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7.30 A.C.T. -

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(generated from captions) Before we go, a brief recap of our top stories tonight - asylum seekers being head on the Australian mainland say they are confused and worried by the Federal Government's policy of offshore processing. Some detainees have told the ABC they choose indefinite detention rather than risk persecution or death by returning to their country of origin. NSW residents struggling in the wake of the bushfires are being warned of the danger of asbestos. Authorities say the risk to health is minimal but residents are being warned to stay away until they are given the all-clear. That's the latest from the Canberra newsroom. Stay with us for '7:30 ACT'. Have a good evening. Goodnight. Captions by CSI Australia

Live.
This Program is Captioned I need you to reverse up and start hitting the trees.Let's back it up and start hitting the trees so the boys can get through.Politicians are people and like any set of people, some people come and find it difficult to come to terms with the fact and we - when we do things on earth we are affecting the earth. Hello, welcome to 7.30 ACT, I'm Chris Kimball. Thanks for your company.Coming up - Brian Schmidt on selling science and his other life in the vines.First, have you done enough? That is the question most often put to emergency services chiefs and fire officials as we head towards another summer full of dire bushfire predictions for our region. It may be a decade on but the catastrophic bushfires around Sydney have revived memories of Canberra's fire storm and the difficult lessons that followed. This week, I joined ACT Parks fire management officers on the ground as he attempt to prepare for the worst and spoke with local firefighters just back from the Blue Mountains. When they join it will get really hot here.I might back off here.I have been through a lot of fires, 2003 for instance and some of that fire activity up there reminded me of back in 2003. There is a lot of fuel out there. A lot of fuel and cliffs and erratic wind behaviour. It is unpredictable what the fire can do with fuel loads like that out there.Put a line in and get in the truck quickly.Hurry up. You have 30 seconds.The sights and sounds of the fire ground. These pictures come from a camera strapped to the helmet of Troth
Canberra firefighter Chris Troth in the Blue Mountains this week.Let's back it up and start hitting some of these trees so the boys can get through.We implemented a 12km of Road
back-burn along the Bells Line of Road on Saturday night. The intensity of that fire was amazing. We have got some new crew on at the moment and they have never seen anything like that. A lot of aircraft - over 90 aircraft they had there at one stage. The Eriksson was working with us the other day which is good.Chris Troth's Canberra crew was one of the first sent to the Blue Mountains. They had a breather at home mid-week before going back in as part of a Remote Access Fire Team.We go in with chain saws and brush cutters and we do take in pumps and toy hoses. If we find a water source we will dig a hole and pump from that water source. Our main task is get in there, try and get around the spot fires before they actually break out. We get winched in by helicopters and we can drive in and then walk in. It is a diverse role that we play. It is a very tight knit crew that we go in with and everybody knows their role.What were the fuel loads like up there, does that say something about the fire preparedness up there? The Blue Mountains is amazing. I haven't seen fuel loads like that for a very long time. At one stage we were going through backs of houses at Winmalee and knee deep literally in fuel. Dry leaves which sounded like stepping on corn chips, it was that dry up there and the tea tree and the Bracken and the fern and gum trees, it is a cocktail for a big fire. A decade ago, the same sort of ground fuel issues contributed to the intensity of the Canberra fire storm. Neil Cooper is responsible for making sure that doesn't happen again.A lot of people make the remark that during the hot weather that is your busiest time. In actual fact that is the time where we have got crews waiting for a fire to start. Our busiest time is the rest of the year where we are implementing fuel hazard activities, training, equipment, infrastructure, in readiness for the fire season so that when the fire season does come we are in the best situation we possibly can be.Neil Cooper manages the ACT Parks hazard reduction program. In the past two years, they have done 19,000 hectares of back-burning over 700 plots. They run grazing and grassland slashing programs on the urban fringe and build and maintain hundreds of fire trails. Being the bush capital comes with baggage doesn't it? Yeah, baggage or - I would prefer to refer to it as a challenge I guess. There are some real challenges. The way planning was undertaken in the past, houses probably where we would prefer they are not there but they aren't going to move so we need to work out clever ways of addressing the fuel near those assets.That fuel load is fundamental when assessing bushfire risk.The McLeod inquiry into the operational response to the '03 bushfires found management of fuel load in parks was lacking and recommended more controlled burning as a fuel reduction strategy.We had planning in place pre-2003 but there were separate land management agencies. Now it is the one document
agency and it is the one document across the agency. We have a specific fire unit now but before it was disjointed. The big change I guess is the increase in the commitment to fire, the training and just that overall attitude to fire.We prepare for this all year around. We work 365 days of the year. Unfortunately you never like to see these things happen in the Blue Mountains, it is inevitable. You will have large fires in a landscape where you have fuel that are prime to burn. By using the bushfire management plan and working with the Rural Fire Service, we have created a good plan and each year that is rolled out to but Canberrans in the best shape as possible.All this is regenerating...Is the biggest question asked of you is have you done enough? Is that what gets asked consistently? Yes, that is always a question. Do you have enough money? Are you doing enough? Normally, it is always focused on burning. What we are trying to get across is that there is more than just burning to address fuel. Some places burning is the ideal method of reducing that fuel. Other places it isn't. We are tasked with managing over 80% of the ACT.Have you done enough? I think we have. I feel confident that we have got over 150 trained firefighters in our agency. That is quite significant. As I mentioned before, we have got over 70 Blue Mountains
dedicated to the fires in the Blue Mountains at the moment but at the same time, we are still undertaking all this preparatory work for the fire search ahead.Is it enough? I am confident that the strategies we have in place will minimise the adverse impact of a large fire. It won't stop fires, there will be fires and there will be probably some large fires but what we have put in place is to make sure the adverse impact of those fires is not catastrophic, destroying houses and assets. This crew is preparing for a hazard reduction burn and clearing fire trails in Kowen Forest. They are on stand by if fires break out around Canberra and some of them are just back from the Blue Mountains.Last week you were fighting fires in the Blue Mountains and now you are preparing for potential Canberra fires down the track.Yeah, last week on Friday night we went to - we were deployed to Sydney on Blue Mountains. With about five units, 20 people.Could you tell me about how you came to be in Canberra and how you ended up fighting fires? It is an unusual journey isn't it? Yeah. I came to Australia as a refugee. I was struggling to find a job.There was a program run by ACT Government called West. After a few months later there was a position in the fire management, and it is something I really was interested in, so I got the job, the position, and I really liked it because we do something that makes a difference. You can see the difference we make. It is very tiring job, physical, but at the end of the job, you can see the difference you make and it is satisfying.Iman is now seeking training for a career as a full-time firefighter. He came to Australia by boat as a refugee from Iran three years ago. He spent 18 months in a detention centre.Not a very nice story, but at least now I am here and, yeah, safe and free.The Australian bush must be a very foreign environment to what you grew up in, a new experience? I was born in mountain back in my country, but here is totally different.The bush is just crazy.How critical are the four fire towers around the ACT in terms of actually identifying where the fires are coming from and where they have started? Very critical. If you only have one person spotting a fire, you might be out by a few kilometres but if you have all four towers calling in the same fire, they can pinpoint it down to a couple of metres virtually.There is a bit of wind blowing up here. It must get pretty hairy up the top of the towers at times? Yes, sometimes it does, especially in dry lightning storms and what not. The tower starts sparking.In a big wind it would rock'n'roll a bit wouldn't it? Definitely. You can feel it shaking, very much so.Does this time of year get pretty tense for people involved in fire operations in different capacities? Yes, it is not a physically demanding job, it is just mentally demanding. If you're up here for 10-12 hours a day it is a long day. You have to like your own company.I guess you can't afford to miss something? No, if you miss something, something or somebody will get hurnt or burnt. You have to be vigilant.- hurt.When we see events like in Sydney at the moment it sends a collective shudder through Canberra and particular people like yourselves who were involved directly in '03? Most certainly. There is a number of people in Canberra who know exactly what those people in the Blue Mountains in Sydney are going through. Not only the people losing homes but also the firefighters down there. A number of the people we are sending were involved in 2003 closely and a number of our people lost a lot of personal effects and houses. They were still there day after day on the fire line doing what they do best. And exactly the same now. They are down there doing what they do best and they are some of best at it, I have no hesitation in saying that. We are recognised as having some of best at it.I haven't spoken to many of the boys because nobody likes to talk about 2003. It does bring back memories but we were all there to do a job. Paid or not we are all firefighters and we're out there to help our other fellow firefighters, other agencies, neighbours, and at the end of the day if we had something like this happen, say in 2003 here again, we would have those blokes come in and help us and it would be much appreciated.

Science has faced many attacks throughout the ages, even Copernicus and Galileo had to defend their positions against the church.Four centuries later, some echoes remain, especially in relation to climate change. Science does come into its own each year when the Nobel Prizes are awarded. This year the physics prize went to researchers working on the Hadron Collider. Back in 201, it was won by Canberra's own Brian Schmidt. Like many vignerons in the region, he has combined a science background with winemaking. Brian Schmidt spoke with Tom Stewart Moore about selling science and the balance between life, the universe and everything. It is a beautiful process. I personally find it as a great way to decouple from my other universe of at Ron my so astronomy doesn't completely take over my life but it is where some of my best spots are. You can clear everything out and focus on whatever comes into your mind. It is a creative time for me, for my science, going out here and just doing the manual work that Nobel
is what is required. For a Nobel Prize winner Professor Brian Schmidt makes a pretty good Pinot Noir and it is in such high demand these days that unless you were buying his wine before the prize, you will struggle to get a bottle.This is his backyard, nestled in the hills outside Canberra, he and his family have created a quiet counter point to a consuming scientific career.Frost yesterday didn't quite reach here so we're very lucky. Jenny and I moved out here in 1999 and when we bought the place we hadn't really had the idea of a vineyard in mind but I saw this hill, which is perfectly north south and looked perfect for a place to put a vineyard. Didn't have trees on it. I said to her "We only live once, if we plant a vineyard now by the time I retire it will be in perfect nick, it will have nice well established plants and we can make great wine, let's do this".We should do the mulch experiment and check out the difference.They are doing better.I didn't know a lot about growing grapes but I am a good reader and I had read a bit. Many of the winemakers in the region were ex scientists back then. So I had the ability to start talking to them about it. They all told me don't do it it is insane but I am very glad I did and my fellow winemakers have really provided a huge amount of help at Larkhill just down the road. Dave and Sue allowed me to do a couple of vintages with them or one in 2001 so I could learn the ropes, but Tim kirk and Brian Martin and Rob Howell and Roger Harris are all scientific-type guys who I could talk to about the art of making wine.You get the impression it is a close-run thing between as strong my and the vines and there is an element of crossover.There is an art to it but there is also science to it. It is where those things interplay that I guess I enjoy. I don't do this as a giant science experiment. I am not focused on the chemistry. I am focused on making sour dough but enough
understanding the science enough to make sure that I don't screw up the natural processes.You might wonder how someone finds the time to make wine and win worldwide scientific acclaim. The winery consumes hundreds of hours every year but it is a necessary labour of love.The vineyard does take a fair bit of my life and that is intentional. Astronomy could take over every part of my life and it has since the Nobel Prize and even before that. This imposes a boundary where I have to be here to work on the vineyard. It is very important to me and it forces me to do something other than astronomy. That is why I like it. Of course, he is best known for hi work in discovering that our universe is not only expanding but accelerating too. For this, he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 2011.For the last 18 years, he has worked at the Mount Stromlo observatory, studying supernovae in the southern sky.Supernovae are huge exploding stars and are among the brightest objects in the universe.This brightness is used to measure distance and it led him to the discovery of an accelerating universe. It turns out that the biggest discoveries in science are not just confirming what you already know, it is finding something you didn't know. When I moved to Australia in 1994, I had the idea of what was the ultimate fate of the universe. And I was going to measure this by seeing how fast universe is expanding now. I helped work on that for my PhD thesis and I was going to compare it to what the universe was doing billions of years ago by looking at distant objects and see how fast they are moving apart from each other. The idea was we would measure back in the past and compare it to how fast the universe is expanding now and if the universe was slowing down quickly due to the effect and pull of gravrty, I would know that the universe would reach a maximum size and then start to collapse, not dissimilar to if I threw a ball up in the air, it goes up and comes down. When we made this measurement and we finalised our measurements in 1998, we found that the universe was expanding slower in the past and had sped up over the past six billion years. That was a surprise. Why would the universe speed up? It turns out, we believe, it is because the average effect of gravity across the universe is not to pull on the universe, it is the push on the universe. That is because most of the universe, 70% of it, was stuff we didn't know was there, stuff we now call dark energy, energy that is part of everything.So, what do winemaking, dark energy and astronomy have in common? These exploding stars are important, not just because we are use them to measure brightness, but also because they produce everything interesting in the universe beyond hydrogen and helium. These stars, when they explode, create the iron and the carbon and oxygen and silicon and sulphur that the earth is made out of, that we are made out of. Those elements are created in stars and distributed by these exploding stars.So when we look around on earth and for example, the iron ore that we are exporting to China, two-thirds of that were created in the exploding stars that I studied to measure the ultimate fate of the universe. The other third were in a different type of supernovae but all of that iron were created in these exploding stars.13 long years went by between the discovery in the late 90s and the awarding of the Nobel Prize, which by the way was considered a quick turn around for the prized committee. Meanwhile the theory was tested by the scientific community until in 2011, the Nobel Prize came and he became a public figure, meeting PMs, Governors-General, Presidents and Kings. The Nobel Prize was a big surprise. I have to admit it wasn't anything I ever really considered winning, never really was on my agenda for my life. It is really exciting, it givers you amazing opportunities to do new things but it also makes it hard to do some of the things that you are used to do, like sitting down at your office and not being interrupted for eight hours.And having to do television interviews? Yes, doing television interviews, you name it. Everyone is eager to listen to you and that seemed like a good thing but sometimes it is nice just to be ignored.Being left alone to work would be nice, winning the Nobel has given him the opportunity to press home the message of science to politicians from both camps.Politicians are people and like any set of people, some people come and find it difficult to come to terms with the fact that the earth really is only a little less than 13,000km across, it is finite, there are a lot of people and when we do things on earth, we are affecting the earth. But the question is what about our grand kids and our great grand kids and things, do we just say we will be selfish and not think about our actions and what cost it will put onto those? I believe that would be a mistake and we need to understand the actions. We don't understand them perfectly and that also causes problems. It turns out that people like and believe science should be black and white but science is never black and white. There are people who think I should not have won the Nobel Prize. The laws of physics that we use to power our computers and to pretty much make everything that we know that makes technology and how that enhances our lives, that is all based on theories which are probably not exactly correct. They have some uncertainties but they are still useful. Trying to get society to come to terms with the uncertainties of science, but that the fact it is still useful, is one of my goals - well trying to teach how science works to both kids and politicians alike. So, what does the future hold? The universe is on course to expand and will leave us floating in space all alone but for Professor Brian Schmidt, life's big questions all come back to balance.I really want to have my life not be entirely science and one of the great things about living here in Canberra is you really can live in the bush and so living on a farm just outside of town was something that really appealed to my wife and myself and so having a vineyard there is something that allows me to do and focus on something other than astronomy and that is good for my mind, it is good for me and it really gives me - I guess some spice to life. Astronomy is great but do I really want to do it day in day out and think of nothing else? No, I like life. A pretty good attitude. Tom Stewart Moore with that story.The Lake George area is renowned for its wineries and for its changing lake landscape. Although whether that is due to climate change or natural fluctuations is an open question. Intrepid reporter Peter Luck set out to investigate.This is Lake George 25 miles north of Canberra. It could be the biggest natural lake in NSW but it can also be the small left. It has a tendency to damage its reputation a bit by disappearing every now and then.It has dried up three times since 1832 and the last time was from 1928-1950. Now the lake is starting to evaporate again. As the level of the lake goes down, two factions are forming. Firstly there are the graziers who have been paying their rates on this land since it last dried up and then there are the fishermen and speed boat enthusiasts who want to see the lake full.Mr George Granger leases land on the north end of Lake George. Last month he was able to put 100 more sheep on his property here. How long is it since you have seen that fence? About 17 years.How much of your land is showing? Approximately 200 acres.How much is still under water? About 1300 acres under water.When did you first get the land? 1932 this block.Since '32 what have you seen happen here? Wet and dry.How long would it take for the grass to grow again? Another 12 months.You're pretty happy about this are you? Yes.The people most worried about the disappearing lake are the fishermen and speed boaters. The speed boaters in particular because they're not allowed on lake bury Griffin in Canberra. The Commodore of the Murrumbidgee speed boat club in Canberra is Harry Bigg. How long was it until the lake was up to here? then
Two years ago and ever since then it has been dropping all the time. It is down to a 10 foot drop now.Those posts out in the middle, how tall would they be? About four foot of water they would be in.What is this little box on wheels here? That is the control tower. We call it Humphrey.You have to keep it mobile do you? It follows the water line. Last year it was way up here and now it has been moved down here again. We won't be able to use boats
the lake any more for the speed boats because it is too shallow now.When the lake goes down, do the farmers start putting up the fences again? Yes, the farmer who leased the property is thinking about fencing that across again now.During the lake's history, numerous reasons have been given for the mysterious fluctuations but a seminar in Canberra last year said vap ration was the cause without doubt. There has been discussion about diverting a nearby river to keep the lake full. One group still advocating the plan for regulation is the Anglers. One thing is for certain, unless there is a canal, a tunnel or heavy rain this year, history looks like repeating itself, someone will get left high and dry.An oldie but goody.We will finish this week's show with more adventures from one of our ABC creative team. Our editor this week was Damien Porombka. He has been in a good mood because he is just back from a stint in Fiji. We thought sharing his snaps might do the same for the rest of us. See you at the same time next week. Goodbye. Captions by CSI Australia

£ Theme music

(Applause)

Goo-oo-oo-ood evening, good evening, good evening,
good evening, good evening! Good evening and welcome to QI, where the composition of our panel
is intentionally international. From Denmark, Sandi Toksvig.

From Germany, HenningWhen.

Danke. From Scotland, CliveAnderson. (Laughs)

And from God knows where,
Alan Davies.

Now... tonight's show is all about
inattention and ineptitude. Alan, what is tonight's show about? Inattention and ineptitude. (Alarm bells howl) Oh. That's ten points off
for starters, because actually tonight's show is
all about inequality and injustice. Oh, of course.
Yeah. Yeah. And so we unjustly
took ten points away from you. Yes. I'm used to it. Because this is a show in which
nothing will be fair, so let's get it over with
and go straight to the scores. In first place with -54,
it's Sandi Toksvig. Oh, well done.
Thank you very much.

(Cheering buzzer)
Congratulations. In second place with +7
is Clive Anderson. BUZZER: Objection, m'lord.

In third place
with minus sechzig is Henning Wehn. BUZZER: Don't mention zeh var!

And lastly, obviously, with minus
one gazillion is Alan Davies. (Booing buzzer)
Yes. There we are.

So that's it,
you've done the scores already? The scores are already done, but
we've still got questions to ask. And don't forget your
Nobody Knows joker. (Trumpet fanfare)
Nobody knows! There is a question tonight,
or maybe two, or three, to which the correct answer
is nobody knows. And if you wave your Nobody Knows
joker, you get extra points. Or maybe you lose them. Or maybe you don't, because
the scores have already been given. It's an unjust game tonight. And the first question
is an easy one, so I'll give it randomly
to my old friend Sandi. What can you tell me about
this chap behind you? Oh. Uh... Well, do you think
that the words give it away? Or is that going to be unfair on me? The fact that it says
the Puritan on there. Well... (Laughs) That seems unfair. It does seem unfair, doesn't it? Because what it is, is the 19th
century idea of a Puritan and in fact the 19th century idea
of a Puritan,