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Lost Worlds -

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NARRATOR: The discovery
of Richard III

made news headlines
around the world.

As a result
of a DNA comparison...

I did a little dance
round the lab. (GIGGLES)

King Richard III was found
buried under a parking lot.

The earthly remains of the last
of the Plantagenet kings.

But much of what happened behind
the scenes has never been revealed.

If I'd put this trench in
50 centimetres further east

I'd have missed it entirely.

Our documentary team
followed the whole process

from the first trench
to the final test...

WOMAN: You take the teeth,
and then you crush them.

From that
you try and extract the DNA.

..the only TV crew
to observe the scientists at work.

In this film, those involved
tell the full story...

That's what I think
would have delivered that wound

to the top of the head.

..with new revelations...

It's just possible that the
hands of this individual were tied

at the point he was buried.

..and surprising twists.

MAN: Jo Appleby thought
it could possibly be a female.

It was almost like having
to think about planning emigration

at that stage.

This is the inside track

on one of the greatest
archaeological detective stories

ever told...

..the hunt for England's lost king.

Summer 2012.

The search began
for the remains of Richard III,

the last English king
to die in battle.

The location —
a car park in Leicester,

not the usual burial ground
for a king.

But our turbulent history
holds an explanation.

Richard was killed at Bosworth
in 1485,

in a battle for the crown.

He's one of
our most notorious monarchs.

Tudor historians,
and later Shakespeare,

cemented his reputation
as the archetypal villain.

I can smile

and murder whiles I smile,

And cry 'content'
to that which grieves my heart

And wet my cheeks
with artificial tears

And frame my face
to all occasions.

His body was taken
to Greyfriars Church in Leicester,

14 miles away.

He was buried quickly
in a simple grave.

The building was destroyed
during the Reformation

and the tomb was lost.

There the story would have ended

if it wasn't for Philippa Langley -

a member of the Richard III Society,

a group dedicated
to rehabilitating his reputation.

It's really important we get to the
medieval level as soon as possible.

She joined forces
with the archaeologists

at Leicester University.

Piecing together different maps
of Leicester,

they calculated the approximate
location of the friary.

MAN: The old maps proved
surprisingly accurate.

The 18th-century streets
on the 18th-century map

and the modern streets
all still lined up.

Philippa commissioned
a radar survey of the site,

but it proved inconclusive.

The only way to find out if Richard
was still there, was to dig.

MAN: The idea of actually finding
a named individual,

especially Richard III,

I thought
was a very, very slim possibility.

MAN: It seemed utterly bonkers.

One thing you don't do
in archaeology

is you don't go looking
for famous people.

WOMAN: I confess
I think we were all quite sceptical

that we would actually
find anything.

I remember being there
on the first day

going, "It will be fine, we won't
find anything. It'll be fine."

MAN: Don't go too deep.

Thinking there's some bones on top.
There may be a skeleton.

I was there
to witness the whole thing.

RICHARD: Realistically,
I thought we'd do well

just to find a few friary buildings,

dig those,
do a bit of sample excavation,

close it up and off we'd go.

But it became clear pretty soon

that there was going to be more
to this project

than we originally thought.

In the first trench
on the first day,

site director Matt Morris
made an intriguing find -

but no-one yet realised
its significance.

MATT: I'd spotted a bit of bone
sticking out.

And that wasn't
particularly surprising.

We know it's a church in the area.
We know it has a graveyard.

Fortunately, I missed machining
the skeleton's legs off.

What's that there, then?

Well, it's bone.
I think it may be human bone.

PHILIPPA: So, what have we got?

We've found...human bone.

It looks to be two legs
parallel with each other.

And that, to me, suggests
it's an articulated human burial

rather than just loose bone
knocking around in the soil.

So now that we know it's articulated
we can't touch it

until we get the Home Office licence
to deal with the human remains.


What we can do, though, is
we can clean all the way round it,

clear all the loose rubble back

and we'll then get a good idea

of whether we've got
more burials in the area,

if we can see any other features
that may relate to a graveyard

or to the friary.

So it's good news.
It's been a good first day.

Matt had no evidence

that these remains
had any connection to Richard.

The challenge was still
to find the friary,

locate the church

and pinpoint the choir area
where he was reputedly buried.

Finds started coming thick and fast.

RICHARD: Window glass and
architectural fragments like this

really means that we're looking
at a very high status site

and almost certainly religious
in nature.

The first two trenches

rapidly revealed
the location of the friary cloisters

and the chapter house.

The church had to be nearby -

and there were clues in trench one.

A wall of this width,
as you've suggested,

is carrying some serious weight

and it's difficult to know

what sort of buildings
within the friary it would be

if it wasn't the church.


There was enough money
for one more trench.

They decided to dig
on the north side... inspired choice

which gave me the chance to make
my first archaeological finds.

Very ornate.

MATT: We started finding
lots of floor surfaces,

lots of mortar floor surfaces.

a great contender for the church.

In fact there's nothing else really
it could have been.

In just over a week, the team had
achieved more than they dared hope.

The first two trenches
held the friary cloisters

and the chapter house.

Trench three revealed the position
of the church and more evidence.

Richard, this is...

When we were on the other side
in that trench

you said you wanted two things
to be found on this side -

the walls,
the robber walls, going this way

and then, hopefully,
something resembling a choir

which would mean that's where
Richard might be buried.

So are we excited?
Very excited.

I mean, what we were wanting was...
Really, we only had one wall there.

We wanted two to make a building.

And then we've got an area
of mortar floor between.

So, yeah,
that's exactly what we wanted.

What happened next
caught me by surprise.

The team realised
that the church choir could extend

all the way back
to the first trench -

and to the leg bones
found on the first day.

Suddenly the body became
much more interesting.

It meant it was a grave
within the east end of the church,

in the perfect position
in the church

to actually make it worth exhuming.

Suddenly we'd gone from sort of
doubting we'd ever find anything

to having managed
to put all the trenches

exactly where we needed them

to answer everything
we were looking for.

This is where Matt found the bones.

Whoo! And they're going in.

There's some pretty serious work
going on there.

The plan here is

they're going to dig out
another section of that wall there

so that we can get at the bones.

Are we worried about the...
the bricks falling down?

No, I've got it well padded and
the skeleton isn't actually exposed,

so the soil will protect it, so...

Leicester University bone expert
Jo Appleby was called in

to excavate the skeleton.

She wore protective clothing -
not to protect her -

but to make sure
her DNA didn't contaminate the bones

she was about to investigate.

Here we've discovered something
to go with our...with our legs.

Yeah, Jo's just found a skull
in the grave.

Oh, wow. Yeah.

A bit of a problem though

in that it seems to be a lot higher
than where we had the legs

when we found them.

I'm quite excited

because that appears to be
a hole in the skull.

Yeah. That's not an old hole.

That's a hole
that's been there for 10 minutes.

Where it was just basically taking
it down with this mattock here

and unfortunately that's
gone into the top of the skull.

So that's what caused that hole.


JO: I excavated the legs.
They seemed to be normal.

I exposed the arms again.

There was no sign that anything
out of the ordinary was occurring...

..until I started to excavate
the spinal column.

The first few vertebrae
were completely normal,

were doing exactly what I expected.

But when I got to about

all of a sudden the next one wasn't
where I was expecting it to be

and I couldn't find it.

I then actually spent
a little bit of time

excavating the area around it to try
TO figure out what had happened

and I found the next vertebrae
was displaced considerably

off to one side.

That was something
that made me aware

that we might be dealing with
something out of the ordinary

because one thing that we know
about Richard III

is that he's reported to have
a crooked back.

The feeling at that point was really
one of mounting disbelief.

I absolutely wasn't expecting
to find the skeleton of Richard III.

Finding the bones
was very fortunate.

As Matt admitted,
it almost never happened.

MATT: We were pretty blind
when we came to cut the trenches.

Just to show how improbable
the task of finding him was,

if I'd put this trench in
50 centimetres further east

I'd have missed it entirely

and we'd have never known
he was there.

Once I'd realised how close I'd come
to missing him it was sort of phew!

A close shave,
but the king had been uncovered.

Next, this medieval skeleton was
about to embark on another journey -

into the realm
of 21st-century science.

(ROCK MUSIC) SONG: # I never said,
"Do you need it?" # Oh, please # Uh-uh, uh-uh

# Get in, get out, and do it # Get in, get out, and do it # Get in, get out, and do it

The smarter Ford Ranger - because tough is not enough.

September 2012.

The archaeologists
from Leicester University

were gathered around
a hole in the ground

containing a lost king of England.

And they didn't quite know
how to react.

RICHARD: The cool thing
for me to say

in terms of looking at the burial

would be to say, "Yes, it's
another burial, how interesting,"
all that sort of thing.

But actually, I mean, for me

because it became humanised
by the fact

that this was potentially
the burial we were looking for,

and we could put a name to him,

and we've seen portraits of him
and we knew what he did.

And the fact that he died in battle,

it was actually a very poignant
moment in many respects.

So I think, yes,
I would be lying if I didn't say

that the hairs on the back
of my neck stood on end

when I looked down this hole
and saw the curved spine,

and saw the skull
with evidence of trauma on it.

So it was...
it was quite a moment really. Yeah.

MATT: You suddenly thought,
"Hang on a minute.

"Trauma to the head, east end of the
church in the choir, curved spine.

"Have we actually managed
to do this?"

JO: Yeah. Left femur.

The spine was the last thing
to be lifted.

We needed to treat it
with a lot of care

because this was obviously something
that was going to need to be intact

and carefully looked at in the lab.

The skeleton had been uncovered
only a few hours

but already
Jo was able to piece together

part of the extraordinary story
these bones can tell.

It was clear the body had been
dumped in the ground more in haste

than respect.

JO: The body had been slightly
squashed up within the grave,

so that the head was actually quite
pushed up against the end of it.

And something
that was quite interesting

is that the position of the hands
is slightly strange

for a medieval burial.

They were crossed over the pelvis
but slightly over to one side.

It's just possible
that this might indicate

that the hands of this individual
were still...were tied

at the point that he was buried.

of feature by dissembling nature,

Deformed, unfinished,
sent before my time

Into this breathing world,
scarce half made up

And that so lamely and unfashionable

That dogs bark at me
as I halt by them.

This individual was placed into
a very simply constructed grave.

We don't have evidence
for any kind of elaboration in it.

We don't have a coffin for example,

or any other kinds
of grave fittings,

so he must have gone in either
as he was or possibly in a shroud.

but nothing of that has remained
if that was the case.

The lack of grave goods made
the archaeologists' job much harder.

There were no tombstones,
no inscriptions, no keepsakes.

The only way to prove
the skeleton's identity

lay in the bones themselves.

MATT: As we drove away,

although the bulk of the skeleton
was in the box in the back,

Jo actually had the skull
on her lap.

The skull was the one
we were going to take DNA from.

And we'd kept it separate

because we had to get it
into the fridge.

And it was all carefully wrapped up.

We couldn't just risk rolling...
it rolling around in the van.

So she was carefully
holding onto it as we drove away.

That was the surreal thing.

This box of bones
was about to create a huge fuss.

The team at Leicester
made their first announcement -

this could be Richard.

WOMAN: We have a man with
what appear to be battle injuries,

who suffered from severe scoliosis,

that is curvature of the spine,

respectfully but modestly buried

in a place of honour
in a friary church.

Clearly we are all very excited
by these latest discoveries.

This is potentially a historic
moment for the university

and the city of Leicester.

But behind the scenes, the team
had a vast amount of work to do.

There would be CT scans,
carbon dating, DNA sequencing,

facial reconstruction,
skeletal analysis.

Every single piece of evidence
had to support their case.

It's quite a responsibility.

I'm at a fairly early stage
in my career.

If something goes wrong with this,

it's going to be
very, very damaging for me.

So, yes, it does stress me
a little bit.

All would come to nothing

if the scientists
could not prove it was Richard.

Geneticist Turi King
had one of the toughest jobs.

She had to find fragile DNA
in bones that were 500 years old.

WOMAN: Actually,
what you could do

is if you just hold it in place...

When you're working
with ancient remains

you have to be extremely careful
about contamination.

One of the biggest issues
with ancient DNA

is contamination with modern DNA.

So what I was ensuring

was that while excavating
and while lifting the skelly,

Jo was working
under extremely clean conditions.

When we were looking at the skelly

we were fully garbed up
in the suits, we had face masks

we were double-gloved.

To ensure an accurate DNA result,

each step had to be double-checked
at two separate labs.

The skeletal remains were actually
in extremely good condition.

Now, it doesn't necessarily

that you'll be able to get
ancient DNA out of them

because it completely depends on
the soil conditions.

And what I was hoping to get
were teeth

and that's because they're
the most likely bit to remain.

They're usually very well preserved.

So what you do is you take the teeth
and you take them into a clean room,

you clean them extremely carefully

and then you crush them
into a powder.

And then from that you try and
extract the DNA from that powder.

Sounds simple,

but ancient DNA is broken
into thousands of tiny fragments.

Piecing them together
takes months of painstaking work.

Meanwhile, Jo Appleby took charge
of the bones, still covered in mud.

She had to examine each bone
in minute detail,

searching for clues
about this person's identity.

JO: We're going to take a CT scan
of the skeleton.

The idea of that is that it will
give us a good 3-D record of it

and it will enable us
to look in more detail

at the nature of the trauma on it

and also potentially
at the abnormality of the spine.

Help was at hand
at the city hospital,

who were about to receive
a very unusual patient.

Obviously a hospital scanner is
used mostly for hospital patients.

We're being allowed to use it
in the evening

because at that point
it is usually free.

But when we tried to do this earlier
there was a major accident

and they needed to use it for
patients, so we had to step back.

And that's well and good
and exactly as it should be.

I took several of the molars out
for the ancient DNA analysis.

And removing those
was absolutely terrifying -

sitting there for about three hours
just gently wiggling the teeth

hoping that nothing
was going to get broken.

There are 206 bones
in the human body.

Each one had to be positioned

The shape of the vertebrae
changes as it goes down the spine.

And one of the problems with this

is of course the vertebrae
are not completely normal.

Scanning the bones - mud and all -

was a chance to make
a complete record of the skeleton,

just in case it fell apart
during cleaning.

WOMAN: We've never scanned
a skeleton like this before.

And it's certainly a different thing

to be thinking
that it could be royalty.

But it wasn't all going
according to plan.

As Jo examined the skeleton,

some data was about
to throw everything into question.

There was an outside chance
this could be a woman.

JO: There are
some features on the pelvis

rather wider than we would normally
expect to see in a male skeleton.

The skeleton of Richard III
was beginning to reveal its secrets.

being used by Dr Caroline Wilkinson

at Dundee University

to reconstruct his face.

WOMAN: This model has been made

by putting all the layers
of the CT scans together

and forming a 3-D model.

The process that we use for
the reconstruction and depiction

is anatomical.

So what it should give us

is a scientific evaluation
of the face from this skull

rather the artistic
representation in the portrait.

A well-known painting of Richard

It would be interesting to see if
the reconstructed face resembled it.

But Caroline's technique
was based on scientific data

about muscle thickness - and the
distance between skin and skull.

We've got a set
of tissue depths measurements

that are taken
from white European men,

in this case
between the ages of 30 and 40.

So we get
lots of little virtual pegs

so that it gives a kind of
contour map within which we can work

to produce the depiction.

And basically slowly build the face
from the skull

out to the muscle structure.

In Leicester,
with the CT scans complete,

the skeleton
could at last be carefully cleaned.

Then Jo started her analysis.

I'll carry out
a more detailed assessment

of the age of the skeleton.

I'll record in more detail

the characteristics
that enables us to determine sex

although you can see that
by observing it in the field.

I will also take
a series of measurements.

Jo's measurements revealed

that this individual would have
stood 5 feet 8 inches tall

and died some time
in their late 20s or early 30s.

Richard was 32 when he died.

But most intriguing of all
was the spinal deformity.

To define and classify
the spine's distinct curve,

the team called in
Dr Piers Mitchell,

a leading expert
in spinal deformities.

Scoliosis is a 3-D twisting
of the spine

that gives the appearance
of an S-shaped curve to the spine.

When we look at the skeleton

we can see that this individual
had a very distinct scoliosis.

Taking measurements
from the photographs

when he was in the ground

was between 60 and 80 degrees,

which is a pretty big curve.

Piers joined me, Jo

and Philippa Langley
from the Richard III Society

to cast his expert eye
over the bones.

We've got the skeleton here
laid out,

and we've reproduced
the curve as best we can.

Just to show you a little bit about
some of the bones we've got here.

On this vertebra you can see
how we've got bone formed

in the ligaments that connect
this vertebra with the one above,

which show the curve
would have been pretty stiff.

Incredibly, Piers could tell

that this scoliosis
was not present at birth.

Looking at Richard's bones

we can see that they're all
of a roughly normal shape,

so he didn't have
a congenital scoliosis.

Now, we know that his scoliosis
started before he finished growth

'cause we can actually see
subtle changes on the bones

where they follow
the line of the curve.

So they become
very subtly wedge-shaped.

So it's likely
that his scoliosis started

somewhere between the age
of perhaps 10 and 13,

roughly when most boys start going
through their pubertal growth spurt.

Inwardly, the effect was startling.

The effect externally
can be seen in this photograph

of a modern patient
with the condition.

The scoliosis would have affected
Richard's height too -

he would have been shorter than the
initial estimate of 5 feet 8 inches.

The scoliosis could also have put
immense strain on his heart
and lungs,

and may have caused severe pain.

Back to the sort of...
the Shakespearean myth,

would he have had a withered arm

or any sort of oddness in his...
in his arms?

If you compare the humerus on
one side with the humerus on other

they're exactly the same length,
the same for the forearm.

They're symmetric on both sides,

so there's no reason to think
that one side was withered

compared with the other.

One thing Jo and I did notice

was that the radius bones here
are relatively gracile or feminine.

When we looked at the bones,
especially the bones of his arms,

there weren't
strong muscle attachments markings

and the bones looked quite slim.

He must have been
physically less chunky perhaps

than someone who is going to have
robust, strong muscle markings

on their bones.

There are also some features
on the pelvis.

This feature here,
the sciatic notches here,

are wider than we would normally
expect to see in a male skeleton.

This is a feature that varies.

You can have a feminine
sciatic notch and be male.

Wow. Gender shocker in lab.

RICHARD: There were, yes, a number
of highs and a number of lows.

And I think
probably the most scary one

was really when Jo Appleby was
initially looking at the skeleton

and sent me an email saying

she thought it could possibly
be a female.

And I just couldn't believe
that as a possibility.

It was almost like having to think
about planning emigration

at that stage.

However, historical texts
from the period

suggested that Richard
did have a quite feminine physique,

as Professor Lin Foxhall explains.

It's a very interesting description
this one

because using
those particular words,

"slight in body
and weak in strength."

Now, that Latin word 'strength'
is a really interesting one, 'vice'.

'Vice' as a concept often carries

It's not a concept that's regularly
applied, for example, to women.

The very delicate,
gracile skeleton that we have,

that itself is something that
maybe even prompts the descriptions

that we find in the texts.

For absolute proof
of the skeleton's sex,

the DNA test had to show
a male Y chromosome.

And to confirm its identity,

the team needed a DNA match
with a living relative.

Finding that living relative
would be critical.

It all depended on a type of DNA

passed down exclusively through
the female line - mitochondrial DNA.

If there's anything that's left
in terms of DNA

coming out of the skeletal remains,

we expect it to be
mitochondrial DNA.

Mitochondrial DNA is in the egg.

So a woman will pass it down to all
of her children, male and female,

but only daughters will pass it on.

So the search was on for
a descendant of Richard III's family

who shared this particular DNA.

One man,
historian John Ashdown-Hill,

had set out to find one.

I knew immediately it was going
to be a difficult task.

John focused on the female line.

Richard III's mother, Cecily
Neville, had a number of sisters,

and I had to follow all their lines.

It was promising, strangely,

down to the 19th century.

But suddenly I got to a stage
where they were all not marrying

or marrying very late
and having no children

or marrying very late
and having only one child,

and it turned out to be a son.

And all this mass of evidence
was all of a sudden disappearing.

Eventually I did find just one line

that preserved this all-female line
to the present day.

That royal relative turned out to be
a woman called Joyce Ibsen,

who lived in Canada.

Joyce died, but her son Michael
inherited her mitochondrial DNA.

And we found him working
as a cabinet-maker in North London.

If DNA from the skeleton
matched Michael's,

that was the proof that he needed

that the skeleton
was indeed Richard.


I'm looking for the nephew
of Richard III.

Have I found him?
I think you've found one.

The last of the Plantagenets.

Well, possibly. Possibly.

Did you ever feel
you had this royal blood?


We had no idea

until my mother was contacted
in 2005

by John Ashdown-Hill

and informed that he had traced her

as a female-line descendant of Anne
of York, Richard's elder sister.

All those pieces of DNA.

Well, DNA,
it's part of who you are.

Part of my physical being

is directly related
to the family of Richard III.

And that's...
It makes you stop and think.


And it's... I find it
somewhat overwhelming at times.

Research by Leicester University's
genealogist Professor Kevin Schurer

confirmed Michael
was a direct descendent....

..17 generations removed
from Richard.

He was related through
the all-important female line.

But the line stops
with Michael and his siblings.

When they die
the line dies with them.

So, the skeleton
was unearthed in the nick of time.

In Leicester, Michael met with
project geneticist Dr Turi King.

That's fantastic,
that should be plenty. Great stuff.

What I've got here

is I have got a spit sample
from Michael Ibsen

and that contains
an awful lot of his DNA.

It's got a lot of his cheek cells
in there.

What I'm going to be doing is
I'm going to be taking some of this

and extracting his DNA from it.

And then I'm going to be sequencing
his mitochondrial DNA

and comparing it
with any mitochondrial DNA

we can get
from the skeletal remains.

Unlike the skeleton,

Michael's DNA took Turi a matter
of days to analyse and sequence

because it was
in so much better condition.

So, this is essentially
part of the sequence

of Michael's mitochondrial DNA.

And this is actually from my dad.

And what you'll see is that not
everybody has the same DNA sequence.

You can see there's difference
between the two of them.

So, my dad here
has a particular sequence

and Michael has got
a slightly different one.

So that's how you can tell
mitochondrial DNA sequences apart

from one another.

What I'll be doing
is trying to get the DNA sequence

from the same region
in the skeletal remains

and then comparing
the two sequences.

What we're hoping
is that we'll get a perfect match.

As the DNA hunt intensified,

the team were making astonishing
discoveries on the skeleton,

revealing not just how Richard died,
but the sequence of injuries,

the weapons that caused them,

and his final
brutal and bloody moments

as he fought for his crown -
and life - on the battlefield.

That's the blow what did it,

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Five months after breaking tarmac,

the scientists
were close to declaring

that our skeleton
was Richard III.

A medieval grave in a sacred place,

a curved spine,

the right age at death.

A living female-line relative
of Richard III had been found

and his DNA was being compared
to the skeleton.

Meanwhile, another test
was under way

that would add an important piece
to the jigsaw.

Carbon dating's been around
since about the 1940s.

And it's a scientific method
of dating living organisms.

It relies on the fact
that all living organisms absorb

a certain amount of a radioactive
isotope called carbon-14,

and which, on the death of the
organism, it decays at a known rate

which then means
you can produce a date.

The technique involved
taking a sample from the skeleton

and isolating
its constituent elements.

This would reveal
how old the bones were

and give clues
about the person's diet.

Philippa, John and I
were there for the result.

We hoped it would be close to
the year of Richard's death, 1485.

We had sort of hopes that we'd get
within 80 years, was the thing,

so we could eliminate any of the
sort of earlier medieval burials.

And the initial dates have come in.

And they're suggesting 1430 to 60,
which is a bit on the early side.

When we first got the dates
coming in

and I saw in the initial paragraph
that it said 1430-60

I did think, "Oh, no,
that's a bit too early really."

But then as you read further down
the page

the radio carbon specialist said
that you had to apply a correction

because this individual
had a high marine diet,

i.e. they were eating lots of fish,

and this would then have
an effect on the dating process.

Because the individual
is eating a lot of marine fish...

By eating marine fish,

the marine fish are absorbing
lots of earlier carbon-14

and it's distorting the date.

So, then it's remodelled,
it then gives us a 95.4% probability

that it's AD 1450 to 1540.

That's great.

What's interesting
about this analysis

is that it's confirmed

that Richard III
had a very high-protein diet,

lots of meat and even more fish,

which is effectively showing us what
a high status individual he was.

Because the population
of medieval Leicester,

based on work we've done
on many excavations in the city,

show that most people
would have been eating pottage

and only very rarely would they
have been able to get access

to fresh meat and fish.

Back in Dundee

Caroline was making progress
with the facial reconstruction.

Now I'm just adding

over and above the muscle structure.

With the skin added,
she started to see a likeness.

He's looking like Richard III.

It's kind of scary actually

because for it to look so similar

makes me doubt
the objectivity of what we've done.

Which means I've had to go back
and check everything a million times

to make sure that this
is following anatomical standards,

which it is,

and it's coming out
to look very similar

to the face that we see
in the portraits, which is great.

The next stage
was to make a 3-D model,

complete with skin texture and hair.

It's probably not going
to become that clear

until we've added those textures.

Because it's...

At the moment he looks like
a clay head rather than a person.

This is really nice, isn't it?

The detail that you can see on here
is fantastic.

In Leicester,
another investigation was under way.

Materials engineer Sarah Hainsworth

and weapons expert
Bob Woosnam-Savage

were matching the skeletal injuries

to the weapons
that might have caused them.

SARAH: One direction it looked
a bit like a scoop.

BOB: Yes, Definitely.
There's the blade coming across.

This is really interesting, this
injury here to the top of the head.

We've clearly still got bone

in the gap between
the two bits of the skull there.

It's just been sufficient
to break the skull

but not to puncture right through

and push that plug of bone
out of the way.

When we analysed the skeleton

we were able to identify
a number of injuries on it.

Interestingly, none of them showed
any signs of healing,

so that we know that they all
occurred around the time of death.

Jo Appleby, forensic pathologist
Stuart Hamilton

and armourer Bob Woosnam-Savage,

identified a pattern
to the fatal blows.

JO: We found a series of injuries
on the skeleton

that tell us about the moments
leading up to his death

and immediately afterwards.

You can see that there's
a bit of a slice here.

And we think
that what's happened there

is perhaps somebody
has taken a slicing action at him

with a sharp-bladed weapon

and it's just nicked
the top of the head.

The blade has sort of
scooping depression

and there are still striations on
there, so the blade came in and out.

Bob believed this injury
was probably caused by a sword -

not a blunt, cumbersome weapon,

but a piece
of advanced military technology.

These were actually state-of-the-art
weapons at the time.

And this fine medieval sword

is actually nothing more than
a precision instrument.

A killing machine all the same,

but it's perfectly balanced
to do its job.

That's it's point of balance

and that means this sword
could be used with great speed,

great grace and great dexterity -

but it's there to kill somebody.

JO: So, then we also have
this much more noticeable

but still quite small wound.

It's a penetrating injury
of some kind.

You can see there's
just a very small entrance wound

on the top of the skull.

The penetrating wound
to the top of the head

was probably delivered
by something like this.

This is known as a rondel dagger.

The blade, as you can see,
is actually a four-sided needle,

a very strong needle.

And it's designed
purely for piercing.

And you find in the late
15th century

illustrations which show people
holding a dagger like this

over a prone victim.

They're standing over his head

and they are pushing down
on the top pommel.

That's what I think
would have delivered that wound

to the top of the head.

And then of course we come to

the most obvious of the wounds
on the skull,

which is this very major slice
that's been taken off.

We actually have part of the slice
of bone that's been cut away here.

It's a very, very dramatic injury -

again you're talking about
a lot of force behind something

to actually cut through the skull
like this.

Certainly if you look
at where this injury is

the brain would be visible
through that.

We all know how vascular
the scalp is.

We know how many blood vessels.

You just bump your head
and how much it bleeds.

There's these areas where pieces of
scalp will be sliced off the skull.

So there's going to be a lot of
blood coming from those injuries.

There is going to be brain visible.

You don't walk away
from something like that,

not even today
with modern neurosurgery.

I think that's the blow
what did it probably.

This is a halberd.

This is basically an axe blade,
as you can see.

Now, these would have been
razor sharp, these edges.

And what's interesting
about the halberd being used

is that this would seem to match
the catastrophic trauma

on the back of the skull there
where it's been sliced.

I think this is the...
I think this is killing weapon.

So, then there's one final wound
on the skeleton.

And again we're very sure
that this is something that happened

after the death of Richard.

And that's on the pelvis.

There's actually a line across here.

PHILIPPA: Oh, yeah. Mm-hm.

We can see that something's
come in from the back.

It's penetrated slightly
to the front to there.

So what we think is that somebody
has actually stabbed him

with some kind of a bladed weapon.

Into the buttocks?

Into the backside.


In total, there were
10 identifiable injuries -

the small, stabbing wound
to the top of his skull,

three more glancing blows,

a dagger to the cheekbone,

a cut to the jaw,

two fatal wounds
to the base of the skull,

a blade cut to the ribs,

and a brutal humiliation wound,
probably administered after death.

He may have suffered
countless further injuries

that left no mark on his skeleton.

JO: The combination
of the curvature of the spine

and the pattern of injuries -

it's not just the single injury
that caused death

but the pattern of the injuries -

suggest very strongly
that this is him.

Overall we have a series of things

which are quite unlikely
in themselves

and they've all come together.

And the chances of that happening
and it not being him

are actually relatively small.

One final piece of proof
was needed - a DNA match.

With the media gathering
for the announcement,

Turi gave us the answer.

I genuinely don't know
what the DNA result is.


Yeah. So...

If you look at the DNA of Michael,

and you look at the DNA
from the skeletal remains

there is a match.


Looking at the sequences,
the match was identical.

Richard and Michael share one of the
rarest types of mitochondrial DNA

called Haplotype J1C2C.

It's carried
by just 1% to 2% of the population.

This made the match
even more reliable.

As I started to see
the first sequences come back

and seeing that it was a match,

I just went really quiet,
it was very profound.

Turi also revealed that she had
managed to isolate a Y chromosome,

proving that the skeleton was male.

What was so exciting
about the moment of being told

was it meant that we could
actually say beyond reasonable doubt

that we'd found Richard III,

whereas without the DNA
it might have been something like,

"The balance of probability
is that it's Richard III."

To reinforce
the genealogical research

Kevin Schurer and Turi King
obtained a DNA sample

from another female-line relative
of Richard III.

They also matched.

And I can now tell you...

..there is a DNA match
between the maternal DNA

from the descendants
of the family of Richard III

and the skeletal remains
that we found at the Greyfriars dig.

Richard's skeleton is now undergoing
further scientific tests,

to tell us more about his life.

Turi King is analysing his DNA
in even greater detail,

investigating his Y chromosome
to check the male line of descent

and searching for evidence
of hereditary disease.

The skeleton
has more secrets to reveal.

PHILIPPA: Oh, it's been
incredibly surreal.

It makes me think
the time was right.

And you know what? It makes me think
it was meant to be.

This was such a long shot

and none of us
ever expected to find a dead king.

I mean, come on, how often
do archaeologists do this?

The facial reconstruction bears a
remarkable likeness to the portrait.

The face of Richard III.

For everyone involved
it's been an incredible journey.

After all,

it's not very often you come across
the remains of a king in a car park.

Supertext Captions by
Red Bee Media Australia
Captions copyright SBS 2013

Ricardo Goncalves with a World News Australia update. An Australian soldier has been injured in an insider attack in Afghanistan. Syrian opposition groups reject a proposal that Iran takes part in peace talks. And the Sydney Opera House celebrates its 40th anniversary.

It's often said

that if you really want
to understand something

then what you should do is build it.

Now take something
like your own hand.

To really understand how it works,

what it's made of, how it functions?

Well, one way to find out

would be to make a machine
that behaves just like that.

For a very long time
that was an impossible dream.

The idea that there could be machines

that could behave exactly
like our own bodies

seemed entirely out of reach.

But then around 300 years ago,
this dream was made real.

This is an automaton.

A self-moving machine that simulates
the actions of a living being.

This elegant young artist

first went on show in France
in the 1770s.

In those days Europe was full
of automata like these.

They entertained kings and princes

and taught moral lessons to citizens.

They raised deep philosophical

and they would foment revolution.

Automata were masterpieces
of art and engineering,

forgotten wonders
of an extraordinary age.

This film is their story.

For a very long time

the construction of machines that
could move like humans or animals

seemed completely fantastical.

But in the Middle Ages

a new form of technology
was developed

that could begin to make complex,
controlled and regular movements.

This technology was
mechanical clockwork

and it would be used in some
of the very earliest automata.

The development of clockwork

was driven by a new type
of social organisation

the burgeoning medieval city.

For medieval city states

clockwork offered a vital tool
to help govern their population.

The city was home
to explosive tensions.

The city air made people free,
so it was said in the Middle Ages

and what that meant
was a big urban problem.

Master and servants, traders and
employees were at each other's

In the city there was plague

and there was fire
and there was civil strife.

The aim was to find a technique
that could turn the city

into a place of good order
and of ideal government.

(All yell and whoop)

Clockwork could offer the solution.

The sound of the bells
reached out across the city

bringing together
its disparate groups

and offering regularity

in a world entirely removed
from nature.

Cities soon began building
spectacular clocks

to showcase their power.

And these clocks would become home

to some of the earliest automata.


This is the 'Zyteglogge'
a German word that means time bell.

For half a millennium
the 'Zyteglogge' has stood in Berne,

now the capital of Switzerland,

and it is driven by an astonishing
piece of clockwork technology.

This is the machine
at the heart of the Zyteglogge.

Its beat, its to and fro movement,

is the beat that drives
the time system of the city.

These complex gears, coiled ropes
and moving weights

are a system designed
more than 500 years ago

and they are still working perfectly.

Right at the top of the machine

is a device which turns
the energy of the weights

into the system that marks
the minutes and the hours.

Almost as soon as such devices
were built

their fluttering, their oscillation,
their regular movement

was compared with the movement
of the human body.


The analogy between clockwork
and the body

inspired the engineers
of the Zyteglogge to experiment.

To combine clocks with art,
with sculpture and with design.

Clockwork could now be used
to bring machines to life.

In a world removed from nature

these automata offered regularity
and order to the city.


Here a crowing rooster,
the rural symbol of time

has been animated once more.

Transformed into a machine
for the citizens to enjoy.


The Zyteglogge and its theatre
of machines

was a vision of the world

that the city dwellers
had left behind.