Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Disclaimer: The Parliamentary Library does not warrant the accuracy of closed captions. These are derived automatically from the broadcaster's signal.
Lost Worlds -

View in ParlView

(generated from captions) 'evidence is being unearthed
of a Viking fortress.'

You can see it back again

for the first time

This was built to help colonise
a land that provided a key commodity

in a trade network that stretched

I'm finding out the truth
about the Vikings.

Leaving Britain behind
to enter their land

Even now,

this place feels like it's

I'm seeking out some of the most
telling evidence of all... ..the very remains
of the Vikings themselves.

Last time, I searched out
the ancient, prehistoric roots

It's such a Baltic thing to do.

You don't get ship settings

Now, I'm travelling out
from Scandinavia...

to explore how the Vikings
extended their reach

..building a vast trading network,

I'm starting off

heading to the coast of
the Baltic Sea -

Here in Stockholm, life is very much
about the Baltic. Britain feels like a long way away
towards the west. From here the nearest neighbours
are Finland, Latvia and Estonia

was Norwegians and Danes
sailing westwards. But here it was a different
story of settlement and exploration, starting on the Baltic and heading
east into Russia and beyond.

It was settlement built on trade many of them obtained
from as far afield as China

countless slaves rounded up from
their homes in Britain and Ireland

and shipped eastwards for

It's not a story of north and south
but rather of an east-west axis

and of a Viking footprint that began
in the eighth century and in just

100 years or so was planted firmly
over a vast tract of territory.

It was the beginning

Here in Sweden archaeologists
have discovered evidence

of one of the extremes
of this network far to the east.

..minted in places like Tashkent

Those exotic names,

and yet these pieces found their way in truly vast quantities, tens of
thousands of coins like this.

These were found in rich
Viking hordes, 2,500 miles
from where they were minted. Also Middle Eastern in origin
are these necklaces

They're so colourful,
they're almost gaudy.

Perhaps best of all,
this unprepossessing sliver here

To me, gold and silver
are statements of wealth,

but with silk,
you're talking about luxury. The way it looks, but more
importantly the way it feels.

All this kind of material

because although they live on
an outcrop of north-western Europe,

they have connections that reach
all the way to the Orient and China.

To track down those Viking traders
I'm crossing the Baltic, heading for Russia and its cultural
capital - St Petersburg.

This place is such a symbol of
Russia from the time of the tsars

and then its reincarnation as

and now reinventing itself again,
but incredibly,

this part of Russia

wasn't under Russian rule.
It was Swedish

because the deepest heritage here

Some of the relics preserved here
in Russia's most famous museum -

The Hermitage - paint a completely
new picture of the Vikings for me.

Not one of bands of bearded men
out on warlike raids, but ordinary people,
living settled lives.

is a magnificent, well-preserved

Here's where the lace would have

This has been worn to make someone
look good,

somebody who cared
about her appearance

and presumably wanted

part of the quite simple equipment
needed to spin wool into thread.

What makes this one
especially memorable is this carefully prepared
smooth face into which have been etched
Viking runes.

This, it's thought,

"clad from above

"Starry-eyed maiden
will have a long thin thread.

So much attention is given

it's striking that the pioneers
of this eastern frontier

also included women.

The objects come from one of the
very earliest Viking communities

one of the first steps in the
creation of a vast trading empire.

To discover the source of those
artefacts, I have to head 90 miles east of St Petersburg
to a tiny riverside village.

It's called Staraya Ladoga and it's here in the rural
backwaters of western Russia

that the story
of Viking expansion begins.

Even now this place feels
like it's on the edge of everything.

It feels remote, it feels surrounded by wilderness,
nothingness really, so what on earth must it have
been like for the first Vikings

who found this place
beside the river

and furthermore decided to stay,
actually to set up home and shop? It would have been
wild in the extreme.

The very earliest Viking finds
from here date back to 753AD - a generation before the first
recorded raids on Britain.

So this Russian outpost marks

of the Vikings outside

And this soon became the gateway

stretch as far as Constantinople

A route that could only be
tackled by river.

Morning, Vikings. Where can I be?

Using a replica Viking boat,
these Russian enthusiasts

are figuring out how the Vikings

Today there's too much ice on so just like
the eighth century Vikings,

This is just the way the boat
has to be moved on dry land.

If it got to an obstacle - rapids,
waterfall or ice - they have to take the boat out of
the river and either go round

the obstacle or find another river.

so it's just rolled over Hopefully over the shortest
possible distance.

By navigating the Russian rivers
and lugging their boats

when necessary, the Vikings could
transport themselves all the way

from the Baltic to the Caspian It's time-consuming and it's
laborious but there's enough men

here to move a boat this size so the
system does work, as history shows!

For the people from the East,
the Vikings also seemed strange.

Preserved in contemporary accounts
written by Islamic scholars

are vivid descriptions

of how they saw those

has studied
the remarkable written records

of a Middle Eastern traveller


"I've never seen more perfect bodies
than theirs.

And then there's this absolutely
fantastic phrase which I just love.

ARABIC PHRASE They're red, bright red, light
haired, they're like a burst of fire.

He says, "From the tip of their "every one of them is covered
in dark green trees and shapes

So he says, "They don't have
any fields that they sow,

"they don't have any villages,

"they don't have any agriculture.

"and that is trade in martens and
squirrels and other pelts."

So I think the picture that we have

You get off your boat,
you do your trade,

build a couple of huts or whatever

and then get back on the boat

The Islamic writers even had for the intrepid
merchants from the North.

which means something like
"the men who row". And it shows how influential
they became,

because, after all,
this land is now called Russia. It's remarkable to think that one of
the biggest nations in the world

who navigated its waterways setting up trading posts
and colonies as they went.

Their target was the greatest

When I started looking
into the Vikings,

I didn't think I'd have to go
1,500 miles south of Scandinavia

to find out about them. But here I am, in a city that's
the gateway to Asia -

was the culmination
of their journeys. Because, within its walls,

were some of the greatest markets

For a Viking, this would have been
all but overwhelming,

because this is on a completely from anything he would
have witnessed before.

Instead of hundreds of people,

here there would have been thousands
or even tens of thousands

And then, there were all the exotic

It's all but an assault The trouble was that Constantinople

with strict trade quotas, taxes But, by the early 900s,
the Vikings had been granted access. Any Viking who had spent
three months or more in the city

was entitled to buy silk
up to the value of two slaves.

And that silk was so valuable,

it made the perilous river journeys
to get here more than worthwhile.

A merchant could earn,

more wealth than a prosperous farmer

Some Vikings made Constantinople
their home. And one of them even left his mark
on the city,

in one of the most historic
and holy places on the planet.

Most of what you're looking at
was built in the sixth century,

which means that, by the time

that building was already old.

Hagia Sophia was built
as a Christian church. 'And it later became

'of over 1,000 years of Christian
and Muslim worship.

These dark lines etched into
the marble are Viking runes,

The only bit that's in any way clear
is part of someone's name,

And the rest of it is assumed So you've got, "Halfdan was here"
or "made these runes."

We'll never know for sure

but it's possible

of the near-legendary elite
bodyguard of the Byzantine emperor,

who escorted the Emperor

that, one day, Halfdan
was up here on duty during a long, boring religious

And to pass the time,
he carved his name

These few lines are such a moving,
visceral reminder of just how far

the Swedish Vikings had come since they first set out
across the glassy Baltic Sea.

'because everything the Vikings


From Istanbul,
I'm heading back to Sweden.

just a stone's throw from Stockholm,

Hello.Hello. Welcome.Thank you!

And its isolation
from the modern world

has meant that Birka has been
remarkably undisturbed

for over 1,000 years. In Birka, we should glimpse

not the lives of the warrior class,
but ordinary working people.

Because what's preserved in Birka

Swedish archaeologist
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Johnson

has been excavating Viking In the league of Viking towns,
where does Birka rank?

If you ask me, very top.

Birka was one of the very first
urban centres in Scandinavia

and it thrived

So Birka is like a department store
where you can get clothes,

you can get jewellery, you can get
furnishings for your home...

You know, is it rich pickings

Gold and silver?No, not today. Now, this is a very good example
of what they actually did here.

Their trade is at the heart
of everything.

This is an iron weight.

So this isn't for weighing the goods
themselves.No. This is how you make sure someone's
paid the right price.Exactly.

So, by the time they got
these weights,

they've moved from, you know,

simple barter to objects having

Yeah, yeah, much more advanced. It's coming close
to a monetary system. But Birka was far more
than just a market.

with a garrison
and an industrial area

For Vikings, places like Birka
were a new world.

it was about life
in an international trading centre

and it was about having connections,

with people living as far afield
as Ireland and Constantinople. In places like Birka, all those
luxury Eastern goods could be found,

but they also had to be paid for.

Furs could be traded and trapped.

Amber could be found in the ground
itself. But much of the Vikings' wealth

Having travelled east,

to the other extreme of the Vikings' Dublin was one of the Vikings'

and Ireland's very first town. It's often thought that the Vikings
came here

to raid gold and silver treasures But it turns out that the engine
behind the Vikings' expansion
into Ireland

was that oh so important
human commodity -


In here is evidence of what
the Vikings came here for. Part of what Dublin was all about.

These are slave collars
and chains made of iron. You can imagine the discomfort,
never mind the humiliation,

of having something like this

with a chain attached.

The going rate for a male slave

And a woman could be had There were even different kinds
of chains and collars

for different classes of captives.

Look at this.

but everything about it
seems to speak to the status of the person whose neck
it was once around.

quite a lot of work has
gone into making this look

like the kind of collar you would

So perhaps this was briefly worn
around the neck of an Irish king

before his ransom was paid or he agreed to some specific
set of terms. And it's harrowing to think a city
owes its foundation,

its existence, at least in part, to one civilisation's appetite
for buying and selling human beings.

attracting merchants
from all across the continent.

In 871, it was reported

packed with Angles, Britons
and Picts.

This was organised human trafficking

on a scale that even bears

with the early years

almost 1,000 years later.

Incredibly, the remains of some
of the very early pioneers

who came to seek their fortune Archaeologist Lindsay Simpson

on the site of the original

How can you tell that this is

Yes, very good question.

Well, we knew by the way that he was
buried, is the short answer.

He wasn't buried in a Christian

He's a pagan, he was buried with

that happens with Irish people Based on his skeleton, what do you
think he looked like in life?

You can see that his bones
are really quite enormous.

The upper shoulder here,

where the ligaments have actually Is that happening during
hard physical work?

This has happened
through rotation movement.

So a big part of his daily life
involved some kind of

rotational, repetitive movement. So this could be either sword
fighting or it could be from rowing.

Cos they would have been doing

It's always amazing to me
that all of that hard work -

rowing, swinging a sword,

Everything you do with your skeleton

And he was a very bulky,

You would not want to meet this

especially not when he had all
his paraphernalia with him. It's clear that, just

many of the Norwegian Vikings who
came here didn't go home again,

With Dublin established
as a thriving base,

the Vikings of Norway
began to settle more widely,

over large parts of Ireland,
much of Scotland,

Dublin was the centre of this vast
and expanding sea kingdom.

It commanded the Irish Sea as well as the sea routes headed
north to Scotland,

south to Wales and east to England. From this frontier town,
the Norsemen commanded it all.

But the Vikings weren't content with

Graeme's Apia experience, taken
from a real flood claims call. (PHONE RINGS) How you going?
Oh, not bad. I just can't have Pardon that pun too.
(LAUGHS) If you're over 50, Apia makes home Call 13 50 50 for a chat today.

A vast Viking trade network

had led to increasingly widespread
Viking settlement. But there was one more prize
that lay right on their doorstep.


The trouble was, though, that unlike
the great wilderness of Russia

already had some well-organised

Leaving Dublin behind,

once part of Wessex, the most

And it's here

that one of the greatest treasures

An Anglo-Saxon masterpiece.

It's so irreplaceably valuable that
I'm not even allowed to touch it.

Which, frankly,
given the price on it, is a relief!

This once belonged to Alfred the
Great, King of 9th-century Wessex. The most powerful man
in all of Britain.

But, more impressive than
the raw materials, by far,

is the artistry that's

in this weird and wonderful
head of a beast. There's been a lot of theory over

Could it be a centrepiece for a

Could it have been worn as a pendant
on a chain around someone's neck?

The abiding theory now is
it's the handle of a pointer.

It would have been a little piece

of maybe worked ivory,

in the mouth of the beast. And then it could be used
to point out lines and words

on an illuminated manuscript

that was itself
too valuable to be touched.

The letters around it say,

And right here, in this tiny object,

and authority
and commitment to learning.

And you can only imagine
what it did

when they knew
that objects like this

were here and that
they could get their hands on them.

In 865AD, a combined alliance
of around 3,000 Vikings,

mostly Danes,

Their aim wasn't trade,
or another attack. It was conquest
of the whole of England.

At a time when a band of 30 men
was routinely described as an army, this was truly a force
to be reckoned with. The Anglo-Saxons called it
The Great Heathen Army, and it wasn't just a raiding party,
intent on slaves and gold. The Great Heathen Army
wanted everything.

And to get it, they would have to
take on the Anglo-Saxons.

The conquest of England would be

than anything the Vikings England was divided into four
powerful, well-organised kingdoms.

To succeed, the Vikings
would have to defeat them all.

After a few brutal years
of fighting,

and the deaths of the Northumbrian in 873, the Vikings turned
to the very heart of England. When The Great Heathen Army

Now Repton's small

but 1,000 years ago, it was And Mercia was the second most
powerful kingdom in all of England.

When the Vikings descended they transformed the sacred
church of St Wystan

into a centre of operations.

The tower doesn't look

It was a huge step along the way

The whole of the Trent Valley
laid out before us. Stretching right off into
the haze on the horizon. If you look down just
beyond the graveyard,

And that's a relic of a much older
course of the River Trent.

And it's right there that in their ships,
come out onto the bank,

to set about the business And you can see why Repton
mattered to them.

From up here on the tower, you feel
like the master of all you survey. And the Vikings, great strategists
that they were,

they realised that

In the churchyard,

archaeologists have found

that were done around
the church in the 1980s. Look at the genius
of what's going on here.

with a fourth side

that they were, the Vikings here have even employed
the Christian church

and turned it into a defensive
gateway into their fortress.

The Vikings even used
the Christian graveyard

to bury their own, pagan dead.

This is where archaeological

brings us face-to-face with
the men of The Great Heathen Army.

That's one of the most important
Viking graves ever found in Britain. I must be just about standing
on the spot.

Right here, archaeologists

of a six-foot-tall skeleton.

He was buried in the pagan style,

with his most precious possessions, preserved today at the Derby Museum.

These are some of
the most important things that the Repton Warrior
was buried with.

whatever you needed
and wanted in the next life had to go into
the ground with you.

Which is not just giving him but it says something
about who he is in life.

Now, it's no ordinary warrior
that's armed like this. The vast majority are armed with

A sword is of a different
order of magnitude. You feel as if you're looking
at the iron blade, but you're not.

This is actually an iron sword
in a scabbard.

with a fleece lining and then on the outside,
there's a leather casing.

So a man on the battlefield

But a man with a sword and a
scabbard is another step up again. So this man was clearly a leader
amongst his own kind.

A sword is always
an impressive thing to see,

and moving to see the other items
that he wanted with him.

This is a little silver hammer. The Repton Warrior was wearing
this around his neck

in the same way that a Christian
would wear a cross. It's connecting him physically
to the god Thor. Thor is one of the big three
Old Norse gods,

and he was definitely the soldier's,

Thor was armed with a legendary
hammer called Mjolnir, and with it,
Thor could level mountains.

everything about him was building
to one ideal conclusion.

He wanted a heroic death
on the battlefield

that would guarantee him
access to the next world,

which was a place where he would

For the Anglo-Saxons,
this is the worst-case scenario, because it's in the Viking mindset
to fight to the death.

And it's a horde of men
who think like this that the Anglo-Saxons here
had to face.


East Anglia, Northumbria,
and finally, Mercia,

all fell into the hands Only King Alfred's kingdom, Wessex,
withstood the onslaught. But even he wasn't quite strong
enough to drive them out completely. So eventually,
a peace treaty was agreed,

the terms of which basically
gave the Vikings control

stretching between The territory became known
as the Danelaw.

It was basically
a Danish Viking colony.

All of this land that
I'm travelling through now

What the Vikings did
here in England was unprecedented. The taking of England

The city that became the capital
of the Danelaw was York. And Viking settlers started

one of the most important

All of these items here shows
that there were Vikings in York.

They're classically Viking material. The comb for personal grooming
and taking care of head lice.

You've got amber jewellery,
possibly from the Baltic.

This is a gaming piece,
and it's walrus ivory,

maybe from as far away as Greenland.

So it's precisely the sort of stuff
you expect from Vikings

at a time when York with material
coming in from all over.

On the back of Viking trade,

second only
to Anglo-Saxon London.

Its population

But for the Vikings

York was quite unlike Birka,
or even Dublin, let alone the farmstead
settlements of most of Scandinavia.

And the new city life had some

I'm quite glad to be
putting on gloves,

because these contain
Viking excrement.

Fragments thereof. It's all been
collected from cesspits.

Examination of this, though,

glamorous though it
certainly isn't,

because this contains traces
of what the people were eating. You get traces of things like
bran, cereals, fruit stones.

So we can tell that, in some ways,

left behind by intestinal parasites.

It was unavoidable.

And it was caused
by the sanitation,

or frankly, the lack of it.

There wasn't the infrastructure
for running water.

So, by and large,
people had cesspits in their yards. They were living close to,
surrounded by, their own waste,

their own infections.

Something like 50% of Viking women

Viking men were lucky

York became a place of manufacture,

As the second and third-generation
Vikings grew up here,

How many of the words
we use every day

actually have their

Lots and lots of really basic

itself probably
comes from Old Norse.

Comes through the Viking side
of English's ancestry. What about things around us
in this market?

I see some bags over there.

The sky, windows, other things that I can see
include skin, leg, skull...

So very simple words?

Very simple, Also words which describe how
we feel and how we react to stuff.

So if you're angry,
if you're happy, if you're ill...

Those words as well?

Basic verbs as well.

It's amazing, isn't it?

We're talking about people

and yet the words
they brought with them

They're all around, yes.

What started with attack

became, as so often with invaders,

Bloodshed giving way
to a new cultural fusion.

But for the Vikings, this wasn't

with the Anglo-Saxons of England.

To end my journey, I'm returning
to Stockholm one last time.

Because right here,
at the geographical hub of East and West, North and South,

at the heart of

there's something that epitomises

the global reach
of that trading empire.

And it also graphically illustrates just how many cultures
the Vikings were exposed to.

A collection of treasure discovered

was once the property

They are known collectively They were all found

First of all,
there's a bishop's crosier, which is the headpiece
that would be on top of a staff

carried by a bishop as a mark

Everything about its decoration How did it come to be
in an island in Sweden? Well, we've talked about raids
on Irish monasteries,

that this has been plundered
during one of those raids.

Next here, we have a ladle.

It would've been used
in religious ceremonies,

It's to pour water
over the head of someone

who's being welcomed

and it's probably from North Africa. The Christian crosier and
Coptic ladle are incredible objects.

But there was something

that I find even more extraordinary.

This was probably made

in the northern part

Maybe Pakistan or Afghanistan.

And it has made its way here,

going through Constantinople,
through Russia,

and eventually finding its way Within the heart of Scandinavia,
in the far north,

the other three points

West, South, and East. The products of Africa,
Ireland, and India,

One little Baltic island.

It's almost inconceivable.

Quite marvellous to behold.

have stretched their hands
across the face of the known world.

Subtitles by Red Bee Media Ltd

Beneath our feet is a treasure
trove of unimaginable riches.

than precious minerals
and dusty mine shafts.

For 150 years, mining has changed in unexpected
and extraordinary ways. It sparked waves of mass immigration
and ignited political revolt.

The stockade is taken and thirty
people are lying dead. They were the shock troops
of Australian democracy.

But mining has also

Their only job
is to deliver a profit

and if that means that they bring
the whole world down with them,

It's wrenched

that offers
the First Australians hope.

is the transformation of the mining

to the major investors
in the indigenous world. It's saved Australia from
financial ruin

and made people rich
in the most unpredictable ways.

There's always been a link between

as the promise for the men:

But this boom and bust business

The police came and they told "They're going to come and they're
going to burn houses."

Mining's rich history is a
battleground that has divided,

It has an effect upon every
aspect of our lives.

So the story of mining
is Australia's story.

and power.

1854, and there's a whiff
of revolution in the air. The goldfields around

are a magnet to radicals

The hundreds of thousands of people

to the south-eastern states of

social opportunity
and social reform.

These people are also after gold.

They want gold.
They want gold, and politics too.

immediately clash

The first power struggle between

Every digger had to take out
a licence to mine for gold.

It was thirty shillings.

and they had to pay it
whether they got gold or not. So it really represented a kind of
poll tax just for being there.

In an act of rebellion, the diggers
gather and burn their licences. But this revolt is about
much more than money.

They rallied under the catch cry of

"taxation without representation and then finally with the headiness
of the time

into an assertion for a whole

At a time when only a privileged these politically inspired miners
demand that same right. With tensions reaching fever pitch,
a hardcore rump of miners, from the Eureka goldfields
in Ballarat, gather. They swear an oath to defend
their rights and liberties

against the authorities.

One man steps forward
from the crowd.

His name is Peter Lalor and He then asks everybody who was there
to drop to their knees.

It's the first time that they gather

and swear an allegiance to a flag December the 3rd, 1854.

The mutineers have built a stockade

150 of them now face hundreds of

who demand to see their licences.

The military know exactly
what they're doing.

They're absolutely baying for blood,

And suddenly, all hell breaks loose. This is hand to hand combat
in really close quarters.

One man had a mouthful

and essentially had

The whole thing

and 30 people, at least,

but the brutal crackdown sends

It recommends a new licensing system,

The Miner's Right that was

was not simply a right
for an individual to dig for gold.

It allowed them to vote,

so it created an extraordinarily that far outstripped
equivalent constituencies

in Europe and Britain.

with the Eureka rebels winning
a fundamental freedom:

the right to vote.