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(generated from captions) Before we go, a brief recap of our top stories tonight - the UN Security Council has called for more information before it acts decisively on an alleged chemical weapons attack which has killed at least 1,000 people in Syria.And Tony Abbott says he has directed the Liberal Party to stop accepting donations from tobacco companies.And that's the latest from the Canberra Newsroom. For more ACT News, you can follow us online or on Twitter. I'm Virginia Haussegger. I will be back in about one hour with an update. Until then, goodnight.


Captions by CSI Australia

This Program Is Captioned Live. Magical mystery tour, on the road with Rudd. Kevin Rudd is here in Townsville somewhere. We don't know exactly where because it's a secret. Labor doesn't want the Libs to know exactly what it's doing.It's 6 years since Kevin Rudd called climate change the great moral challenge of our generation. At the time there was largely bipartisan support to address the issue via a market-based Emissions Trading Scheme. But that agreement has long since dissolved into a toxic political debate. It was a key factor in Malcolm Turnbull losing the Liberal leadership, in Mr Rudd being dumped as Prime Minister and replaced by Julia Gillard in 2010 and then in Ms Gillard's removal in June. Amidst the brawling, public support for action on climate change has diminished. As the election looms, the two parties have similar targets for reducing carbon emissions but totally different policies for how to get there. Shortliural be joined by the Climate Change Minister and his Coalition counterpart but first Chris Uhlmann has this report. The diabolical politics of global warming has helped fell three Prime Ministers and two Opposition Leaders. Climate change is the great moral challenge of our generation. A major political party must have a credible policy on climate change.Over 6 years carbon pricing has morphed from Labor's weapon to the Coalition's. We tried three times to get an Emissions Trading Scheme through this parliament although we failed. The will be no carbon tax under the Government I lead. We will abolish the carbon tax.Community sentiment has shifted so much that both sides now want credit for axing the a carbon tax. The Government has decided to terminate the carbon tax. He's not the terminator, he's the exaggerator.So what are the bones of the major parties' climate policies? The starting point is the same. Both pledge to cut carbon emissions by 5% below year 20 level by 2020 and agree on the target which aims to ensure the equivalent of at least 20% of Australia's electricity comes from renewables by the end of the decade and right now it's that target that's doing most of the heavy lifting. At the moment the target is for 41 tear watt hours by 2020. On current demand growth that's 26, 27% of our electricity by 20 20. That's where the agreement ends. The Coalition's other plan is called Direct Action, to set up a capped $3 billion fund to support companies that cut emissions. The Direct Action scheme works more on a credit based system, rewarding companies for reducing emissions below a base line or target. And the Government has a carbon price. It's fixed at $24 a ton of carbon until July next year and then will fleet float in line with the European carbon market price. There, a ton of carbon is currently trading for about $6. The carbon price mechanism is more of a penalty based scheme, charging companies for their emissions and that in most cases gets passed through to consumers and that's intended to create an incentive to reduce emissions to reduce that cost. The Government muted a lot of that incentive when it poured billions of compensation into households and businesses. That compensation will stay no mat who wins on September 7. Keeping the carbon tax compensation without the carbon tax. Serious questions hang over the design of the Coalition's plan. There's no hint of what happens beyond 2020 and meeting the 5% target might blow the Budget. A recent study sponsored by Institute found it 4 to $15 billion short of what would be needed. Firstly there's uncertainties as to how much the emissions reductions will cost. As it stands, the funds have only been allocated for the next four years. The total funding for emissions reductionicise sceeped presumably if the abatement costs more than what has been anticipated, then there's a chance of a shortfall in meeting that target. By moving early to a floating price, the Government has tacitly admitted its carbon price started too high, now it looks set to fall so low it won't drive any change in behaviour. The problem with the Government policy is the carbon price was so high, the input costs of energy went up so much that people were hurt which is why there was compensation and industries were made less competitive when is why we were shedding manufacturing jobs it was too much too soon and didn't give long-term incentives.Professor Warwick McKicken has spent years working on the design of carbon pricing. Going forward,ee we need a policy where the world takes severe action that we can join it and if the world doesn't we don't damage our economic competitiveness. And routine Paul shifts have done real damage. Uncertainty kills investment. Investment is being killed by chopping and changing, also bipartisan policy is critical because without bipartisan support, as soon as you have an election

The benchmark starting point should have been a bipartisan approach. That looks unlikely. You walked away from a price of carbon Tony, you voted it down twice in the Senate. That's why it didn't happen. You dumped it. You voted it down twice in Senate. That is just an extraordinary proposition. You and the Greens hopped into bed and killed the Emissions Trading Scheme.This fight has a long way yet to run. Chris Uhlmann there and I'm joined by the Coalition's climate change spokesman Greg Hunt in Sydney and the Climate Change Minister Mark Butler in Adelaide. Good evening to both of you. I'd like to start by hopefully establishing some points of agreement just a very basic questionrism you still committed to unconditionally cutting greenhouse gas emissions by at least 5% below 2000 levs by 2020? Is it a core promise, Greg Hunt? Yes.Mark Butler? Yes. A promising start. Do you agree by how many tons were year you will need to reduce carbon emissions to reach that target, Mark Butler? This is work climate change authority will do for the Government, this an authority set up in legislation that will provide a report to the community in draft form in October there, will be public consultation about that and a final report in February. We think it's important that there be an independent authority that does this work. It sets out exactly where the cap is and is able to quantify those sorts of questions about tonnage. Greg Hunt, do you agree you would rely on an independent buddy to establish that? We actually use what the Government has historically used which is the Treasury and the bureaucrats within the bureaucracy. Very clear. We have no dispute over the numbers, the figures, the targets, the science. We just disagree on whether or not we use a carbon tax because emissions go up as the Government's own figures now show and the price goes up so we disagree on the carbon tax, we agree on the targets and on the accounting.Chris Uhlmann's package explained the basic differences between your approaches. Let me ask you for each of your policies how much they will cost the Budget over the forward estimates period, Mark Butler? It depends how broadly you're talking. In terms of the Emissions Trading Scheme, this is scheme that sets a cap on carbon pollution for the first time ever, a binding cap on the amount of carbon pollution dumped into the atmosphere and then sells permits so the point is the 370 biggest polluting companies in Australia pay for those permits rather than the Commonwealth Government paying out, if you like. So it's revenue that comes into the Commonwealth and the Commonwealth then pays out that revenue through household assistance and some other clean technology programs. On the other hand, there are some renewable energy programs that the Government is absolutely committed to, to ensure we continue to grow our investment in clean-energy, solar power, wind power in particular, since we were elected we've trebled the amount of wind power in Australia. We've gone from having about 7,500 households with PV solar on their roof tops to over a million and we're committed to continuing to build a suite of renewable energy policies. We announced the largest PV solar plant in the southern hemisphere- Sorry to interrupt, I don't want a shopping list of what you're doing y asked for the impact on the Budget over the forward estimates, let me ask you, Greg Hunt f you can provide that information on your policies? Imp I can. Theirs is a $9 billion a year tax based on this year's figures. Ours will be the emissions reduction fund, 300 million, 500 million and 750 million dollars. That's the difference between the two sides. That's the difference between the two approaches. Under them, though, unfortunately, it goes from a $24 carbon tax today to a $38 carbon tax in just over 5 years according to the Budget's own figures so revenue continues to go up, costs go up, the tax goes up, the tax remains and families pay $3,000, again according to the Government, on their estimates, over the next 6 years. Do you accept that, Mark Butler? I don't. The $9 billion figure is a complete fur fy. Greg is giving a notionalivalue to permits provided free to emissions intensive trade exposed industries. The cash return to the Budget through the carbon pricing mechanism is far lower than the $9 billion figure Greg talked about. The expenditure, for example, to take the renewable energy policy that I talked about through arena will be about $3 billion over a period of some years to continue to drive this very large-scale solar and wind power technology. Greg Hunt, the Coalition's 2010 policy stated direct action on soil carb wns wns - soil carbons will be the major plank in our case, is it still the case? It was meant to meet 60% of your goal. That's wrong. That's going on the numbers in your 2010 document. With great respect t was always a maximum figure. You said you would use soil carb toons cut 60%. It was always a case of up to - let me answer your question right now. Three things have happened in the last three years. Firstly, the overall task for Australia has gone down sadly because we've had a collapse in our manufacturing in part due to costs, in part due to a lack of demand from overseas. That's had a big impact on our overall emissions profile. Secondly, the volume of abatement, of emissions reduction available, has gone up. Only 24 hours ago the forest products association doubled the figure of abatement which we had in our 2010 policy from intensive forestry. They said we could get a lot more out of our trees and, thirdly, the cost has gone down so there have been some significant improvement s all of which make achieving targets through our approach easier. Soil carbon remains a significant part but the market will determine how much and, as we saw only yesterday, the conservative figures which we put down in 2010 have doubled in one sector alone not according to us but according to the industry.Mark Butler, the points Greg Hunt raised there, do you accept that those factors make it more, I guess, accessible to reach the targets that we're reaching for? Can I just respond to the soil carbon point first because this has been a centrepiece of Greg's policy. Soil carbon is a highly speculative, very difficult to measure technology or way of abating carbon pollution and there have been a range of studies since Greg's policy was released that have cast very serious doubt over whether it could make any sort of significant contribution to carbon pollution reduction. You just signed up to an international agreement- Greg Hunt, give Mark Butler a second to respond. The University of WA estimated it would cost 10 times the amount per ton of carbon abatement that Greg set out in his policy, $80 a ton not $8 a ton and the climate change department of the Australian Government testified that they thought that the soil carbon initiative would only lead to about 1/20 the amount of abatement that is set out in the Direct Action policy so this is highly speculative. There may be some opportunity to abate carbon pollution through soil carbon initiatives in the future but it is grossly irresponsible to make it the centrepiece of a nationwide carbon pollution policy.Greg Hunt? I reject pretty much all of those claims. Firstly, what we see is that the work of the CSIRO's Dr Michael Pataglia specifically talks about green carbon accounting for a potential 20% reduction. 20% reduction in Australia's emissions over a 40-year period so the potential there is extraordinary, it's greater than we ever talked about- Just using soil? The full range of green carbon initiatives. Mallee and mulga revegetation, reforestation, avoided deforestation, soil carbon. What we need is to use all of the available mechanisms and that's been our view. The other thing here that is very important is that as we look forward we see that we've added energy efficiency, waste coal mine gas, waste landfill gas reduction, cleaning up our power station so the range of opportunities is far greater than husband ever been the case, we can do things here in Australia but unfortunately the extraordinary part of what Mr Rudd is proposing is the tax goes up to $38 but our emissions on their own estimates go from $560 to $637 million tons so you get the worst of both possible worlds. Grek talked about energy use coming down because of decline in manufacturing. What we saw in the first 12 months of carbon pricing was that the national electricity market emitted 7% less carbon pollution in the first 12 months. Now, some of that was due, about a third of that ruck was due to energy efficiency or declining energy use but two-thirds of it was because of a very significant increase in the contribution of renewables. Renewable energy increased its share of the national electricity market by 25%. There was a very significant reduction in brown coal in particular as a contribution. There was a whole range of changes taking place because of our investment, our support for a clean-energy future. Let me deal with that very briefly.2 sentences, Greg Hunt. The Minister's own department gave evidence before the Senate which completely debunked the points he was making. Overseas demand collapsed, there was increase in energy efficiency and a major flood at one of the largest brown coal power stations in all of Australia.Gentlemen, we unfortunately are out of time. This an hour-long debate not a 10-minute one. Thank you for your time. As Kevin Rudd and Tony Abbott crisscross the country ahead of the election, a sizable media contingent follows their every move. It's a highly stage-managed event and the itinerary is a tightly-held secret. Reporter Adam Harvey hopped on the Rudd bus for four days to give you a look behind the scenes at the election caravan. It's before dawn somewhere on Kevin Rudd's campaign trail. Destination, confidential. Where are we going today? Somewhere marginal. That's all that matters. How do you think they decide where they're going? I think they get up in the morning and throw a dart at a board. Focus group.When the sun comes up, everyone remains in the dark.

Everything's veiled in this shroud of secrecy like you're playing a weird game ofcludo you've got to keep guessing. You might be in the study with Mr White. The one thing they'll tell you is today the message is the economy and it's like, sorry, but I thought that was my job to work out what the message was today.A week starts in Sydney, the first mystery destination is, appropriately, a sound-proofed room. Stand here and listen to thisThere's a brief encounter with the Prime Minister. Tell me when you're ready to rock and roll.A quick picture opportunity. Excuse me. Don't spit on the Prime Minister.(LAUGHTER) You keep spitting as much as you like. This is the only Sydney event today and then we're off to the airport and it's a 2-hour flight to destination unknown.From North Ryde to North Queensland, we might not know what we're doing here but at least we know where we are. We're in Mackay. Kevin Rudd will be campaigning in the Queensland city of Mackay this evening. Hi. What have Mr Rudd's key messages been today? Today Kevin Rudd has wanted his themes to be all about jobs. $35.6 million in funding. Sorry, just some very over-friendly locals. Some locals make the most of their moment in the spotlight. It's more G rated around the corner where the Prime Minister's family joins the campaign. I think politics can be a very dehumanising environment and it's lovely to stay in touch with people who love and care for you and people you love and care for. Please put your hand together for the Prime Minister of Australia, the honourable Kevin Rudd.(APPLAUSE)Kevin Rudd's on friendly turf at a Labor Party event. We've done it in the past, we'll do it in the future. We're going to do it here. Yay!A new city and a new secret location. He's going to come out here first and then go inside and play with some kids. Hi, guys. How are you? Serious swinging here. That's terrific. # I've been moving so long # The days all feel the same # The campaign juggernaut moves forward relentlessly. Rolling right over any old news. Mr Rudd, you mentioned Paddy from yesterday, I spoke to his mother, Lulu, she's going to vote for Tony Abbott because of his paid parental leave scheme which she sees as far superior to yours. Are you concerned that that is a key plus for the Coalition? It's a free country and I'm more concerned, frankly, about Paddy being able to hear. For reporters who get just one or two chances each day to actually see the Prime Minister, timing is critical. Go. Kevin Rudd is in Townsville and once again he's king of the kids. He's now heading to the Lavarack...Kevin Rudd is here in Townsville somewhere. We don't know exactly where because it's a secret. He's off somewhere else at 6am tomorrow but that's a secret too. It might be Cairns or it might be Canberra so why all the secrecy? Well, it's partly about campaign warfare. Labor doesn't want the lirbs to know exactly what it's doing. It's also about controlling the message. The captive media don't get much of a say about what it reports on or when it reports it and if you stop to try and scrutinise anything, you'll miss the bus. Another small tour with the kids on the way out, on the school oval. We'll get most of that but I'll have to drag you in at 10 to 11 because we have to be on the bus at 11 to make it to the airport in time to meet his plane in the air.Despite his reputation as a micromanager, the Prime Minister is pliant at these stage-managed egents. What ws your first name? Clancy. Hi, guys, how are you all? Been good? What do you think of him? Fabulous. Fabulous. I don't like him. I don't! He put the country in debt so, no. My dad said he did.If this top-secret road trip's being directed by anyone, it's this man, veteran ALP strategist Bruce Hawker, but pointing a microphone at him is about as useful as asking for an itinerary. Bruce, we're from 7:30. Can we have a quick word? No, I'm behind the scenes now, I'm not in front of the camera anymore. That's what we want to talk about. Sorry. After the election.We jump off the mystery bus in Brisbane. Others aren't so lucky. It's 0400, the O is for, oh, my God, it's bloody early. We're in Brisbane and we're heading west somewhere so they've just told us it's going to be a very big day and a long day and we're going to crisscross the country so I guess we'll see when we get there.And reporter Adam Harvey is on the Abbott caravan right now and we'll bring you that story next week. The sound of the human heartbeat is literally the rhythm of lifer. Now that beat is being harnessed to provide a different kind of rhythm in a unique project that links music to human health. You may not have heard anything like it before but as Rebecca Baillie found, it can be a life saver. It has this sort of hypnotic feel about it. Knowing our heart rate can help us understand the processes happening in the body. Derek Williamson's baring all in the name of science. He's hooking up with a jazz band which is jamming to the real-life beat of the heart.These sound will provide the foundation for a jazz concert with a difference, designed to highlight the dangers of heart disease. We wanted to help people engage with understanding their bodies, their hearts a little bit better and do it in a way that was probably a little bit off the beaten track. Drummer Simon Barker usually generates the beat. This time though he's improvising to a human pulse. Yeah, it's lovely. Again, it fields very normal because the heartbeat is such a natural rhythm. It's a perfect kind of sound and texture to build music on.Would you say that all heartbeats sound the same? No, absolutely not. There are some that just sounded so comfortable. It was like, wow, that's beautiful to just listen to as it is. We can all kind of feel or hear or sense our own heartbeat's rhythm and we can change it according to what we're doing so it's a little bit musical like that but there's a whole lot of research that's look nothing to the sounds that it makes as a way of diagnosing diseases as well. This performance is more than just novel entertainment. It's also a proven life saver. At Sydney's Prince of Wales hospital, intern Dr Michael Chan, treats people every day for life-threatening disease. But while still a medical student, Dr Chan's own life was saved after he volunteered to have his heart scanned for the jazz heartbeats project two years ago. When it came to my turn generating the beats to the music, they managed to find a very rare benigntumer and they said, "Look, buddy, I think you've got a tumour in the heart and I think you should see a doctor very soon." It was a very serendipitous finding. Michael, here's your heart. This is a blast from the past. The next day, Michael Chan went to see cardiologist Dr Greg Cranny, now his colleague at Prince of Wales hospital. This is his heart pumping. You can see the four chambers quite clearly and here's this mass in the back of the heart with these structures and bits and pieces waiting to fly off. I bet you're glad that's out now. Michael's a lucky guy. It was completely fortuitous he happened to volunteer to be the subject that night and had it done. Dr Cranny confirmed Michael Chan had a myxoma, a cardiac tumour. Within days, the young student was in open-heart surgery. It may not have been picked up for some years or it may have been picked up after he'd had a major event like a strokech Who knows what would have happened. Sometimes these manifest as instantaneous people dropping and falling dead otherwise it can lead to things like strokes as clots can be thrown off large massess that obstruct the flow.Simon Barker was in the band when Michael Chan's tumour was found. While he doesn't expect someone's life to be saved every time he performs, he says there's no doubt music is healthy for both heart and soul. Moz music can actually change your physicality. For me, the way that music influences people, both on a physical level and emotional level, is what we do it for. It probably saved my life and I'm very grateful for the life that I have after this.

Rebecca Baillie reporting. That's the program for tonight and the week. Tomorrow night you'll have your State editions of 7:30 and I'll be back with you on Monday. Thanks for watching. Goodnight.

E.Captions by CSI Australia

# Theme music

GRAHAM PHILLIPS: Ahead on Catalyst -
coal dust, the health fallout, and quantum computing,
the holy grail of calculations. Quantum physics is really about
the world of the very small. Things don't behave
the way that we expect.

MARK HORSTMAN: Australia is one of
the world's biggest coal exporters, second only to Indonesia.

The amount mined from
the Hunter region in New South Wales has almost tripled
in the last few decades, and it's likely to double
in the next. This is just one of 34 mines
throughout the Hunter region that funnel more than
200 million tonnes of coal through Newcastle every year. (Engine horn blares)

Giant caterpillars of black coal
are overwhelming residents. When we first came here,
you might get one coal train a day. Now you get them nonstop. People are concerned that
air pollution from coal industry is a deadly threat to public health. Particle pollution
is killing more Australians than motor vehicle accidents, and yet the government and
regulatory response to that problem just has been so slow in coming.

Although fine particles are too small
to be visible to the naked eye, their size does matter. The smaller the particles, the further they get into your body. Those go into your lungs
and can get trapped there, and actually,
under certain circumstances, can get into the bloodstream
and affect some people's health. That can cause respiratory problems,
heart disease, even cancer.

An average human hair,
about 70 microns wide, dwarfs fine particles. They're grouped by size into PM10, or
particulate matter up to 10 microns, PM2.5, about the size of bacteria,
and PM1, one micron or less.

Depending on what they're made of, fine particles can deliver
toxic chemicals deep into the body. There's no level of exposure
that's completely safe. A little bit of air pollution
does a little bit of damage, and more does more damage. (Pedestrian lights beep) For the larger particles, there's
a national air quality standard