And it's here that sweat performs its magic. As it evaporates into the air, it takes heat with it. This is how your body keeps its cool and keeps you alive when things hot up. Today, Fire Chief David Herr is running a test to find out exactly how much a firefighter sweats when doing a high-temperature rescue. We're bringing the firefighter up these stairs first. The smoke and the heat will begin to already take a toll on him. He's going to continue forward on, looking for the victim, make his way up through this narrow passageway here, pick him up and then carry him out the Charlie-side door. Firefighter Mario Rodriguez has the dubious honour of being the test subject. First, he's weighed naked. By comparing his weight before and after the test, they can calculate how much sweat he has lost. He swallows an electronic pill containing a thermometer, which will monitor his core temperature to see how much it varies from the normal 37 degrees. The fire is set and its temperature is also measured. I have a good angle on the fire, a good reading. Currently getting 1,200 degrees.

At this temperature, aluminium melts. Before he goes in, Rodriguez kits up. The suit should protect him from the flames and the worst of the heat. Firefighter Rodriguez, hold on. His core temperature is checked. 37 degrees Celsius. It's now just over You're starting to warm up already. You know what your task is. Let's get going. Be safe. All that stands between Rodriguez and certain death is his suit and his ability to sweat. The temperature has just rocketed by 1,200 degrees. that could have devastating consequences. An increase of just four degrees would leave him confused and unconscious. A rise of seven degrees would kill him. After 45 seconds in the fire, Rodriguez is poaching in his own juices. It was real hot. My bones and all my joints starting burning. Just the heat, just gotta get out of there and get some cool air. Stand by, let me get your core temperature reading. Despite everything he's been through, his core temperature has risen by just one degree Celsius.

Now he's weighed again to see how much sweat he's lost.

You're at 207 now, so that looks like you lost three pounds of body weight. Three pounds equals 1.4 litres of sweat. That's three times more than you would lose in an average day. Thanks to all that sweating, Rodriguez was able to maintain his core temperature, despite the extreme heat of the fire. It's important to keep your body at 37 degrees, because this is the optimum temperature for the chemical processes that keep you alive. The new Holden Series II Captiva 7 is the complete SUV package. So its roominess isn't just about kids, tent, bikes and dog, but personal space too. Safety's also pretty personal, so rest easy with six airbags. A powerful new four-cylinder makes it the most fuel-efficient seven-seater petrol in its class. And from only $34,990 driveaway, we've priced it just the way you want it. The new Holden Series II Captiva 7 SX. Go better.

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These are the frozen wastes of Iceland... ..and this is Wim Hof, also known as "The Iceman". Cold is a noble force. It ignites beautiful feelings within. It's so majestic, I feel a king. I want to show the forgotten language of the cold. He's about to take a swim in this lake. The water here is just above freezing, two degrees Celsius. Wim intends to stay in for 15 minutes. That would kill most people. Yet Wim believes that everyone has the potential to do what he does. There is a natural ability in everybody to neutralise the cold. It's about nothing abstract, it's no hocus-pocus, it's the mind. Anybody can do what I do. It is trainable. Water looks clear, good. Inviting, attractive. Powerful. Inviting me to come in and to take part. The first minute in ice-cold water is the most dangerous. Your body goes into a panic-like cold shock, which can trigger a heart attack. But it has no effect on Wim. I don't feel the cold. I feel the power, yes. I don't feel the pain, because I am stronger than the pain at that moment. Repeated exposure has changed Wim's threshold for withstanding cold and pain. He no longer feels the shock. Instead, he's able to endure it and stay calm, even to enjoy it. # Is everybody fine? # It's a privilege to be here. Look at this. Diamonds! Five minutes in, and he's still going. Looks like a dinosaur. Whales. Monsters. After ten minutes, there's a new danger. The cold starts to chill the thinnest parts of your body - your arms and your legs. Nerve impulses slow down, so they no longer trigger your muscles to contract. Most people come to a grinding halt, which makes them vulnerable to drowning. But not Wim. Because he's adapted to the cold, he keeps swimming vigorously, and this helps him generate heat to keep him going. I feel charged, actually. Sort of charged. I feel like a bit electric. Yeah, electrified. After 15 minutes swimming in ice-cold water, he emerges. Wim has survived an experience that would kill most of us - a testimony to the body's amazing ability to adapt to almost unimaginable extremes.

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From the moment you were born, your body has been engaged in a minute-by-minute struggle for survival... ..overcoming whatever challenges you have thrown at it. It has juggled ceaselessly to keep everything in balance. But as we near the end, a lifetime's work takes its toll. Finally, you approach the last minute of your life. (CLOCK CHIMES) Gerald is nearing the end. After 84 years, his body is worn out. The body's been failing lately, with things like diabetes, with blood pressure. My hearing's not what it should be, lost half me teeth, I've got cataracts. So, oh, yes, I've not bucked the trend for falling to bits, by any means. In his 84 years, Gerald has taken over 800 million breaths. His heart has made over 3,000 million beats. And all the while, his core temperature has remained within a band of just a few degrees, keeping Gerald's body in perfect balance. Hello, love. I've brought you a drink. Oh, that's good of you. OK, all right? Thanks very much. That's all right. I'm just going to pop your legs up, actually, all right? Oh, that's one of me in the cathedral choir - looking angelic, more than I was. That was my mother and father. I was the only child and I certainly did have naughty spells. Well, that was me in the Army, when I was a wireless operator in Siam. That was Mary and myself cutting the cake. I can't really think of any partnership where the love was deeper and more lasting and more secure. But now Gerald's systems are failing. A year ago, he was diagnosed with liver and lung cancer, and severe anaemia. I don't want to die, but pretty evidently, unless some miracle happens, I ain't going to be here very long, Gerald is squarely facing the prospect of his imminent death. I'm not frightened. I believe that it'll not be just like cutting off, er, a tape with some scissors. It might be. I just have blind trust that I shall not disappear completely. (CLOCK CHIMES) But life doesn't release its grip readily. Even at this final stage, Gerald's body is trying to keep its critical balance. Gerald is severely anaemic. He has only a third of the normal number of red blood cells. The level of oxygen in his blood is so low, it's surprising he's still alive. In a last struggle to keep going, Gerald's body tries to compensate. He takes deeper, more frequent breaths to try and draw in more oxygen... ..while his heart contracts harder and faster in an attempt to force more blood around his circulation. One, two, three and... Yet even this is not enough. OK. Alan's got your weight. No-one knows how much longer he can last. Grateful for each day, and in the morning I always say thank you for another day, and fingers crossed and God willing. Do you want a drink? This one? Thank you. drops even lower. Gerald's blood count Soon he can no longer leave his bed, but he's battling on. Still no pain, and I'm still managing to eat reasonably and enjoy me crosswords and so on. But after a further week, Gerald loses his appetite. He is finding it hard to eat anything at all. With no food supply, as well as very low oxygen, the mitochondria inside his body are starved of fuel.

With barely any energy, his body becomes entirely unable to maintain its precious balance. Gerald begins slipping in and out of consciousness. He has kept going far longer than anyone expected. But without energy, his heart is failing. His blood no longer circulates. I think he's gone. The balance is undone. Now all that's left are the memories. I would like to be remembered as a good father and as a husband. Hopefully, they'll overlook my shortcomings. Gerald reminds me very powerfully of my own father's death, except when my father died, it was rather more flamboyant. For some reason, he decided to start singing, and he sang and sang for several minutes, and then he stopped and he was gone. And I have I think of him with huge affection every single day. And this is the true miracle of your everyday existence. From your first breath to your last, You become someone with hopes and dreams, likes and loves, able to touch the lives of others. This program is captioned live. SONG: # You make my heart go ha # You make my heart go # You make my heart go ha # Yeah # You make my heart go # Ha, ha, ha # ANNOUNCER: It that time again. It is