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Asia Pacific Focus -

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(generated from captions) of the geological epoch. The spectacle which brought to an end the day's racing at Caulfield failed to disappoint. That put a smile on my face for the day.I am seeing player burnout, there is a World Cup that will last six weeks, finish at the end of the first week of December. I wouldn't like to be an NRL coach with a few stars in my team next year.Gideon has mentioned the late Matt Price. It is very sad Matt won't be there on Saturday and Clive Waterhouse won't be playing. He will be thinking of them both on the day.I think Jack, Matilda and Harry will be there.Gary ablet has established himself as the player of his generation. Five consecutive MVPs, seven con sekives all-Australians. Unprecedented.That's the program, thanks for watching.

Captions by CSI Australia

This Program is Captioned Live.

Good morning. I'm Rachel Upazzoni with the latest from ABC news. A stand-off is continuing at a stand-off is continuing at a shopping mall in the Kenyan capital, Nairobi, where 39 people have been killed and 150 wounded. Islamist group al-Shabaab has claimed al-Shabaab has claimed responsibility for the attack saying it's retribution for Kenya's military presence in Somalia. It's thought up to ten gunmen are still inside the mall exchanging fire with security forces. The Department of Foreign Affairs says no Australians have Affairs says no Australians have been caught up in the violence. These witnesses were inside the shopping centre when the shooting began. A suicide attack on a funeral in Baghdad has killed 57 people and wounded at least another 120. Two bombs were detonated near a tent filled with mourners in the Shi'ite district of Baghdad known as Sadr City. Another 12 people died in attacks elsewhere in the country, including 10 members of the security forces. It's the latest attack after a surge of sectarian violence which has now reached its highest level in 5 years. Labor leadership aspirant Anthony Albanese says his party was wrong to cut welfare benefits to wrong to cut welfare benefits to some single parents. In government, the ALP changed the rules so that all single parents were shifted from parenting payments to unemployment benefits when their youngest child turned eight. Labor was criticised for the move because the unemployment benefits left many single parents benefits left many single parents and their families with less money. Mr Albanese has indicated he'd revisit the issue if he's chosen as party leader. And Fremantle has won leader. And Fremantle has won through to its first AFL grand final with a 25 point win against the reigning premiers Sydney. The Dockers dominated throughout - leading by 54 points halfway through the last quarter. Five Swans goals in quick succession helped close the gap but it wasn't enough. The Dockers ended up winning 99 points to 74. up winning 99 points to 74. Fremantle will play Hawthorn next Saturday. will play Hawthorn next Saturday. And those are the latest headlines from ABC news.

This Program is Captioned Live.

Hello and welcome to Asia Pacific Focus. I'm Jim midden tonne. Coming up, Tony Abbott has his work cut out in Indonesia as he forges ahead with his shake-up of asylum seeker policy.And tofu trends - Indonesia's changing economy taking a bite out of some popular morsels. TRANSLATION: So the soybean price is expensive. No production for three days, no tofu, no Tempai. I didn't open my shop. I felt uncomfortable selling my food without Tempai and tofu.Indonesia's soybean sorrows later in the program. But first, Australia's new PM Tony Abbott would undoubtedly like to focus on his domestic agenda, but the speed with which he is implements his radical overhall of asylum seeker policy has been matched by unusually sharp and persistent opposition in Jakarta. Mr Abbott has already spoken to President Yudhoyono and is now due to meet him before the end of the month. They will have a lot of work to do, with the official attitude in Jakarta reflected by Dewi Fortuna Anwar, a senior adviser to Indonesian Vice President Boediono, among other prominent policy makers.Dewi Fortuna Anwar, welcome to the program.Well, nice to be talking to you again, Jim.Just how difficult an issue is the question of asylum seekers going to be manage, given the strong statements that have been made on the subject both in Indonesia and in Australia?Well, I think, Jim, that the two countries have to deal with their relations in a more sustainable manner. I think what should be avoided is abrupt departure from previous policy because I think that we have all agreed that the asylum seekers are not just bilateral problems, in Indonesia and Australia, they should be dealt through a regional process. We already have a Bali process to manage that, so we hope that whatever election promises that the new Government in Australia have made, they will keep that in mind.The new Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop says the Abbott Government is not seeking Indonesia's permission to implement its asylum seeker policies, but its understanding. How is that going to go down in Jakarta?Well, clearly Indonesia respects Australian sovereignty and whatever it does internally, that that does not affect neighbouring countries, it's up in Australia. So as far as the policies go, as long as they don't have dire ramifications to Indonesia, that's OK, but any policies that would impinge directly on Indonesia's national interest, Indonesia's national security, for example, if it affects our maritime security, I think Jakarta will take a very close look at it.There are three key elements to Tony Abbott's policy. Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa has already rejected two of them, that is paying Indonesian villagers to identify people smugglers and buying boats that people smugglers may wish to use. Is there a way, do you think, that Indonesia and Australia could come to terms on the third leg of that policy, that is turning back boats to Indonesia?Regardless of whether Australia turns them back to Indonesia, the first opportunity they will probably to try to find another way to go to Australia. So I think that that is not going to be a final solution. In fact, the longer we process them in Indonesia through open the international MiG tration process and so on, it is a long process and many of them just try to find the back doors to go to Australia. And just turning them back to Indonesia I think will not easily solve the problem.Why does Indonesia feel these policies harm the spirit of partnership between Indonesia and Australia, as Dr Marty told members of the Indonesian Parliament?Put it this way, we have worked closely with the Australian Government and Canberra and Jakarta have always tried to consult with each other very, very closely. No policies have been made regarding the issue of illegal migrants could have worked without direct consultations between the two countries, so if there were to be a new policy to be introduced that was unilateral in nature, that didn't come about through prior consultations, it would be very difficult to sell, and if that policy has come about simply as a political campaign within Australia, against the previous government, which Indonesia is being used as a whipping board, I don't think that will go down very well in Jakarta.Dr Marty's remarks were very firm. Is that the Toni shah is likely to adopt when Tony Abbott meets President Yudhoyono, or were they intended for domestic consumption?I don't think it's simply for domestic consumption because in Indonesia, the illegal migrant issue is not really much a domestic issue. There is no other political party taking a different line from this, no other pressure groups trying to take a different line, so this is very much a united, consensus position in Indonesia, whether it's from the Government or from Parliament. We in Indonesia have huge problems. Illegal migrant issues are just adding to domestic problems that we have, and we certainly do not want this issue to become a new problem, especially in relation with our bilateral relations with Australia, or with other neighbouring countries.Mr Abbott has said that in some ways the relationship with Indonesia is Australia's most important. What does he need to do to show that he means what he says?There are so many things going on between Indonesia and Australia, so many common, converging interests, economy interests, political security interests and interests of having deeper, closer relations between our people, and it is, I think, unfair if every articles and news headlines being made about Indonesia in Australia are simply related to the illegal migrants issue, because that really reduces the relationship into a very narrow spectrum and I think that the Abbott Government would be doing a disservice to the broader interests of Australia when dealing with its closest and big neighbour.Dewi Fortuna Anwar, thank you very much.Thank you, Jim.

Government schools provide free education for the children of Australia, except for those of foreign nationals living and working in some parts of the country on temporary visas. The 457 visa allows skilled workers to come to Australia to fill shortages in the job market for up to four years. But despite paying taxes like Australian workers, the West Australian Government wants to force 457 visa holders to pay thousands of dollars for schools that are free to everyone else. Mignon Stewart reports.For the Flanagans, Australia was the land of hope, a new start for a big family suffering badly with the recession in Ireland. In February, they packed their bags and moved to the lucky country.The Flanagans chose Perth in WA to set up their new lives. The WA Government was actively recruiting migrants in Ireland, encouraging them to apply tore the temporary skilled 457 migration visas, which means they can work in Australia for up to four years. It was sold as a win-win. Families would get a fresh, prosperous start Down Under, while the Government would get workers keen to do jobs difficult to fill locally.It was a little bit hard, but it was well worth it. The kids have settled in fabulously at school. They're loving it. It's an excellent school, so it's worked out quite well so far.But last month, the WA Treasurerer dropped a bombshell, announcing that from next year the cost for 457 visa holders to send each child to a state school would increase from $60 a year to $4,000 a year. The State Government has since watered down the plan after a backlash. The fees will now be introduced in 2015, and only the first child would be charged the full $4,000, while for subsequent children it will cost $2,000 per school year.I think that's manageable and reflects only about a third of the cost to the taxpayer of actually educating these children.The Flanagans don't agree, and say it's still a lot of money for the basic right of an education.We have managed quite well. We've done our budget and we've been getting on very well, but I have four in the public school system and it's just not doable for us.It's crazy and I think it's very unfair.But the Government says the fee is necessary with a record growth in the number of students, driven by a local baby boom last decade, and now a big rise in the number of migrants moving to WA.Many of those on 457s and with children.And the number of those kids attending state schools has risen from just 300 in 2005 to almost 9,000 this year.The issue of 457 visas in Australia has been a controversial one.In March, the then PM Julia Gillard announced a crackdown on the scheme, claiming it was being abused.To stop foreign workers being put at the front of the queue with Australian workers at the back.There has also been anti-457 sentiment within some communities in Australia, with the number of people in WA agreeing that 457s should be charged to use the state school system.

The West Australian Premier, however, says he understand why 457 visa holders are angry, but says education costs, and the fee will raise more than $6 o o 0 million over the next 4 years. - will raise more than $60 million over the next 4 years.But 457 visa holders argue they pay tax and are unable to receive any benefits like Australia's health care system, Medicare, or childcare rebates.Alan has arrived from the Philippines two years ago and is one of those affected. He works in an abattoir in Harvey, 100km south of Perth. The meatworker and others in his community are shocked they will have are to pay so much for their kids' education.Some of my friends are thinking of sending their children back to the Philippines to continue their studies, and of course it would be too much for them to pay 4,000 a year, and some are even contemplating to go to other states.The Filipino community in WA is protesting against the charge.Carmelita Baltazar from the migrant advocate group says this kind of policy could put people come ing put people off from coming to Australia.They are doing so much for society, for the economic improvement of Australia .Two other governments also charge 457s for education. In NSW it can cost up to $5,500, while in the ACT, it can reach almost $14,000. As for the Flanagans, the changes in WA still mean a school bill of $10,000 a year, and their options are limited. The kids are settled in fabulously and it is a beautiful country and we are very happy here, but we have to eat as well.Mignon Stewart reporting.India's higher education sector is one of the largest in the world, catering for no fewer than 25 million students. Once a luxury for many Indians, a degree or diploma is now a viable option for the country's growing middle class.As a result, higher education has grown at warp speed. But as India correspondent Stephanie March reports, the quality is not keeping up.

When India became an independent nation six decades ago, the country had less than 700 diploma and degree institutions.Now it has 45,000. 20,000 of those emerged in the past 10 years alone.The capacity build-up has been very, very quick, and to some extent, quality has not been a core centrepiece of that strategy, and I think if you grow that fast, it's typically hard to maintain high quality. Himanshu Aggerwal is the CEO of Aspiring Minds, a Delhi company that assesses a graduate's employability and helps them to find a job that suits their skills. His company has evaluated more than a million graduates, and the statistics aren't promising.The graduates as a whole, close to 30% employable, 70% not employable.One of the most popular courses in India is engineering. The country produces about 1 million engineering graduates each year.According to Himanshu Aggerwal 's research, only 20% of them are qualified to work in their chosen field.The quality of higher education in India is poor. Accreditation for universities and colleges is voluntary and a bill to regulate them has spent the past three years caught up in a parliamentary logjam.Students typically at the end of three years have no clue what will be their career and their life in the future is nowhere close to getting in there.Akanksah Gupta and Srikanth Raghavan are both studying eng sheering. 'Ragamuffin' is studying business education and Anish George. They all agree the quality of their education isn't ideal.It needs a lot of improvement in terms of the practical knowledge to be imparted, according to the new Tajs coming up. The goals were - the course was really, really primitive. We were taught how to use spread sheets in Excel.These students say the simplified curriculum has come about because colleges and universities are trying to cater for the masses.Disgraceful for us. For me, the course is very easy. I'm generally interested in programming and also I have always put in extra effort outside the curriculum. I read from foreign books and all, and that gives me an advantage over others.This group of students is aware that they will probably have to undertake further study to get into fields where they want to work:Does that frustrate you that you are going to spend three years at college studying hard and then you're not going to be able to enter the workforce, you need to do further work on your own? Do you think it should be different?A lot of opportunities in IT sector as well as in other sectors also, it's about groom yourself, about yourself, groom yourself according to your skills, according to technologies, not about the studies, it's about extra curricular activities. College is just a tag. It's just there, you have a degree. What next?You have to do extra work from your side, so you have to drive your career, where you want to see yourself. That drive is something Himanshu Aggerwal says is not uncommon among the students he meets.What I can see clearly is the graduates in India are highly aspirational, and I can clearly see that they're leave nothing stone unturned to get themselves employable, which is a very positive sign.With a working age population that is growing by 12 million a year, it's vital that these young Indians do become employable because India's economy is depending on it.We need to make these people employable, and that they can become assets to the economy, rather than liabilities to be supported by the state.India correspondent Stephanie March reporting.Central banks are not having an easy time with many economies around the world struggling to maintain growth and jobs. In recent days, Indonesia's Central Bank has finally done what many analysts had already foreshadowed - downgraded the country's growth forecast to less than 6%.Indonesia, for so many years a stellar performer, is now feeling the pain of a trade balance that has slipped into the red, rising inflation and a weakening currency. Indonesia correspondent Helen Brown reports from Jakarta.It's one of Indonesia's most popular foods, squares of cakes called tempai are eaten by millions every day, but lately customers have noticed that prices are going up, or portions are getting smaller. TRANSLATION: It used to be 2,000 for three pieces, now 1,000 for a piece.In recent days the supply of Tempai and tofu lx ran out.The price is expensive. I didn't open my shop. I felt uncomfortable selling food without tempei and tofu.It is in tens of thousands of small places like this that soybeans are processed and made ready for market, but the issue of tofu is sympton attic of the new economic reality Indonesia finds itself in. Indonesians consume more than 2 million tonnes of soybean a year, but rely on imports to feed their appetites, and as international prices go up, the cost to these home-style industries has become un affordable. TRANSLATION: If we hope today, we wouldn't make ends meet for today, that's why we are doing this strike for the government it see because the people's representatives are asleep. If this keeps on going, people won't care because the government doesn't care.Not long ago, it used to cost around 75 cents a kilogram for soybeans, now it's almost a dollar. The real crunch came with the weakening of Indonesia's currency, the u peeia which has been hit by sudden enand fast falls. It has now stabilised a bit, but had devalued by around 16% and that weaker currency is making imports more expensive to buy.But Indonesia's financial woes are not unique. It's one of several emerging economies hit by a move of foreign capital out of the country as the US market starts to look a bit more promising.This is compounded by investors nervously eyeing Indonesia's large current account deficit, but on the street, those concepts are little understood.Raising the price of a basic food by around 10 cents may not seem like much, but for those on lower salaries it quickly adds up, and that's the challenge for Indonesia - a large economy, a member of the G20, but still home to tens of millions whose salaries are low and jobs are precarious.It is a G20 country, a substantial force on the global stage. It's the key force in assan both from an economic size and political positioning standpoint and yet vast portions of its populous are still relatively impoverished and so it's very sensitive to the swings of the global economy.Now the government is stepping in with some new measures. Trade officials are implementing a scheme that requires importers to buy a certain amount of the local soybean crop at a set price. There is also a ceiling on how much tofu and Tempeh pay for their raw material. Officials say steps like these will stop the price from fluctuating, a key concern for small buyers. TRANSLATION: I am confused. If we open, we don't get profit. If we don't open, we suffer. The only hope is that the soybean price becomes standard and doesn't fluctuate.This kind of government intervention has been seen before when an economy is faced with a slowdown.We see that in the form of the trade ministry trying to balance between protectionist policies that appeal on the one hand to part of the electorate and the very real risk that price inflation will result, as a result of narrowing of the supply chain.What seems likely is that it's going to be an uncomfortable shift for a country which had been riding high, an emerging market darling which felt assured of its path. Indonesia's tofu and tempeh workers are threatening to go on strike if the situation doesn't improve, and the cook who has been in the business for 30 years will continue serving smaller portions until things look up. Indonesia correspondent Helen Brown reporting.And that is the program. You can find our website at:

I will be back at the same time next week with another edition of Asia Pacific Focus. I'm Jim Middleton. Thanks for watching. Bye for now.


Captions by CSI Australia

Train journeys. They always seem
to have that wee bit of magic.

That special pull.

Day return to Dublin, please.

So if you're not doing anything
over the next half-hour,

join me on the Enterprise Express
between Belfast and Dublin.

Passengers commute between the two
cities, on average, six times a day.

However, 20 years ago,
it wasn't quite so easy,

as the track was a target
for terrorist activity,

which resulted in constant
disturbance to the service.

On today's journey, we'll be looking
back at some of the most significant
history of this rail link

and stopping off to meet
people along the way
who are looking forward

to cement new links between
the North and South of Ireland.

Along the way, I'll be visiting
the most famous and divisive
battleground in Irish history...

meeting the Gaelic football star
who overcame
a crippling addiction...

..enjoying a coffee at one
of Dublin's favourite landmarks...

and there'll be hymns
from stunning cathedrals
in both Belfast and Dublin.

The Belfast to Dublin rail link
is jointly-operated by Northern
Ireland Railways and Irish Rail.

They first introduced it
back in 1947 under the banner
of the Enterprise express.

They did that because they believed
that what they were instigating
was really enterprising.

They had cut out customs checks
between the two capital cities
in Ireland.

Thus they speeded up
the journey time.

Less than a hundred miles separates
the two capital cities