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As it Happened. -

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(generated from captions) It's quite interesting, that
they're pillars of the community.
Absolutely.

She's very much supporting
organised religion and moral values.

Let's look at this other
picture here.

Now, is this pretty
accurate information

about the positions of the baby?

Well, you can see for yourself

that the babies are not exactly
nine months old.

He doesn't look like a baby, really.

He's a toddler, really -
a toddler in the womb.

Look at his pectorals!

What this is doing is just giving
you the basics of what position

could the child be in if it's not
the normal head-first position.

So you've got foot presentation,
bottom presentation,

hands, twins, all sorts of things.

I guess that if you could tell
that you had twins, though,

and one was upside down like that,

this could really help you imagine
what might be going on inside.

Yes, and there is evidence
that they were used like that.

By setting out her stall in print,

Jane Sharp introduced
a scientific approach to midwifery,

dispelling some of
the myths and horrors

that had previously
surrounded childbirth.

But her book wasn't the only
17th-century breakthrough.

Midwives had always had some rather
gruesome tools at their disposal.

These ones were used to extract
dead babies from the mother.

But now came the arrival of
a potentially lifesaving instrument.

This is the forceps,
and you have two separate blades.

And what you do is you put
one on top of the other.

Is that how you get them in?
That's right.

You go in like that
and, once you're in the womb,

you'll guide with your hand

and then you open them up inside
the womb and then...

Oh, then you can grab his head.
..you can grab the head, exactly.

Who invented these and when?

These were invented
by the Chamberlain family,

a French Huguenot family, probably
1630s, maybe as early as that.

These are men. What are they doing
getting involved in childbirth?

Well, they've realised this is
a really lucrative area.

If you know that there is a chance
if your baby's stuck,

that the Chamberlains can help,
you'll employ them,

you won't employ anybody else.

Right.

And they keep these a secret within
their family for about 100 years,

and when the secret comes out,
when it's finally published

after the death of one of
the Chamberlains,

immediately other people
go into this.

They can see this is
a really important area.

So, the forceps are invented
by men and used by men.

That's right.

They're used by men
in difficult births

that a midwife couldn't deal with.

So that these ones are associated
with the midwife

and with the old ways.

Is it good or bad for women?

I suppose it's good in the sense

that they are going to save
babies' lives.

The trouble is that men are moving,
in the Restoration period,

from difficult births, where nothing
else will help, to any birth,

so women are getting
gradually squeezed out

of the normal childbirth,
which is their role.

To have a man in at the start of the
process implies that giving birth

is somehow wrong, it's somehow
not a normal thing to do,

it needs male medical intervention,

even if it's going perfectly
normally.

We lose the birthing chair
as well, don't we?
We do.

This is all to do with gravity.

It helps the woman, but
once the doctor comes along

he doesn't want to be squatting down
on the floor.

No, you can't use forceps
if someone's in that situation.

So the woman gets tilted
backwards on her back

and it's a less empowering position,
isn't it?

Absolutely.
You're completely at his mercy.

You are an object in a way
that you weren't, there.

You were an active
participant there.
Yeah.

By the end of the 17th century,

male doctors were pushing
the midwife

out of her traditional role,

but women and babies had a greater
chance of surviving childbirth...

..and that must have been one of the
greatest breakthroughs of the age.

For any family, a healthy child
was cause for celebration.

For the Royal Family,
it was essential

for the stability of their reign.

Charles II had 11 children
by his mistresses,

but his wife Catherine was barren.

And, ironically, Charles
never produced a legitimate heir,

and so, at his death in 1685, the
Crown passed to his brother James...

..and childbirth became
a red-hot political topic.

The Queen's pregnancy
became a real problem

in the reign of the unpopular,
autocratic James II.

His big problem was that
he converted to Catholicism,

and the one thing people feared was
a return to a Roman Catholic regime.

In 1687, his young,
Italian, Catholic wife,

Mary of Modena, got pregnant,

and this caused a huge panic.

With the unpopular Catholic king

about to get his own Catholic male
heir, was Catholicism back for good?

Nine months later, the King's
enemies' worst fears were realised

when the palace announced that Mary
had produced a legitimate male heir.

But had she really?

Not everyone believed
that the child had survived,

and the contested birth
set off a media feeding frenzy

that would make a modern journalist
squirm with excitement.

James II's Protestant enemies
put it about

that the Queen's baby
had died almost immediately,

that the true heir
to the throne was dead

and that it had been replaced
by an impostor baby,

somebody else's baby smuggled in.

The rumours got quite elaborate.

They said that the baby had
travelled inside a warming pan

to get into the palace.

This is kind of like
a big, metal hot-water bottle.

You put hot coals in there and it
warms up the sheets of your bed.

There were even maps printed
to show the route along which

the baby is supposed to have been
smuggled in to St James's Palace.

It came in through
this little door here,

along through these rooms,
along through here,

through these apartments,

round here and into
the Queen's bed chamber here.

And these rumours did James II
an awful lot of damage,

even though it was a total load
of old rubbish.

When the Queen gave birth, there
were 40 people present in the room

to act as witnesses

specifically to stop this kind
of scandal-mongering anyway.

And secondly, how on earth do you
fit a baby into a warming pan?

There just isn't room.

Nevertheless, the incident
had major consequences,

contributing directly
to James's downfall

in what became known
as the Glorious Revolution of 1688,

when William of Orange and his wife
Mary ousted James from the throne.

By the end of the 17th century,

the country had now put aside
the medieval

and was heading for the modern age.

Some things had indeed got better
for ordinary women.

There was increased literacy

and the ending of
brutal punishments for witchcraft,

and there were new ideas about
marriage and health and childbirth.

In the next programme, I'm going
to explore how the Restoration

allowed some of the most
extraordinary women
of the 17th century

to break the mould,

as female pioneers in the theatre,

in science and even
on the battlefield.

Supertext Captions by
Red Bee Media Australia
Captions copyright SBS 2013

Andy Park here. On the way in World News Australia tonight - NSW counts the cost with one dead and hundreds of homes destroyed in the state bushfire emergency. 81 properties are confirmed destroyed so far in the Blue Mountains. We'll have a full mop-up of today's events with more warm, dry weather in store for NSW fire-fighters. After a 16 day shutdown, US government employees are now back at work. But President Barack Obama has accused his political opponents of damaging America's reputation. And - snip snip - world vasectomy day sees more than a dozen men have their operation streamed live on the net. Doctors were aiming to do 1,000 vasectomies in 24 hours to help demystify the operation. And we'll have a full wrap of the tonight's Adelaide Victory A-league game. Join me for World News Australia tonight at 10:30. NARRATOR: Derry is Britain's
Northern Irish city

with a long history.

Its walls and cannon are famous
for seeing off a 17th century siege.

While the city's murals
tell a more modern story,

30 years of political unrest.

But there is another extraordinary
time in the city's past

when Derry was at the centre
of World War II's longest,

most decisive battle,
the Battle of the Atlantic.

To reveal this story,
we begin not in the city

but in the waters off its coast.

The battle lasted nearly six years.

100,000 men died,
4,000 ships were sunk,

hundreds of them
off this very coast.

But the wrecks
were quickly forgotten,

out of reach in the deep waters.

Until now.

One underwater explorer
has compiled a unique map.

It charts the lost wrecks
of the Battle of the Atlantic.

Now he and a team of expert
divers are going in search of them,

to uncover their forgotten stories.

All hatches are closed.

There's an open locker
with live ammunition in it.

What they discover, will shine
a light on the epic battle.

Meanwhile, secrets from inside
the ancient city

reveal the remarkable tale
of the Allied victory.

The residents of Derry had
been on the front line

so this is an opportunity for them
to see the U-boat gotten rid of.

This was part of the U-boat
really coming alive...

Very aware of the historical
significance of this area of water

and what lies beneath the waves.

I feel like I want to take them out
of the screen and give them a hug.

All you think about is what the
people back home will think

when they know I'm dead.

In this program, we'll dive back
through history

to uncover the story of World War
Two's most critical campaign,

the Battle of the Atlantic.

Late 1941.

The Northern Ireland city of Derry

had spent two years
on the battle's front line

and seen the Germans hammer
Allied shipping.

In just three months that year,

their U-boats sank more than 280
ships off this coastline.

Their target, military supplies.

Every week, huge convoys of cargo
ships loaded with weaponry,

oil and food, left the United States
and Canada.

Without it, the Allied war effort
in Europe would grind to a halt.

Germany was determined
to sink the convoys

before they reached
their destination.

Underwater explorer, Ian Lawler,
and his team of expert divers,

are searching for lost wrecks
of the battle.

I can see the U-boat.

They've already found
the long lost remains of a Corvette,

still loaded with ammunition.

It is much more of a jigsaw
puzzle than I expected.

World naval experts,
Dr Randy Papadopoulos

and Dr Axel Niestle, are on hand to
unlock the secrets of such wrecks.

The acoustic homing torpedo would
have targeted the loud engines

of the Corvette and essentially
would've blown her stern off.

Dozens of Corvettes like this one
moored up in Derry.

Their job, to escort the convoys
across the Atlantic

and protect them
from the U-boats which were deadly,

as the team revealed

when they discovered the wrecks of
two such German submarines.

First, U-1003.

Very capable fighting machines
and very dangerous to the Allies.

Then, U-155,

a notorious sub that claimed
the lives of nearly 1,000 men.

During the war, all of these
things are forgotten about.

They're just incidental.

But it's generally the divers
that start to make the discoveries

and try
and shed light on what happened.

When you find what you're
looking for,

that's what makes it
all worthwhile.

Hundreds of wrecks
lie in the waters off Derry.

As Britain's most westerly port,
the city was essential,

a key naval base
for the armed escorts.

But this coastline bears the brunt

of the worst of the Atlantic weather

which could itself be deadly
for the convoy crews.

and his team of divers,

it's no different.

It's September and they're on the
Rosguill Peninsula in north Donegal

hoping to dive a wreck
20 miles offshore.

But today's rough seas could
make it too dangerous.

It's not looking good.

You're trying to stagger
around in a pair of fins

on the back of a rolling boat

with the equivalent of your own
body weight on your back.

The boat is rising

That is not an option.
It could remove people's heads.

With the best skipper in the world,
the best will in the world,

that is very dangerous.

Anybody gets it wrong,
through inattention or a mistake,

you know,
you could be seriously injured.

Skipper Michael goes to check
conditions one last time

but the weather has got worse.

Even the sheltered waters
of the bay are choppy.

The day is lost. Gone, nothing.

Deepwater veteran and dive
supervisor, Rich Stevenson,

is in charge of safety

and used to assessing
the dangers of an expedition.

It's a force of nature,
isn't it, the wind?

When you can't stand up against
something you can't see.

You've got to
pit your wits against the weather

and everything else that you're
up against, as well.

You can topple
over at a moment's notice.

It's unthinkable to try
and dive in these conditions.

It's a reminder of the bravery
of the Atlantic crews

who fought on, whatever the weather.

Very aware of the historical
significance

of this area of water and what
lies beneath the waves.

You can't even imagine what
it must be like to be caught out

in the open ocean
in those conditions.

But weather like this and worse

was a fact of life for men working
the Atlantic convoy routes.

The busiest of them all

passed through some of the
Atlantic's wildest water,

from Newfoundland in Canada
to Derry.

Over the war, it introduced
thousands of Canadian sailors

to the city.

The Royal Canadian Navy,
which had been very small,

just a coastal patrol service
at the beginning of the war,

burgeoned to the point
where, by 1943,

it's the third largest Navy
in the world.

If you look at the 100 plus escort
ships that are based on the Foyle,

the vast majority of them
are Royal Canadian Navy.

To Canadian sailors,
the route was legendary,

known as the Newfie Derry run.

18-year-old Gilbert Davis,

was a stoker on the Canadian escort
ship, Merrittonia.

Wherever he went,
he brought his camera.

The camera was a small camera,
just a one-dollar-fifty camera.

It was one of the first things
he ever bought.

But Gilbert put it to good use,
documenting his life

during the Battle of the Atlantic.

His pictures show
both the perils of battle

and the safety of Derry

where crews rested up
between missions.

Like all Atlantic sailors,

Gilbert arrived here with relief.

It marked the end of another
perilous crossing,

not only giving U-boats the slip,

but also surviving the high seas
and violent winds of the Atlantic.

The North Atlantic has some of the
most unforgiving sea on the planet.

That makes it very difficult

to have any sort of cargo
or naval operation take place.

Gilbert's photos show the rough seas
the Atlantic crews faced.

With the ships rolling in giant
swells, Corvettes like Gilbert's

still had to attempt essential
tasks like refuelling on the move.

Mountains of water, 30, 40, 60 feet
high, and he would be hunkered down

as close as he could
to the security of the ship itself.

The Atlantic can be savage.

But wild weather
was always preferable

to an encounter with a U-boat,

as Gilbert's photos make clear.

A tanker carrying
thousands of tons of fuel

ablaze on the horizon,

the aftermath of a U-boat attack.

He was on the bow of his ship
taking photographs.

He said he had to hold his hand up
and guard his face from the heat,

it was so intense.

The only survivor
clings to a rescue ladder

on the side of the Merrittonia,

dwarfed by the tower of smoke
and the vast Atlantic.

They pulled him
aboard the Merrittonia

and as he was pulled from the water
by a seaman,

all of the skin from his arm
had pulled off

because he was so badly burned.

Over 70 years later,
the pictures taken by Gilbert Davis

give a remarkable insight
into the reality of a sailor's life

fighting the Battle of the Atlantic.

It's one man's record of a campaign

that cost the lives
of thousands more.

The dive team are getting
ready for their fourth expedition.

They're hoping to uncover
the wreck of a U-boat Ian believes

was sunk in the heat of battle
just 10 miles off the coast.

But another storm is brewing.

The team are hoping to beat
the incoming weather

by heading to the far side of the
peninsula and diving from there.

I'm not sure just yet.

This large area of Donegal
could give us a bit of shelter.

That would be a lot better.

It is a narrow weather window
but it's an option.

They plan to use a high-speed RIB
to race out to the wreck

and back again before the winds hit.

I think it gives us some advantages,
certainly speed getting out there.

But maybe less home comforts.

It's quite a stable boat,
but you have to hang on.

The team has allowed just 30 minutes
to get to the dive site.

And already
the winds are picking up.

The high-speed twin engine RIB
has to battle through the swell

while do team do their best
to hang on.

Once on site,
it's straight into the water.

The strong surface swell
sweeps the divers from the RIB.

Once underwater,
they locate the grapple line.

It should lead them
200 feet straight down

directly to the wreck on the seabed.

But the strong current has ripped
the grapple off the wreckage

leaving them
searching blindly through the silt.

Then, the beam from a torchlight

falls on the rusting hull
of a U-boat.

It's over 250 feet long and shows
all the hallmarks of a Type VII,

the workhorse of the German fleet.

But what intrigues the team
is the damage to the hull.

Along its length
the hull is shattered,

the thick steel ripped open.

This wreck shows
all the tell-tale signs

of a devastating
depth charge attack.

The team has gathered
the evidence they need,

and made the controlled
two-hour ascent to their RIB.

As they pile back on the boat,

Ian can't contain his excitement
at what he's seen.

The extensive damage to the U-boat

is the first sign that
the enormous efforts

to win the Battle of the Atlantic
were paying off.

In 1941, the Allies sank
just 40 U-boats.

In 1943, they sank 270.

But with so many
Nazi submarines sunk,

it could be difficult
for naval experts

Randy Papadopoulos and Axel Niestle

to identify the wreck
Ian and the team have found.

This is a pretty jagged hole here.

And all the plate
is pushed inward.

The pushed-in plating that
we're seeing here suggests that

something came in from the outside,
an explosion, probably.

That's heavy structural damage.
This is simply crushed.

Here we are on the broken
end of a snorkel.

Oh, yeah.

And then the conning tower area is
devastated. Absolutely demolished.

This is quite cataclysmic damage.

So that needs a depth charge
exploding almost on contact.

Hundreds of pounds of explosives.
Yes.

Depth charges were the most common
anti U-boat weapon.

These were explosives set to
detonate at a specified depth.

Once Allied ships
had detected a U-boat,

they would target them
over the entire area.

The shockwave created

could tear open the hull
of an enemy U-boat.

You can see the thickness of steel
has just been torn, like paper.

The Royal Navy named
it "tin-opener attacks".Yes.

That's exactly what has happened
obviously to this wreck.

Axel and Randy use the location
of the wreck

and the knowledge it was
pummelled by depth charges

to search naval records for
information to identify the U-boat.

They find a match.

From what we know, I think
we can surely say that this is 1014.

All what we have found here is
consistent with that identification.

Ian and the team's dive has revealed
the wreck as U-1014,

a late war Type VII submarine.

It was just 18 days
into its first patrol

when a group of British escort ships
detected it

eight miles off the coast
of Northern Ireland.

They fell into formation
and together began to hunt it down.

It's a bit of a ballet of ships,
if you will.

All the time moving because
the U-boat in addition

is trying to escape and all the ships
are trying to keep in contact with it

and put the ordnance
where it's needed.

So when they come across a contact,
the first thing you do

is start trying to pulverise it
with as many depth charges,

or Hedgehog or Squid, whatever
weapons they've got available

and make sure you've gotten him,

rather than take a chance
and let it get away.

It was finally destroyed
while being under the water.

Beneath the surface, the Allied
depth charges found their target.

All 48 men inside U—1014
were killed.

Most of this crew
were younger than 22.

These were green soldiers, sent out
into a battle against an enemy

which was gaining experience
every day.

This is the Allied navies at the top
of the anti-submarine warfare game,

with tactics customised
to deal with the inshore threat.

The crew of the British escort ships

had no idea which U-boat
they had sunk.

They searched the wreckage that
floated to the surface

for anything that might
identify their victim.

One everyday item gave them a clue.

From the debris picked up
after the attack,

there were a pair of underpants
picked up with a name on it.

And this name was Moose.

By searching German naval records,
Axel has been able to reveal

that Seaman Moose was
a 19-year-old engine mechanic

and that his last recorded patrol
was on board U-1014.

So this is just another support

that the boat being
lost in this area is 1014.

Identifying the wreck is another
success for Ian and the team,

another name to add to Ian's map.

But their discovery also marks the
war grave of 48 young submariners.

It reveals how the Allies'
determination

to keep the convoy routes open,

and their expertise
in hunting submarines

was now beginning to overpower
the German U-boat fleet

as the scales began to tip
in the Allies' favour.

While the Allies
were gaining the advantage,

one fatal chink remained,
fully effective air cover.

From 1940, Allied planes
patrolled the Atlantic,

flying from coastal bases

in Canada, Iceland
and Northern Ireland.

Whenever a U-boat sees an airplane,

the first temptation for that
U-boat commander is to dive.

Once you've forced
him below the water,

he's reduced to about
four to seven knots.

So the Royal Navy created the
largest air squadron in the UK,

and they based it here in Derry.

It was a decision that would change
the course of the battle.

The plan was for Swordfish biplanes
to fly from Maydown

at the edge of the city,
land on makeshift aircraft carriers

off the coast, and, for the
first time, accompany the convoys

to fly anti-U-boat patrols
in the mid-Atlantic.

HMS Shrike, as it was known,

became one of the Fleet Air Arm's
busiest air bases.

We're stepping onto
the runways of HMS Shrike.

And if you'd been here 70 years ago,

amid the noise and the bustle
and so forth,

you might have been able to see three
or four Swordfish biplane bombers

taking off here on the westerly
runway, heading out towards Donegal

and then turning out
into the Atlantic,

where they would join
a small merchant aircraft carrier.

The merchant aircraft carriers,
or MAC-ships,

were simply cargo vessels
with their superstructure removed

and a few hundred feet of runway
welded on instead.

They may have been crude,
but with their Swordfish biplanes,

these MAC-ships proved
highly effective.

These are very important
because they'll provide each convoy

with its own aircraft carrier
protection.

Right from the very beginning

of this airfield's existence
as a naval base in May of 1943,

we see the Battle of the Atlantic
swing in the Allies' favour.

From then on, every convoy
is covered by Swordfish

and basically the U-boats daren't
operate on the surface any more.

Bob Lea
was a telegraphist air gunner

with the Swordfish crews
at HMS Shrike.

He flew
every day in any weather,

standing in the open cockpit
at the rear of the Swordfish.

Cold. I don't know why
it was always cold.

It seemed to be the worst
where we were, you know.

Either in Canada or Northern Ireland.
It was always damn cold.

Bob faced danger too, every day.

Just landing a Swordfish
on an improvised aircraft carrier

could be a hit-and-miss affair.

More than once, he found himself
in the drink.

He started to dip down and I thought,
"There's something wrong here.

"What's up," you know?
And the pilot was pump-pump-pumping.

Something wrong. "Mayday, Mayday,
Mayday. This is Swordfish Ellis 246."

Bosch!

And then I heard, "All right, 246,
come in to land, you're clear."

I thought "He's got
the wrong bloody aircraft!"

Bob's Swordfish had been given
the wrong instructions.

His plane overshot the landing deck
of the aircraft carrier

and smashed into the sea.

But, as was the rule, the convoy
didn't stop. Bob was left behind.

If the whole group of ships stops,

that whole 40 ship target
is a target.

The commodore has no choice
but to keep going and let them go.

And a lot of them perished

because they can't have an immediate
rescue come to them.

It's a very risky business,
not easy to manage

but he continued to fly, clocking up
over 200 hours in the air.

It was a crucial job, and Bob
and his fellow crews at Maydown

succeeded in forcing the U-boats
to remain submerged.

The availability of those aircraft

from mid-1943 onwards
in every convoy

meant that there was no part
of the ocean that was safe,

as far as the U-boats
were concerned,

from the eyes of Allied airmen
in the sky above.

The Swordfish were the vital missing
piece of the anti-U-boat strategy.

And Maydown became critical to
keeping the Mid-Atlantic Gap closed.

The base quickly grew in size,

with two British and Dutch
air squadrons

operating from here over the war.

One RAF Wren to experience how
cosmopolitan life at Maydown became

was Mary Piper.

It was the Women's
Royal Naval Service,

so that's why she was here,
because of the convoys.

She did a lot of the organising
of social events and entertainment.

She looked after menus

for different functions and so forth.

I think there was a party
that she was organising

and she invited some of the men...

the officers
from Dad's 860 Squadron.

860 Squadron was made up entirely
of Dutch aircrew

who had fled Holland
after the Nazi invasion.

One of them was Hugo Jellema,
a young flight navigator.

She always said that she first
saw Dad at the top of the stairs

and she thought, "Hmm,
he looks okay" or some such thing!

Aw! All starry-eyed.

Both Hugo and Mary kept scrapbooks
of their time in the war.

These record their
blossoming romance

as well as daily life at Maydown.

The family only recently
discovered them in an attic.

So she's gathered
all sorts of things.

I mean, there's a picture of a band.

"Boy, did they play
'Take The Train' well!"

There's a dinner dance.

"A never to be forgotten night
at the club with Hugo.

"Back to Belmont in the
pouring rain in evening dress!"

I think there was quite a lot
of socialising going on.

Well-deserved.

To take their mind
off the serious stuff.

Mum was working in the Wrens

and Dad was back and forth,
flying all the time.Yes.

It looks from this that
they were together a lot,

but I think actually they weren't
together that often

because Dad was out supporting
the convoys,

flying his various Swordfish back
and forth across the Atlantic.

And each of those trips
took three weeks.

Look at this one.

"Just arrived. Received your letter.
No leave permitted.

"Any chance of seeing you?"
Aw, how sweet.

Dad was really very fortunate.

I mean, he did all these things
and he had hairy experiences,

but he'd tell of other people
who were not as lucky as he was.

He came home. Some of them didn't.

A rediscovered wartime film

of their dad's plane
about to land on a MAC-ship

gives the sisters an insight
into his bravery.

Oh! Oh, my goodness.
Looks like they missed that time.

So Dad's telling the pilots
how to come down, you know,

"Left a bit, right a bit."

Yeah.
Because the pilot couldn't see.

This is him trying to land.
Oh, my goodness.

"Down a bit, up a bit."
What a dangerous job that is.

I know, because he nearly gets
his head cut off with the wing.

Ah! Safely down.

Oh, there they are!

I mean, Dad must have only been
about 19 then.

Yes.

Ditching a crashed plane.

How relieved they must be
to actually get out of the plane.

Get out of the crashed one.

Mum must have been quite nervous

and anxious about him
all that time he was away.

It was
a very hazardous thing to do.

Dad and his mates larking around.

That's it!

this forgotten archive shows
a young man still in his teens

trying to lead an ordinary life
in extraordinary circumstances.

It's absolutely gorgeous to see
and I feel like

I want to take him out of the screen
and give him a hug.

Hugo Jellema crossed the Atlantic

again and again
and had narrow escapes.

But he survived the war and married
his Northern Irish love, Mary Piper.

They lived the rest of their lives
together in her home town,

the Northern Irish capital, Belfast.

It's very emotional
to watch that, really.

It's terrific.
We're very lucky to have it.

Very special.

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The dive team is back on
the Rosguill Peninsula,

continuing their mission

to map the lost wrecks
of the Battle of the Atlantic.

Today they're hunting another U-boat

and this time Ian already has
a hunch which one it might be.

As they head out, he shares
his thoughts with the team.

What number have you assigned
to this one?1104.

1104.
What type of sub is the 1104?

Type VII C.
VII C?

The dive will confirm
whether Ian's right.

With a heavy swell developing,
the divers waste no time

kitting up and
dropping over the side.

190 feet from the surface,

they have enough light to peer
straight down the conning tower

into the control room.

This is where a German U-boat
commander would once have stood

and planned his attack.

The conning tower shows no damage.
And the periscopes are still intact.

Hang on a second, this is too big.
This is just way too big!

It's not a Type VII C Atlantic.
It's definitely a Type IX.

Start again.

It's a double mystery for the team.
Which U-boat is it?

And how was it broken
so cleanly in two?

I can't imagine she ruptured

or somebody fired a shell at it,
or whatever.

It's a very clean break.

Whoever did the blasting job
on that had a work of art.

It sort of adds to the whole
sort of confusion of what it is.

So... Back to the drawing board.

Now will naval experts
Dr Randy Papadopoulos

and Dr Axel Niestle be able to
shed light on the mystery U-boat?

I looked at it and went,
"This is not what I was expecting."

Well, from everything
we see right now,

it's definitely not
the Type VII C.

Because the deck
is simply too wide.

So this is the aft end
of the pressure hull, is it?

There should be two openings in it
for the two aft torpedo tubes.

One...
One, two.

This, at least, solves
the mystery for the type.

This U-boat is a Type IX.
Yeah.

So this wreck is broken
completely in half.

We'll just see the damage here.

Ian shows the two experts

the extraordinary break
in the U-boat's hull.

It's like nothing
they've seen before.

Just look at how clean this is.
That's amazing.

Absolutely extraordinary.

It's all along one of these
pressure hull frames.

It's like somebody sliced it off
with a cleaver.

With only half a wreck,

it's difficult for Axel and Randy
to make a precise ID.

Only the U-boat's type and its
location are certain, so they scour

German and British files for records
of any Type IX sunk in this area.

And find a likely match.

At the moment, we just can speculate
that it is probably U-541,

which, according to the records, had
gone down close to this location.

But Axel has not been able to find
an explanation

for the perfect break in the
U-boat's hull.

If a torpedo explodes underneath,
of course,

it will lift up
the whole boat bodily

and will be able certainly
to break it apart,

but according to the records
this boat was not torpedoed.

What did cause
this unusual damage?

In attempting to solve one mystery,
the team have stumbled on another.

But from only half a U-boat, they
have made a likely identification.

U-541.

This submarine
opens the final chapter

in the Allies' fight
against the U-boat.

After Britain defeated the German
armies in Europe in 1945,

the U-boat fleet
was ordered to surrender.

And over 100 submarines
assembled on Derry's Lough Foyle.

Victory was made official when the
German crews handed over their boats

and were taken ashore
as prisoners.

That happened on 14 May 1945

when a flotilla
of about eight U-boats came in.

They made their formal surrender
on the jetty at the Lisahally

and formally brought
the Battle of the Atlantic to an end.

For the entire war, the U-boats
had terrorised the ocean.

Now they were defeated,
tied up for all to see.

Locals did everything they could

not just to catch a glimpse
but to get on board.

My uncle, he managed to get me
on one of the U-boats,

you could hardly move on them
they were that bloody tight.

They were very cramped, you'd wonder
how people could have lived in them,

especially under the water.

But the real prize

was to get your hands on a souvenir
from a submarine.

And soon Derry was awash
with U-boat memorabilia.

Everybody in Derry had
something off the U-boats.

Everybody could show you something
that came off the U-boats.

I had a friend down the street

who had an identity book for
one of the officers on a submarine.

My uncle got an officer's jacket
off one of the submarines.

And his brother-in-law ended up

wearing it ploughing fields
down at Malin Head, you know.

Everybody going to school,
you went in with something.

Everybody liked to show it.

Dermot and his uncle

managed to swipe a map
from one of the U-boats.

And ever since he was a little boy,
Dermot has kept it safe.

It was my great treasured
possession for a long time, you know.

Showing everybody it.

You will see that they have
pencilled in every lighthouse

around the coast of Ireland.

This is where they seemed to zigzag,

perhaps waiting for some ship
coming their way, you know.

To me, this was part of the U-boat
really coming alive, you know.

But there was more to this surrender

than a formal handover
at the dockside.

As part of Operation Deadlight,

the U-boat fleet was towed
out to sea and sunk, one by one.

U-541 was just one
of over 100 U-boats

deliberately destroyed
off the Northern Irish coast.

The prime driver for this frankly
is the Royal Navy

which wants to make sure that nobody
gets a free supply of submarines

with which it might attack
British commerce in the future.

An enemy unspecified.

Operation Deadlight was a dramatic
and very public display of victory.

The decision for it all to unfold
in Derry was no accident.

It was a formal tribute
to the efforts made in the city

to win the Battle of the Atlantic.

Admiral Sir Max Horton chose the
location for that to be Lisahally,

marking the significance of the Foyle
in the battle against the U-boats.

Here, after almost six years
of struggle, it all ended.

The residents of Derry had been
on the frontline,

so in fact this was an opportunity
for them to see the U-boat

that had made their city important

to the Allied war effort
during the Second World War.

Now that threat is going to be
literally gotten rid of.

I think that symbolism gives
the residents of Derry

and indeed the broader world

an idea that the Battle
of the Atlantic really is over.

I think that must have given
a real sense of finality

to the people watching and those who
got to see newsreels describing it.

This news from the frontline
of the Battle of the Atlantic

was what the world
was longing for.

There were celebrations across the
globe, and Derry was no different.

When the word came that the war
was over, everybody stopped work.

And everybody was out
through the night.

There were dances and singing
and drinking and goodness knows what.

The Queen herself
made the trip to Derry

to congratulate and thank
both the city and the Atlantic crews

for their role
in the Allied victory.

Oh, the celebrations were fantastic!

I mean, they were dancing in
the streets. The pianos were out,

everybody was out.

I have that photograph of the
one in our street, in Albert Street.

Even my granny was there.

There were so many children

and it was so exciting
and the bells were ringing.

Everybody was happy.

Everybody really
was happy that the war was over.

The Battle of the Atlantic
had been won.

But the final secret
on the seabed

reveals how victory
came in the nick of time.

When Germany surrendered, they were
only weeks away from launching

a brand-new fleet
of revolutionary super-subs,

deadly vessels German scientists
believed would turn the battle

and the war back in their favour.

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Now the team is on the hunt
for Hitler's deadliest submarine,

the Type XXI "Elektroboote".

The team are excited at the thought
of seeing this legendary U-boat

with their own eyes and exploring
the wonders of its technology.

Okay, any questions from anyone?

Let's get in the water, then.

Shots in. Wherever you're ready.

The wrecks of only two
operational Elektrobootes

exist anywhere in the world.

Now our team is right above one.

210 feet below the surface,

the team get their first glimpse
of Hitler's secret weapon.

Over 250 feet long,

weighing more than 2,000 tonnes,

faster underwater
than escort ships on the surface,

capable of outrunning
and outmanoeuvring any convoy,

of detecting the sound
of an enemy vessel

from more than 30 miles away

of firing 18 torpedoes
in 20 minutes,

three times faster
than its predecessors,

it was the perfect naval predator.

Her sheer scale
leaves the team awestruck.

You see just how deep and how big
the hull of the submarine is.

It's just... It's just a scale thing.

I mean, it makes the Type VIIs
look like tiddlers.

It's just something else.
It's amazing to see.

100,000 men died in
the Battle of the Atlantic.

Historians can only imagine
how many more thousands of lives

might have been lost
if the Elektroboote fleet

had been allowed to enter the fight.

The Type XXI was a game-changer.
I mean, completely.

You can see the full transition
from a glorified torpedo boat

you could stick underwater, to a
totally hydrodynamically designed

underwater fighting machine.

It's fantastic to see such
a beautiful streamlined wreck.

It's beautiful
in that it's ahead of its time.

It was really the birth
of the modern submarine

and you just can't
ask for better than that.

It stays in your memory forever,
really.

The divers have revealed
an extraordinary wreck,

one of the legends of World War Two,

submerged just 20 miles
off the north coast of Ireland.

For Axel and Randy, the footage
of the wreck is an exciting chance

to study in detail
a extraordinary secret weapon,

one that symbolises both the deadly
threat of the German U-boat

and the wonders of its technology.

It's something that has fascinated
the people over the last 60 years,

and here is the real thing,
the actual U-boat.

It's not just a blueprint
or a picture,

it's the U-boat mostly in its
original fitting-out status.

This is the father
of all the modern submarines.

It's a nice piece of history
to have out there

and really completes the story of
the U-boat in the Second World War.

I'm just blown away with the
difference between this

and the Type VIIs and the Type IXs.

The Type IXs are big but this
is on a different scale altogether.

And a totally different approach
to design.

This type is designed
for total underwater warfare.

The Allies were well aware
of the threat posed by these U-boats

And from the perspective
of the Allies,

the development of the Type XXI
U-boat is something they know about.

They've captured U-boat crew members

who have seen these U-boats
under construction,

seen them in work-ups, and they get
very concerned about them.

That raises the priority
for attacking the shipyards

and destroying the U-boats
at their source.

Throughout 1944, the Germans
did everything they could

to fast-track the new Elektrobootes
into production.

Using sectional construction,

they could build a single Type XXI
in just eight weeks.

To the Allies it was clear. They had
to destroy these deadly vessels

before they could be deployed
in the Atlantic.

For example, in a single
daylight attack,

they were able to destroy or damage
almost a dozen of these boats

still on the building slips.

Wave after wave of Allied bombers

hammered the Type XXIs
in the boatyards.

Within months, nearly
the entire fleet was destroyed.

They were Hitler's
deadliest U-boats,

but only two ever made it
into active service,

and neither fired a single torpedo
before surrendering.

Now, just off the Northern Irish
coast, the team has revealed

the resting place of the last
of these lethal machines

sent to the bottom
during Operation Deadlight.

So I guess we're looking at
something very common in history,

one of those what ifs,

what if the Type XXI
had made it into service earlier?

Had the conflict lasted
one or two months longer

a fairly large number of these boats
would have appeared in the Atlantic.

And certainly, the sinking figures

would have risen
to unheard dimensions.

All the historians say it wouldn't
have caused the war to be lost,

but it certainly would have made it
a hell of a lot longer.

You go away from that
wondering what might have been.

And the Battle of the Atlantic
would have been a much longer

and even more bloody,
a very bloody conflict.

Ian's mission to map the lost
wrecks of the Battle of the Atlantic

has unlocked the story of history's
longest, most epic naval battle.

That dive was just the best way to
end what has been a real challenge.

So it makes it all
utterly, utterly worthwhile.

It's just fantastic, man, you know.

The team has succeeded
in uncovering forgotten wrecks,

revealing technology and tactics
of the mightiest of sea battle.

Where else would you rather be?

It's sobering to think
all this went off

on a lovely, calm evening like this.

It's sobering to think
of it all happening out here.

There's always a story.

The waters off Northern Ireland's
coast have at last revealed

the secrets of the forgotten
wrecks on the ocean floor.

Even after more than 60 years
on the seabed, they still are able

to give off some secrets, there is
still something we can learn.

The wrecks tell the story
of 37,000 Allied sailors,

36,000 merchant seaman
and 30,000 German submariners.

Men who all lost their lives
on the Atlantic in the fog of war.

And at the heart of it all, Derry.

The small city that helped forge
an epic victory

and which has its own wartime story.

Its river filled with warships,

home to America's first
European military base,

to an underground command bunker

and home to the fight
against the deadly U-boat.

On land and on sea
the hidden remnants of the past

tell the story of World War Two's
most epic battle.

Trying to keep the memory alive,
I think

is important because when traces
of all of this are gone,

then something from our history

and something from our
collective memory goes as well.

Only fragments of this story remain.
They should be treasured.

The priceless wartime heritage
of the men and women

who fought for freedom
in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Captions (c) SBS Australia 2013