Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Disclaimer: The Parliamentary Library does not warrant the accuracy of closed captions. These are derived automatically from the broadcaster's signal.
The Observer Effect -

View in ParlView

(generated from captions) indicate that a significant structure
was built here.

Did the Mongolian leader
make it home?

We found new evidence
that would indicate he did.

This site must be protected.

Our job is to present
the scans and dating results
to the Mongolian government.

I'll feel like
we've completed our goal

if our findings can build
a new foundation for conservation

and a heightened sense of cultural
pride for this sacred mountain.

Three years ago while sleeping
on a friend's couch

I had a dream that took
complete hold of me.

I set out to find a legendary tomb
in a forbidden place.

And yet, what I was looking for may
have been in plain sight all along.

It's been said that if you are
searching for Genghis Khan,

just look into the eyes
of any nomad

and you'll find him there.

Captions (c) SBS Australia 2013

Good evening, Ricardo Goncalves updating World News Australia. Nelson Mandela has returned home after months in hospital - still critical but stable. Kevin Rudd says he's the comeback kid, despite more bad polls. And US action against Syria is on hold, as the President turns to Congress. More news at 9.30.

This program is captioned live. , and look to the Observer. -- good evening, and welcome to the Observer effect. Tonight, David Briggs on the surprising results of our exclusive opinion poll. And David dicey with his beautiful photographs of Aussie blokes and their dogs. es and their dogs.

In her time in the Federal Parliament it was said of then Senator Amanda Vanstone that she was a splash of colour and humour in a field of grey. Blunt, sometimes abrasive, she was at the centre of some of the Howard government's toughest policies, including those on asylum seekers. At the same time she's been known to weep over her beloved dogs. Amanda Vanstone lives by her grandmother's credo: "Roses are red, violets are blue, always paddle your own canoe". She is a one-off and she joins us now.What is this ins us now.What is this business about blood? It is a negative way of explaining people who are direct.I think direct is marvellous. What a relief it is to have you here. Somebody who is blunt and direct. We seem to have a deficit of that in public life at the moment.I could not say. I think it is easier if you say what you mean. It is quicker. Therefore, there is likely to be more apiece. There might be a bit of upset. At least everybody knows where everybody stands.I wonder whether that might not account for what I perceive and or what I perceive and what a lot of people do is the disengagement from this election campaign. I think a lot of people are ot of people are already fed up with it. People have it. People have been particularly grumpy about it.That is because it was weak ause it was weak 162. We had three years of minority government. Nobody could be sure that the government could lost that government could lost that time. We were always in campaign mode.People are sick of it. Did you get the sense that they decided what hey decided what they want the outcome of this?Someone said to me when I was worried about how a particular day went, she said, do not worry, pet. They have made up her mind. They are not listening. They have made up your mind. Once people have made up their mind, they get on with their life. Politicians think it is everything, this election. But we have our lives to lead. People switched off.You have in having a look, you have not switched off. No Julia Gillard at Labor's election campaign.It is a bit hard that when you give no credit to the Treasurer. That is because they recognise an underlying problegnise an underlying problem. It is good to have low interest rates. But there is a point at which if they keep lowering them, what they are saying is that they are worried the economy needs a kickstart. I think Labor realises this. The economy does have some slowness about to emerge.Kevin Rudd says of this last week of the campaign, we are in the fight of our lives. Here is a look. We are in the business of building the nation's future. Mr Abbott believes and $70 billion worth of cuts. Cuts that will hurt your jobs. Cuts that will go to your schools, cuts that will go to your hospital and cuts that will cost your standard of living. $70 billion of massive cuts risk throwing the entire economy into recession, because he still lived through fragile global economic times. As Prime Minister of Australia, my job is to protect your jobs, is to protect your jobs, your page and your basic conditions.What did you think of his performance?It was a good performance for the Labor audience. That is what to expect from a campaign launch. I thought he was t he was a bit flat. I think that was a little that was a little bit over scripted. I told -- someone told him to do that. You can see that, as opposed to him speaking because he has got fire in the belly. in the belly. I thought it was a bit flat.In the course of the campaign, there appears to be such a bipartisan view on a range of July government policies, like the National disability insurance scheme -- Gillard government policies. It has set the direction for a whoever ones the next government. But Kevin Rudd is not campaigning on any of this. Is that the problem of not putting out a consistent story?That is part of the problem. It is extraordinary that they have focused on Tony Abbott and are so negative about him. The reason that is a mistake is that it takes up space where they could be talking about themselves. Vote for me because I know where because I know where the nation should go. You lose time to focus on yourself. The other thing is that it is inconsistent with what Labor has been saying all along. Abbott is a bott is a terrible creature, he is so negative. What have we seen at Labor? It is inconsistent with their own benchmark of how leaders should behave.At the same time, from Kevin ame time, from Kevin Rudd we have seen a series of things that have been interpreted as thought bubbles. I am interested in your opinions on Kevin Rudd. He was your boss when your ambassador.Absolutely. What kind of boss was he? I did not have much to do with him. He was perfectly pleasant with him and efficient. -- pleasant with me. I did not have any complaints go. But if you plaints go. But if you work in a department, you get to hear what ever else thinks. It is how to say that he has a reputation of being a phone pest. He wants ambassadors to get phone calls with him with leaders. I do not think it is unfair to say that plenty of to say that plenty of them got a bit sick of it. He wants to talk about his view of the world.What about Angela Merkel?There was a vicious rumour that there umour that there was a cable from our embassy in Germany that intimated in foreign affairs language do not ask her for a phone call again. She has had She has had enough of it. That is what I heard.At the same time, Mr Rudd says that Mr Abbott lacks the temperament of foreign affairs. The economist said that his only foreign policy seems to be, stop the boats. ems to be, stop the boats.It has decided they want to support Mr Rudd. They are free to do that. He said that he would be good at foreign affair is because he speaks Chinese. You have to speak more than Chinese to understand China. That is generally agreed by many. But they took a turn for the worst, relations. You cannot suck You cannot suck up to them and then tell Hillary Clinton that she should be she should be anxious and worried about them. People are not stupid because they speak another language. According to the polls, Kevin Rudd is done for. About 10 years ago, you reflect that on the feeling of winning. -- reflected. People think that when they are in opposition, government will be and a tremendous amount of fun. But it is not true. It is not true. It is a lot of hard work. Let us have a look at John Howard. He is signalling that.I want to make it clear that although uniting the Australian people will be the cornerstone of will be the cornerstone of my government, we have been t, we have been elected with a mandate, a very powerful mandate. And while I will seek at all times Unity, and a common point of view, we have not been elected to be just a pale imitation of the government that we have replaced.That is a good point. What is the feeling like? There is not much time for the campaign. The following day, everyone else is on the phone. -- champagne. He expects most people to retain the jobs that they have got. Then there is the transition exercise. That is enormous. It is enormous if you are a cabinet minister. You walk into a place that spends into a place that spends billions of dollars and you are a representative. It is a tremendous task to get to know the people in the department, the ins and outs of the Department. It has to be done in a short space of time.When ort space of time.When you did that in 1996 as education Minister, you had to keep going to d to keep going to Peter Costello, who needed to cut ho needed to cut billions of dollars out of the budget.I remember that quite acutely. I had the fortune of being the minister that had defined a quarter of those savings in my portfolio. -- had to find. People do not like being told they had to get less. told they had to get less. But if you want the country run properly and liquor into deficit ly and liquor into deficit when we have two, and there could and there could be good reasons for that, you need to find waist or inefficiencies and get rid of it. Someone of a low income does not expect you to put their money against the wall.At the Centre on, I At the Centre on, I heard stories of ministers coming out white and sweaty at the meetings with Peter Costello.The Finance DepartmentCostello.The Finance Department and Treasury think that they rule the world. In terms of money, they do. You have to make a strong case for them. I come back to the point that Howard would often make the cabinet. It is not government money, it is taxpayer money. Somebody owned this and we this and we have taken it from them.I want to give you a couple of quotes. Here ouple of quotes. Here is Peter Costello in 1996. Mr Speaker, do not turn around a nation's finances and future without making some hard decisions. But if we avoid the hard decisions now, we will make them harder in the future. And Tony Abbott, after three years of death and set h and set to set -- debt and deficit, he has avoided any attempt to get rid of the deficit.Will you categorically state here and now that if you win, you will not alter or cancel u will not alter or cancel any promises, even if it involves more years in budget deficit than in budget deficit than you planned, even though you have used one of your campaigns to attack Mr Rudd for so many years of financial spending? All of our policies are economically responsible. Building better infrastructure. ilding better infrastructure. Cutting taxes to make us more.You will keep doing it even if it means pushing back the surplus?Yes, David. Why is he suddenly appearing to change on this issue?I do not know about that. Just because he might not get back to it in the first term of government, the debt has been getting bigger and bigger. It is a question of timing. But you cannot just keep spending forever. We will be economically responsible, but we will not be crazy mad. And just take a hat tip to things.I wonder whether you detected a difference between the difference of the difference of Costello being very clear, and Abbott saying that despite an emergency, there is no need for urgent action to get a surplus.There may be a feather of difference between the two...Is this all the two...Is this all all you see it as?My view is that something difficult past to be done... The sooner you do it, the better. Postponing is not good. It means is not good. It means you are weak and mass is still there. You may as well get on with it. There is also a political reason. You ical reason. You don't do it in the first year, what makes people think you will do it and the next.Do you worry that next.Do you worry that is the situation?No, they have people. If you are in a department that needs money late the one of education, training, and you confess, it spends billions of dollars, but you realise you could have had $12 billion more a year to spin it -- spent as a government, it leaves a bad taste in your mother. It is good to get that budget back into black. You can't always get it immediately but leaving us paying interest to someone else is not good.Joe Hockey has od.Joe Hockey has been treasurer of more than 1665 days. Is he the man for the moment? Let's have a look at this profile of them by Peter Fitzsimons.I think he would be a sensational leader but whether he has the r he has the killer and state and whether you need it -- killer instinct, he is too compassionate. People are not sure if you have the killer instinct.Try me.Has it got it?He probably hasn't got the chance to be tried. I think people rise to the occasion. I remember being in Cabinet when Mark fail came in l came in from Cabinet -- Vale and over lunch a couple of people including one e of people including one in particular who lost himself...Who is that?He said, that is a big jump straight into Cabinet. I said, may I remind you, or all of us came straight into Cabinet, what Michu think that somebody else can't do it? You give someone a job and they rise to the occasion. Responsibility educates. We are going to take a break. You can get involved online. We will be right back. be right back.

When you're hungry,
but not Big Mac hungry, you need one all-beef patty,
special sauce, lettuce, cheese, pickle, onions
on a sesame-seed bun.

It's the taste of a Big Mac,
in a snack. Try one before it's gone.

Thank you. We are talking to Amanda Vanstone. We were talking about Joe Hockey. He was asked if he is tough enough and ked if he is tough enough and he said, try me. Is it 10 Tony s it 10 Tony Abbott's DNA to raise that difficult conversation about Australians having a sense of entitlement. S ense of entitlement. S gear you raised.I don't think I don't think it is a difficult conversation. You simply need to say to Australians, do you want to keep spending money on this?Tony Abbott has the Paid Parental Leave scheme. He is not saying that we need to cut back, he is saying that we will not cut back and look at this wonderful policy.People say they want politicians with conviction... He is convinced... He says maternity leave is an actual wage, why should we offer less. He sticks to his views. It reminds me of the fact that most politicians would have had this experience. Somebody will come to you and say, what is the matter with you idiots? We could put monkeys and seats to follow opinion polls. We want people to lead. That comes from people who want you to do something unpopular. The next week when you are doing something unpopular, people will npopular, people will say to you, what is wrong with you idiots? The people do not want this. When you have had that experience, you realise that you can't make everybody happy all the time. erybody happy all the time.What about Tony Abbott's political character? ny Abbott's political character? You have worked with him for many years. He said in his book that middle class welfare is hat middle class welfare is necessary to 18 widespread electoral support for low income earners. At the other week he was at the Canterbury factory and said that jobs, fairness are important and nobody is left behind. --Cadbury.I don't care if the business owner is a millionaire. If it wasn't doing well, they won't paying taxes and people didn't have jobs, it is that easy. That is why I think Liberals or as Rudd likes to call us conservatives, has such a focus on the economy. a focus on the economy. That is where jobs come from. Let the readers point. I have often said that if the economy goes down, very wealthy people sell shares and complain. They tell their children at 16 that they can't have a new car until they are 17. They sell the beachhouse. Other people lose their job, maybe lose their house because they can't pay the mortgage. The economy is vitally important. It Abbott said that at the factory, he is right. How do we assess him? He now says debt and deficit is not a crisis, he will give himself 10 years to get the budget back into surplus. He is very different to Peter Costello who you served under. He said that we need to take the X now. Who X now. Who is Tony Abbott?He is the same Tony Abbott that I knew when I got into Parliament. When we talk about deficit, alk about deficit, that is in response to a government that said every year, we will have a surplus. They said it next year, and next year... And we hear they are adjustments because of Treasury getting something wrong by hundreds of millions of dollars. They think it is a different issue to how quickly you have to pay back a substantial debt. ack a substantial debt.What sort of man is he?He is a blokey bloke. He used to play rugby, he has a beer with the boys. He is a blokey bloke.Did you like?I like all of them. I think a blokey bloke is the best description key bloke is the best description that I can give. I'm surprised that somebody said he learnt how to net. Can you imagine it?No.Neither can I.He tortures himself with extreme exercise. I have never seen a 50-year-old like this.No.He goes to Mass every day...Every day?Apparently. Malcolm Turnbull said so.I haven't seen Tony for six or seven years. I have spoken to him on the phone. I don't know ever can say... I am saying that I am saying that I am not the same person I was in 1996 when we got government. I ensure that he is not the same re that he is not the same person that he was 10 or 15 or was 10 or 15 or 20 years ago. We all grow. Artistry is in government he will be another ll be another man, a gain. -- again. Experience changes you.This is from the campaign trough. Have a look. Mr Abbott spruiker 's loans scheme.

So she slips away and he let out an awkward laugh. The suggestion is that this man is a sexist.Well, Labor has been trained to convince us of this for years. I grew up in a single-parent household. There is no way my brother doesn't understand what women want, how they think. Abbott has lived in a household with a wife and three daughters.What is your experience of him in that department? He said at one point that house wives need to understand the ironing.I don't remember him saying that.He did.I am not a bad iron.I am defiantly not an iron. What are we to make of him?He, like everyone else, is a work in progress. Remember the business people e business people racing up arguments that he had then University. Get over it. We have all change. -- all changed. Judging people by who they were when they were teenagers... I don't think s... I don't think it is very helpful. What was that experience like for you end up without a father figure? Did it turn you into the independent woman who doesn't refer to women?Probably. In one way it was a good thing. I never had man telling me never had man telling me what to do. In another way, it is a bad thing because they hadn't learned particular waste to speak to them without them regarding you as abrasive, for example, I think if we were having morning tea and you said, how but we do this, and I said no, that is ridiculous, and to work together on a program... It is that to man they instantly think, why did they say that to me? You are thinking, I know other fruit cakes that thinks like me. thinks like me. Before you make up your mind, you are the decision maker, there are a few things you would like to consider so you don't get tripped up. He will be listening. If you say to a man, that is a stupid idea, only an idiot would think of that, he is thinking about how to bout how to kill you politically.I wonder if that doesn't adequately sum up your relationship with John Howard, and ohn Howard, and anyway. There was always had s always had to be some tension. You were only one of his favourite. He gave you a senior portfolio. You exited at the end, a little abruptly.That's true. I think a couple of times we had discussions were we disagreed. But they were civil discussions. He was always very civil. always very civil.Always. But did you misread him that way and was the generational thing a part of that? I would assume it was just someone of his age group. It is applicable to men now. Did that happen to him? It happened to all of them. It is much better to say, that is a really interesting idea.It seems to me that you figured out over the course.I have got the same dress on.You figured out the good life, Amanda Vanstone. the good life, Amanda Vanstone. You were the ambassador in Italy. That must have been a marvellous job. You came home to a wonderful role with Port Adelaide football and I now with the Royal flying Doctors.They lost on the weekend. It was awful. Do not worry, they will get there.Is part of the secret was of happiness your dogs? Your dog has got a new into trouble g has got a new into trouble over the week?He was a sweetheart.He found the adjustment to Italy difficult. There was an altercation with the Pakistani Ambassador. h the Pakistani Ambassador.Isn't he ridiculous? What did he do? It has been blown out of proportion. He did scare her. He did bite her. He seriously bet them? He beat them. But to be fair, the person was in the dated back yard and. He was heading towardsrd and. He was heading towards my husband. He was going to band. He was going to the bathroom. My dog was being protected. y dog was being protected. He is not aggressive. He is nervous and protective. The VET sector cannot leave them behind. -- said you. If you have a pet, it is part of the family. At vast expense, he was taken to Rome. He was then brought home.A sad piece of news this week. Australia will lost one of its broadcasting lost one of its broadcasting giants.Live every night at 730, he was Australia's television current ralia's television current affairs paneer. This Day tonight was watched by millions.They broke important stories. They told it with outrageous humour. They were controversial.We had furious debates. We had people attacking each other in the studio, physically as well as verbally. We had riots inside and outside the studio.You are behind the microphone now at the ABC. And another bit of speculation is whether or not we will see a replay of the e a replay of the culture wars. Conservative appointments to cultural bodies and the cuts to public broadcasters.Is somebody under the pressure that Labor has not appointed Liberal people to the cultural board. It is what governments do. People they believe will e they believe will exercise their duties that reflects the vision of Australia that the government has. That will happen again?It has happened under has happened under Labor. It is not unusual. Labor squeals when liberals do it.Amanda Vanstone, any prediction?At this point, it does look is point, it does look as though we are going to win. But there was a football match yesterday and Carlton were behind the first three quarters and came back into last quarter. I never think you should treat anything as in the bag until you have got your hands around top of it.Thank you for being my guest. Please thank Amanda Vanstone.

We will be right back after the break with David breaks. -- David breaks.

Welcome back. Imagine an election campaign in the days when you couldn't tell who was winning or who was losing. Imagine not being able to know what the majority of your fellow Australian's thought, or who they would vote for. If that sounds like bliss, then blame my next guest for denying you nirvana. David Briggs is the founder of the Galaxy Poll and his surveys of political sentiment are published in newspapers around the country and on the Nine Network. He's also conducted an exclusive poll for The Observer Effect this week, asking which of the two party leaders do you trust the most to manage the economy. David Briggs, a busy week, thanks for joining us. This was an interesting question. We were asking about the party leaders, and not the parties.Why was that significant? It was significant because the economy is genuinely a strong suit s genuinely a strong suit for the Coalition. Generally the Coalition would win. In this instance, we asked about trust to manage the economy between Tony Abbott and Kevin Rudd. On this occasion, there was little to choose. That demonstrates the strength of Kevin Rudd.Let's have a look at the results.

There it

There it is.

What would

What would the

What would the results be

What would the results be if

What would the results be if you

asked

asked a

asked a question about

asked a question about the parties? Generally we would see the Coalition ahead by 10

Coalition ahead by 10 pohe
moalition ahead by 10 points or Coalition ahead by 10 points or
more. Then if we break it down by tomography, reduced priced by the results? -- were you surprised? Generally when we look at voting patterns, younger voting patterns, younger people are more likely to be Labor voters and the baby boomer community more likely to be the Coalition. Even allowing for that, what we found was a significant differenced was a significant difference between the views of the leaders.Let us have a look.

As you

As you say,

As you say, you are

As you say, you are surprised

that.

that.It is

that.It is a

that.It is a larger difference than would be expert at by normal voting patterns. Maybe it is whatever he is whatever he is doing. He has appeal and relevance He has appeal and relevance to young people.Have you also found that two other polls? Differences between campaigns on all the media and social media?That is helping Kevin Rudd. One of the ways to rectify that attorney rectify that attorney Abbott was to set up the paid parental leave scheme. It really resonated ve scheme. It really resonated with younger voters. Even allowing for that, you still see that Kevin Rudd is preferred.Overall, what are the polls showing?What we find is that Labor peak at the time the election was called. The primary vote was 40%. Since then, Labor declined by two percentage points in the first week and then again in the second week. Labor need to win seats in the selection if they are going to form a government. On the basis of 53 -47, that is not to happen.The other pole I noticed, asking Australians whether they were keen to give the new Prime Minister control of the Senate.What was the point? The What was the point? The majority of voters preferred that oters preferred that Tony Abbott did not have full control.This week, your poll was slammed by the man who confidently says he wanted to be the next wanted to be the next Prime Minister, Clive Palmer.When I was at the former party director, I used to give polling companies large directions -- donations. large directions -- donations. Polling is reached in this rally. reached in this rally. Rupert Murdoch owns several companies. wns several companies. -- read it. He tries to determine the results before it is held. People are looking for a change.The current lot are so boring.Will he win 15 seats?No. He will not.Will he be the Prime Minister?No. Are you a pulse rate? -- are your pulse regular.In the years since, the opinion polls and Australia have incredibly good track records. They are not records. They are not ready. In fact, it is quite the opposite. Our ultimate goal is to be the most accurate.Have you ever observed what the academics called the bandwagon effect? Sometimes we can be prodded into doing the right thing. Do you think people go were other things might be going.I think it can work the other way. If the movement is on towards Tony Abbott, without a doubt. But it can work the other way. People do not want Tony Abbott to have such a majority. Then they should go the other way.It can work both ways. If you ask politicians about you lot, they do not like t, they do not like you very much. I want to play you a clip from Julie Owens, one of the members who could lose their seat. She was speaking at a press conference in February.Quite frankly, I am in a marginal seat. Today is not whether or not I am going to be elected. These people care more eople care more about their work and the future of Australians than whether I will hether I will get elected. Today it is my job to care about their work. That is why I am here with these wonderful people trying to assist them to do the great work that they do. This affects people 's lives. Do you expect the people watching the bulletins tonight are more about me than the health of their children? Get real.Clearly exasperated at the polls in Australia in recent years to dominate the new cycle. She was clearly saying, subvert real discourse. Do you worry about that? I don't because all we are ever doing is trying to accurately reflect public rately reflect public opinion at any moment in time. How politicians interpret that, I leave that up to them. We know that the Liberal Party and the Labor Party are significant uses of polling data so they would not be, I don't believe, surprised at the findings that we have an Galaxy Poll.When you turn on the radio after the release of one of the release of one of your calls, do you not think, is not something real happening?I would love for only our opinion polls to be in the news but sadly, news but sadly, there is other news as well. They provide a platform to which enlightened viewers to what is behind the political commentary. When polls ask questions like when Kevin Rudd got back in, there was appalled by your company asking, has Kevin Rudd changed from his first term as Prime Minister? They want is that has the capacity to lead public city to lead public opinion. Whatever the result, it allows newspapers and radio stations to have a conversation about whether Kevin Rudd has really changed.That is true but in all of our questions we try to have an equal balance for people to lance for people to agree and disagree. At the time, agree. At the time, that issue was of relevance and people really wanted to know if he had changed or not. I think it . I think it is fair to bring it into the media Forum.Briefly, what are the things you are looking at in particular?Polling night is going to be fascinating. Early results will tell us where it is for Labor. We also have polling in a marginal seat but ginal seat but we think it will be safely retained by the Liberal Party. There are a lot of seats of interest in ats of interest in the Liberal side. Adelaide has won with Kate Ellis. We are seeing that she may, at some point, have a sufficient buffer to retain that. fer to retain that. We have conducted 15,000 interviews since the start of the campaign and we haven't found one d we haven't found one good news story for Labor with the for Labor with the exception of the Perth poll over the seat of Perth.And it is the only swing to Labor in the entire of he entire of the country, you find? Yes. It is a significant thing for labour. -- Labor.Both the Labor Party and the green vote is likely to be down on 2000 levels. If Adam Bandt did Adam Bandt did have an come and see, I would say e and see, I would say there would be no chance that he would pick up that seat on the basis of where things are but because of e things are but because of the effort of incumbency and the young electorate late Melbourne, the asylum seeker policy was incredibly unpopular among the voters there. mong the voters there. That will make it difficult for Labor to win there. I wouldn't write Adam Bandt off yet. Please think David.

After the break we will meet Amanda Rich and friends. Dog photographer David Darcy. tographer David Darcy. -- a

(GENTLE MUSIC)
Robert Turnbull is 62 years old.

He lives 800 kilometres inland and his last holiday
was over 30 years ago.

Robert has never been to the ocean...

..until now. (MUSIC INTENSIFIES)

The new Sony 4K Ultra HD TV - like nothing you've ever experienced.

They say a good job is worth 10 men and a bad one is still worth three. Nobody knows this better than David D'Arcy who has been chasing dogs with a camera for close to 15 years. He doesn't go for those identified dressing up a dog in bowtie shots, he wants them chewing on cowpats are running around dams. He wants to capture dogs at their best. He has been working in remote indigenous communities educating people about safety around dogs. Thank you for being here. Where have you come from?I have come from a small indigenous community in the NT. I was driving back, taking it easy, and then I got a call asking if they wanted to be on the show. I put my foot on the pedal.There is one of your photos. What makes a good dog photo?For me, it is showing dogs and a respectful manner. I have always loved dogs. I have a lot of them in my life. t of them in my life. I have always wanted to capture them being themselves. They've seen a lot of photographs where people dress up dogs and put them in studios out of context. My goal was always to capture dogs just being themselves, just letting them go free and do what they do best. I think that connects with the audience. That one looks like a Vanity fair shot for me. They are running along for me. They are running along the beach. The two dogs there are mine. They are playing on re playing on Byron Bay Beach.When it is another dog, how much time do you spin figuring out, how am I going to shoot? Look at the stock. I think ok at the stock. I think they know people like that. You have looked into that dog's saw.I think everybody has a story with a dog. I had a connection straightway. Driving to the studio today, I saw half a dozen dogs. I get a buzz, a great feeling when I see them. I think anybody who loves them has the same feeling. I try to capture that. eling. I try to capture that. You get beautiful sharp pictures, their eyes are gleaming. There is a story and every dog.When did you start photographing them.My father taught me .My father taught me when I was very young. I gave it up for a while and when I was 206I nd when I was 206I decided to go back to photography and find out what makes me tech with photography. They went on a trip to the Southern Highlands of NSW and I got cameras off my dad and thought I would get used to them. I t used to them. I went to take a landscape shot and the stock was with me and he kept running into the picture. It is thought I would put in here and I thought, this is it. This is my calling. s is my calling.Really?Absolutely. I thought, I utely. I thought, I will just capture dogs being themselves. At first I lift of the -- lived off baked beans. I thought, how can I do something different? How can I make these guys into hese guys into something special?The latest work you have done is about men and their dogs. You have put people and put people and their dogs and regional areas. Something comes three that the dog's capacity for companionship and also to consult and comfort a person. Did you and to do that?Not necessarily. In my last book I had a chapter on people and their dogs and when we first spoke to the publishers about capturing the stories, from the beginning we were talking about great stories but then they thought, no, everybody has a story. I did realise how wonderful it would be wonderful it would be and how easily those men would open up to me. Some of them, are only had half an hour with them. They told me the saddest and most touching stories with the stocks. I thought it was amazing that these it was amazing that these men would mention it. This man and his dog, it was such a touching... After 15 years of doing this, I had to stories that really got me. I cried my heart out after doing the story with Stephen and his dog.What is his story?When he was young he had a large tray shooting. He a large tray shooting. He had a lack of blood to his brain. He had convocations from it. iis brain. He had convocations from it. He was deaf. He used his dog as his ears. He told me about has wrecked connection with the dot. Everybody knew about Stephen and his dog. I showed up and his dog was dying of cancer. I get goosebumps talking about this man just talking about it. The stock has meant so much to him. He told me, when some becomes to the gate, the Doc tells me. He had nobody else in his life. To lose your dog is a huge loss. It touched a nerve. And it is what it means.Yes. The dog could means.Yes. The dog could hardly walk at this stage. They asked him what is your favourite spot? im what is your favourite spot? Eat only that it was down at the river. I said, let's taken down there.He also took a photo of a champion wood chopper and has Steffi. People come to look like their dogs.David Foster is a fantastic man. He was so open and inviting and warm. I spent three and warm. I spent three or four hours with him. He was h him. He was telling me about the stock. He said, the dog won't walk too far. After 30 or 40m I have to carry him o carry him like a bag of spud. For a big bloke, he opened up and told me about some really soft stories of other dogs, not only his dog. His dog, when s dog. His dog, when his wife had a stroke and came home from hospital, the dog would go and sit on the right-hand side of n the right-hand side of her and let -- and lick her leg.Look, you are choking up again.Yes. It is a passion. A passion almost. I connect with them.What about your own dog? You have had n dog? You have had companions on the trip. You lost your dog, how long can keep in with you?I am choking up. Sorry. Hemmant being a part of my life for 15 years...It is hard isn't it?It is. I almost feel guilty because I was away doing this book, capturing the stories. She was at home and... I didn't get to say d... I didn't get to say goodbye.Isn't that the great tragedy? the great tragedy? You love the dog and you know that your life spans do you not life spans do you not line up.Absolutely. I think dogs give us a snap shot of our lives. a snap shot of our lives. They tell us, make the most of it because it is never long enough.It has been a pleasure to talk to you. Thank you.Cheers. That is all we have time for tonight. Happy Father's Day. We will be back next week. You can join the conversation online on Twitter or Facebook. Be sure to check out the blog, Effectively Observed on vely Observed on our website. See you next week. Supertext captions by Red Bee Media - redbeemedia.com.au

Ricardo Goncalves with a World News Australia Update. Nelson Mandela is back home in Johannesburg after being discharged from hospital - still critical but stable. Kevin Rudd vows to fight the election till the last vote is cast as the party officially launches its campaign. And the US tightens security as Congress weighs up an attack on Syria.

He was the hottest thing
on television.

Everybody was just
in awe of this guy.

I got captivated
watching Raymond Mancini

and hearin' his story about his dad
and watchin' his fights.

His fights were action-packed.

Ray was always great for ratings.
People just ate it up

and he became an icon
on the American sports scene.

Ray 'Boom Boom' Mancini was not just
a fighter. He was an attraction.

He was a star. When he fought,
people watched. Big time.

At that time, you know,
the unemployment rate was sky-high.

Nothing was going right
in Youngstown.

People gravitated towards Ray.
Ray was Youngstown.

When we're 12 years old,

we give our dad a tie or
we give him a card or something.

Raymond gave his dad
a promise that

"I will win the title
that you so well deserve."

'Boom Boom' Mancini is the most
marketable fighter in the world

and if they play it right,

he could become the most marketable
athlete in the world.

All he's got to do is go past
this kid Duk-koo Kim.

This father-and-son thing

that has run through
the Mancini family for years

and for him to tragically
have taken the life of a father

and now to meet that son...

that's got to be
a real challenge for Ray.

So this is where it all began.

This is the home,
807 Cambridge Avenue,

south side of Youngstown, Ohio,
the only house I've ever known.

My parents lived in here,
this house, 54 years.

It was Middle America.

You know, playing baseball,
football, in the streets,

and there's so many kids. I mean,
the Secoras lived across the street.

Tank Dicioccio, my buddy,
grew up in this house here

with his brother Jumbo and Bobby
and Lori and his...

and his sister Beany,
five of them.

It was a wonderful life, man,
and I'll never forget it.

You know, it was great.

I love this place, I truly do.
I love these people, love this town.

Yeah, my heart's still here,
that's for sure. Ain't never left.

I grew up 810 Cambridge Avenue.
Ray grew up 807,

which is right across the street.

He was the first friend I had,
first person that I met.

Neighbours had their doors open.
You can hear kids getting lickings.

The Mancinis can hear the Dicioccios
getting lickings.

We can hear them getting lickings.

You get home from school
and get your homework done,

you're out in the streets
and you're playin'.

We couldn't wait for 'Boom Boom',

'cause that's what
we called Ray's dad.

We didn't know why,
'cause we were young then.

We didn't know he was a fighter.

We used to go down in
the basement all the time,

and pull out the scrapbook
of 'Boom Boom', his father.

This one fight in particular
that Ray said he got robbed,

Ray wanted really to avenge that.

I mean, he actually wanted
to be his father.

And he understood this
at a young age of five, six.

He understood that.

Guys used to kid him when we were
playin' baseball, football...

"What are goin' to be
when you grow up?"

"You know,
I'm goin' to be a boxer."

Guys used to say,
"Well, what are you gonna box?

"You gonna box oranges?
You gonna box apples?
What are you gonna box?"

He goes "You'll see.
I'm gonna be a champion.

"I'm gonna be a champion
for my father."

RADIO: BOXING MATCH

September 1913, Nick Mancino
passes through Ellis Island

on his way from Bagheria, Sicily
to Youngstown, Ohio.

1917 he marries a local girl,
Annie Kanazaro.

She's remembered as
something of a flapper

and Nick, he was a...
kind of half a wise guy.

He does a bit for the Cleveland mob
and when he comes back,

Annie has taken up with a guy
named 'Slick' Valentine Bavone.

So he tells his son, Lenny,

he says, "Listen,
I got to go away now."

When my grandfather left to go,
he wanted to go with his father.

But my grandfather told him

"No, you gotta stay and
take care of your mother."

He cried so much that night.
My father was ten years old.

My father said
"I could never cry again."

When the Depression came,

he comes under the influence
of his Uncle Ferpo,

who would take Lenny
out in the street,

almost like his matchmaker,
like his manager.

Fathers and uncles
and older brothers

would meet on the street corner
and they'd say

"Hey, my kid can kick
your kid's ass."

"Oh yeah? No, my kid can kick
your kid's ass."

"How much you want to bet?"
So they put their money down

and to entice the odds
and to entice the drama of it,

Uncle Ferpo would say
"Look at this kid."

Bang! Rake the hand
right across Lenny's mouth.

"Look, he don't even cry!"

My father was a man that, truly,
when I say had no fear, no fear.

He's legendary in Youngstown
for being on the streets.

He ain't never lost
a street fight.

They used to tell stories how he
used to turn joints out, you know.

He'd walk up and they'd say

"Boom, please, whatever you do,
don't wreck the joint tonight."

That was just his thing.

He had no fear in him,
and he was a stand-up guy.

What happens with Lenny is,

he realises there's no way for him
to really be the kind of fighter

he wants to be if he's going
to stay in Youngstown.

He knows the capital of
the fight game is New York City.

He meets the great trainer Ray Arcel
passing through town.

He says "I'm comin' to New York."
He goes "Sure, kid.

"You come to New York,
you look me up at Stillman's Gym."

Couple of weeks later,
Lenny Mancino is in New York City,

hustles a bus ticket,
shows up at Stillman's,

taps Ray Arcel on the shoulder.
"Hey, here I am."

He fights a guy named Charlie Varre
in the Broadway Arena in Brooklyn.

Varre breaks his jaw. He wins
the fight, but with a broken jaw.

Tells Arcel and the rest of the guys
in Stillman's,

"Listen, I'm going home."

They say "Hey, take care, kid.
It was nice."

They don't think
he's gonna show up.

Six months later, "Hey, I'm back."
He's serious.

This is really all he ever
wanted to do, was be a fighter.

My father had a scrapbook.
It was like my Holy Grail.

It was all tattered pages
and every once in a while, I'd say,

"Dad, can I see the scrapbook yet?"
"Aw, Raymond."

I'd hound him all the time. I used
to love lookin' at those pictures.

They had one picture of him
after a Billy Marquette fight.

One eye swollen,
the other was completely closed,

both lips swollen and bloodied

and he's got a cut in the other eye,
and he won.

That picture, man, to me,

That picture, it's everything
I wanted to be.

People are paying money. They want
to see, essentially, violence.

They want to know that they're
getting their money's worth.

And when you saw Lenny Mancini,
as he was now called,

'cause they figured "Mancini"
was a better name,

you knew you were getting
your money's worth.

'Boom Boom' Mancini meant something.
He kept coming forward.

That becomes an immense source of
pride for Lenny 'Boom Boom' Mancini.

"I never took a step back."

December 7, 1941, world war broke
out. Lenny Mancini gets drafted.

To the draft board he says,
"I'll give you all my money.

"You know, I have to,
I'd like to fight for the title."

But they said no.

He went in a number one contender,
lightweight contender.

November 10, 1944,
a German mortar shell explodes

perilously close to 'Boom Boom'.

He takes it in the left collarbone,
left shoulder,

left arm, left leg, right foot.

Curiously,
what he tells people later is that,

"I was hurt bad,
but I was not knocked out."

He went in 5 foot 2, 135 pounds.
He came back 5 foot 2, 175 pounds,

filled with shrapnel
and everything else.

Well, how do you think he did
against these 175-pound, 6'2", 6'3"?

So, you know, his career when
he came back wasn't too long,

but maybe it was too long.

I had wrote a poem for my father,
Father's Day of 1976.

I was 15 years old and I wanted to
let him know what I thought of him

as a man, as a person, my hero.

And uh, that he was
everything I wanted to be.

And um, it was called
"I Walk in Your Shadow."

And it goes,

"I watch every step
that this man takes.

"Listen to every sound
that this man makes.

"I touch every part
of this man's face.

"I hold this man's body
when we embrace.

"I cry every tear
that this man cries.

"I try every task
that this man tries.

"I keep every memory
that this man keeps.

"I leap every mountain
that this man leaps.

"I love you, Dad. I really want
you to know I want to be like you

"and walk in your shadow.

"I want to be like you
and live with your great name,

"for I am this man's son,
and I'll never bear him shame."

Yeah, I was 15 when I wrote that.
LAUGHS

Wow.

Uh, when I gave it to him,
he read it

and tears welled up in his eyes,
and tears started coming down.

Now, you have to understand,
my father never cried.

I never saw my father cry
before that.

He read it, closed it
and he went in his room

and he just stayed in there
for a while.

I worked in the mills. I can
remember getting a sandwich.

You'd go to the commissary
and get a sandwich.

It was always white bread. There was
no such thing as whole-wheat.

You'd get a white-bread,
say, egg salad, for example,

and you'd come out and you'd
have to eat it really fast,

'cause if you didn't eat it
really fast,

the white bread would
turn grey in the air.

It was what they called graphite.

So you'd just, you know
hey, you're breathing it.

What the fuck difference
would it make, really?

It was in my brain that I was
gonna work in the mill

because my father
and my grandfather retired.

They worked 40 years
in the mills, you know.

And so I just... once you got by,
you accepted it,

that that's what you do
and, you know, you do it.

Youngstown has always had
a lot of labels,

Murder Town USA,
Bomb Town USA.

To understand it, you have to
look at the geography.

Youngstown is between Pittsburgh
and Cleveland,

both of which have a mob presence
and they're rival mobs.

So Youngstown being in the middle,

there's always been a lot of
fighting over Youngstown

and the rackets in Youngstown.

And so over the years from the 40s,
the 50s, the 60s,

we had a number of pretty high-
profile mob killings, bombings,

shootings,
things of that nature.

By 1963, Youngstown is on the cover
of the Saturday Evening Post

as Crimetown USA. It's become
nationally known for car bombings,

otherwise known
as a "Youngstown tune-up",

which means that you go
into your car in the morning,

you turn on the ignition,
it blows sky-high.

You never know who was doing what,

so it was better just to, you know,
mind your own business.

And if you worked in the steel mill,
you put in your eight hours,

every now and then you'd double out, you'd go cash your cheque at
that trailer with the little window.

You'd go buy yourself a couple
of drinks. That was the life.

And it was a good one,
you could put kids through school.

As long as you
didn't try to move up.

If you tried to get up there

and start swimming around
with those sharks,

you'd better be a shark.

There was a lot of tension between
my mum and dad every day.

I think that has, you know,
my dad liked to drink.

He was a very well-known person
in town.

Everybody knew who
'Boom Boom' Mancini was.

On our side of town, literally,

the main drag that
was three blocks up,

within three blocks,

there had to be twelve bars,
because that's what you did.

When I was eight, nine,
ten years old,

my father, he'd get home
between 4 and 4.30 from work.

If he didn't come home by 4.30,
I'd get a little nervous.

So I'd call the, wondering,
"Is 'Boom Boom' Mancini there?"

"Is Boom Boom here?"
"Tell 'em Boom ain't here." But he'd be there.
"Tell 'em Boom ain't here."