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(generated from captions) That's all from the ABC's Canberra newsroom. Stay with us for 7.30 with Leigh Sales and we'll leave you in Sydney where Denmark's Prince Frederik and Princess Mary were visiting the Opera House as part of its 40th anniversary celebrations. Enjoy your evening. Goodnight. Captions by CSI Australia

This Program Is Captioned Live. The army admits it's sparked an extensive bushfire, and it's not the first time.I'm sure nobody has ever done this deliberately but I'm sure there will be disciplinary action taken.A former Reserve Bank board member accuses Wayne Swan of being an economic vandal. If the Treasurer hadn't read page 103 of the annual report, he either didn't understand his job or he was taking a very huge risk with the Australian economy, the one-sided bet.And on patrol with the croc rangers implementing Queensland's controversial new zero-tolerance policy. While the tide's low, while we've got no moon, perfect time for us to go and see if there's any crocodiles around.The relief of surviving yesterday's terrible weather conditions has turned to grief for those battling the NSW bushfires. After a pilot involved in awater-bombing died when his plane crashed today. It's the second death in the week-long emergency and a stark reminder of the dangers faced by firefighters. They resumed their battle this afternoon when strong winds saw a number of serious flare-ups including the largest fire near Lithgow. It's the blaze which the Defence Force has now admitted it started, and as Matt Peacock reports, it's not the first time Defence has triggered bushfires. This footage is of a large bushfire certainly burning out of control in the Marrangaroo army range north of Lithgow. REPORTER: The Lithgow fire soon spread up into the mountains developing a huge front that scorched through nearly 50,000 hectares. Look at the fire. It's bad. Jesus! It was just overwhelming, just the heat, the cracking of the glass, the fire coming in.Today, fire crews and bulldozers were out mopping up and clearing the road near the famous Zigzag railway that was partial ly destroyed by the fire. And how did it all begin? We determined that the fire caused an origin that started last Wednesday, was indeed started on a live firing range as a result of the detonation of some ordinance.Lithgow's mare, Marie Stratham,ments questions answered.It's been a difficult week for Lithgow and all the people down the mountains and I'm sure that nobody has ever done this deliberately but I'm sure there will be a due process that people will need to go through to get a result and then I'm sure there will be disciplinary action taken or whatever will be ahead of us they'll have to face then. This afternoon, the Defence department admitted fault. It was an explosives activity. It was a demolition activity in support of our people that train for operations around the world.Among the firefighters blacking out this week near Springwood was Ian Kahoon who's worked at the Marrangaroo base. Marrangaroo has been an ammunitions storage depot since 1941 and it's also the demolition range with the highest explosive limit in the country so all the major munitions like depth chargers and aerial bombs have to go there to be destroyed when they reach their use-by date.Locals around here have no doubt this is where the fire began, in fact some say they heard the explosion, but what puzzles many is how could such an ordinance base that's been in existence for more than half a century do such a thing in such dangerous circumstances and with such terrible consequences. It's been a very horrendous period of time for wind in our area and the weather conditions have been extremely dry. Yes, the fire - there wasn't a total fire ban on Wednesday the 16th, it did come into place the following day, but I think we've all been very wary of the conditions of the weather in our area lately. It was about 23 degrees, light winds at the time I made the decision to do it. The fire scale was on the lower end of the scale and there wasn't a fire ban.But this may not be an isolated incident. A weekend blaze at the Cultana army base near port Augusta in SA has been linked to Defence live-fire exercises. They're also suspected to have caused a fire in August that started at the Townsville base training area. This dramatic footage of the Lithgow fire captured by a camera mounted on a civilian drone reveals the after-math of the blaze which destroyed buildings including at least three homes. The fire is still burning after eight days and it's by far the largest of dozens of fires that have erupted over the past week. Today it flared up again, causing the Rural Fire Service to issue a new emergency warning. We have just upgraded two of those fires to an emergency warning status and we've issued a number of emergency alerts to different communities across the Bells Line of Road.While the firefighting effort in the Blue Mountains continues, those who do the job are remarkably understanding about how such an accident could happen. It's a mistake. Something's gone wrong. It's happened. You can't change the past. It's done and dusted. It did surprise me because I know how careful that had been and how careful they are. As far as how I actually feel about it, it's fire, fires start - there's lots of different ways fires start and this is just another one.Joining me now is the man coordinating the firefighting effort, Rural Fire Service commissioner Shane Fitzsimmons. Commissioner, thanks for joining us tonight on 7:30 and thank you to you and all your volunteers for your work this week. Good evening, Annabelle. First of all I want to ask you about the pilot you lost today near Ulladulla. It must be especially hard after the relief of last night when we all hoped that the danger was receding? It's a tragic accident and I think it's a sober reminder just how dangerous firefighting can be, whether that be from the air or indeed operating on the ground. We saw that accident occur this morning. The plane has gone down and crashed. That crash resulted in the starting of another fire. It was tough enough for everybody operating on that fire ground to witness that, particularly the pilot's other aerial firefighting colleagues and they had to redirect their attention to starting to deal with the fire that was in and around the wreckage. As was indicated earlier, it was remote, difficult terrain and pretty windy and that made it challenging for police and rescue services to get in there. I've tonight spoken with the pilot's wife and clearly she's in shock and distressed but she's got a big job ahead of her. She's got a young family. She wants to talk to that young family and let them know what happened today and she did expressly ask that I not talk about names or locations or any personal details at this stage but our thoughts and prayers and our sincere condolences are with her, the family, the extended family. Of course the firefighting aerial pilots and firefighters that joined with that pilot, our thoughts and prayers are with everybody during this extraordinarily difficult time.Commissioner, there must have been praty hard conversation for you. I know you lost your own father to fire 13 years ago. Those children must be very much in your thoughts tonight? Look, it's awful, Annabelle. At the end of the day we talk about firefighting and necessarily so, but there is such a big human dimension and tonight there's a family that's not going to welcome home their dad or their husband and they've got a lifetime of hurt, a lifetime ahead of them to mourn the loss of their father who was doing some extraordinary work, loved doing his flying and was making a real difference to his community across NSW.Commissioner, what can you tell us about the behaviour of the State Mine fire now one week old and still burning? Look, it's still very active. There's lot of fire burning across the landscape, particularly to the northern edges. We've got fire that's being influenced by these strong southwesterly winds today. They're, in the main, running unchecked at the moment because we simply have, at this stage, no threat, no people in harm's way, and they're burning up into the park areas. Further south near the Bells Line of Road, we saw the fire cross the Bells Line of Road under these very strong 50 to 70km an hour winds or gusting even higher. It started heading towards the communities of mount Wilson and mount Irvine, that's why we issued the warnings. So too did we issue the warnings for communities along near mount Tomah and Berambing back towards Bilpin. The only machines that were able to fly in the strong winds were the air cranes. They continually dumped water on the fire to try and slow it down. That, with a combination of the easing of the winds just before nightfall, has resulted in us lifting that warning and allowing people to go back, should they have relocated.The acting chief of Defence has today apologised for that fire. Can you tell us - explain exactly how it started and, in your opinion, was carelessness a factor at any point? At this stage, my focus was simply, through our fire investigators, to have a look at where did the fire start and how did it start? What we did do, in concert with police and with the support of the military, we visited the live firing range when it was safe to do so. It was pretty conclusive that the detonation of some ordinance inadvertently has the side effect of starting a fire. That fire became uncontrollable and unsafe to try and suppress because there was other unexploded ort nns on the rain that was detonated and we had to pull back to a moredousive firefighting strategy. That's what we found in relation to how this fire started and where it started.It's a pretty hairy situation to be confronted with. Are you happy with the way defence manages its properties in the bushfire sense? Look, we work in partnership with Defence right across NSW where they have landholdings. In my conversations with the acting Chief of Defence today, as
anyone would expect, we are together in making sure, like we do in any fire situation, reflect and learn from what has happened and where we can, there is a united approach to making sure that we do improve things. If there are things we can do better then we owe it to everybody to do better and I didn't get anything but a positive thread from the Defence that that's exactly what they intend to do.Commissioner, the last week has seen some very intricate and strategic firefighting. Has this been the most complex operation you've been involved with? I mentioned a little earlier in the week this would have to have been unprecedented in a number of ways. Never before have we lost so many homes this early in the season and never before have we had a conflagration of fire around the Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury region of this magnitude that needed to be dealt with this early in the season combined with some extreme fire danger ratings that were extending right across the area. Since being commissioner, this would have been the largest, most complex firefighting campaign that I've had to deal with but I also had the benefit of over a decade serving as Phil Koperberg's deputy, someone who had tremendous tenacity and skill in dealing with major complex fire situations and I'd like to think that I learned a little from him along the way and indeed throughout this campaign in the Blue Mountains I spoke to him on a number of occasions, leveraging off his experience, as I did many other volunteers in the Blue Mountains about the very real risk and the very real prospects for what was likely, should that fire have run under the forecast weather
conditions. That's why we took decisions to make some commitments to delivering on very, very targeted, very deliberate, albeit very high-risk strategies which did pay off and clearly we were blessed with some unexpected rainfall across much of the fireground the really slowed the fire down and it wasn't until the afternoon that the fire started sturg up again, rather than taking hold first thing in the morning that was originally expected in light of the forecast.Commissioner Shane Fitzsimmons, we're out of time. I'd like to thank you for your tolerance of us this week and your kindness in coming in to us tonight at the end of a long and exhausting week. Thanks to you and your colleagues. Thank you. A former Reserve Bank board member has accused Wayne Swan, the man Euro Money once judged the world's greatest Treasurer, of economic vandalism. Warren McKibbon today fired the broadside at Wayne Swan, accusing the former Treasurer of being reckless with the Central Bank's own reserve fund. The new Treasurer, Joe Hockey, has given the bank an unprecedented $8.8 billion cash injection to replenish the depleted fund, saying the ammunition was needed for what's coming. Economists say it's prudent to boost the bank for the uncertain times ahead. Chief political correspondent Sabra Lane reports. We need all the ammunition in the guns for what's before us. Economic management is a key battleground between the major parties and has dominated the political spotlight since the global financial crisis. A major player throughout has been the independent Reserve Bank of Australia. We've got some head winds coming out of the US in early next year and head winds coming out of Europe. The bank, though, needs a little bolstering of its own with the Treasurer granting it $8.8 billion to boost its own reserve fund which had been sitting at $2.5 billion. I want to make sure they are at their strongest. The Treasurer argues the bank needs to be battle-ready. Our institutions must be at their absolute strongest to deal with the challenges in the days, weeks and months ahead. The splurge means the deficit for the current financial year's blown out to at least $40 billion. The Treasurer's claiming credit for boosting the bank's reserve fund but blaming his predecessors for the cost involved and leaving the RBA vulnerable with only 2.5 billion in its emergency buffer.It's money that should have been allocated by the Labor Government in Government but they didn't. Despite the should
warnings they did want and they should have.The RBA's reserve fund is like a rainy day fund, a special contingency account set aside for when times are tough in the un expected happens. Until the global financial crisis it held on average $6 billion. After the GFC it was deplete ed to 1.3 billion before recovering to 3 billion. It sounds like a lot but in Reserve Bank terms it's not. The Reserve Bank holds its reserves in foreign currency and as the Australian Dollar appreciates, the Australian Dollar value of those reserves goes down. The rule of thumb I think is the right rule of thumb is about 10% of your assets in the reserve fund which traditionally would have been around $10 billion. From the last annual report we see the reserve fund was driven down below $2 billion so adding 8 billion gets back to where we need to be without crisis.The last two treasurers say the LBA never asked them to boost the bank's reserve fund. Mr Swan says if the request had been made to him it would have been granted. This to me is really a very bizarre statement because when I was on the board 2011 - I finished July 2011 - we made a very large loss because of the very high Australian Dollar. The following year after I'd left, there was a small profit of over a billion. The Treasurer was requested not to extract that from the balance sheet of the bank. He ignored that request and took half a billion dollars so that he could reach the Budget surplus in 12/13. That to me is economic vandalism. It wasn't that he may not have been asked to put more money in but hy was certainly asked not to take money out. The bank's governor, Glenn Stevens, appeared before an inquiry earlier this year. The way it works in practice is we offer a letter each year saying the earnings are this and we'd like to do whatever it is.The Mr
governor confirmed he wrote to Mr Swan sding that all the bank's profit be retained to replenish the fund. My preference was, and this was expressed, that I'd like to retain the whole 1oric 96y think it was, to build up the Reserve Bank - 1096y think it was, to build up the reserve fund. He didn't agree with that. The Reserve Bank has independence of the Government in respect to the setting of monetary policy so to hear the Reserve Bank Governor and on behalf of the board requesting that the fund be supplemented is something that I would have thought a Treasurer would listen to very cautiously.Warren McKibbon
served on the RBA for 10 years through the global financial crisis. He wasn't a fan of the Rudd and Gillard Governments. The professor says the bank's 2012 annual report made it clear the RBA's reserve fund wasn't healthy. If you look at the annual report, it's very clear that the balance sheet of the Reserve Bank was exposed completely to this scenario. If the Treasurer hadn't read page 103 of the annual report, he either didn't understand his job or he was taking a very huge risk with the Australian economy with a one-sided bet and that that bet was that interest rates would go down and the Australian Dollar would weaken. If he got that wrong, the Australian Central Bank would have had no capital. Wayne Swan declined to respond to professor McKibbon on camera. He says he's not surprised by the criticism as he didn't reapoint him to the RBA board when his term expired in 2011. He says Mr Hockey's decision to bolster the bank, blow out the deficit and raise the debt ceiling are all aimed at demonising him and the former Labor Government. The board released its annual report today, the Opposition says it makes no mention of the need for a cash injection. At no point did the Reserve Bank of Australia ask the previous Government for a top-up over and above their profits. They didn't ask Wayne Swan, they didn't ask me. The bank's deputy governor, in considered language, welcomed the injection. I think the current Government's decided to move quickly to the desired level of capital to make sure that the bank's balance sheet is of unquestionable quality and I think I see that really is in our collective interest. While the Government and Opposition squabble over the fund, the unprecedented in jection positions the bank for uncertain times. One of the great concerns that many of us who watch the Australian economy have is that the exchange rate is continuing to appreciate with the mining investment boom having come off, we were hoping of course that the exchange rate would depreciate and what that would do is stimulate other export activity to take the place of the mining investment boom. What we don't need is the exchange ryed to be going the other way. - exchange rate to be going the other way.Sabra Lane with that report. Far North Queensland was once a remote and sparsely populated frontier but with a booming population, cities like Cairns are encroaching further on bushland and creeks, prime habitat for crocodiles. The threat of croc attack has locals worried. The State Government has respond would a new zero-tolerance approach and dispatched rangers to catch them in record numbers. It's stirred up passionate debate among scientists and citizens alike. Matt Wordsworth went on patrol with the croc rangers to get a first-hand look at their work. It's just after 10pm on a Monday night. While most of nearby Cairns prepares for bed, Mike Joyce and his team of wildlife rangers are only just getting to work. So what's the plan tonight, Mike? What we're going to do is do some survey work up the creek so we've got a couple of boats going out tonight to do some survey work, utsea what crocodiles are there and that allows us to set traps and make sure we can do that side of our business. The best place for a trap is where a croc feeds which is usually after dark. So tonight the rangers will sweep Tomatis Creek with a spotlight, trying to pick up the shine of a croc's eyes. We can see it now.In the lead boat, ranger Tom has spotted an animal by the water's edge. Now they must close in to get an idea of its size. Those details, along with the GPS coordinates, are all recorded. It's a practice repeated every two to four weeks and tomorrow they'll check the traps they've already set to see if they've got the pzs right. - the positions right. The flurry of activity has been prompted by community concerns about crocs throughout the far north. This is training because it's the last one we're going to do before we go to Mackay. Fiona Grant is overseeing Nipper training at tourist haven Pom Cove. She says recent croc sightings at the beach have put many off. We've noticed that lot of parents have come and joined and then have become concerned and have left and not come back. We've had lot of parents ring and say that with the numbers in the water at the moment they don't feel safe letting their children in the water. That's a bloke's foot. Look at the size of that croc. Col Sparks is surf life saving's regional manager and a member of the State Government's crocodile advisory committee. How big do you think that would be? 3 to 4m. How far away from here was that found? That's Deadman Creek so you're talking second creek down as you're going down. You're talking probably a K and a half. Do you think that's an accidents waiting to happen? They all are. They're all accidents waiting to happen. It's going to happen. We're going to lose a kid. That's my biggest fear.The Queensland Government has responded with a new management plan that carves large areas between Townsville and Cairns into three zones. Zones one is a complete exclusion area where preventative barriers are constructed. Zone two areas require crocs over 2m in length to be trapped except in metropolitan Cairns where all crocs are removed. In zone three, animals are only taken if aggressive. All are offered free of charge to croc farms for breeding purposes. Mike, are you noticing more in the river systems and on the beaches et cetera? Look, I knew you were going to ask that question fl I think the end answer to that is, no, we don't. For us it's pretty much the same, it's business as usual. We're not seeing any major changes. The new plan means plenty of work and today the rangers are back in Tomatis Creek checking a trap. Ranger Tom signals the gate's been triggered so the team is hoping it's a croc inside. We have an animal. Excellent.They've been watching this croc for days, luring it in with chickens then finally setting the gate. Now it's the dangerous part, wrangling the croc is not a high-tech business. A slitted bamboo pole is used to loop three ropes around its jaw. Then it's all about technique. Nice and slow, start to pull. Pull. Keep going. Keep going. Round to the side. Not bad. Keep going, keep going, keep going. Get into position. Legs up.It's been a record haul. 27 so far this year and more work than the team can handle. The State Government is now preparing to appoint a private croc hunter to assist. If we were talking about a river like the muroochy river with 160,000 people living on the Sunshine Coast and that river was breeding crocodiles in the same way the Barren River has, I think southeast Queensland would have a very different perspective and probably agree whole-heartedly with the approach we're taking in North Queensland.But one of the country's leading crocodile experts says the new management plan is dangerous. What this is going to do is lead people into a false sense of security and that they will feel that it's an exclusion zone so there's no crocodiles around, it's OK to wade into the water, go for a swim and put themselves alt threat. My feeling is this a disaster waiting to happen.Professor Craig Franklin has only recently returned from his own research trip to Far North Queensland where he captures crocs and attaches tracking devices. The crocodile can travel 60km in the dark t can move from the coastline from river system to river system and it can walk across land. He also says removing crocs is tampering with the eco system. The Government needs to listen to what we know about these animals and to focus more of their effort on education than spending what I think will be an exorbitant amount of money catching every crocodile nrkcluding little hatchlings, from these proactive removal zones.But with a new private contractor bolstering the work of State Government rangers, 2014 is shaping as another record year for croc catchers. We will continue to remind North Queenslanders that there is always that risk. What we are trying to do is to reduce the chances of that risk actually manifesting itself. We are entitled to use our beach said just like people are down south and if they had crocodiles turn up on the Gold Coast or Sunshine Coast, I'm sure there would be a cry on and we want to be able to use ours.Matt Wordsworth reporting. That's the program for tonight. Tomorrow night you'll have your State editions of 7:30. Leigh Sales will be back in the chair on Monday and I'll revert to my usual status as 7:30 viewer. Thank you for your company over the past fortnight. Until next time, goodnight.

.Captions by CSI Australia

# Theme music

For the last four decades, dietary fat and cholesterol have been
the villains in heart disease. You very seldom see the words
'saturated fat' in the public press when they're not associated
with artery clogging. So it's like it's all one term -
'artery clogging saturated fats'. But now some
medical experts are coming forward to challenge this medical paradigm. I think it's a huge misconception that saturated fat and cholesterol
are the demons in the diet, and it is 100% wrong. Saturated fat has been vilified
for years because of the cholesterol theory. A multibillion dollar food industry has fuelled our phobia
of fat and cholesterol and dramatically influenced our diet. That's not science.
That's marketing. It's lived past its expiration date, and it's one of these hypotheses
that just won't die. Have we all been conned?

In this episode, I'll follow the road
which led us to believe that saturated fat and cholesterol
cause heart disease, and reveal why its being touted as
the biggest myth in medical history.

The food industry has shaped our
ideas about heart health with TV ads like this one. So join me in the Uncle Toby's Oats
cholesterol challenge! Lowering our cholesterol has been a
running theme with the food industry. People have this fear of cholesterol
because they've been bombarded with it so much in the media that it's bad and
it's going to cause heart disease. That's why all these things were
emblazoned with 'cholesterol free'. These advertising campaigns are at
the behest of our peak health authorities.

The National Heart Foundation
guidelines are pretty clear. We're told to reduce our
saturated fat and cholesterol levels in order to reduce our risk
of heart disease. But many doctors are now suggesting we need to radically rethink
this approach.

One of those doctors challenging this
medical dogma is California-based nutritionist
Dr Johnny Bowden.