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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) how you're gonna get rid of it? how do you even start to work out we didn't anticipate this. In the early stages of get the vessel re-floated The early stages were a case and take her back to sea. she remained there. Despite all our efforts we had a very severe storm Latterly at the end of March any salvage operation. which finished

is the last resort really. So what's happening now This is a last resort, we don't cut up ships on beaches. because in the United Kingdom to deal with. And of course you've got the tides we get time to work on it, At this time with the spring tide per tide. up to about 5 and a half hours get near the ship. Next week we might not isn't there, There is something that affects you, lying on its side. seeing a big ship somehow, doesn't it? It kinda gets you in your stomach not lying on its side A ship should be upright, floating,

being cut into small pieces. sympathise with this ship, As merchant seaman, I can we'll give her a tidy end. however we'll do our best, of the Riverdance left Today there's barely a scrap on Blackpool's beach. at its last port of call every step of this journey. Shifting fortunes have marked

of Anglesey, From the abandoned copper mines of Rhyl, to the vanished Victorian grandeur and the fresh new face of Liverpool. are nothing if not resilient. The people of this coast and they know how to spend. They know how to earn of that hard-earned cash was spent Blackpool, of course, was where a lot industrious lives. by people taking a break from tough, have always lived side by side. On this coast, work and play Captions (c) SBS Australia 2011 Coming up in to step down by taking to the streets of the Libyan Job concerns prompt to withdraw support Government's proposed carbon tax. stories and the

Stalin demonstrated to the Western Over dinner one night, the German leadership after the war. he talked of how he wanted to treat mass executions. will never tolerate they allowed them to begin, Even if in the passion of war against those responsible they would turn violently had taken place. after the first butchery I have a compromise to propose. to be executed I put the figure of Germans Eventually it was all too much for Churchill.

Roosevelt chose not to support Churchill at the dinner.

on a whole range of different issues, He wanted Stalin's co-operation in the war against Japan. like gaining Soviet involvement As for Stalin, VOICEOVER: 4.5 million Australians or building society. choose to bank at a credit union big savings on your home loan. By doing the same, you could make a few hundred dollars. We're not talking can save you thousands. Their home loan rates go back to you That's because their profits with consistently better rates. SONG: # Back to you... #

thousands of ATMs across Australia. You can also access your money from To find out more, look for this symbol. is selling you on 'more', When everyone else more than ever, Ford think that now, is a time to make do with 'less'. Take less trips to the petrol pump, Fiesta ECOnetic. with the very clever most fuel-efficient car. It's Australia's with a Mondeo LX Diesel. Use less fuel than a Camry Hybrid. It gets better fuel economy And now spend less with a Focus LX Auto, from $22,890 driveaway.

Less fuel, less to pay. That's Ford smart thinking. (COUGHS HOARSELY) (ALL LAUGH) (COUGHS) (LAUGHS BREATHLESSLY) (COUGHS DEEPLY) (WHEEZES) VOICEOVER: At any time... (COUGHS) ..your smoker's cough... with lung cancer's cough. ..can become smoker In January 1944, of the Tehran conference, less than two months after the end with their attempt to con the world the Soviet authorities went public about the murders at Katyn. had in fact murdered them, a year after the Soviets in the film propaganda. now took pride of place like the Russian forester Kiselev, And key witnesses,

on threat of their own death, had now been persuaded they'd given to the Germans. to withdraw the testimony didn't fool the British government. But the Soviet deception A British Foreign Office official had happened here at Katyn, who examined what the Soviets claimed

in which he said wrote a secret report was to remain confidential. But all this Even before he'd read the report,

to the Foreign Secretary saying Churchill had written ever speak a word about it." "We should none of us best to ignore the problem of Katyn. At the White House, Roosevelt did his

was focused on the bigger picture. The American President were preparing for D-Day The Western Allies

a tough war in the Pacific. and were also fighting I get a copy at once. Can you make sure And send one to Hopkins. Roosevelt had never even replied

Churchill had sent him to a previous report guilty of the killings at Katyn. suggesting that the Soviets were But in May 1944, to talk about the murders. Roosevelt was forced a friend of Roosevelt's George Earle, to the Balkans, and a special American emissary from his intelligence contacts had uncovered evidence the Soviets had committed the crime. that convinced him Here are these pictures. Here are these affidavits.

could you have? What greater proof George, they could have rigged things up. things up, the Nazis are very smart. The Germans could have rigged and a German plot. This is entirely German propaganda the Russians did not do this. I am absolutely convinced George, about Russia since 1942. you've been worried Now, let me tell you. I've had a lot of experience. I'm an older man, These Russians, they're 180 million people speaking 120 different dialects. After this war they're going to fly to pieces like a centrifugal machine cracked through and through. I think he was horribly frustrated, I really do. He was all over me about the fact that he was convinced from the start that the Russians had done it. Ten months later, in March 1945, Earle told Roosevelt he was going to make public all his concerns about the Soviets. Roosevelt immediately wrote to him saying it would be a betrayal for Earle to publish this material, and ordered him not to. As if this was not enough, a few days later, Earle's life was turned upside down. He was fishing from a rowing boat with a guide in a lake in Maryland when suddenly he had unexpected visitors. They were FBI agents. surprising news. They had come to tell Earle With immediate effect, he was to leave for a new post 7000 miles away in Samoa. It was clear that President Roosevelt wanted his old friend out of the way. A few weeks later, his son managed to visit his father in his Pacific exile. He was bitter, he was very disappointed, he was very upset that the President had done that to him. In a democracy, you don't do that sort of thing but the President thought, wartime, he could do it and he did it. And of course, he got away with it, naturally. Just a few weeks after Earle met Roosevelt, the Western Allies launched D-Day. A massive amphibious landing on the coast of France on the 6th of June, 1944. It was the start of the so-called second front, which Stalin had been asking the Western Allies to provide for several years. But in a less well-known piece of history, the Red Army launched its own offensive on June the 23rd. Nearly two and a half million Red Army soldiers would confront the mass of German Army Group Centre. And within a month, the Red Army had pushed forward around 200 miles.

In late July in Lvov, in Eastern Poland, special troops of the NKVD entered the city The Soviets had last occupied this area three years before. The Soviets were particularly interested in the Gestapo HQ in Lvov, for a hurried exit, where the Germans were preparing taking their intelligence files with them. The Soviet secret police planned simply to convert the Gestapo HQ into their own new home. And from here, the secret police wanted to target more than just those people who had collaborated with the Germans. They intended to seize anyone who so much as uttered one bad word about the Soviet regime. The city of Lvov was at the heart of the area in Eastern Poland the Soviets had first snatched in 1939. Regardless of the propaganda speeches, the Soviets would never again let this land be part of Poland. VOICEOVER: With Newcastle Permanent's new Everyday Account, it's easy to access your money for free at these ATMs Australia-wide. And easy to save with optional high-interest Online Savings Accounts. Simplify your banking at Newcastle Permanent. When everyone else is selling you on 'more', Ford think that now, more than ever, is a time to make do with 'less'. Take less trips to the petrol pump, with the very clever Fiesta ECOnetic. It's Australia's most fuel-efficient car. Use less fuel with a Mondeo LX Diesel. It gets better fuel economy than a Camry Hybrid. And now spend less with a Focus LX Auto, from $22,890 driveaway. Less fuel, less to pay. That's Ford smart thinking. At the same time as the Soviet Union was suppressing resistance in Lvov, Polish soldiers were fighting and dying here in Italy, in the British Army. These Poles, fighting against the Germans, believed they were laying down their lives so that their homeland could be free. But no matter how bravely the soldiers from Eastern Poland fought, no matter how many of them died in battle, they, as far as Stalin was concerned, now came from the Soviet Union. It was in May 1944 that the Poles fought their most famous battle as part of the British Army, here at the monastery of Monte Cassino which protected the road north to Rome. The terrain ideally suited the German defenders

who occupied the area around the monastery, and the Allied advance had been held here for months. The Poles took part in what would prove to be the final attempt to take the mountain in May. The mountains were defended by some of the Germans' elite troops. And they soon formed their own opinion about the fighting quality of their Polish opponents. Around 4000 Poles were killed or wounded fighting for the British Army in this one battle. Eventually the monastery at Monte Cassino was occupied by the Poles on the 18th of May, 1944. NEWSREEL: After many days of bitter fighting and heavy losses incurred,

the Polish flag flies from the ruins of the monastery. On Monte Calvary, overlooking Monte Cassino, is a monument to the Polish sacrifice. One side of it reads, "For our freedom and yours, "we soldiers of Poland gave our soul to God, "our life to the soil of Italy, "our hearts to Poland." But despite the scale of the sacrifice, Monte Cassino was a great victory for the Poles. They thought they had proved their worth to the British Army in which they fought. NEWSREEL: Poland fights side by side with her great allies for freedom and democracy. (Speaks Polish) INTERPRETER: Your Majesty, General Sosnkowski. In July 1944,

General Anders of the Polish 2nd Corps welcomed King George VI who had come to Italy to congratulate the Allied soldiers on their achievement. This is a song about the Polish city of Lvov, Your Majesty. The words are "If I were to be born again some day, only in Lvov." (Both sing in Polish) But back in Lvov, the very city they were singing about, the Red Army was beginning its occupation. POLISH SONG CONTINUES The Polish soldiers in the British Army didn't know it yet, but most of them would never see Lvov again. learnt how the Soviets were behaving as they came west.

The Polish underground army rose up against the German occupiers of Warsaw on August the 1st, 1944. By taking on the Germans before the Soviets arrived, they hoped to show the world their independence. Soviet propaganda had encouraged the citizens of Warsaw to believe they were about to be liberated by the Red Army. But the Poles had not consulted Stalin before launching their attack. The Red Army lay to the east of Warsaw, across the River Vistula. But Stalin had no intention of committing them to the struggle in the Polish capital. He even refused to assist Allied planes which were trying to supply the rising from the air.

We realised that they were not going to allow either us or the Americans to land on Soviet territory. And this seemed to us a most terrible betrayal, not only of the Poles but of the Allies. 300 supply flights to Warsaw, The British made more than most flying a tortuous journey Churchill wanted to help the resistance fighters in Warsaw,

regardless of what Stalin might think. Many of the missions were flown by Poles who were serving in the RAF. Mr Churchill's Polish squadron... "If you want to fly, it's your country, your capital city." And not one refused to go. The war was on, you had to help your friends. Tadeusz Ruman flew 18 missions to Warsaw. Every trip was more dangerous because it was a long trip and the Germans knew the route you were coming. At the end of August, Tadeusz Ruman's plane was attacked on his way back from Warsaw and he only just managed to crash-land it back at base. He was awarded a distinguished flying medal for his bravery. Over 100 of his Polish colleagues While the battle for Warsaw continued, Winston Churchill arrived in Italy to meet with General Anders, Commander of the Polish 2nd Corps. General Anders... May I congratulate you, General, on the fine successes that... Churchill was in a difficult position. One of his allies, the Soviets, with another, the Poles. seemed almost to be at war You must trust us. in defence of the principle of your independence, and I can assure you we will never desert you. I know that the Germans and Russians are killing all your best elements, particularly the intellectuals. I sympathise with you deeply. But be confident, we will not desert you and Poland will be happy. I, and my friend President Roosevelt, to whom I have promised my support and who will again be elected President, will never abandon Poland. Put your trust in us. But Churchill's support made little difference to the situation in Warsaw... which was grim. German forces openly targeted Polish civilians as well as members of the Home Army. Within two weeks of the rising starting, in one district of the city alone,

the Germans killed at least 40,000 civilians. One of the worst atrocities occurred here, in the basement of a makeshift hospital in the centre of Warsaw. On September the 2nd, 1944, a group of German auxiliary troops arrived and found the underground rooms filled with Polish wounded - men and women. OMINOUS MUSIC Danuta Galkowa managed to hide during the assaults, but still witnessed the sight of mass rape. The mass rapes and murders that took place in this makeshift hospital were just a tiny proportion of the atrocities perpetrated by German forces in Warsaw. In total, over 200,000 Polish civilians died. The Poles in Warsaw finally surrendered in early October 1944. A few weeks before, Stalin had relented and offered them some help, including allowing Soviet planes to drop supplies. But many believed he deliberately did too little too late. The fighting in Warsaw had lasted more than 60 days, and now it was over. When we heard the news, and this I remember, everyone cried. The Germans began to destroy Warsaw brick by brick. It seemed like Stalin had got his way. He'd watched as the Germans destroyed the Home Army in Warsaw.

And the Western Allies had ultimately felt powerless to prevent the Soviets acting as they saw fit. It didn't augur well for the future. When everyone else is selling you on 'more', Ford think that now, more than ever, is a time to make do with 'less'. Take less trips to the petrol pump, with the very clever Fiesta ECOnetic. It's Australia's most fuel-efficient car. Use less fuel with a Mondeo LX Diesel. It gets better fuel economy than a Camry Hybrid. And now spend less

with a Focus LX Auto, from $22,890 driveaway. Less fuel, less to pay.

That's Ford smart thinking. As the last rites were about to be read over Warsaw, Churchill and Roosevelt met several thousand miles away in Quebec, in Canada. NEWSREEL: Now, into a Quebec station, comes an official train carrying England's Prime Minister Winston Churchill, to meet once more with America's President Franklin Roosevelt. Discussion of the Soviet action, or lack of it, during the rising in Warsaw, wasn't a priority at the Quebec talks. Overall, the war in Europe seemed to be going well for the Allies. Perhaps, some thought, the Nazis would be beaten by Christmas.

So here, the focus was on how Germany should be treated at the end of the war. We have got to be tough on the Germans. And I mean... Roosevelt was keen on a radical plan proposed by his Treasury Secretary, Henry Morgenthau. A plan which would destroy post-war German industry. Henry, would you like to say a little more about the Treasury's proposals? Yes, Mr President. It is in the interests of peace and security that Germany's economic domination of Europe is eliminated. The Ruhr, the heart of Germany's industrial power - this area should be stripped of all industry within six months of the end of the war. And all German industrial equipment should be transported to Allied nations as reparation. The mines must be closed... I will be honest with you, Mr President. I regard this proposal as unnatural, un-Christian and unnecessary. Un-Christian. What is more, it would be like chaining oneself to a dead German. of the harsh treatment of Germany. Stalin massively approved Perhaps coincidentally, one of the people who helped draw up the American plan, Harry Dexter White, was a Soviet spy who was relaying all the secrets he could back via his Soviet handler to Moscow. White was just one of a whole network of Soviet spies in Britain and America that kept Stalin informed during the war. The Western Allies had no such intelligence network in the Soviet Union. In Quebec, Eden and Churchill were both anxious that the Americans agree to a new package of financial assistance for the British, of over a billion dollars. Two days after Churchill's protest about the Morgenthau Plan, Roosevelt signed the deal. Mr President, the British people are greatly in your debt. This is something that we are doing for the benefit of both our countries. I think... we should look at your proposals on Germany a little more. After the agreement had been signed, Churchill appeared to change his mind about the Morgenthau Plan. Though he re-worked the plan slightly, he still agreed to destroy German industry after the war. The program for eliminating the war-making industries in the Ruhr and in the Saar should look forward to converting Germany into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character. It would be like turning the Black Country into Devon. It is not in our national interest. The future of my people is at stake. my people and the German people, And if I have to choose between I am going to choose my people. were planning the future of Germany, While Churchill and Roosevelt Stalin's secret police the future of Poland. seemed to be determining even saw as a threat The secret police against the Nazis in Warsaw, those who had fought like Halina Szopinska. now such that one ally, the Soviets, The conflict within the alliance was members of another ally, the Poles. was in the process of torturing entered Warsaw in January 1945, When the Red Army eventually they liberated a ghost city. the control of a puppet government Most of Poland was now under installed by Stalin. It looked here as if one tyranny of replacing another. was indeed in the process Captions (c) SBS Australia 2009

This program is captioned live.

Colonel Gaddafi defiant as ever as

cracks in the alliance emerge.

Unions issue an ultimatum to the

government on carbon tax. Mexican

drug bosss set to corner the

Australian market. We are into it,

mate. I We are going sailing. And

yachtys defy a ban to make the most

of a rare event.

Good evening. Peta-Jane Madam with

SBS World News Australia. NATO

foreign ministers are tonight

meeting for another round of talks

in Berlin but are seemingly no

close tore a union fieed approach

on Libya. France's Defence Minister

wants the UN to pass a resolution

that would allow allied forces to

give greater support to rebels, but

only Britain and the US support the

idea. While politicians debate the

way forward, NATO forces are

continuing their bombing mission.

A burst of anti-aircraft fire was

the first sign that Tripoli was

about to come under attack. The

target was a military base. Plumes

of smoke rose from where the bomb

struck and within an hour the

regime's media handlers had taken

foreign journalists to see the

damage. Not at the base, but a

university campus 500 metres away

where a lecture call and hall and

cafeteria sustained damage there.

Was no sign of fire, suggesting

that the smoke came from a direct