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Lost Worlds -

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(generated from captions) and costing taxpayers
less than $5 billion.

Six years later,

the Government's investment
has risen tenfold

and we estimate

Labor's version of an NBN

will eventually cost taxpayers

more than $90 billion.

Now, I've brought my practical
experience of decades in business

and as a minister
in the Howard Government

to assessing Labor's NBN.

In all these years, I've never seen
a project so badly managed.

Labor's NBN
has become a pipedream.

Its fibre network has reached
only two per cent

of Australian businesses
and households

and at this rate it will take
another 20 years to complete.

We will fix it. Within three years,
the Coalition will ensure

Australians have broadband five times
faster than today's average

and for
than Labor's.

That's our pledge.

We will deliver very fast broadband
and a completed NBN

sooner than Labor,
at less cost to the taxpayer

and at more affordable prices.

Authorised by B. Loughnane
for the Liberal Party, Canberra.

Join our team of explorers

using untested technologies...

and harnessing the power of thousands
of eyes the world over...

in a race against time...
to solve an 800-year-old mystery.

(Speaks Mongolian)

The storm
is bad over there.

My name is Albert Lin.

I'm on a quest to find
the secret burial site...

The forbidden tomb

of the man who ruled one of
the largest empires ever known...

Genghis Khan.

It's the most incredible
archaeological puzzle
of the last millennium.

This expedition, this summer,

the goal will be to use
the most advanced technologies

to find the tomb,
not digging anything,

doing everything non-invasively,

and take a legend
and make it reality.

Are you ready?
Yes, I'm ready.

We're in Ulaanbaatar,
the capital of Mongolia.

After many months of meetings,
we've got the go-ahead

from the government
and leading scholars

to conduct our search
for the tomb of Genghis Khan.

Looks pretty good.

We're finally doing it.

The day is here.
We're packed and ready to go.

We've got 31 men, 14 horses,
11 laptops,

a crazy arsenal of new tools,

four goats and a lot of unknown.

I haven't been able to sleep
for almost a year

because I've been dreaming
about this.

Get in the cars, let's go.

I'm using historical texts for clues.

Mostly legends from centuries ago.

Some of them say that a sacred
mountain called the Burkhan Khaldun

could be the location of the tomb.

Problem is... there is no longer
a mountain with that name,

and no one is certain which of
Mongolia's many peaks it could be.

This mountain is shrouded in mystery.

By the time of Genghis Khan's death,
in 1227 at the age 65,

his empire spanned
the Asian continent.

It would eventually stretch
from Siberia to India,

from Korea to Hungary,

and fundamentally change
the course of world history.

Genghis Khan destroyed
anybody who defied him.

His armies left millions dead
in medieval Europe, Asia,
the Middle East.

But the history of these campaigns
was written by his enemies,
his victims,

so most people in the West

bloodthirsty warrior.

That's only part of the story.

He created a new world in which ideas
flowed from East to West,

advancing technology,
art and science.

If he was so bloodthirsty,
then why did he abolish torture?

The man lived by principles.

Based on reports of past expeditions,
all of which have tried and failed,

we've targeted one section
of the Khentii mountain range

as a likely location
of the Burkhan Khaldun.

It's about 100 miles
northeast of the capital,

40 miles south of the Russian border

in a place called the Ikh Khorig
or the forbidden zone.

We're laying siege to the mountain!

Where we're going
roads can disappear overnight

so we send an advance party
on horseback to scout
for passable terrain.

Hey, why are we stopping?

It looks like the roads are going to
start showing their might right now.


It's a lake.

It's a huge lake...
in the middle of the road.

Let's go check it out.

Two of our trucks are already stuck.

This doesn't look good.

Hey, do you guys have
the mechanic with you? The engineer?

Three years ago, if you'd asked me

I'd tell you I'd be stuck in an
office doing something I didn't love.

I was just one year shy

of getting my PhD in materials
science and engineering.

and bought a ticket
on the Trans-Siberian Railroad

to find out what my grandfather meant

when he said our family comes
from the north.

My plan was to go to Mongolia
and buy a horse,

to ride through the countryside
and live with the nomads.

I had only one change of clothes
and a GPS.

Everyone told me I was crazy.

The more I'd hear I was crazy,

the more I wanted
to prove everybody wrong.

So I crossed the border
into Mongolia.

I found a world that had changed
little in a millennium.

And at its core, Genghis Khan,

a charismatic figure whose true

was as lost to the Western world
as his tomb...

locked away somewhere
in the ancestral homelands...

a forbidden zone.

I'm haunted by this mystery.

It's a personal challenge
I've created for myself.

Nobody knows exactly where his tomb
is or how he died,

but there's a lot of legends.

One legend claims a captured princess
who was to be his concubine

murdered him.

Another legend claims
that he died of typhus
during a major military campaign,

a secret known only
by his innermost circle.

And some say
that the abandoned nomad boy

who grew to conquer more land
than any man in world history

died doing what he loved most...

hunting wild horses.


The accident proved fatal.

A proud man,
Genghis Khan refused medical care

until the military campaign
in the south was won.

By then, it was too late.

His death would make the Mongol
empire vulnerable to his enemies,

so was kept a state secret.

These things happened
nearly 800 years ago.

Our trail was cold.

We have to study every clue,
use every tool,

including the historical texts.


According to one of those accounts,
Genghis Khan's body was purified,

wrapped in white felt...

preparing him for a long journey
north to his ancestral home...

to the sacred mountain.

But where?

It could be any mountain
in a huge mountain range.

Where exactly did they bring
his body?

Back in the States, I pitched
this crazy idea to my friends.

Let's go back to Mongolia,
gain access to the forbidden zone

and look for the tomb
of Genghis Khan.

You know where I wanna go?

I wanna go right there.

The odds will be against us, right?

The Mongolian government, its people,
they're fiercely protective of even
the idea of Genghis Khan.

No one is permitted to dig.

There's even a legend that says
the world would end

if a single stone of Genghis Khan's
tomb is ever disturbed.

But there's gotta be a way.

So here's my plan.
What if you use satellite imagery

to identify patterns
on the earth's surface

that indicate that there's something
man-made beneath the surface?

What if we use cutting-edge
technologies in a new way

to excavate
without ever digging?

And I knew exactly who could help me
pull this off.

You need a team of people that won't
be stopped where the road ends.

That's my guys.

All experts in their fields,
from robotics to data mining

to 3D imaging.

These guys
are my dream team.

And joining me are National
Geographic's Archaeology Fellow

Dr Fred Hiebert

and Prof. Tsogt-Ochiryn Ishdorj,

one of the world's authorities
on Mongolian history.

What do you think?

It's really stuck?

It's really stuck.

But even with my dream team on board,

we'll never find
the tomb of Genghis Khan

if we can't get this truck
out of the mud.

This is our bread and butter,
our work horse,
to get us through the hard parts

and with this thing in the mud,
I don't know what we'll do.

The Russian 66 - a legendary
7000-pound off-road vehicle

with a beast of a V8 under the hood.

Just what we need to get our heavy
scientific equipment into the field.

They're old trucks,
but they say you can fix a 66
with twine and duct tape.


Their reputation is that
they are unstoppable.



Alright, we're back in business.

We continue north,
following what could have been

the route of Genghis Khan's funeral

crossing a beautiful
but harsh landscape.

Genghis Khan called it
the northern wilderness.

It's where he was born...
where he suffered as a child.

At the age of nine, Temujin, the boy
who would become Genghis Khan,

lost everything.

His father was murdered. His family
was abandoned by their own tribe.

Temujin, his mother,
and his young siblings

were left to die
on the brutal steppe.

But they didn't die...

They beat the odds and survived.

A fire was lit within this boy

that would one day
shape the fate of millions.

We push on...

40 miles north of the capital,
Ishdorj knows a campsite.

That was a long day.

Aw, man... fantastic!

Good job, Ishdorj!

We arrive on the eastern steppe.

It took us 10 hours to get here,
but there's no time to rest.

Time to make a home.

It's midnight. We gotta get
this done and get to bed.

A storm front is coming.

These three collapsible yurts
or 'gers',

they'll be our home for the night.

They're versatile structures -
so simple yet totally warm
and waterproof,

totally packable... carried by nomads
across the steppe for a millennium.

I'm learning as I go.

I've convinced a lot of people
to trust in me.

To put their lives on hold,
to invest money and time,

but to also give me access
to this sacred land.

I can't let them down now.

Lightning in the night sky
feels like an omen.

Good or bad?
Well, we'll find out tomorrow.

We're getting closer
to the forbidden zone.

The sun rises at 4 a.m.,

but none of us came to Mongolia
to catch up on our sleep.

We are right now in a valley
that is just to the south

of the highly restricted area
of northern Mongolia.

It was once probably part
of the "forbidden zone"

that Genghis Khan
had originally created.

But nobody even knows which mountain
we're looking for any more

because we know it by name, but
nobody knows which mountain that is.

There were never any maps
created around it.

It's to that very mountain
that Temujin,

the young man who would become
Genghis Khan,

ran for his life,
chased by an enemy tribe

that had just kidnapped his wife,

He escaped, and according to legend,
sought refuge on the Burkhan Khaldun.

There, he turned his fate over
to Tengri,

the Mongol god
of the eternal blue sky,

and found the strength
to stand up and fight.

After three days on the mountain,
he set out to get his wife back,

to be proclaimed Genghis Khan,

which means "the universal ruler".

An incredible transformation happened
on the Burkhan Khaldun

and that's where we're heading -
if we can find it.

The Burkhan Khaldun...

It's not just a mountain,
it's a whole mountain range!

It's more than 12,000
square kilometres.

To begin to investigate that area,

it would take more than 100
archaeologists all their lives

just to begin to look.

So we're asking the public
to scan the entire area

through the human computation network
and tell us where to go

so we can find any possible trace
of the Burkhan Khaldun.

We're trying to get people
around the world to help us find
the tomb of Genghis Khan

by creating what we call the human
computation network.

We've uploaded 85,000 hi-res images
from the GeoEye-1,

an advanced earth-imaging satellite,

and shared them with the public
through our website.

Citizen scientists all over
the world are scanning these images

and tagging anything that looks
out of the ordinary.

We've got hundreds of thousands
of eyeballs in the sky

looking for ancient structures.

This is the data that
just came in today, huh?Mm-hmm.

These are the most recent tags
uploaded onto the data pads.

Hundreds of our citizen scientists
tagged this unusual rectangle shape
on the satellite map.

Straight lines are usually a good
indicator that something's man-made.

The GPS coordinates are then
downloaded to us in the field.

It turns out the site is less than
two miles from our camp.

Could it be the tomb of Genghis Khan?
We're gonna check it out.

Let's get in the car.

Loaded up the trucks...

Gotta get the horses to get up
into the upper ridges.

We'll scan every single one
of the human computation sites

picked out on that mountain

and try to figure out
what the people saw.

So we get on our horses
and we're galloping up this hill

while keeping an eye on our data pads
and GPS...

and we come upon this thing that was
identified by the public,

made of rocks,
sticking out of the earth.

This is it.


It's clearly a tomb, but it's
too old to be Genghis Khan's.

It's Bronze Age.
It's more than 3000 years old.

But what you can see is this very
well structured rectangular shape,

with these rocks set up like a home.

And the opening there
represents a door

and always the door is facing south,
so south is directly that way.

This is exciting because
not only does it tell us
that human computation works,

but it gives us another clue

that says we need to look
on the south side of the mountains.

If people hundreds of miles away
in the comfort of their own homes

can guide us through satellite images
to this ancient grave site

then I feel we've got a chance
to find the tomb of Genghis Khan.

One legend tells us
Genghis Khan's funeral escort

was an armed procession
of 10,000 riders.

They would have faced a long,
hard journey

to be carried out in complete

For the stability of his empire, his
death was treated as a state secret.

The escort would have travelled
the 900 miles north

under very strict orders.

They'd leave no witnesses.

All clues were erased.

Anyone unlucky enough to see the
procession didn't live to tell.

never happened.

But we're looking
with a new set of eyes

and our citizen scientists have
tagged some more sites in the area.

What about on that hillside
over there?

We need to follows these leads...

The Bronze Age tombs are cool, but
they're not what we're here for.

It'll be clear from the air

if there's something else
in this vicinity from
the time of Genghis Khan.

But we need a bird's eye view
of the area

with more detail than a satellite
image can provide us.

Our answer is the OktoKopter -

a flying robot with a camera
for an eye and a programmable GPS.

The OktoKopter took months to build

and now it's time to see
if it's worth its weight.

The remote control is gonna have
a trigger to a camera

that is going to take snapshots
of this site from the air.

The cool thing about this
is that from the air

we can get a totally different
perspective of this site.


Just wait on GPS.

Go for it.

It's holding.

There's something unexpected.


I didn't expect it back!
That was the best one.

So we land the OktoKopter
and review the footage.

There's something here that sends
a chill down my spine...

a looted Bronze Age tomb.

Look at those stones.

Oh, wait a minute.

This site's been...

It's infuriating that grave robbers,

probably looking for arrowheads
and artifacts,

are going through here looking for
things to sell on the black market.

This dig is fresh.

We can tell by how moist
the earth is.

And we're worried
about this entire region

because they might be digging
up there,

they might be digging over there

and we're really worried they're
going to go up into the mountains.

There's another site that
our citizen scientists have tagged.

It's a mountain about 56 miles north

and also happens to conform
with the local legends
of where the Burkhan Khaldun sits.

It's at the source of two rivers
and we're headed there.

We've got to find
the tomb of Genghis Khan

before destructive forces
beat us to it.

(Speaks Mongolian)

Good luck.

On the menu for today -
56 miles of rutted dirt road.

Our destination: a mountain
tagged by our citizen scientists

in the Khentii Mountain range.

Could it be the Burkhan Khaldun?

If all goes well,

we'll reach the gate of
the forbidden zone before nightfall.

No problem! Wooh!

Three hours later, we arrive.

I had pictured armed guards
and barbed wire,

but in reality the gate
to the forbidden zone

is as much a political symbol
as a physical barrier.

Where's Ishdorj?

Still, we need permission from
the local authority... so we wait.

But once through,

we'll be on the doorsteps
of Genghis Khan's sacred domain,

7500 square miles
encompassing the mountains,

the eternal blue sky,
and everything in between.

Once we cross this region,

we are stepping into a land
that is so spiritually significant

for the Mongolians and for the rest
of the world to know about,

because it is actually a place where
Genghis Khan said nobody could go,

outside of the royal family,
for 800 years.

It's speculated that Genghis Khan
restricted access to this region

because it contained
the Burkhan Khaldun...

the sacred mountain,
his future burial site...

so full of power that he had feared
others might misuse it.

For Genghis Khan
it was the key to his rule.

It's okay, Ishdorj, we can open it.

No one kills trespassers any more,

but it's still considered hallowed
ground, and closely protected.

We're allowed to enter.

We pass through this barrier, take a
few steps and I'm totally speechless.

This place that I have read about
from ancient texts

from iconic figures like
Rashid al-Din from the 13th century

or Marco Polo or explorers
from the 19th century

talking about this forbidden
precinct, this Ikh Khorig.

With a few steps,
I'm finally on the inside.

If we do this fast,
it should be done in two hours.

Inside the gate,
beneath the endless blue sky,

we make camp in a sacred place
that few have ever been.

I hope we're on the right trail.

We know the Burkhan Khaldun
was sacred to Genghis Khan,

but how do we know
he was buried there?

There's a clue from 13th century
Persian scholar, Rashid al-Din,

who wrote that one day while out
hunting on the sacred mountain,

Genghis Khan saw a solitary tree.

The sight of the tree pleased him,
and he sat for an hour under it...

giving his orders:

"This place is suitable
for my burial."

We've got to find
the Burkhan Khaldun.

It's morning.
Time to load-up again...

iron stoves, a freezer, goats, rugs,
army cots, gers.

It takes hours
every time we break camp.

So we all pitch in and become
a moving village, nomad style.

Just as we're ready to take off, we
discover that two horses are missing.

We'll have to make do with 12 horses.

Ishdorj thinks they might have run
off to the farm where they were born.

All living things here have
an incredible connection to the land.

Cars and horses start the slog —
25 miles due east.

According to our GPS, this will
lead us to the foot of the mountain

that might be the Burkhan Khaldun.

But trouble awaits us.

About 20 miles from the mountain,
we come upon the sacred river,
the Kherlen.

It's swollen, gorged with water from
the rains that just came through.

And I'm thinking maybe the larger
truck, the 66, can make it,

the horses probably,

but the smaller trucks that are
carrying all of our electronics,

our geophysics... there's no way.

But we've got to try.

RADIO: We have a cable attached
to the Russian minibus

and we're gonna pull it
across the water. Over.

How are you feeling over there?
You nervous?

Man, this is kinda gnarly.
I got a whiplash...

Here we go... Ohh!

Uh-oh, I think the cable came off.

We got a car park going here.

Oh, my God.

It's eerie to think that every
obstacle we face on our journey

was probably faced by Genghis Khan's
funeral escort 800 years ago.

When the horse cart bearing his body
got stuck,

the shaman implored
Genghis Khan's spirit to push on.

We don't have a shaman,

but we do have good old-fashioned
Mongolian determination.

And we're on our way.

We enter the foothills
of the Khentii mountain range...

thick grass and shrub brush.

If we're on the right path

this is the same ground the funeral
escort would have travelled.

It's such a crazy feeling

because for 800 years it's been
forbidden to go to this place,

yet so many people have thought
about it, written about it,

and speculated
as to what it contains.

It's such an honour to be here.

(Calls out urgently)

It's getting late.

By our GPS
we've got at least two hours

before we reach the base
of the mountain tagged
by our citizen scientists.

We do not want to be stuck out here
for the night.

Trucks, don't fail us now.

We cross the forbidden zone

and arrive at the foot
of Mount Khentii Qan

in the northwest quadrant
of the Khentii mountain range.


Good job.

We made it.


We know from
the 'Secret History of the Mongols',

a chronicle written two decades
after Genghis Khan's death,

that the Burkhan Khaldun sits
at the mouth of two rivers.

There's two rivers here -
that's a promising sign.

Other expeditions have followed the
same clue and come up empty-handed.

But we've got something
they didn't...

Geophysics... okay!

We plan to scan
every inch of this mountain.

If there's any evidence of a tomb,
we will find it.

It's been a long haul
and everybody is destroyed today

after yesterday's, like...
18-hour slog.

We set up base camp
at the foot of the mountain.

Tomorrow, we'll begin the climb
but today... we rest.

At first light we begin our trek.

We narrow our search to
the southern side of the mountain.

We know for one thing - in Mongolia,
everything respects the sun

and therefore faces south.

Graves and tombs face south.
Even doors of houses face south.

On this mountain

there's a significant plateau
on the southeastern flank.

It's been tagged by our citizen

and it's on the sunny side
of the mountain.

Could it be the site of a tomb?

We're heading to it.

We're all going up the side
of this mountain, we're scrambling,

not stopping,
climbing up this mountain,

and we come up into this dense
pine grove,

and a little flattening out plateau

and on that flattened out plateau

stands in front of us this huge
shrine of blue prayer flags,

what's called an ovoo.

It's eerie how spiritual you feel
in front of this thing.

The ovoo is a clue.

It means that people have come here,
to this remote location,

to make offerings.

So the idea is that
if this is a modern shrine,

maybe it's built on a place
that's been holy for a long time.

This site demands a closer look
and a name...

"Archaeological site 1",
or "Arc site 1" for short.

We mark the perimeter
and create a site grid.

So what the site grid allows us to do

is it marks a precise location
of anything and everything we find.

It shows us how they're related
to each other.

What we're looking for is evidence
of a man-made structure.

We find charred bits of wood.

Are they from a forest fire
or burnt timbers from a building?

When we're surveying
here in the forest,

it's really hard to see any object
that would be man-made on the ground

but from time to time we do.

Here's the bottom of a tree,
and look at this...

we've got a pottery tile
sitting right on the forest floor.

Every winter, it freezes
and the ground pushes things up.

Water or anything.

These tiles have been pushed up
and are actually sitting
on the forest floor.

Like cops working a crime scene,
we'll tag everything significant.

A single tile isn't enough.

If there's a tomb here,
there'll be more clues.

We're looking for linear shapes
in the ground

and as we start walking around here

we noticed rocks that start
to kind of line up.

This could be the foundation
of a building,

but more work needs to be done.

We've brought
the electro-magnetometer.

It's a great tool
for looking under the ground.

The string is like, here.

You have to follow the line

with the sensor
in a perpendicular direction.

Okay... like this.

We bought these pants
at the black market in Ulaanbaatar

because they contain no metal,

which is crucial to the outcome
of this operation.

So if there's metal in your pants,
you get the wrong readings

and then, you know,
we don't want that.

You get useless data...
useless data.

So we will sacrifice our appearance
for the sake of science.

We'll do everything.

Archaeological remains have distinct
magnetic properties.

The electro-magnetometer reads these
as anomalies

and creates a map of what's man-made
beneath the surface.

Once the scanning is done, we'll send
the data though our satellite uplink

to a processing lab.

If there's something down there,
we will see it by morning.

The best way to celebrate
a solid day's work?

Slaughter a goat
and sing Mongolian folk songs.

As the night went on and the bottle
of vodka got passed around

a few more times around the fire,
we started singing songs.

Luke had this guitar

and he would sing some songs he knew,

then the Mongolian crew would sing
a few songs they knew.

It turns out
that all the Mongolian songs

are all either about war or mothers.

And while we couldn't understand
the words,

we could tell that they were
very deep and meaningful

and, you know, spiritual songs.

Morning at the foot
of the sacred mountain

and there's a surprise
from yesterday's scan.

Aw, man, we found something.

We know it's big.

We just received this data

and we are seeing here a 2D map
of the EM survey we made yesterday.

So the blue on the scan is soft.

It's like grass and moss or roots,

whereas the red's
really exciting for us

because above the bedrock

anything that would be there
would be man-made.

It would be anomalous,
like a wall or a tomb chamber.

It's really exciting
to look at these scans.

That's really sweet.

This is very nice.
That's very nice.

That wall is that.
I think so.

Yeah, and that is that.

The data confirms Fred's hypothesis -

the stones we found
form a straight line.

Those lines have got to be walls.

Plus the structure's even bigger
than we originally thought.

So we're gonna go back
and do a much larger scan

because I think we've just realised
that maybe what we've stumbled across

is bigger than we thought it was

Hey, babe,
I could really go for a snack. Yeah.

Ow! Damn it!

Get in the bowl. M&M: YOU get in the bowl. (M&Ms POUR INTO BOWL)

Make sure you prioritise.

Number one is to make sure
we get the data we need

and do anything to make that happen.

So, go for it. Go.

So we break into two teams.

Alex Novo and his team expand
the search grid at Arc site 1.

Team two comes with me and Ishdorj
to explore the sea of graves,

a strange rock formation
that past explorers have flagged

as the possible ruins
of an imperial burial site.

With our geophysical tools,

we can settle this speculation
once and for all.

It takes a few hours to ride and hike
up the mountain.

We arrive at the sea of graves.

I get it. I see how this place
got its name.

At the second level,
just above the shoulder,

the ground looks like a graveyard.

This plateau right here has a lot
of rocks, a lot of talus field.

What makes this unique is
(a) its view over the Khentii Lake,

which is known to have spiritual
significance in shamanism

and to the Mongol people.

Also they have
these little pockets of dirt

like the one
I'm standing in front of

and as you can see it's...
I don't know,

it seems almost like
the size a tomb would be.

We aren't sure what this is.

It could be a burial site.

The only way to be sure
is to scan it.

This is science.

Suddenly, out of nowhere,
an epic storm is right on top of us.

Oh man, if you look into that valley
over there you can see what's coming.

Shay, who is still
strapped into the imaging gear,

is a human lightning rod.

That's looking pretty brutal!

Come on, Shay, we gotta go!

Maybe something bigger than all of us
doesn't want us to find this tomb.

Off the mountain, right now.

RADIO: What's up, dude?

You guys better pack up and wrap up.

It's really dumping on the other
ridge. It's gonna come at us.

No time to complete the scan.

We pack up and get off the highest
point of the mountain — fast.

Ridge to Arc site 1.

You got serious weather coming
your way. We're heading down.


The storm is freaky. I've never seen
a front move like that.

We made it back to camp
shaken, but in one piece.

Hey, guys.

How did you guys do?

We got blown off of that ridge.

I'm worried a little bit,
the toll the field is taking

on the crew in general,

I mean, everybody's tired.

I saw some lightning too.

Cos that's gonna be a fear,

if they're out there
and it's like storming.

The one thing that always
takes my breath away,

brings things back to zero

is when we look out across
that valley behind me

and you can see the most stunning
landscape I could ever imagine.

But even then, it feels unreal.

The storm passes over us and in
the morning the weather has improved.

The next day we're slogging
up the mountain again,

up muddy trails
washed out from the rain

by this crazy storm
that came through.

We're seeing evidence of it
all around us.

Oh, man. Did this just fall?

This just came down.

Fallen trees just across the side
of this mountain were everywhere

and there was one
right on top of the trail,

right across Arc site 1.

If we had been there
any longer that night before,

we could have gotten killed.

But our fear turned into excitement.
We had incredible luck.

This tree fell down,
and in its roots...


was the proof that the building
extended this far.

You see roof tiles, you see bricks,
you see ceramics.

It's kind of like the mountain
gave us a little gift.

We're really pleased.

So, in fact, we now have
a rectangular building,

it's oriented north and south.

In theory the doorway
should be towards the south,

so the team has been sent
to the south

to see if there is an entranceway,
a roadway, or a walkway

which would have led
up to this building from the lake.

That's really exciting.
That's where the team is now.

We're not allowed to dig, but nature
opened up the ground for us.

We need to see what else
is down there

so Alex Novo sets up a new tool...

the ground-penetrating radar or GPR.

What's the offset?
Like this?

Yeah, I'd like for you to go
another half meter over.

So you would do one strip there
and one strip coming back.

While the ground-penetrating radar is
harder to use — it takes more time —

it sees deeper
and with higher resolution

than the electro-magnetometer.

You can actually put it
into a computer program

and reconstruct
what's underneath our feet in 3D.

You can slice it horizontally

so you can excavate the ground.

You can slice it vertically

so you can see exactly
what the subsurface remains are.

8.83 metres in the first profile.

We hit these two trees.

This is extreme radar.

This cutting-edge tool lets us dig
without a shovel...

to reveal the buried layers
of the past.

For the funeral escort carrying
Genghis Khan's body north,

the difficult journey
must have taken months.

The shaman would confirm the exact
spot for burial once they arrived.

According to legend,
it was the same site of the lone tree

that Genghis Khan sat beneath
while out hunting.

The great Khan had now returned home
to the mountain, as he had intended.

The reason we don't know
where Genghis Khan is buried

is not by accident.

He chose to hide his burial location.

Legend says, once buried,

800 horsemen trampled
Genghis Khan's grave.

And within a month, a forest grew
covering the spot.

As if the trees were conspiring
to keep his death a secret.

Meanwhile, we discover
another fallen tree.

The storm last night
just pounded at this hillside.

And what it's kind of done for us

is continue to wash away
the layers of the past.

And it's given us examples like this,

just sitting there in the roots
of the trees.

You can see here this perfectly
preserved end tile to a ceramic roof

which is beautiful in the front,
but what's really interesting to me

is when you flip it around
on the back you can actually see

the fingerprints of the artisan
who made it.

I mean, this is amazing cos now I'm
actually doing the exact same thing,

running my fingers across
what somebody else did.

How long ago, I don't know yet,

but we'll find out with
thermoluminescent dating.

Luckily for us,
thermoluminescent dating

can give a very accurate window
of when a ceramic was fired.

The heating above 500 degrees

changes the crystalline structure
of the ceramic

and that is locked in.

Once it's locked in, we are able
through a calibration program

to look at that
and compare to the soil around it

and say exactly when that was fired.

After completing the
ground-penetrating radar scan
of the expanded search area,

we head down the mountain
to process the results.

What's underground at Arc site 1
and what will it look like in 3D?

While we wait for the results,
we blow off some steam.

My guys are great at many things,

but when it comes to
Mongolian wrestling...

ugh, there's room for improvement.

Alex finishes crunching the data
and renders the visuals.

The 3D imaging from the GPR scans
is ready.

So this is GPR slice data, right?

It allows us to see a 3D view
of the structure.

And here's your outer wall.

Where you'd marked your grid, Fred.
That's our grid.

This is your grid, right?

It's hard to read, but the red areas
are foundations of walls.

Right on target.

And as we descend,
the wall disappears...

and then boom, something's
right in the centre.

The 3D scan holds
an even bigger surprise.

It looks like we definitely have
a man-made structure here.

You had two rectangles,
one outside the other.

But the one that's in the middle,

from this scan, is very obviously
below the outer wall.

Could this be a burial chamber

underneath some kind
of commemorative temple?

This is amazing.

This is what
the non-invasive tools can do.

Thank you, guys.
Thank you.

Thank you. Good scans.
All right, dude.

I know it's too early
to jump to conclusions.

We need more dates from the pottery
and the burnt wood.

Fred's a bit more sceptical than I am
because science takes time.

I know, we need dates
from the lab. But still I'm ecstatic. We've found
this huge buried structure,

something that looks like a temple,

we're finding pieces scattered across
the side of this mountain

which is quite possibly
the sacred mountain.

It makes total sense geographically
to the texts we've found.

And it's right in the centre
of the forbidden zone,

this forbidden precinct which is
still a forbidden area today.

My heart is racing,
but it's time to break camp.

After 15 exhausting days,
we're out of time,

we're out of provisions - food, gas.

We've gotta head back.

One in each car.

It's a three-day slog
back to the city,

but the distance we've travelled
can't be measured in miles.

It's tough to leave this place

thinking about how much we've
accomplished, how much we've found.

The next critical step is to date
these tiles and wood samples

to see whether they come
from the time of Genghis Khan.

Yeah, the large sampling is going
to give us that robusticity...

The thermoluminescent and
carbon dating results are in.

Fred has flown out from DC
so we can review them together.

I'm nervous as hell, but the news
is even better than I'd hoped for.

742 is wood.

Oh, my God.
That's exactly the time period.


It's 1219 to 1275.

Albert, that's...

It's crazy.
That's the sweet spot.

It's amazing what we've found.

The tiles date
from the 13th and 14th century,

the time of Genghis Khan

I was pretty sceptical in the field.

I never expected to get
13th and 14th century dates.

I mean, this is just astonishing.
Oh, my God.

So Arc site 1 contains the remains of
a 13-century Mongolian period temple

with something extremely compelling
beneath it.

Is it the lost tomb of Genghis Khan?

Well, it's too early to say.

The images we have taken

indicate that a significant structure
was built here.

Did the Mongolian leader
make it home?

We found new evidence
that would indicate he did.

This site must be protected.

Our job is to present
the scans and dating results
to the Mongolian government.

I'll feel like
we've completed our goal

if our findings can build
a new foundation for conservation

and a heightened sense of cultural
pride for this sacred mountain.

Three years ago while sleeping
on a friend's couch

I had a dream that took
complete hold of me.

I set out to find a legendary tomb
in a forbidden place.

And yet, what I was looking for may
have been in plain sight all along.

It's been said that if you are
searching for Genghis Khan,

just look into the eyes
of any nomad

and you'll find him there.

Captions (c) SBS Australia 2013

Good evening, Ricardo Goncalves updating World News Australia. Nelson Mandela has returned home after months in hospital - still critical but stable. Kevin Rudd says he's the comeback kid, despite more bad polls. And US action against Syria is on hold, as the President turns to Congress. More news at 9.30.

This program is captioned live. , and look to the Observer. -- good evening, and welcome to the Observer effect. Tonight, David Briggs on the surprising results of our exclusive opinion poll. And David dicey with his beautiful photographs of Aussie blokes and their dogs. es and their dogs.

In her time in the Federal Parliament it was said of then Senator Amanda Vanstone that she was a splash of colour and humour in a field of grey. Blunt, sometimes abrasive, she was at the centre of some of the Howard government's toughest policies, including those on asylum seekers. At the same time she's been known to weep over her beloved dogs. Amanda Vanstone lives by her grandmother's credo: "Roses are red, violets are blue, always paddle your own canoe". She is a one-off and she joins us now.What is this ins us now.What is this business about blood? It is a negative way of explaining people who are direct.I think direct is marvellous. What a relief it is to have you here. Somebody who is blunt and direct. We seem to have a deficit of that in public life at the moment.I could not say. I think it is easier if you say what you mean. It is quicker. Therefore, there is likely to be more apiece. There might be a bit of upset. At least everybody knows where everybody stands.I wonder whether that might not account for what I perceive and or what I perceive and what a lot of people do is the disengagement from this election campaign. I think a lot of people are ot of people are already fed up with it. People have it. People have been particularly grumpy about it.That is because it was weak ause it was weak 162. We had three years of minority government. Nobody could be sure that the government could lost that government could lost that time. We were always in campaign mode.People are sick of it. Did you get the sense that they decided what hey decided what they want the outcome of this?Someone said to me when I was worried about how a particular day went, she said, do not worry, pet. They have made up her mind. They are not listening. They have made up your mind. Once people have made up their mind, they get on with their life. Politicians think it is everything, this election. But we have our lives to lead. People switched off.You have in having a look, you have not switched off. No Julia Gillard at Labor's election campaign.It is a bit hard that when you give no credit to the Treasurer. That is because they recognise an underlying problegnise an underlying problem. It is good to have low interest rates. But there is a point at which if they keep lowering them, what they are saying is that they are worried the economy needs a kickstart. I think Labor realises this. The economy does have some slowness about to emerge.Kevin Rudd says of this last week of the campaign, we are in the fight of our lives. Here is a look. We are in the business of building the nation's future. Mr Abbott believes and $70 billion worth of cuts. Cuts that will hurt your jobs. Cuts that will go to your schools, cuts that will go to your hospital and cuts that will cost your standard of living. $70 billion of massive cuts risk throwing the entire economy into recession, because he still lived through fragile global economic times. As Prime Minister of Australia, my job is to protect your jobs, is to protect your jobs, your page and your basic conditions.What did you think of his performance?It was a good performance for the Labor audience. That is what to expect from a campaign launch. I thought he was t he was a bit flat. I think that was a little that was a little bit over scripted. I told -- someone told him to do that. You can see that, as opposed to him speaking because he has got fire in the belly. in the belly. I thought it was a bit flat.In the course of the campaign, there appears to be such a bipartisan view on a range of July government policies, like the National disability insurance scheme -- Gillard government policies. It has set the direction for a whoever ones the next government. But Kevin Rudd is not campaigning on any of this. Is that the problem of not putting out a consistent story?That is part of the problem. It is extraordinary that they have focused on Tony Abbott and are so negative about him. The reason that is a mistake is that it takes up space where they could be talking about themselves. Vote for me because I know where because I know where the nation should go. You lose time to focus on yourself. The other thing is that it is inconsistent with what Labor has been saying all along. Abbott is a bott is a terrible creature, he is so negative. What have we seen at Labor? It is inconsistent with their own benchmark of how leaders should behave.At the same time, from Kevin ame time, from Kevin Rudd we have seen a series of things that have been interpreted as thought bubbles. I am interested in your opinions on Kevin Rudd. He was your boss when your ambassador.Absolutely. What kind of boss was he? I did not have much to do with him. He was perfectly pleasant with him and efficient. -- pleasant with me. I