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(generated from captions) one trick we would do in our lifetime we would be happy."The biggest thing with horses are we are limited to our own imagination. With a lot of the miles that we drive going from one event to the next that's when a lot of the crazy ideas that we come up with are dreamt up and we sit there and all of a sudden it is like you see those horses have those light bulb moments and it's like, "I get it." That happens to us. We are driving along and you feel like pulling over the truck and getting the horse out of the back and going out and trying it because it gets you that excited.While visiting family in Perth over the summer the boys shared some of their techniques with the next generation teaching not only how to keep horses calm and safe but a few tricks as well.Ready again towards the fence. You will do another change of direction.Angela Clifton's son was almost killed from a wayward horse hoof but rather than sell their ponies she decided to invest in better horse training.We could have lost him. It was really serious. When we saw the double Dans and their show two years ago we thought, "When you can get your horses to be that obedient and respectful, it is something we have to get into."Her 14-year-old daughter Shani has now trained her own foal.You can teach him to pick up a hat and lay down and just follow me around in a 200 paddock and does whatever manoeuvre of the double Dan I ask for him, he will do it at liberty with no lead.The show is motivating her to keep working with her horse.That is it. Keep asking and going forward.It gives you the motive to keep practising when you are having a hard time with your horse.For the double Dan team it has been a surreal ride to the top.Very short time ago I was up on a cattle station in the Kimberley sitting under a tree at dinner camp with the rest of the ringers and to go in that to where there's literally a lot of days where we are involved with some of the most wealthiest horse people in the world whether it is in Lexington Kentucky with the race hoarse business or the other equestrian people we work with and their horses all over the world.

That's the program for tonight. Tomorrow night you will have your state Edition of 7:30 and I'll be back with you on Monday. Thanks for watching. Goodnight.Closed Captions by CSI.

We're off on a scientific roadtrip!

(Children squeal) We did it! Three Catalyst reporters... (All laugh) ..Derek... Ooh! Hey! ..Simon...
How you going? ..and me, Anja. That was at least
top five things I've ever done. Over six weeks,
we'll be driving from Perth... Melbourne. That's really far.
(Car horn beeps) Diving deep beneath the Nullarbor... That was just like
being on another planet. ..wrangling wildlife
with the experts... Nice catch, Harold.
You're OK. You make a lovely tree, Anya. ..dropping in
on real movers and shakers, and future farms... Ready for their methane!

..hitting high speeds...

..We'll get bogged, break down and bust a few things... (Both laugh) we celebrate science
at every stop. Cheers! Science of winemaking.
(Laughter) Get ready for adventure, fun... Whoo-hoo-hoo-hoo! ..and a good dose
of home-grown science as we take Catalyst on the road.


DEREK: We've made it to Norseman, and tee off
at the world's longest golf course.

I'm gonna go the driver.

Nailed it. Nailed a tree.
Can we go now? Excitement levels couldn't be higher as we start our journey
across the Nullarbor.

We've left Lake Lefroy
and our mining friends in Kalgoorlie to cross the Eyre Highway and the dry, hot,
seemingly endless plain known to many weary travellers
as the 'Nullarboring'.

SIMON: John Eyre, the first European
to stumble across this region, described it as 'a hideous anomaly, a blot on the face of nature, the sort of place
one gets into in bad dreams'. (Maniacal laughter)

But for those who know where to look,
the Nullarbor is anything but dull.

I think it's here. We're close. According to this,
straight up ahead, and it should be just at the end
of this little section. (Speaks indistinctly)

We're about to embark on one
of the most visually spectacular, exciting and challenging
science expeditions to be had.

Hang on, what's that? I just see some rocks.
That thing. Look! I can't even see it. Derek, Derek, be careful.
There they are. There they are.

This is the entrance
to Weebubbie Cave. What we're seeing here
is a fraction of the beast inside. Look at this thing! (All talk at once) That is something. Whoa! That is ginormous! It does go further. It's not exactly 'wee', is it? And when you get to there
you're only halfway to the bottom. The rest of it
is down a giant slope into a room.

In fact, the Nullarbor is littered with gigantic underground caves
and passages. That's because it's made up of the largest continuous block
of limestone in the world.

Formed when the whole plain
was underwater, it built up over millions of years from the skeletons
of tiny sea creatures. When the sea retreated, the limestone
was exposed to the elements and cave formation began. Here it comes!

DEREK: Weebubbie is the deepest
cave in the Nullarbor... Lowering! ..plunging 100 metres to intersect the major aquifer
of the Eucla Basin.

It's a mecca for cave divers. And today we're on
a rare mission of discovery with sports scientist
Dr Peter Buzzacott, subterranean ecologist,
Dr Stefan Eberhard, and Ian Lewis,
a carse geomorphologist. So, you drew this in 1972? 1972 was the first
cave-diving expedition here. And then I came back
and did this vast map. This is what we did in those days -
draw up maps like this.

40 years ago, Ian led the first scuba diving
expedition under the Nullarbor here at Weebubbie. We discovered everything from here, all through
to the hidden lake in here. Prior to this, only a handful
of foolhardy adventurers had explored
the dry caves of this region, locating telltale holes -
or dolines - from the air.

This is a carbide lamp
that burns acetylene, and cavers and the old explorers of
the Nullarbor used to use these. And I brought Fred's hat.
He died recently. He was 95. But he had a great life and he was involved with exploring
the dry cave here in the 1950s. So I brought it out here
to celebrate Fred's life and 50 years caving here. Ohh.
Beautiful. So, this is what
Fred would've looked like. Probably I look
about his age, I think.

Down we go. Doesn't look so bad. The walls of this doline
are absolutely massive. And getting us and the gear down
is a monumental task, not for the faint-hearted
or inexperienced.

Even in a wetter climate, it's hard to fathom
how these structures grew so large.

If the water table's down there, how does it end up
carving out this whole hole? OK, this hole was not carved. This is broken by falling in. It's all jagged. And it fell into the tunnel,
which is lower down, that was dissolved by the water. So the chamber formed
before the hole formed? Exactly. You can't have an entrance
without a chamber to start with.

It's very Indiana Jones.
There's rungs broken.

It drops from
a sweltering 30-plus outside to a cool 18 degrees in the cave.

Still, there's 200 metres of rubble
to scramble over with scuba tanks in the pitch black. So there's nothing easy
about this adventure. Can't go to the loo in the rocks.
I'm gonna go down to the water. DEREK: With tiny headlamps, it's impossible to see
more than a few metres in front. But throw a little light
on the subject, you could literally
fly a plane through here. It's huge! It's enormous.
It's so enormous! One of the mysteries is
WHY is it so enormous? These massive, big tunnels.
How can we explain their size? It's supposedly rainwater, isn't it? It must've been torrential. People think huge rivers
must have flowed through here, but there is no evidence of that. Millions of years ago,
when the Nullarbor uplifted, these layers of porous limestone
fractured and weakened.

As rainwater
seeped through the limestone and gathered
in the water table below, it opened up the fractures, dissolving them into chambers, which collapsed
into giant caves like these.

But Ian doesn't
think that's the whole story. If it was just sitting there
dissolving away very slowly, it couldn't account
for the size and the space. So we are beginning to wonder whether there are
some other mechanisms that helped the rock
dissolve much faster.

To get the bottom of the mystery, Peter Buzzacott
is searching for clues in the lake. 50 metres ahead, and another hour
of schlepping our heavy gear. But it's worth it. Whoa! (Laughs)
Wow! Oh, wow! I love the colour.
That's incredible! That is beautiful! It's so blue! It's just beautiful,
and it curves out of sight way down that big tunnel about twice the distance
that you can see.

Here, we get down to,
say, 50 metres deep. So we get a snapshot much
further back in time as cave divers. We're able to start to see
from underwater what the water's doing
to the limestone. This is my first cave dive ever. so I'm pretty spoilt, if not a little nervous. This is where you join
a very exclusive club. Yes. I'm so very privileged to be
doing this as my first cave dive. Ready? Well, you'll be seeing something now that so very few people
will ever see.

The water is so breathtakingly clear
at Weebubbie, it's like flying
through another planet.

We all say that. 'Cause you
can't see the water.It's invisible.

We measured a visibility
at 500 feet. I've never been anywhere
in the world that does that. It's the best visibility
in the world.

SIMON: It's ironic that visibility
is the one thing real cave dwellers can't appreciate. What's that?
It's a slater. That's just like the ones
I find in the garden. See how they're completely white.
Yep. They're cave slaters.
Right. They're called troglobytes. Troglobytes. Not troglodytes, which are people that live in caves. But these are troglobytes, which
are animals that live in caves. So, you're a troglodyte. And so are you.
Right, yes. (Laughs) I hope not forever. And these are troglobytes.
Yes. If you look closely,
they've got long antennae. And they don't really
seem to be affected by our light. They've probably got no eyes. Right. You don't need eyes
when you live in a cave when it's completely dark. So that's an evolutionary
adaptation to this environment. Every time we look,
we find new species. So, this is just
the tip of the iceberg. Ohh!
(Water splashes) Iceberg is not a bad word for it. Ohhh! I don't know if those
are good noises or bad noises.


Oh, man!
That's quite cold. It's very cold!
It's fresh. It's very fresh. What temperature
do you reckon it is in here? At a guess, I'd probably say
about, maybe, 10 to 15. (Laughs) No way! They measured the temperature
in here. It's, like, 17 or 18 degrees.
Oh, right. You know that the temperature
actually works out to be the same as
the air temperature and the same as the rock temperature and the same as the yearly
average temperature on the surface. Wow! So it all kind of
averages out down here. It's very consistent.
It is.

Temperature is exactly
what we're interested in down here. PETER BUZZACOTT: The water in these
caves, in a big cave like this - you have a big lake,
you have a big chamber - it should be the same temperature as the average
air temperature outside because there's plenty
of opportunity for heat exchange.

Pete's temperature loggers show the lake is just over
18 degrees, as you'd expect.

But in other caves on the Nullarbor,
something strange is happening.

The water is warmer.

In a cave called Murra-el-Elevyn,
Pete made a startling discovery. It was 19 degrees. And everyone said,
'Oh, great, the water's warm.' But I laid there at night
thinking, 'Why?' So I started
measuring the temperatures to see where
the warm water might come from. And I put my little temperature
loggers through the cave and I found out that
it was 19.5 degrees over there.

The further in he swam,
the warmer it got. And I followed the temperature
through the cave till finally, 300 metres in, after a maze of passages
left and right, I came across an area you could feel warm water coming out through this
broken rubble on the floor. And that was
the most exciting thing.

Exciting, because if warmer water
is pouring in at Murra, it could be happening
in caves all over the Nullarbor.

Other caves nearby reach temperatures of up to 24 degrees Celsius. Suddenly it becomes interesting that there's this whole region of
warm water which is unexplainable.

Could Pete's discovery help solve the mystery
of why these caves grew so large? If it's a 24-hour, 7-days-a-week, 365,000-days-per-millenium flow of water coming into a cave, that enormous volume could not, I don't think,
move through a cave without having some
sort of formative effect.

That was so amazing. You know when we were at the end
looking in, we were probably looking back
5 million years. Really?
Something like that. Thank you so much.
(Laughs) That was such a good... Oops, sorry.
Coming to give you a hug. That was such a good experience.

Ah, the diver emerges. If I wasn't so cold,
I'd go straight back in again.

Pete's temperature data shows Weebubbie Cave
also gets warmer further in. But what does it all mean?

You're a cave formation expert. I was just wondering what you thought
about Pete's hot spring discovery. Do you think
that's an exciting thing? Well, I was a bit reluctant
about the hot spring theory. Until I had a good chat with him
and so on. But I'm very interested
in the area in caves where water temperatures
are elevated. Why did you have reservations? Because they aren't hot springs. They're not
gushing out of the ground and we all jump in and have
a lovely swim or whatever else. You've got warmer water
coming slowly through the limestone as he's been able to measure it. And that's of great interest,
in a geological sense, for caves developing. Why? Why is that interesting? That might mean that that water
is coming from somewhere else, or it's charged up
in minerals and so on. And that has big implications
for how big caves might form here.

Ian's team has already shown how geothermal activity
has shaped other caves in Australia.

Giant sinkholes and caves
in Mount Gambier, South Australia, line up with volcanoes in the area.

Gases from the volcanoes
around Mount Gambier has come up into the limestone
and made the water much more acidic. And that explains why
it's dissolved such huge spaces. But there's no volcanoes here.
No, there's no volcanoes here. But you don't have to have volcanoes
to generate heat, or to generate changes
in groundwater chemistry.

The whole continent of Australia
is floating on magma. It doesn't form volcanoes, but it's able to warm
and generate gases and so on that can work their way up
through weaknesses in the rock, up through into the limestone
and the groundwater and then acidify it. Peter and Ian believe the elevated temperatures and
structures of the Nullarbor caves may indicate similar
geothermal processes. It's a pretty new idea, but on a scale
that we've found it in Australia, in the Mount Gambier area
and the scale of the caves here, it starts to
really open our eyes and say, this is a seriously new way
to look at how large cavesmay form.

DEREK: While Anja
contemplates her next dive, Simon and I backtrack down
the Eyre Highway to Mundrabilla.

SIMON: Located almost halfway
between Perth and Adelaide, it's incredibly remote. So who would've thought it was home and school
to two little girls? This is Georgia and Hannah. Hello.
Hello. Hannah and Georgia Mulroy are students of
Kalgoorlie's School of the Air. This is our classroom. Oh, this is your classroom!
That's really nice.

Wow! Hello. Morning, girls.
And this is Miss Meg. Hi. How are you? I'm Miss Meg. With the help of their tutor,
lessons are normally done online. That's beautiful. When we want to ask a question,
we just put up our hand. So, you hit the 'hand' button
to put up your hand?Yeah. What sort of things
do you like to draw? Mmm... horses. Horses! Some of Hannah and Georgia's
classmateslive 60km away. But today,
they've come from far and wide to experience Catalyst Live. Put your hands together for Simon! (Kids cheer, applaud)
Wow! Wait, wait! That was less! It's 40 degrees-plus
and we're in a tin shed.

So we're gonna have to demonstrate
some pretty cool science. 'Cause it's not just like maths,
it's not just like numbers. It actually involves real stuff. Ohhh! Sorry! I don't mean
to slide you off, Simon. Look...
Stepping up! You know what,
this is the real world now. What I'm gonna do
is I'm gonna blow this candle out. And then I'm gonna try to relight it
but without touching the wick.

KIDS: Ooh!

You can clap. That's OK. (Applause)
Whoo! It looks like magic,
but it's actually simple science. Up in here what is there? GIRL: Gas. There's gaseous wax. So when I blow the candle the gaseous wax is still coming off. So when I bring
the little match over I can still light
the gaseous waxabove. And it leads a trail
back down to the wick, relights the whole candle. I need to know what a gas is. What is a gas? Invisible, air,
or whatever you like to call it, they're tiny molecules
that move around extremely fast. Tiny molecules moving around
very fast! And you can't see it. That's a fantastic answer.
Can we say, thank you, Jess. Tough act to follow, Derek. Pi is a crazy number.
You can't get it from counting. But I... I love pi. I've travelled a long way by road to bring my passion for pi
to these students. Pi's crazy. It's a number
that isn't exact. I mean, this is
the first 10 digits of pi.

This is the first 100 digits of pi. Here's the first 1,000 digits of pi! And now for my party trick. Do you reckon I could recite this? Geez, you're tough.
(Laughter) Alright! What's your name? Amber.
Amber. This is for you, Amber.OK? I feel a lot of pressure here.
(Laughter) Alright, here we go. Let's see if
I can actually do 100 digits of pi. Are we ready? 3.1415926535 89793238462643383... ..26751058209... ..062862099... ..25342117067... ..8... 9...

(Mild clapping)

(Laughs) I nearly... I came... Yeah. (Exhales) Enough of the numbers.Let's dance. # Addition, subtraction # Times-ing, dividing... # OK, maybe taking things a bit far
in this heat. Everyone's up.
We're gonna do this together. Here we go. # Heeeeeeaaaarrrr # The woorrrrd # Of piiiiiiiii... # Look at that. Speechless. Yeah!

And on that note,
we return our class to the airwaves and steer a course back to Weebubbie
to collect Anja.

ANJA: A new theory on cave evolution
may seem like enough for one day, but there's even more secrets
to unlock down here.

Stefan's taking me on a second dive to point out
the extraordinary life forms that exist in these dark waters.

These beautiful microbial mantles
are made of bacteria, but nobody knows
exactly what they live off.

Their food source
appears to bechemical rather than photosynthetic
or carbon based. In many ways they're similar to the deep sea bacterial colonies,
the black smokers, but these are quite different,
quite unique to the Nullarbor Plain.

These micro-organisms
are already known, but Stefan's excited
to find out what else lives here.

I guess, what I'm interested in is not the micro-organisms so much but the macro-organisms. We know that
there are no large things. But the ones I'm looking for
are smaller than the naked eye. So, I've been taking some samples. In here, maybe, we might have
some microscopic crustacea. But I have to
take it back to the laboratory and have a look under the microscope
before we'll know. You can't see it here, but Stefan did indeed
make a successful catch - the first aquatic crustaceans ever to be discovered
in a deep Nullarbor cave.

There are brilliant chemists and
geologists and whatnot out there who will never
see the things that I see. And cave divers,
I think, have enormous potential to contribute to
our understanding of our country.

We are explorers
at the frontier of where humans go. So the more scientists we can
get into cave diving, the better.

Will we get, what,
28 metres in that cavern? Something like that.
And that's undisturbed, so... And so I leave Ian, Peter and Stefan to delve deeper
into the Nullarbor's history.

It's time for me to hit the road
and make tracks for the coast.

We've come a mere 20km
down the road from Weebubbie and suddenly we're in
the land of Lawrence of Arabia.

It does look like
a piece of the Middle East that's just been transplanted,
right? Totally.

Whoa! (All laugh)

We've been told
these massive Eucla sandhills are not silica-based like most sand, but are made of the same stuff
as the limestone caves at Weebubbie. I don't believe it. It just
looks like normal sand to me. Feels so smooth. Well, there's a way that we can test if this is actually made
from limestone, if this is limestone stand. If you put a bit of vinegar on it,
it should bubble. We should see these little bubbles
of carbon dioxide come off it. It would be good
if we had some vinegar. Well, I've got just the thing. What?!
(Laughs) If put a little bit on the sand, we should see a bit
of carbon dioxide bubbles. Well, just wait a minute.
You're actually in luck. Look what I brought from Weebubbie. What is that?
Oh, you stole some of the cave. Yeah, it was a souvenir. But I'm quite happy to give this
to this experiment. So this here is limestone. So this should fizz
'cause it's calcium carbonate. Alright. Let's give it a try.

I don't think the bubbles will be
very big so look carefully for them.

It fizzes!
It does fizz! Ha! Look at that. You're making caves. Dissolving a bit of that limestone,
yeah, with some of this acid. But will the sand in these dunes
also fizz?

Fizz! Wow! It really does work.
That's limestone! It's limestone.
That's incredible. That shows these dunes were formed by skeletal fragments
from marine organisms that lived up to
millions of years ago. I'm amazed. Aren't you amazed? We're sitting on giant mounds
of ancient life. Yeah.
Yeah. That is incredible. It has been pulverised
and turned into this. Enough of the philosophy.
It's time to move on. Whoo-hoo-hoo-hoo-hoo! (Laughs)

Next time on Catalyst: On the Road...

..we cross the border
into South Australia and follow
the Great Australian Bight... How long is
the Australian coastline? ..and meet some Aussies
that really DO bite... Youre chances of dying are pretty
low but they make you very sick. ..sampling the fruits of the coast... ..and we join a dig for diprotodons. Is that right?
No! Just say yes. You've got to
build up my confidence. Closed Captions by CSI -
Michael Booth & Matt Whitmore

This Program is Captioned Live.

Good evening. Troy Cuthbertson with an ABC news update. Just when Labor MPs were starting to calm down from this week's downturn in the polls, Julia Gillard's chief defender has taken a crude public swipe at her critics. Australian Workers Union leader Paul Howes, has used a leader Paul Howes, has used a closing address at the union's week-long conference to accuse those undermining the Prime Minister of being gutless. Qantas is back in the black but the national carrier still sees challenges ahead. The airline posted a $111 million half-year profit but Chief Executive Alan profit but Chief Executive Alan Joyce says he's cautious about the future as the airline's key domestic business struggles with stiff competition. A war of words has once again erupted over whaling after the latest collision in the Southern Ocean. The Japanese fleet has temporarily suspended its hunt while it attempts to refuel. No-one was injured in the clash. But the injured in the clash. But the Federal Government is under more pressure to try and keep peace in the Antarctic waters. The bitter Liberal pre-selection fight between former ACT opposition leader Zed Seselja ACT opposition leader Zed Seselja and Senator Gary Humphries is set to continue - even after a candidate is selected this weekend. A meeting of party members in two weeks will be asked to overturn the controversial pre-selection process. Canberra's weather tomorrow. Partly cloudy with a 60 percent chance of showers. 15 a 60 percent chance of showers. 15 to 25 degrees. Lateline tonight is at 10:30 here on ABC 1.

The thought of being intimate
is awful. But we have been intimate,
at night, in bed. We have sex. That's not intimacy.

NARRATOR: One in three Australian
marriages ends in divorce. I feel like I've let Steve down
in some way. Clinical Psychologist John Aiken
and sex therapist Desiree Spierings are one third of the way
through an experiment to save the relationships
of four unhappy couples. You don't walk away from
relationships, you fight for them. To making lasting changes. Now they turn their attention
to toxic communication. You're being a dick.
No, I'm not. Yes, you are.
Aah! Why can't you just say sorry?
Just calm down. The couples learn that their attempts
at affection often miss the mark... Focus on what you're doing well. ..face up to
their work/life balance... What we're trying to do here is to
get you guys connecting. Because you've lost that. ..and discover that bad memories
can sabotage intimacy. And that was the happiest moment
for you in our relationship? Like, I'm shocked.
I think it was a good moment. The couples take a trip
down memory lane. When you see your life on a screen,
it looks so perfect. While an unexpected piece of news threatens to throw Paula and Steve
into turmoil. Could be the straw that breaks
the camel's back and takes the relationship
beyond repair. With only six weeks left, the road to a happier relationship
is about to get a lot steeper. You are 100% responsible
for making your needs met in life.

Our four couples are now two weeks
into their happiness journey